Oops! It appears that you have disabled your Javascript. In order for you to see this page as it is meant to appear, we ask that you please re-enable your Javascript!

Welcome!

This was made for referential purposes only. The content on this site is made for fair use and for understanding. None of this is official, it has been made by collaborating from websites, articles, and books. The Site does not take responsibility for someone’s Grades. 

Kindly read the FAQ and Privacy Policy Section for any Queries, Issues, Complaints,  or Violation by the Site

I have been able to make the site, its notes, files and development due to the Blessings and Love of God, Parents, Teachers and Friends. I have referred documents which are made available in the Site Folders, and books as well. I do not seek any pride, honour, or appreciation in making any of these notes. The goal and vision is a humble and genuine approach to help students achieve better marks.

 

There are other notes, books, documents made by Professors, which may be far more reliable and superior than mine, I have referred and added from some of those as well.

The Use of the Site is completely an individual’s choice and responsibility.

This website is still Under Development, and on the verge of constant improvement

 

Thank you for bearing with us, and Enjoy Reading! If there are any suggestions, mistakes, grievances, issues, Reach out on

epsit.ghodke@gmail.com

Follow me on my Instagram Account, to connect with me

 



1. Describe the journey of Indian cinema from Raja Harishchandra to Bahubali.

1913 Raja Harishchandra

1919 South Film with Dadasaheb Daughter

1931 Alam Ara, Sound Film

1932. Ayodecha Raja

1947 Modern Films with Satyajit Ray and others, social problems

1960s problems of common man

1970s Masala

2014 HUMSHAKALS✨✨

Father of Indian Cinema, Dadasaheb Phalke released the first ever full-length feature film ‘Raja Harishchandra’ in 1913. The silent film was a commercial success. Dadasaheb was not only the producer but was also the director, writer, cameraman, editor, make-up artist and art director. Raja Harischandra was the first-ever Indian film which was screened in London in 1914. Though Indian Cinema’s first mogul, Dadasaheb Phalke supervised and managed the production of twenty three films from 1913 to 1918, the initial growth of the Indian Film Industry was not as fast as that of Hollywood.

Numerous new production companies emerged in the early 1920s. Films based on mythological and historical facts and episodes from Mahabharata and Ramayana dominated the 20s but Indian audiences also welcomed Hollywood movies, especially the action films.

Beginning of the Talkies

The first ever talkie ‘Alam Ara’ by Ardeshir Irani was screened in Bombay in 1931. It was the first sound film in India. The release of Alam Ara started a new era in the history of Indian Cinema. Phiroz Shah was the first music director of Alam Ara. The first song which was recorded for Alam Ara in 1931 was ‘De de khuda ke naam par’. It was sung by W.M. Khan.

Thereafter, several production companies emerged leading to an increase in the release of the number of films. 328 films were made in 1931 as compared to 108 in 1927. During this time, huge movie halls were built and there was a significant growth in the number of audiences.

Growth of Regional Films

The year 1919 saw the screening of the first silent South Indian feature film named ‘Keechaka Vadham’. The movie was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar of Madras (Chennai). Dadasaheb Phalke’s daughter Manadakini was the first female child star who acted as the child Krishna in Phalke’s ‘Kaliya Mardan’ in 1919.

The first ever talkie film in Bengali was ‘Jamai Shashthi’, which was screened in 1931 and produced by Madan Theatres Ltd. ‘Kalidass’ was the first Tamil talkie which was released in Madras on 31 October 1931 and directed by H.M. Reddy. Apart from Bengali and South Indian languages, regional films were also made in other languages such as Assamese, Oriya, Punjabi, Marathi, and many more.

‘Ayodhecha Raja’ was the first Marathi film which was directed by V. Shantaram in 1932. This film was made in double version. ‘Ayodhya ka Raja’ in Hindi and ‘Ayodhecha Raja’ in Marathi was the first ever Indian talkie produced by Prabhat Film Company in 1932.

Birth of a New Era

The number of films being produced saw a brief decline during the World War II.

  • Basically the birth of Modern Indian Film industry took place around 1947. The period witnessed a remarkable and outstanding transformation of the film industry. Notable filmmakers like Satyajit Ray, and Bimal Roy made movies which focused on the survival and daily miseries of the lower class.
  • The historical and mythological subjects took a back seat and the films with social messages began to dominate the industry. These films were based on themes such as prostitution, dowry, polygamy and other malpractices which were prevalent in our society.
  • In the 1960s new directors like Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, and others focused on the real problems of the common man. They directed some outstanding movies which enabled the Indian film industry to carve a niche in the International film scenario.

The 1950s and 1960s are considered to be the golden age in the history of the Indian cinema and saw the rise of some memorable actors like Guru Dutt, Raj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Meena Kumari, Madhubala, Nargis, Nutan, Dev Anand, Waheeda Rehman, among others.

  • Songs are an integral part of Indian movies. Presence of songs has given Indian films a distinctive look as compared to international films. The Indian film industry has produced many talented lyricists, music directors and artists.

Bollywood – The Pioneer of Masala Movies

      • The 1970s saw the advent of Masala movies in Bollywood. The audiences were captivated and mesmerised by the aura of actors like Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra, Sanjeev Kumar, Hema Malini, and many others.
    • The most prominent and successful director, Manmohan Desai was considered by several people as the father of Masala movies. According to Manmohan Desai, “I want people to forget their misery. I want to take them into a dream world where there is no poverty, where there are no beggars, where fate is kind and god is busy looking after its flock.”
  • Sholay, the groundbreaking film directed by Ramesh Sippy, not only got international accolades but also made Amitabh Bachchan a ‘Superstar’.
    • Several women directors like Meera Nair, Aparna Sen and others showcased their talents in the 1980s. How can we forget the extraordinary and splendid performance of Rekha in the film Umrao Jaan in 1981?
    • The 1990s saw a whole new batch of actors like Shah Rukh Khan, Salman Khan, Madhuri Dixit, Aamir Khan, Juhi Chawla, Chiranjivi, and many more.
    • This new genre of actors used new techniques to enhance their performances which further elevated and upgraded the Indian Film Industry.
    • 2008 was a notable year for the Indian film industry as A.R. Rahman received two academy awards for best soundtrack for Slumdog Millionaire.
    • Indian cinema is no longer restricted to India and is now being well appreciated by international audiences.
    • The contribution of the overseas market in Bollywood box office collections is quite remarkable.
  • Around 30 film production companies were listed in National Stock Exchange of India in 2013. The multiplexes too have boomed in India due to tax incentives.

Indian Film Industry achieved success and got recognition across the globe but Bahubali is the most successful, widely recognised and expensive movie ever made in India, which was directed by S.S. Rajamouli and its first part was released on 10th July 2015.

Bahubali was made on a large-scale with a cost of ₹ 2.50 billion (250 Crores) and out of them about ₹ 85 million (85 Crores) is spent on the visual effects.Released in 4,500 screens across the globe, Bahubali is simultaneously made in Tamil and Telugu and released in 3 other languages including Hindi.

But despite being the world’s largest film industry, it has the second highest footfall into its cinemas (after China). Right now, the Indian film industry has an annual revenue of around ₹ 138 Billion (13,800 Crores) that is predicted to grow at a rate of 11.5% per year, reaching to ₹ 238 Billion (23,800 Crores) till 2020.

Indian cinema has become a part and parcel of our daily life whether it is a regional or a Bollywood movie. It has a major role to play in our society. Though entertainment is the key word of Indian cinema it has far more responsibility as it impacts the mind of the audiences.


Table of Contents

2. Discuss diverse film genres with example.

There are many, however I found some Top10, I found a site which actually has many with a one liner definition and examples, check that out by clicking blue magic text

Musicals/ Dance

Dance musicals are feast to the eyes and warm the hearts of countless numbers of crowds with amusing lyrics and story lines. These movies centralize on sequences of music, dance and choreography. In recent years many musicals have turned into some very good box office hits and their soundtracks have topped the charts. Of all the film genres, this genre of films has been viewed as the most escapist.

Some best examples: West Side Story, All that Jazz, Singin’ in the rain, Mamma Mia!, Hairspray, Step Up movies, High School Musical series, Camprock etc.

Horror

The horror film has undergone numerous transformations than any other film genre has ever gone. The horror films have been made since the onset of movie making itself. These films conjure the primary fears of the spectators providing entertainment in the process. While watching a horror film the audiences feel a fear of unknown without actually being in any sort of danger. Frequent components of horror films include ghosts, serial killers, dangerous animals, zombies, aliens, monsters, vampires and many other supernatural forces.

Some best examples: Psycho, The Exorcist, The Shining, A Nightmare on Elm Street, The Evil Dead, Poltergeist, Friday the 13th, Night of the Living Dead, Rosemary’s Baby, Halloween, Carrie, Jaws, Saw, The Grudge, Candyman, Final Destination, HUMSHAKALS etc.

Crime/ Gangster

Crime/Gangster films revolve around the evil actions of criminals or gangsters, especially underworld figures or ruthless mobsters who break the law, steal and murder their way through life. This genre films are usually set in dark places of large and crowded cities. These places of crime are exotic and give the audience the thrill. We can see many sorts of things like heaps of cash, gold bars, fast cars, sleazy night clubs and bars, smuggled goods and different types of weapons which provide us a view of the underworld.

Some best examples: The Godfather, The Departed, The Untouchables, Road to Perdition, Scarface, The Public Enemy, Goodfellas, Pulp Fiction, Donnie Brasco, Gangs of New York, Little Caesar, The Town etc.

Romantic Comedy

This genre films capture the attention of the viewers by combining funniness with romance. The romantic comedy films are cheerful and jaunty. The films of this genre revolve around romantic concepts. Every year many movies of this genre are being released, elevating the beauty of love with a touch of humor. Thanks to romantic comedies, people live hopefully wishing that love will find them one day making them part of a good love story just like in these movies!

Some best examples: Pretty Woman, When Harry met Sally(things went haywire after that) , My Big Fat Greek Wedding, Annie Hall, Roman Holiday, Sleepless in Seattle, Knocked Up, Love Actually, Notting Hill, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, 10 Things I hate about You, She’s the Man etc.

Drama

In the drama genre films the sincere stories of people’s real life situations are presented. These films depict the intense life issues of humans and deal with the social problems. The themes in these films include the life struggles, inner conflicts, relational and emotional stresses, and various other dramatic plots. The drama film genre is apparently the largest film genre as it includes a wide ranging extent of films.

Some best examples: The Shawshank Redemption, Good Will Hunting, Casablanca, Citizen Kane, To Kill a Mockingbird, The Godfather, 12 Angry Men, Million Dollar Baby, Raging Bull, A Beautiful Mind, Changeling, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind etc.

Fantasy

Fantasy films involve themes like magic, myths, supernatural forces, mystique creatures and fantasy worlds. And mainly encourage vivid imagination and things impossible in the real world. This genre films need not root on facts like the science fiction genre. This one reason is what lets the spectators to escape into the unique world. The fantasy films portray ordinary people like us in an extraordinary situation. If more of science related futuristic elements are used, then it may overlap into science fiction and if dark frightening forces are involved it may wind up into horror genre.

Some best examples: Harry Potter films, The Lord of the Rings, The Wizard of Oz, King Kong, Twilight Saga, It’s a Wonderful Life, The Chronicles of Narnia, Pirates of Caribbean, Star Wars, Percy Jackson, The Hobbit, The Princess Bride, Labyrinth etc.

Animation

This genre is fast growing in popularity in the present time. A collection of pictures or illustrations which are slightly different from the one preceding them and have been photographed frame-by-frame are projected in quick succession to form an animated film. The techniques nowadays have advanced a lot that the illusions created appear so realistic. The animated movies serve as good source of entertainment to people of all age groups especially children.

Some best examples: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Toy Story, Shrek, Finding Nemo, Ice Age, Madagascar, How to Train your Dragon, The Lion King, Rango, Brave, Wall-E, Kung fu Panda, Up, Cars, Ratatouille, Hentai etc.

Epics/ Historical

Epics-Historical films usually involve a story revolving around historical or imagined events, myths, legends or a famous personality. These films usually accentuate human emotion on an elevated level. What I love most about this genre of films is the extravagant settings, splendid costumes and spectacular background music. It is quite expensive to produce epic films. Some common themes of epic films are wars, natural disasters, catastrophic events, political outbreaks, historical figures, superheroes, famous military leaders, royalty etc. The largest number of Academy awards won by any film is 11 and this was accomplished by three movies – Ben-Hur, Titanic and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. All these are epic films!

Some best examples: Gone with the Wind, Titanic, Ben-Hur, The Lord of the Rings, Schindler’s List, Gladiator, Spartacus, Saving Private Ryan, Lawrence of Arabia, Elizabeth, Gandhi, Troy etc.

Science Fiction

This genre of films involves hypothetical and scientific portrayal of occurrences that have no evidence of existence according to the mainstream science. Some examples include aliens, time travel, extrasensory perception, cyborgs, futuristic robots, spacecrafts, interstellar space travel and other advanced technologies that are not present in reality. A fair number of science fiction movies have originated from the writings of Jules Verne and H.G.Wells. Sci-fi movies have also performed very well at the box office.

Some best examples: Avatar, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Star Wars, Alien, The Matrix, Inception, Blade Runner, E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial, Back to the Future, Terminator, Wall-E, A Clockwork Orange, The Hunger Games, Transformers, Jurassic Park, The Thing etc.

Action Adventure

This is one of the favourite film genres. Action adventure films always make headlines with their ticket sales and box office records! These films usually involve so many high energy fights, chases, conquests, explorations and stunts enthralling the audiences. The story usually revolves around a good guy who is trying to take down a bad guy in his pursuit of unknown. If a theme or dramatic back story imbues the action then the film will be more successful. Meaningless action has always failed. With the advancements in CGI it has become easy to create action sequences that are usually so risky and can’t even be performed by professional stunts men. So who is up for an action adventure?

Some best examples: Indiana Jones, Die Hard, Pirates of Caribbean, The Avengers, The Dark Knight Trilogy, Iron Man, Mission: Impossible, First Blood, The Expendables, Kill Bill, Sherlock Holmes etc.


3. What aspects should be considered while doing the critical appreciation of a film?

Apart from all of this, if you click the Blue Magic Text, you will find a Step by Step Analysis

A critical appreciation of a film, music piece or any other piece of art always helps an artist to improvise his skills and diminish the unforced errors

    • A critical analysis essay on a movie requires you to interpret an aspect of your chosen film.
    • The first thing you’ll need to decide on is what film to select. As much as it’s a good idea to choose one that you know well. You need to make sure you’re picking one that can be explored in depth and can meet the requirements of this assignment’s expectations.
      For instance, you may wish to focus on symbology in Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining or your paper might look at themes of power and propaganda used in Citizen Kane.
      In short, you should present a valid argument backed up by plenty of facts and references.
  • If you want to produce a quality piece.You will also need to study the opinions and thoughts of others- research as many articles relevant to your chosen film as possible. Use magazines, books and the internet to see what film makers, academics and authors have had to say about the topic.

Aspects to be Considered

Cover all aspects of filmmaking that went into creating the final product, including:

    • Plot: What was the movie about? Was it believable? Interesting? Thought-provoking? How was the climax revealed? How did the setting affect the story?
    • Themes and Tone: What was the central goal of the movie? Was it made to entertain, educate, or bring awareness to an issue? Was there any strong impression the movie made on you? Did any symbolism come into play?
    • Acting and Characters: Did you like how the characters were portrayed? Did the acting support the characters, and help them come to life? Did the characters display complex personalities or were they stereotypes? Were there characters that embodied certain archetypes to enhance or diminish the film?
    • Direction: Did you like how the director chose to tell the story? Was the pacing and speed of the movie too fast or too slow? Was the direction comparable to other movies this director has created? Was the storytelling complex or straightforward? Was there a certain amount of suspense or tension that worked? Did the director create a captivating conflict?
    • Score: Did the music support the mood of the movie? Was it too distracting or too subtle? Did it add to the production and work well with the script? Were the music queues timed well for the scenes they were supporting?
    • Cinematography: Were the shots used in a unique way to tell the story? Did the coloring and lighting affect the tone? Was the action coherently shot? How well did the camera move? Were actors or settings framed well?
    • Production Design: Did the sets feel lived-in and believable to the story or characters? Were the costumes suitable for the characters or story?  Did the created environments heighten the atmosphere on camera?
    • Special Effects: Were the special effects believable? Did they align with the era and tone of the movie? Were the effects overboard or too subtle? Did they integrate well to the purpose of the story?
    • Editing: Was the editing clean or choppy? Was the flow consistent? What unique effects were used? How were the transitions between scenes?
    • Pace: Did the movie flow well? Was it too fast or too slow? Was it clearly organized? Did certain scenes drag down the movie?
  • Dialogue: Were the conversations believable or necessary? Did the dialogue bring context to plot developments? Did the words match the tone of the movie and personality of the characters?

5. Write the contribution of V. Shantaram, Satyajit Ray and other regional film-makers to cinema.

Regional Indian films are the keys to the Indian cinema. India is unique in its kaleidoscope of diverse languages and cultures. Although one can talk of regional films, there is an incessant crossover of talents- Bengali film directors directs Hindi or Oriya films; Tamil directors direct Telugu films.

The diverse regional cinemas in India strive to maintain their distinctive identities and provide an important dimension of the cultural wealth and diversity of India’s regional films. These are the few known regional cinema filmmaker as follows:

Satyajit Ray

Satyajit Ray, an Indian filmmaker and among the dozen or so great masters of world cinema, is known for his humanistic approach to cinema.

    • He made his films in Bengali, a language spoken in the eastern state of India – West Bengal. And yet, his films are of universal interest. They are about things that make up the human race – relationships, emotions, struggle, conflicts, joys and sorrows. Regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century cinema.
    • Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing the Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves of Vittorio De Sica during a visit to London.
    • Ray directed thirty-seven films, including feature films, documentaries and shorts. He was also a fiction writer, publisher, illustrator, graphic designer and film critic.
    • Ray’s first film, Pather Panchali (1955), won eleven international prizes, including Best Human Documentary at the Cannes film festival. This film, Aparajito (1956) and Apur Sansar (1959) form The Apu Trilogy.
    • Ray did the scripting, casting, scoring, and editing, and designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many major awards in his career, including 32 Indian National Film Awards, a number of awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, and an Academy Honorary Award in 1992. The Government of India honoured him with the Bharat Ratna in 1992.
    • The cinema of Satyajit Ray is a rare blend of intellect and emotions. He is controlled, precise, meticulous, and yet, evokes deep emotional response from the audience.
    • His films depict a fine sensitivity without using melodrama or dramatic excesses. He evolved a cinematic style that is almost invisible.
    • He strongly believed – “The best technique is the one that’s not noticeable”
    • Though initially inspired by the neo-realist tradition, his cinema belongs not to a specific category or style but a timeless meta-genre of a style of story telling that touches the audience in some way.
    • Satyajit Ray’s films are both cinematic and literary at the same time; using a simple narrative, usually in a classical format, but greatly detailed and operating at many levels of interpretation.
    • His first film, Pather Panchali (Song of the little road, 1955) established his reputation as a major film director, winning numerous awards including Best Human Document, Cannes, 1956 and Best Film, Vancouver, 1958. It is the first film of a trilogy – The Apu Trilogy – a three-part tale of a boy’s life from birth through manhood.
    • The other two films of this trilogy are Aparajito (The Unvanquished, 1956) and Apur Sansar (The World of Apu, 1959).
    • His later films include Jalsaghar (The Music Room, 1958), Devi (The Goddess, 1960), Teen Kanya (Two Daughters, 1961), Charulata (The Lonely Wife, 1964), Nayak (The Hero, 1966), Asani Sanket (Distant Thunder, 1973), Shatranj Ke Khilari (The Chess Players, 1977), Ghare Baire (The Home and the World, 1984), Ganashatru (An Enemy Of The People, 1989) and Shakha Prashakha (Branches Of The Tree, 1991). Agantuk (The Stranger, 1991) was his last film. Ray directly controlled many aspects of filmmaking.
    • He wrote all the screenplays of his films, many of which were based on his own stories. He designed the sets and costumes, operated the camera since Charulata (1964), he composed the music for all his films since 1961 and designed the publicity posters for his new releases. In addition to filmmaking, Ray was a composer, a writer and a graphic designer.
    • In 1978, the organising committee of the Berlin Film Festival ranked Satyajit Ray as one of the three all-time best directors.
    • In 1992, Satyajit Ray received the honorary Academy Award ©A.M.P.A.S. ® – Lifetime Achievement
  • “In recognition of his rare mastery of the art of motion pictures and for his profound humanitarian outlook, which has had an indelible influence on filmmakers and audiences throughout the world.” Other honours include “Lègion d’Honneur” France and “Bharatratna” (Jewel of India), India.

V. Shantaram

Shantaram Rajaram Vankudre (18 November 1901 – 30 October 1990)  Referred to as V. Shantaram was a renowned Indian filmmaker, film producer and actor.

  • He is most known for his films like Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946), Amar Bhoopali (1951), Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje (1955), Do Aankhen Barah Haath (1957), Navrang (1959), Duniya Na Mane (1937), Pinjra (1972), Chani, Iye Marathiche Nagari and Zunj.  
  • He directed his first film, “Netaji Palkar” in 1927. In 1929, he founded the Prabhat Film Company along with Vishnupant Damle, K.R. Dhaiber, S. Fatelal and S.B. Kulkarni, which made Ayodhyecha Raja, the first Marathi language film in 1932 under his direction.
    • He left Prabhat in 1942 to form “Rajkamal Kala Mandir” in Mumbai. In time, ‘Rajkamal’ became one of most sophisticated studios of the country.
    • He was praised by Charlie Chaplin for his Marathi film Manoos. Charlie Chaplin reportedly liked the film very much. V. Shantaram started his film career doing odd jobs in Maharashtra Film Co. owned by Baburao Painter at Kolhapur.
    • He went on to debut as an actor in the silent film, Surekha Haran in 1921. Shantaram, fondly known as Annasaheb, had an illustrious career as a filmmaker for almost six decades.
    • He was one of the early filmmakers to realize the efficacy of the film medium as an instrument of social change and used it successfully to advocate humanism on one hand and expose bigotry and injustice on the other.
    • V. Shantaram had a very keen interest in music. It is said that he “ghost wrote” music for many of his music directors, and took a very active part in the creation of music.
  • Some of his songs had to be rehearsed several times before which they were approved by V. Shantaram. The Dadasaheb Phalke Award, was conferred on him in 1985. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1992.

Some of his noted Films are; Netaji Palekar, Maya Machindra, Ayodhya Ka Raja, Sairandhri, Amrit Mantham, Dharmatma, Amar Jyoti, Manoos, Admi, Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani, Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje, Do Aankhen Barah Haath, Navrang, Geet Gaya Patharon Ne, Jal Bin Machhli Nritya Bin Bijli, Pinjra.


Does Branding, Promotion, Marketing help in the production & business of cinema? Justify your stand.

Films are manufactured as products, where exhibitors are retailers who offer a shop to sell films in adjacent markets like merchandising, branding, advertising, etc. Multiplexes offer a movie ticket with a combo of a snack, popcorns and soda based softdrinks which in a way market the brands. The main factors of revenue sharing with distributor and producers are as follows.

    • The producer will represent a figure for a film to be distributed. Distributor will buy the film, based on its production value, story, star faces, music and other attractions at appropriate price after negotiation
    • As the film is released across cinema halls, both single-screen and multiplexes, rental is paid by the exhibitor to the distributor. The percentage of this rental is decided by distributor based on his expenditure for the film. Furthermore the film runs, more profitable exhibitor – distributors will be.
    • Hence the main job of a distributor is to identify right film consequently the filmmaker is seized to make one
    • Movie marketing is also known as movie advertising and movie promotion. Every major Hollywood studio and movie distribution company has an internal department devoted to promotion. The promotions department is responsible for designing and implementing an effective, cohesive advertising campaign across several different media platforms, including theatrical movie trailers, newspapers, magazines, television, radio, the Internet and billboards.
    • The movie business is cyclical and seasonal by nature. Major studio releases are clustered during the Summer, Valentine, Eid, Diwali Christmas
    • With so many high profile movies fighting for the same audience, movie marketers need to figure out how to make their films stand out from the pack.
    • For expensive, blockbuster movies, the marketing campaign alone can cost as much as half of the total production budget. So if a film costs $80 million to make, the distributor might spend $40 million on advertising and promotion. In 2007, the average marketing budget for a theatrical release from a major Hollywood studio was $35.9 million
    • Opening weekend sales are a direct reflection of how much buzz and excitement has been generated by the promotional campaign.
  • Even if a movie stinks, strong opening weekend numbers can be enough to break even or earn a small profit for the studio. It’s not uncommon for large Hollywood movies to make over 40 percent of their gross profits in the first week of release. Once the word spreads that the movie isn’t worth the money, some blockbusters experience huge drops from the first weekend to the second. The most notorious example is Ang Lee’s “Hulk,” which grossed 47 percent of its total earnings in it’s opening weekend, then made 69 percent less in its second weekend

Promotion in Bollywood

  • Promotion of movies is not new at all but what changed is perspective of audience. Earlier promotion was not considered that much big.
  • First bollywood movie Raja Harishchandra used newspaper advertisements handbills and publicity booklets to market the movie.
    • Early years after Raja Harishchandra saw the emergence of posters as the main source of marketing a movie. the emergence of television, the transformation of urban space, the expansion of Internet and the arrival of newer technologies have made their mark on Bollywood, determining both its aesthetic impulse as well as the marketing strategies.
  • Now almost cast of every movies visit in many cities to promote movies. Reality shows are very famous for promoting movies because with this cast tries to connect to audience with their movie.
  • Now almost in every reality show, movie cast comes to judge the show or to make audience laugh with the help of comedy shows.

Promotion Strategies

Jaane Tu Ya Jaane Na (2008)

    • A small budget musical romantic comedy targeted at the youth was a major success online. The homepage www.jaanetu.com was very appealing in appearance with youthful graphics. Film got success and every youth got attached with this movie.
  • Many producer of bollywood movies set up websites for movies and website provides information related to star cast, director, release date, music, trailers,etc

Games

    • Many movies in bollywood launch their games online and as well as in form toys to influence kids and teens.
  • Bollywood movies such as Ra.One, Om Shanti Om, Ghajini, Krrish 3 have done this.

Social Sites

    • There are many popular social networking sites which connect their stars to them.
  • Producer, director, actors try to inform their fans or audience to regarding their movies by statements, images or any comment through twitter or facebook.

Successful Strategies

PK Publicity

  • Movie tried to gain publicity through its first poster release in which Aamir Khan was standing nude with one stereo.Box office collection 440 crores as on 29 December 2014

Happy New Year

    • Tour: HNY team toured several cities of US and UK and created huge hungama around. (Cringe Kahike)
    • HAPPY NEW YEAR trailer launch on messaging app
    • Visited Twitter & Google Headquarters
    • Launch of Dance reality show on TV show
    • ‘Dil Se Naachein Indiawaale’ to create noise around his film HAPPY NEW YEAR.
    • Added the Songs to the Ubisoft’s Popular Playstation Move Game, Just Dance
  • Bollywood collection 336.64 crores

Chennai Express

  • Chennai express came up with few innovative ideas
  1. Games
  2. Posters in different languages
  3. Tie-up with products
  4. Promotion on tv reality shows
  5. New range of sarees
  6. Lungi dance; this helped gain popularity in south india
  7. Box office collection 395 crores
  • Movies like Besharam, Hamshakals, etc did full promotion of their movies and able to collect more than 50 crores each being super flop. Both movies visited various reality shows and did many things to promote. In short, it can be said flop movies earned because of their promotional strategies.
  • Movie content, star cast do play huge role but promotion is considered as secret of success.
  • Flop movies able to earn many crores because of their promotional strategy only.
  • One more thing is very important to note is some unique promotion strategy add some value to movie.
  • New and unique promotion helps producer to earn more. Even flop movies earns huge amount because of their promotional techniques. Various famous new promotion techniques include visiting to reality shows to connect to audience, visiting to different cities, creating fun among cast to make laugh

Describe broad range of films.

The Answer is Similar to Genre, I did try to make a separate answer, however it did not make absolutely any difference.  There is an elaborated version for this answer, check that out by clicking blue magic text

Musicals/ Dance

Dance musicals are feast to the eyes and warm the hearts of countless numbers of crowds with amusing lyrics and story lines. These movies centralize on sequences of music, dance and choreography. In recent years many musicals have turned into some very good box office hits and their soundtracks have topped the charts. Of all the film genres, this genre of films has been viewed as the most escapist.

Some best examples: West Side Story, All that Jazz, Singin’ in the rain, Mamma Mia!, Hairspray, Step Up movies, High School Musical series, Camprock etc.

Horror

The horror film has undergone numerous transformations than any other film genre has ever gone. The horror films have been made since the onset of movie making itself. These films conjure the primary fears of the spectators providing entertainment in the process. While watching a horror film the audiences feel a fear of unknown without actually being in any sort of danger. Frequent components of horror films include ghosts, serial killers, dangerous animals, zombies, aliens, monsters, vampires and many other supernatural forces.

Some best examples: Psycho, The Exorcist, The Shining, A Nightmare on Elm Street, The Evil Dead, Poltergeist, Friday the 13th, Night of the Living Dead, Rosemary’s Baby, Halloween, Carrie, Jaws, Saw, The Grudge, Candyman, Final Destination etc.

Crime/ Gangster

Crime/Gangster films revolve around the evil actions of criminals or gangsters, especially underworld figures or ruthless mobsters who break the law, steal and murder their way through life. This genre films are usually set in dark places of large and crowded cities. These places of crime are exotic and give the audience the thrill. We can see many sorts of things like heaps of cash, gold bars, fast cars, sleazy night clubs and bars, smuggled goods and different types of weapons which provide us a view of the underworld.

Some best examples: The Godfather, The Departed, The Untouchables, Road to Perdition, Scarface, The Public Enemy, Goodfellas, Pulp Fiction, Donnie Brasco, Gangs of New York, Little Caesar, The Town etc.

Romantic Comedy

This genre films capture the attention of the viewers by combining funniness with romance. The romantic comedy films are cheerful and jaunty. The films of this genre revolve around romantic concepts. Every year many movies of this genre are being released, elevating the beauty of love with a touch of humor. Thanks to romantic comedies, people live hopefully wishing that love will find them one day making them part of a good love story just like in these movies!

Some best examples: Pretty Woman, When Harry met Sally, My Big Fat Greek Wedding, Annie Hall, Roman Holiday, Sleepless in Seattle, Knocked Up, Love Actually, Notting Hill, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, 10 Things I hate about You, She’s the Man etc.

Drama

In the drama genre films the sincere stories of people’s real life situations are presented. These films depict the intense life issues of humans and deal with the social problems. The themes in these films include the life struggles, inner conflicts, relational and emotional stresses, and various other dramatic plots. The drama film genre is apparently the largest film genre as it includes a wide ranging extent of films.

Some best examples: The Shawshank Redemption, Good Will Hunting, Casablanca, Citizen Kane, To Kill a Mockingbird, The Godfather, 12 Angry Men, Million Dollar Baby, Raging Bull, A Beautiful Mind, Changeling, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind etc.

Fantasy

Fantasy films involve themes like magic, myths, supernatural forces, mystique creatures and fantasy worlds. And mainly encourage vivid imagination and things impossible in the real world. This genre films need not root on facts like the science fiction genre. This one reason is what lets the spectators to escape into the unique world. The fantasy films portray ordinary people like us in an extraordinary situation. If more of science related futuristic elements are used, then it may overlap into science fiction and if dark frightening forces are involved it may wind up into horror genre.

Some best examples: Harry Potter films, The Lord of the Rings, The Wizard of Oz, King Kong, Twilight Saga, It’s a Wonderful Life, The Chronicles of Narnia, Pirates of Caribbean, Star Wars, Percy Jackson, The Hobbit, The Princess Bride, Labyrinth etc.

Animation

This genre is fast growing in popularity in the present time. A collection of pictures or illustrations which are slightly different from the one preceding them and have been photographed frame-by-frame are projected in quick succession to form an animated film. The techniques nowadays have advanced a lot that the illusions created appear so realistic. The animated movies serve as good source of entertainment to people of all age groups especially children.

Some best examples: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Toy Story, Shrek, Finding Nemo, Ice Age, Madagascar, How to Train your Dragon, The Lion King, Rango, Brave, Wall-E, Kung fu Panda, Up, Cars, Ratatouille etc.

Epics/ Historical

Epics-Historical films usually involve a story revolving around historical or imagined events, myths, legends or a famous personality. These films usually accentuate human emotion on an elevated level. What I love most about this genre of films is the extravagant settings, splendid costumes and spectacular background music. It is quite expensive to produce epic films. Some common themes of epic films are wars, natural disasters, catastrophic events, political outbreaks, historical figures, superheroes, famous military leaders, royalty etc. The largest number of Academy awards won by any film is 11 and this was accomplished by three movies – Ben-Hur, Titanic and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. All these are epic films!

Some best examples: Gone with the Wind, Titanic, Ben-Hur, The Lord of the Rings, Schindler’s List, Gladiator, Spartacus, Saving Private Ryan, Lawrence of Arabia, Elizabeth, Gandhi, Troy etc.

Science Fiction

This genre of films involves hypothetical and scientific portrayal of occurrences that have no evidence of existence according to the mainstream science. Some examples include aliens, time travel, extrasensory perception, cyborgs, futuristic robots, spacecrafts, interstellar space travel and other advanced technologies that are not present in reality. A fair number of science fiction movies have originated from the writings of Jules Verne and H.G.Wells. Sci-fi movies have also performed very well at the box office.

Some best examples: Avatar, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Star Wars, Alien, The Matrix, Inception, Blade Runner, E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial, Back to the Future, Terminator, Wall-E, A Clockwork Orange, The Hunger Games, Transformers, Jurassic Park, The Thing etc.

Action Adventure

This is one of the favourite film genres. Action adventure films always make headlines with their ticket sales and box office records! These films usually involve so many high energy fights, chases, conquests, explorations and stunts enthralling the audiences. The story usually revolves around a good guy who is trying to take down a bad guy in his pursuit of unknown. If a theme or dramatic back story imbues the action then the film will be more successful. Meaningless action has always failed. With the advancements in CGI it has become easy to create action sequences that are usually so risky and can’t even be performed by professional stunts men. So who is up for an action adventure?

Some best examples: Indiana Jones, Die Hard, Pirates of Caribbean, The Avengers, The Dark Knight Trilogy, Iron Man, Mission: Impossible, First Blood, The Expendables, Kill Bill, Sherlock Holmes etc.


Describe the evolution of Cinema covering Hollywood from the early beginnings to its status today.

in 1891 the Edison Company in the USA successfully demonstrated a prototype of the Kinetoscope, which enabled one person at a time to view moving pictures. The first to present projected moving pictures to a paying audience (i.e. cinema) were the Lumière brothers in December 1895 in Paris.

At first, films were very short, sometimes only a few minutes or less. They were shown at fairgrounds and music halls or anywhere a screen could be set up and a room darkened. Subjects included local scenes and activities, views of foreign lands, short comedies and events considered newsworthy.

The films were accompanied by lecturers, music and a lot of audience participation—although they did not have synchronised dialogue they were not ‘silent’ as they are sometimes described.

    • By 1914, several national film industries were established. Europe, Russia and Scandinavia were as important as America. Films became longer, and storytelling, or narrative, became the dominant form.
    • As more people paid to see movies, the industry which grew around them was prepared to invest more money in their production, distribution and exhibition, so large studios were established and special cinemas built.
    • The first 30 years of cinema were characterised by the growth and consolidation of an industrial base, the establishment of the narrative form, and refinement of technology.
    • Colour was first added to black-and-white movies through tinting, toning and stencilling. By 1906, the principles of colour separation were used to produce so-called ‘natural colour’ moving images with the British Kinemacolor process, first presented to the public in 1909.
    • The early Technicolor processes from 1915 onwards were cumbersome and expensive, and colour was not used more widely until the introduction of its three-colour process in 1932.
    • The first attempts to add synchronised sound to projected pictures used phonographic cylinders or discs. The first feature-length movie incorporating synchronised dialogue, The Jazz Singer (USA/1927), used the Warner Brothers’ Vitaphone system which employed a separate record disc with each reel of film for the sound. This system proved unreliable and was soon replaced by an optical, variable density soundtrack recorded photographically along the edge of the film.
  • By the early 1930s, nearly all feature-length movies were presented with synchronised sound and, by the mid-1930s, some were in full colour too. The advent of sound secured the dominant role of the American industry and gave rise to the so-called ‘Golden Age of Hollywood’.

When one hears the word’ Hollywood’, the first thing that pops in mind is movies. There’s a reason why Los Angeles became the center of motion pictures.

    • It all started with a few independent studios that ventured as far away as possible from “the trust”, mainly Thomas Edison and his lawsuits, and so they headed to L.A. to distribute, produce, and exhibit their movies.
    • The fact that Los Angeles was far away from New York helped make it the home for independent film studios. Even though there was still a presence of the major film studios in Los Angeles, it was not till after independent film studios realization of the positive aspects about L.A.’s location that Hollywood was finally established.
    • The four major positive aspects were basically the fact that
    • L.A. was sunny all year long,
    • the property was inexpensive,
    • it was an open shop town,
    • and of course the variety of locations and geography.
    • These conditions made it perfect for any studio to shoot movies. Soon almost every studio be it major or independent wanted to settle there, making Hollywood full of film factories.
    • Once Hollywood became the center of the film industry in the US, a system had to be established which introduces us to the studio system. The system was first and foremost designed to ensure the cost and quality of the movies being produced.
    • Having a system made Hollywood a much more organized film industry than anywhere else in the world.
    • There was a clear division of labor from the producer, to the screenwriter to the actors and director. All screenplays had to be approved by the producer and established a kind of guideline and draft of what the end product will be.
    • Soon MGM, Paramount Pictures, RKO Radio Pictures, and Warner Bros. were leading the film industry in a well-defined system. Smaller studios like Universal Studios, United Artists, and Columbia Pictures were also rising to take their share of the evolving industry.
    • The age of Edison was coming to an end, and a new entrepreneur with high expectation, Adolf Zukor, took control of Paramount Pictures and tried to lead the studio system.
    • 90% of movies shown in the US were American movies and due to a large domestic audience being such a large country, profits were higher than anywhere else in the world. However, Hollywood with its studio system and great qualities for shooting movies wasn’t the capital of the film industry in the US alone. In fact, its success became worldwide.
    • Having a broad based US culture, there was a sudden wide appeal and people all over the world became suddenly interested in Hollywood movies.
  • As for European cinema, while they were still in competition, the effects of WWI destroyed the European film industries. It was mainly due to the conversion to propaganda films. Therefore, while Europe was suffering from the war trying to focus on propaganda instead of the film industry, Hollywood was growing with a strong system and eventually became the leading film industry of the world. European cinema tried to make a comeback but was never able to achieve the heights of the Hollywood system, and to this day, Europe has failed to recover from the effects of WWI on their film industries placing Hollywood ahead of their time.

Discuss award winning regional films and film makers with their contribution to Indian cinema.

I was unable to include Sairat since I did not find a reliable resource.

Following India’s independence, the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Indian cinema. Some of the most critically acclaimed Indian films of all time were produced during this period.

This period saw the emergence of a new Parallel Cinema movement, mainly led by Bengali cinema,which accounted for a quarter of India’s film output at the time.

    • Early examples of films in this movement include Neecha Nagar (1946) directed by Chetan Anand and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas,
    • Ritwik Ghatak’s Nagarik (1952), and Bimal Roy’s Do Bigha Zamin (1953), laying the foundations for Indian neorealism and the “Indian New Wave”.
    • Pather Panchali (1955), the first part of The Apu Trilogy (1955–1959) by Satyajit Ray, marked his entry in Indian cinema.
    • The Apu Trilogy won major prizes at all the major international film festivals and led to the Parallel Cinema movement being firmly established in Indian cinema. Its influence on world cinema can also be felt in the “youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties” which “owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy”.
    • The cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who made his debut with Satyajit Ray’s The Apu Trilogy, also had an important influence on cinematography across the world. One of his most important techniques was bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while filming Aparajito (1956).
    • Ray’s 1967 script for a film to be called The Alien, which was eventually cancelled, is also widely believed to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielberg’s E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982).
  • Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak went on to direct many more critically acclaimed art films, and they were followed by other acclaimed Indian independent filmmakers such as M. S. Sathyu, Mrinal Sen, Mani Kaul, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, Girish Kasaravalli and Buddhadeb Dasgupta.[70] During the 1960s, Indira Gandhi’s intervention during her reign as the Information and Broadcasting Minister of India further led to production of off-beat cinematic expression being supported by the official Film Finance Corporation
  • Satyajit Ray also won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival for Aparajito (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy, and the Golden Bear and two Silver Bears for Best Director at the Berlin International Film Festival.[90] The films of Khwaja Ahmad Abbas were nominated for the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival three times, with Neecha Nagar winning it, along with nominations for Awaara and Pardesi (1957).

Regional cinema seems to have two things going for it: tiny budgets and small audiences. These seeming disadvantages mean more freedom for the filmmaker, who needn’t focus all his energy on making it to the 100-crore club or juggling star egos. Nishikant Kamath, who directed the National Award-winning Dombivali Fast (Marathi) as well as the block-busting Bollywood movie Force, said in an interview with Indian Express, “In regional films, I can experiment, take newcomers, take risk with the story. But when I am doing mainstream where lots of money is involved, I have to take bigger stars, have a set up…”

Outside Mumbai, film budgets are more sensible, the star culture is less hysterical — except in Tamil and Telugu cinemas — and the audience demands more authenticity because regional cinema is rooted in a specific culture. So a character played by Mohanlal will adhere somewhat to the way the average Malayalee man speaks, acts and fights in a lungi, whereas the average Salman Khan character looks and behaves like no human being anywhere on earth. Rajnikanth is, of course, exempt from this — and every other — rule.

Think of regional cinema as a specialty restaurant, offering authenticity and variety from Bollywood’s multi-cuisine mishmash. Regional films can be as escapist and divertingly illogical as anything by Rohit Shetty, most of whose hits are Tamil and Telugu remakes. But they are also often more personal, courageous and unpredictable. Thanks to them, and the multiplexes, distributors and film festivals bringing them to your neighbourhood, you never have to sit through another bad Hindi — or English — film just because there’s nothing else to watch. The alternative is here and it’s speaking in tongues.

The movies everyone’s talking about

Marathi films have created believable stories on screen with a dash of humour and drama. The biggest example of this is the 2016 blockbuster Sairat—made on a budget of Rs 4 crore—which has become the highest grossing Marathi film to date with box office collections of close to Rs 100 crore. The film, produced by Zee Studios, became the first Marathi movie to enter the uncharted territory of Rs 50 crore and the numbers kept swelling thereafter.

Director Nagraj Manjule’s tale of a rich girl and a poor boy caught in the clutches of caste and class, with song and dance adding to its mainstream appeal, has been a phenomenal success globally as well. It premiered at the Berlin International Film Festival in 2016 and is now being remade in Kannada, Telugu, Punjabi, Malayalam and Tamil. Filmmaker Karan Johar has brought the rights for its Hindi remake.

All this feels surreal to Manjule, the son of a construction worker from Karmala in Maharashtra’s Solapur district. “I had no idea about the magic it would create at the box office, but I had faith in my film and was certain that people would like it. The response at Berlin was unbelievable and that reaffirmed my faith in my project. The fact that a foreign audience could relate to the story of two youngsters in a remote part of Maharashtra gave me a lot of confidence,” he says. Manjule, who also directed the acclaimed Marathi film Fandry (2014), feels Marathi cinema has evolved considerably and there is greater experimentation involved which adds to its flavour. Case in point: The Nana Patekar-starrer Natsamrat(2016) which made the maximum money for a Marathi film before Sairat broke its record. And other recent successes like Court, Killa (2015), Katyar Kaljat Ghusali (2015) and Timepass (2014).

Sweeping the reviews: Killa (Marathi)

The comparisons with Pixar’s Inside Out were inevitable, given that this is also a story of a childhood uprooted. Eleven-year-old Chinmay is struggling to deal with the new situation at home — his father died a year ago and his mother’s job has moved them to a quiet town with limitless possibilities for boredom. Chinu’s adventures, making friends and exploring the rain-drenched Konkan landscape is drawn from debutante director Avinash Arun’s own frequent uprootings as a child. Reviewers have praised this award-winning film for its lush cinematography, restrained storytelling and spirited performances.

Sweetest story: Kaaka Muttai (Tamil)

Apart from Dhanush, who produced the film, there are no stars attached to this project. It marked the debut for the main leads and the director, but went on to win two National Awards and big box office returns. The story revolves around two little boys from a Chennai slum set off on a quest to taste their first pizza. Any Indian viewer can predict the hurdles ahead: they have to first acquire enough money and then enough respectability to be allowed to enter a restaurant. It’s about as heart-breaking a plotline as is possible with the word pizza in it. But first-time director M Manikandan’s even hand and eye for beauty saves the film from being a heavy exploration of class issues. At least, the presence of these issues doesn’t weigh down the joy of watching the brothers use all their resources and enterprise in the pursuit of pizza.

Festival favourite: Asha Jaoar Majhe (Bengali)

First-time director Aditya Vikram Sengupta’s work has been likened to Satyajit Ray’s finest, and there is no higher praise possible for a Bengali film. It portrays a day in the life of a couple in Kolkata whose long hours at gruelling jobs are out of sync — he works nights, she works days — so they can only really be together in their fantasies. Hailed for its poetic narration and languid yet masterful pace, this silent film won honours and special mentions at the National Awards, and the New York Indian and the Venice International film festivals. The director has said the story’s tone was set by an Italo Calvino short story, The Adventure of a Married Couple.

Multiplex hit: Bela Seshe (Bengali)

On the 50th anniversary of a marriage complete with children and grandkids, a man asks his wife for a divorce. What keeps people together, anyway — love or the habit of years? Looking under the hood of marriage and relationships, and handling what it finds with affection and humour, this family drama ran to packed houses in Kolkata weeks after its release. One of the very few regional language films to be distributed by Eros, it travelled to the rest of the country and won raves wherever it went. Amitabh Bachchan, fresh from his own portrayal of a grumpy Bengali patriarch in Piku, raved about it on his blog. Is that a remake we smell?

Small budget, big heart: Nachom-ia Kumpasar (Konkani)

While Bombay Velvet opened in May after months of hype over its big names and bigger budget, another film set in the same era and inspired by the story of the same Goan singer who ruled the city’s jazz scene, had a quiet release in December last year and went on to gather more critical acclaim than its Bollywood counterpart. This Konkani film by Bardroy Barretto about Bombay’s jazz era stars, saxophonist Chris Perry and singer Lorna Cordiero, and many other beloved Goan musicians of the time, took home two National Awards this year for its “nostalgic recovery of a distinctive musical legacy”. Nachom-ia was crowd-funded and made on a budget of Rs 2.5 crore. Place it beside the Rs 120 crore Bombay Velvet and you’ll see why size isn’t everything.

Bhojpuri Revenge

Long considered a bit of a joke by the mainstream media, the 52-year-old Bhojpuri film industry suffers no serious blow to its self-esteem and recently asserted its pride with the launch of BIFA, the Bhojpuri International Film Awards, held in Mauritius, which has a sizeable immigrant population that speaks the dialect. The audience is spread across UP, Bihar and Jharkhand, as well as Pakistan, Jamaica and Fiji. Bollywood A-listers like Amitabh Bachchan, Ajay Devgn and Mithun Chakravarthy have acted in Bhojpuri films and according to a report by the Economic Times, the industry generates revenues of over Rs 200 crores each year.


What are the ingredients of Masala films? Elaborate with example of each ingredient.

Masala, taking its name from the mixture of various spices, consists of many ingredients, any number of which may be combined to cook up a movie that will make its producer’s pockets considerably heavier. These include, in no particular order, a simplistic storyline (or an overly convoluted one, your pick), a brolic hero who can fight ten thugs simultaneously with his bare hands, a leading lady with nothing much to do besides look pretty, a villain more evil than Cruella Deville, an item-song (featuring a scantily-clad girl dancing suggestively to meaningless lyrics), a trademark dialogue for the hero to use whenever he needs to establish his awesomeness, and feelings (may come in the form of long-suffering mothers and/or cute kids). Not every movie of this genre has every ingredient; but one ubiquitous theme is the insult to viewers’ intelligence. Yet it seems like the audience as a whole doesn’t feel this insult. They consistently continue to provide the makers with a demand to supply.

The movies themselves are reminiscent of the ’80s, a decade of films best forgotten for their illogical progression of events and heavy overdose of everything from drama to action. It was the time when moviegoers were recovering from a hangover of the angry-young-man revenge tragedies of the ’70s, but not yet ready for the candyfloss mushy romances of the ’90s. The time was appropriate for a new type of film that offered a little bit of everything: a couple of ill-timed, poorly choreographed dances (romance, check), gunshot sound effects provided for hand-to-hand combat (action, check), randomly appearing irrelevant humor (comedy, check), gory death of the bad guy at the hands of the hero (good prevailing over evil, check). Each item on the list would be checked off, but none would be sufficiently developed.

The Comeback

Masala made a huge comeback in 2009, when prominent ’80s producer Boney Kapoor decided to rope in the popular South-Indian director Prabhudeva to remake a hit South-Indian film, Wanted. After being rejected by actors in a position to show good taste, the lead role fell to ’90s superstar Salman Khan, whose career was now waning. (Wanted was a crime action thriller about a ruthless gangster who turns out to be an honorable undercover cop whose cover gets blown, and who then proceeds to avenge the resultant murder of his father. Phew. There’s also a pretty girl who has nothing to do with the main storyline.) Wanted went on to become the second highest grossing film that year, catapulting Khan into megastardom.

In the able hands of the experienced and well-versed Prabhudeva (also a brilliant choreographer and accomplished actor), Wanted was a surprisingly entertaining movie. It wasn’t cinematically brilliant, but it was fun – great for a one-time watch with friends. However, pretty soon, other, less able, often first-time directors jumped on this bandwagon. Playing it safe, they all hired Khan. Out came a slew of insultingly mindless, staggeringly profitable junk: Dabangg (2010), Ready (2011), Ek Tha Tiger (2012), Dabangg 2 (2012), and Jai Ho (this Film has a Military Tank randomly behind driven on Highway)(2014). Dabangg set a box office record within its first week, and it continues to be among the top ten most successful Bollywood films in history. Bodyguard, Ek Tha Tiger, and Dabangg 2 also make this list, with Ek Tha Tiger having made a total of up to ₹3.5 billion ($58 million) including revenue from overseas markets, according to Box Office India.

Interminable Dross

Along this masale-daar journey, Khan realized that all he has to do for a movie to be successful is be in it. He admitted in an interview promoting Ek Tha Tiger, in translation, “I’ve been surviving on a single facial expression. That’s my thing.”

We have known that there is either Good Cinema  (Watch – The LunchBox starring Irfan), or Bad Cinema (Watch Joker / Tees Mar Khan both starring Akshay whom we otherwise adore a lot ), and all the other films in between.  But then there is the third kind, the Bollywood Masala Film.

What makes a great masala film in Bolywood? A good script? Brilliant Performances? Amazing Cinematography? Superb Direction? Perfect Editing? Well, those things make Good Cinema.

[extract from ScoopWhoop]

But here are a few ingredients that are a must, for a Bolywood Masala Film. So what if the script is 2 pages long, or songs do not appeal to music lovers !

  1. The presence of a Charismatic Hero  ( preferably from the shortlist of Khans and Kapoors. Some exceptions may be allowed to the shortlist)  and a pretty Heroine.. ( love at first sight…)
  1. A very nasty Villain

Well, A Nasty Villain may not be a necessity in all genres of Malasa movies, but the ones that require them, need the villain to be REALLY REALLY Nasty.

  1. Very Very un REALISTIC fight scenes. Break cars, break buses, break trains, break furniture. (If you are South Indian, you have the rights to break chest, kidneys, liver, eyes, literally everything)
  1. A romantic song in an exotic location. The characters live in India, but they suddenly start dancing in the Swiss Alps. There are pink trees growing out of white landscapes. The colour of the clothing is highly variable.
  1. Add some great moments in the film . Romance, laughter, tears, and excessively emotional .

How to prepare a delicious “Masala” film

Ingredients required :

    • 2 tablespoons of cheesy romance mixture
    • 1 tablespoon of relationship sentiment powder
    • Intro scenes – 3 in number; Hero, heroine and villain
    • A pinch of social message
    • A stack of villains – At least one must be good-looking with 6-8 pack abs
    • An item song
    • Punch dialogues – As per necessity
    • Fight sequences – As per necessity
    • Comedy – As per necessity
  • One Happy Ending

Preparation of cheesy romance mixture :

    • Add a spoonful of stalking and 2 spoons of ogling into a bowl full of stupidity and senselessness.
    • Blend it thoroughly into a dense mass.
  • Flavor it by pouring a small amount of romantic songs which have been manufactured in foreign locations (preferably Switzerland).

Preparation of main course :

    • Take the intro scenes and add them one by one, in the order of villain, hero and heroine.
    • Immediately add the above prepared cheesy romance mixture in order to facilitate the mixing of hero, heroine and villain.
    • Heat it with an item song on a pan full of alcoholism and bar scenes for a few minutes. Stop heating when smokes of offensive lyrics and excessive skin show begin to arise.
    • Let the meal cool down and then add one tablespoon of relationship sentiment powder.
    • Add some amounts of punch dialogues, fight sequences and comedy in between.
    • As the last step, add the stack of villains and stir thoroughly with a weapon of your choice (Wooden logs, knives, axe, anything that comes in your imagination). Sprinkle the Happy Ending to increase its taste and attractiveness.
  • Savor it with popcorn and please leave your brains behind as a precautionary measure.

End Note :

The above recipe remains the same for all commercial films. The amounts, however, may vary as-

    • Romance Film– Add lots and lots of cheesy romance mixture. Minimize the villain stack and punch dialogues. Blend fight sequences with hero and heroine.
    • Horror Film– Add a new horror mixture to the existing recipe. It should consist of pitch blackness, white saree, sudden BGMs, dilapidated bungalow, and scary makeup.
    • Message-driven Film– Add many amounts of social message in between and also at the end, even though they’re forgotten by everyone in real life.
    • Family Film– The villain stack may/may not be added, but the most important ingredient is relationship sentiment (It is of many types; father-son, mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, grandparents-grandchildren, and so on).
    • Fantasy Film– Imagination must be used; it may be yours or be copied from another film. Types include zombies, vampires, werewolves, and other creatures.
  • Comedy Film– Add comedy after every step of the cooking process. The comedy usually consists of bland comebacks, counter dialogues, sloppy slapstick, basically anything which might make you wanna shoot your brains off.


What aspects have to be kept in mind in the business of cinema?

Not so sure about this answer, I can put some random answer, but that would be misleading.
If you have anything you can send it to me via Mail, Number, or my Instagram Account,

Till then you can check the Blue Magic Text  for some reference


Discuss the important techniques employed by different film makers.

This is a vague topic, you can talk about Rohit Shetty using Flying Cars, or you can talk about the beauty of Hitchcock. I am picking Steven Spielberg, since I did a Project.

You can click Blue Magic Text, to get the filmmaking techniques by Hitchcock

No director is as well known, nor has had as much success in Hollywood as Steven Spielberg. He invented a style of film making that audiences fell in love since the 1980’s. Single-handedly invented the modern blockbuster.

From a young age, Spielberg was fascinated by theater and film. In his teens, he used an 8mm camera to film movies with his friends. Later, he became an intern at Universal Studios, and the rest is history.

The Spielberg Face

When a film technique has an unofficial name based on the director who first made it famous, you know it is a big deal. “The Spielberg Face” was first used to great effect in Jaws. The idea is very simple, you zoom in on a character as they are looking at something. Many times, this character is amazed or in an awe or their face is full of surprise, and the thing that they are looking at is not revealed to the audience until after the character shows their expression.

To contemporary audiences today, this technique might not seem that special. Lots of other directors and filmmakers have since used something similar in their movies.

Reflection Shot

Steven Spielberg is loves to complicated camera movements and angles. It has been observed that one of his favorite camera angles is using mirror or window reflection to capture his characters indirectly. He uses this amazing technique to show just the face of a character when might be camera located behind them. This allows the audience to see the details of a scene/setting without losing the connection to a character. Spielberg also switches it around by filming a character who is facing the camera through a window. Steven Spielberg also uses rear view mirrors in cars to frame and show action, such as in Jurassic Park when the T-Rex is chasing the Jeep.

Glowing Lights

Steven Spielberg has experimented with the visual texture in his films. He may have been one of the first to perfect the technique of using bright lights to add ambience to his films. In specific, his use of camera filters and overlays in Close Encounters paved the way for a decade of soft filters and lense flares in film. Jurassic Park is full of interesting background lighting, especially once the storm hits. Minority Report is an interesting canvas of dark and bright, glowing lights, as is A.I.

John Williams

While Spielberg’s films are known for their entertaining stories, relatable characters, impressive production values, and attention to detail, it is the soundtracks that make the films even more memorable. And most of that credit has to go to John Williams. John Williams is one of, if not the best composers of film soundtracks. One note of the theme from Jaws, Star Wars, or even Indiana Jones is enough for most people to recognize these films. John Williams and Steven Spielberg have created a working partnership unparalleled in the film industry. The substantial amount of success that they have achieved is due to both of them being very good at what they do and their work complementing each other’s’ very well. Williams has composed all of Steven Spielberg’s films except for one (Color Purple).  

Dramatic over-the-shoulder shots

Like the other film techniques in this list, over-the-shoulder shots are very common, but the over-the-shoulder shots filmed by Steven Spielberg are truly something else. He typically films a character over the shoulder of the protagonist using a wide lens, which makes the protagonist in the foreground look much bigger than the other character, conveying a feeling of dominance. It works like a charm.

Wide lenses

Steven Spielberg loves wide lenses, and he uses them to film tracking shots, over-the-shoulder shots, close-ups, and any other shot in which he wants to make the foreground subject dominate the background.  He can be very bold in his use of wide lenses, much bolder than most other filmmakers, which is sweetly ironic, given that he is so frequently (and unfairly) accused of always playing it safe. I think you will find that Steven Spielberg is actually one of the most ambitious, risk-taking filmmakers in the whole history of cinema.

Dark Silhouettes Against Backlight

Spielberg frames characters as dark silhouettes against a bright backlight in scenes of intense, quiet drama. Notice how he used this technique in his 1968 short film Amblin’, when he was only 21, showing how advanced his skills were long before he was paid to direct professionally.

Cameo Spielberg

Steven Spielberg pops up in movies more often than you might think. People of a certain age might remember him in The Blues Brothers(1980) but there are some that are not so well known, like Jaws (1975) and Vanilla Sky (2001).

Broken Families

One element common to most of Spielberg’s films are broken father-son relationships.  These were inspired by his own relationship with his father, until recently, when he and his father reconciled.  Newer Spielberg films have well-adjusted father-figures. Just about every main character in a Spielberg film either has some sort of issue with their parents (usually the father), or they have kids with whom they don’t have the best of relationships. This trend starts at the beginning of his career. His second film, More famously, we all know about Indiana Jones’ rocky relationship with his father from The Last Crusade, and then in Kingdom of the Crystal Skull it’s Indiana’s turn to experience the difficulties of being a dad. The kids in Jurassic Park conveniently lack parents, and War of the Worlds is basically Tom Cruise’s attempts to reconcile with his kids. And these are just some of the examples…


Explain with examples the difference between Documentary, Short Film & Feature film?

Documentary

A documentary is a film that provides a factual report on a particular subject. It is an accurate representation of real events, people, situations, emotions, and reactions or conditions. The main aim of a documentary is informing and educating the viewers. It also maintains a historical record. A documentary can also inspire or persuade the viewers to raise their voice against injustice or take actions to stop it.

A documentary is factual and concerns public matters rather than private ones. A documentary could be about various subjects such as a major injustice in the society, a political event, a historical event, life circle of an animal, etc.

Documentaries may contain recorded spontaneous action, but they can also be scripted in advance. However, documentary filmmakers do not create events or characters; they only attempt to recreate the reality. Therefore, documentaries have no actors, sets, or made-up locations. They are filmed in real locations with real actors. Compared to feature films, documentaries are made with a low budget.

Born into Brothels, Gulabi Gang, Superman of Malegaon, War and Peace, Ganges, Himalayas  with Michael Palin, Simple Pinki, Prostitutes of God, more

Feature Film

A feature film is a film that is made for the purpose of entertaining the audience. They are often commercial films. Comedy, action, romance, mystery, thriller, horror, and adventure are some common subjects in feature films. The main aim of these films is to entertain the viewers; they provide an escape from the reality.

The main distinction between feature film and documentary is that feature films are based on fiction; they have imaginary events, characters and situations. Even if the film is inspired by real events, the writers, and the producers have the creative freedom to incorporate fictional characters and situations. These films will have a smooth flow with carefully structured action and dialogues. The action and dialogues are never spontaneous; they are scripted and practiced in advance. In addition, feature films require a huge budget compared to documentaries.

Rang de basanti, Jodha Akbar, Lagaan, Water, Pather Panchali, Shyamchi Aai, Passage to India, Gandhi, Slumdob Millionaire, Delhi Belly, Monsoon Wedding, more

Short Film

Any film not long enough to be considered a feature film. No consensus exists as to where that boundary is drawn: the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as “an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits”. The term featurette originally applied to a film longer than a short subject, but shorter than a standard feature film.

On the website IMDB (June 2014), it says that the most popular short film globally is ‘Tangled Ever After’. What is the reason for it’s success? The running time for the film is 6 minutes so how can they create a popular film in such a short amount of time? Tangled Ever After is a sequel to the film Tangled, which proved to be very popular globally. It is a Disney musical which earned a total gross of $200,821,936 with a production budget of $260 million.

The film is about a witch who takes a princess when she is a baby and uses her powers to keep her youthful. However the princess escapes from the castle and ends up going on an adventure and falls in love. The short film shows the wedding of the couple. Because of the feature film’s success, it meant that people wanted to see the wedding of their most beloved characters. Also because it was a musical, the film did well on that behalf as the songs are popular worldwide with lots of iTunes downloads therefore this attracts the audience to the short sequel because it is clear there will be more songs.

Feature films, Documentaries, Short films are part of the living history of film making; they grow, mature and change with time. The difference between documentary and feature film can be giant or small.


Write brief history of Indian Cinema from Silent to Digital.

I haven’t received a concrete answer, but reports say that you have to refer to Journey of Cinema for this question


How would you differentiate a documentary from a film if it is on the same concept? Elaborate with examples.

Feature films and documentaries are part of the living history of filmmaking; they grow, mature and change with time. The difference between documentary and feature film can be giant or small.

Both bring forth unique visions of our world, our cultures, our lives and loves. There’s more than one difference between documentary and feature film. They each have distinct differences in style, content and audience, even as the lines between them often blur.

Escape vs. Reality

In general, the main reason feature films get made is to entertain the audience; to give people an escape. Documentaries are meant to inform; to confront people with reality: and sometimes to promote a point of view.

Documentary makers certainly want to engage and captivate their audience, and some feature films can be very informative, but a key difference between the documentary and feature film is in the filmmaker’s motivation.

Fact or Fiction

Feature films are mostly fiction, sometimes total fantasy. Some may be based on real events or people, but the director and screenwriter will be adding drama and impact with their creative license. Genres include comedy and musical, action and western, romance, crime, horror and science fiction, among others.

Documentaries are non-fiction films. Directors and writers help structure the film, rather than creating characters or taking liberties with the facts of the story. Documentaries can take on social, political and economic issues, or profile a person, place or thing.

Format

Feature films take care in introducing complex characters and spinning an intricate storyline over a running time up to three hours. There’s an ebb and flow to the action, with carefully timed and structured mini-climaxes and dramatic highlights. The scripted story, characters and actions all are pointed in the same direction, leading the viewer through events with a sense of beginning, middle, dramatic climax and end.

In documentaries, often the action leads the way. People don’t have scripted words to say or scenes to enact; handheld cameras might be the only way to follow the story. Even the director doesn’t always know what happens next. Documentary makers often say that discovery and surprise is a big part of their job.

Production Costs

Documentaries are usually less expensive to make than feature films, with less elaborate production frills. Documentaries can cost only a few thousand dollars, with small crews, single camera set-ups and few if any paid talent. The result is often raw, unpolished but effective nevertheless.

Feature films can cost millions, even hundreds of millions of dollars, thanks to top stars with top salaries, directors and scriptwriters, music scores, exotic locations and costumes. A top feature film often has its “money on the screen” with lush cinematography, gorgeous actors and actresses, big bang special effects with large and talented production teams in the background.

Of course, big-name actors sometimes do participate in documentary-making, often with a reduced fee and a strong belief in the project. And some low budget or “indie” feature films turn out to be huge successes.

In fact, documentaries have become big box office, with serious Academy Award weight sitting with them. Often very entertaining, they can be as controversial nowadays as the subjects they cover.

And some feature films today are taking on very serious topics, with some post-911 war-themed movies seeming more real than the stories they relate. The difference between documentary and feature film can be obvious or subtle.


Process of Film Production from Pre to Post.

Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, casting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction, editing and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete.

Film production consists of five major stages

    • Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc., and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be sought and obtained.
    • Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
    • Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot.
    • Post-production: The images, sound, and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product.
  • Distribution: The completed film is distributed, marketed, and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video.

Development

In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, play, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure. Then, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, and characters. This usually has little dialogue and stage direction, but often contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment once a synopsis is produced.

Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months. The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, clarity, structure, characters, dialogue, and overall style. However, producers often skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors, studios, and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the likely market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed business approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, and potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account.

The producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, and present it to potential financiers. They will also pitch the film to actors and directors (especially so-called bankable stars) in order to “attach” them to the project (that is, obtain a binding promise to work on the film if financing is ever secured). Many projects fail to move beyond this stage and enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a “green light”, meaning someone offers financial backing: typically a major film studio, film council, or independent investor. The parties involved negotiate a deal and sign contracts.

Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a clearly defined marketing strategy and target audience.

Development of animated films differs slightly in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, and it is rare for a full-length screenplay to already exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production, then a screenwriter is later brought in to prepare the screenplay.

Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments. It includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk. The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can also be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses.

Pre-production

In pre-production, every step of actually creating the film is carefully designed and planned. The production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, and may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents.

The nature of the film, and the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine (or fewer). These are typical crew positions:

    • Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
  • Director: is primarily responsible for the storytelling, creative decisions and acting of the film.
    • Assistant director (AD): manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the production, among other tasks. There are several types of AD, each with different responsibilities.
  • Film producer: hires the film’s crew.
    • Unit production manager: manages the production budget and production schedule. They also report, on behalf of the production office, to the studio executives or financiers of the film.
      • Location manager: finds and manages film locations. Nearly all pictures feature segments that are shot in the controllable environment of a studio sound stage, while outdoor sequences call for filming on location.
  • Production designer: the one who creates the visual conception of the film, working with the art director, who manages the art department, which makes production sets.[2]
      • Costume designer: creates the clothing for the characters in the film working closely with the actors, as well as other departments.
    • Makeup and hair designer: works closely with the costume designer in order to create a certain look for a character.
  • Casting director: finds actors to fill the parts in the script. This normally requires that actors audition.
    • Choreographer: creates and coordinates the movement and dance – typically for musicals. Some films also credit a fight choreographer.
    • Director of photography (DP): the head of the photography of the entire film, supervises all cinematographers and Camera Operators.
  • Production sound mixer: the head of the sound department during the production stage of filmmaking. They record and mix the audio on set – dialogue, presence and sound effects in mono and ambience in stereo. They work with the boom operator, Director, DA, DP, and First AD.
      • Sound designer: creates the aural conception of the film,[2] working with the supervising sound editor. On Bollywood-style Indian productions the sound designer plays the role of a director of audiography.
    • Composer: creates new music for the film. (usually not until post-production)

Production

In production, the video production/film is created and shot. More crew will be recruited at this stage, such as the property master, script supervisor, assistant directors, stills photographer, picture editor, and sound editors. These are just the most common roles in filmmaking; the production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit the various responsibilities possible during the production of a film.

A typical day’s shooting begins with the crew arriving on the set/location by their call time. Actors usually have their own separate call times. Since set construction, dressing and lighting can take many hours or even days, they are often set up in advance.

The grip, electric and production design crews are typically a step ahead of the camera and sound departments: for efficiency’s sake, while a scene is being filmed, they are already preparing the next one.

While the crew prepare their equipment, the actors don their costumes and attend the hair and make-up departments. The actors rehearse the script and blocking with the director, and the camera and sound crews rehearse with them and make final tweaks. Finally, the action is shot in as many takes as the director wishes. Most American productions follow a specific procedure:

The assistant director (AD) calls “picture is up!” to inform everyone that a take is about to be recorded, and then “quiet, everyone!” Once everyone is ready to shoot, the AD calls “roll sound” (if the take involves sound), and the production sound mixer will start their equipment, record a verbal slate of the take’s information, and announce “sound speed”, or just “speed”, when they are ready. The AD follows with “roll camera”, answered by “speed!” by the camera operator once the camera is recording. The clapper, who is already in front of the camera with the clapperboard, calls “marker!” and slaps it shut. If the take involves extras or background action, the AD will cue them (“action background!”), and last is the director, telling the actors “action!”. The AD may echo “action” louder on large sets.

A take is over when the director calls “cut!”, and camera and sound stop recording. The script supervisor will note any continuity issues and the sound and camera teams log technical notes for the take on their respective report sheets. If the director decides additional takes are required, the whole process repeats. Once satisfied, the crew moves on to the next camera angle or “setup,” until the whole scene is “covered.” When shooting is finished for the scene, the assistant director declares a “wrap” or “moving on,” and the crew will “strike,” or dismantle, the set for that scene.

At the end of the day, the director approves the next day’s shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production office. This includes the report sheets from continuity, sound, and camera teams. Call sheets are distributed to the cast and crew to tell them when and where to turn up the next shooting day. Later on, the director, producer, other department heads, and, sometimes, the cast, may gather to watch that day or yesterday’s footage, called dailies, and review their work.

With workdays often lasting 14 or 18 hours in remote locations, film production tends to create a team spirit. When the entire film is in the can, or in the completion of the production phase, it is customary for the production office to arrange a wrap party, to thank all the cast and crew for their efforts.

For the production phase on live-action films, synchronizing work schedules of key cast and crew members is very important, since for many scenes, several cast members and most of the crew must be physically present at the same place at the same time (and bankable stars may need to rush from one project to another). Animated films have different workflow at the production phase, in that voice talent can record their takes in the recording studio at different times and may not see one another until the film’s premiere, while most physical live-action tasks are either unnecessary or are simulated by various types of animators.

Post-production

Here the video/film is assembled by the video/film editor. The shot film material is edited. The production sound (dialogue) is also edited; music tracks and songs are composed and recorded if a film is sought to have a score; sound effects are designed and recorded. Any computer-graphic visual effects are digitally added. Finally, all sound elements are mixed into “stems”, which are then married to picture, and the film is fully completed (“locked”).

Distribution

This is the final stage, where the film is released to cinemas or, occasionally, directly to consumer media (DVD, VCD, VHS, Blu-ray) or direct download from a digital media provider. The film is duplicated as required (either onto film or hard disk drives) and distributed to cinemas for exhibition (screening). Press kits, posters, and other advertising materials are published, and the film is advertised and promoted. A B-roll clip may be released to the press based on raw footage shot for a “making of” documentary, which may include making-of clips as well as on-set interviews.

Film distributors usually release a film with a launch party, a red-carpet premiere, press releases, interviews with the press, press preview screenings, and film festival screenings. Most films are also promoted with their own special website separate from those of the production company or distributor. For major films, key personnel are often contractually required to participate in promotional tours in which they appear at premieres and festivals, and sit for interviews with many TV, print, and online journalists. The largest productions may require more than one promotional tour, in order to rejuvenate audience demand at each release window.

Since the advent of home video in the early 1980s, most major films have followed a pattern of having several distinct release windows. A film may first be released to a few select cinemas, or if it tests well enough, may go directly into wide release. Next, it is released, normally at different times several weeks (or months) apart, into different market segments like rental, retail, pay-per-view, in-flight entertainment, cable, satellite, or free-to-air broadcast television. The distribution rights for the film are also usually sold for worldwide distribution. The distributor and the production company share profits and manage losses.


What is the difference between a Newsreel, Show reel, Short film, Tele-film & Corporate film?

Newsreel 

Newsreel is a form of short documentary film prevalent between 1910s to 1960s, regularly released in a public presentation place and containing filmed news stories and items of topical interest. It was a source of news, current affairs, and entertainment for millions of moviegoers until television supplanted its role in the 1950s.  Newsreels are now considered significant historical documents, since they are often the only audiovisual record of historical and cultural events of those times.

Newsreels were typically exhibited as short subjects preceding the main feature film into the 1960s.

There were dedicated newsreel theaters in many major cities in the 1930s and 1940s, and some large city cinemas also included a smaller theaterette where newsreels were screened continuously throughout the day.

Showreel

Showreel is a short piece of video or film footage showcasing an actor or presenter’s previous work. Usually 2 to 3 minutes in length, a showreel typically supplements an artist’s résumé and is used to promote the artist’s skill, talent, and experience to acting agents and casting directors. Showreel of TV channels and production companies mostly gets aired by the TV channels itself to promote the awareness and portfolio regarding the brand, hence in this case it is called a TV Showreel or a Corporate Showreel.

Showreels are commonly used in the entertainment industry in such fields as acting, directing, cinematography, editing, special effects, animation, video games and graphics production. In the case of audio work, showreels may demonstrate the actor’s vocal or instrumental talent, arranging abilities or recording and engineering style.

Short Film

Shortfilm is any motion picture not long enough to be considered a feature film. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as “an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits”.The term featurette originally applied to a film longer than a short subject, but shorter than a standard feature film. The increasingly rare term “short subject” means approximately the same thing. It is an industry term which carries more of an assumption that the film is shown as part of a presentation along with a feature film. “Short” is an abbreviation for either term.

Short films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals and made by independent filmmakers for non profit, either with a low budget or no budget at all. They are usually funded by film grants, non profit organizations, sponsor, or personal funds. Short films are generally used by filmmakers to gain experience or prove their talent in order to gain funding for future films from private investors, entertainment companies, or film studios.

Telefilm

TeleFilm by definition is longer than short film and upto the length of a feature film. Usually telefilms are made for Television and tend to be about 90 minutes long. However, definition has it that any film smaller than 90 minutes and above 40 minutes can be called a telefilm. Any film shorter than 40 minutes is called a short film (inclusive of all credits). Cannes is the biggest marketplace to showcase or sell your films.

A television film (also known as a television movie, telefilm, telemovie, made-for-television film, direct-to-TV film, movie of the week, feature-length drama, single drama or original movie) is a feature-length motion picture that is produced for, and originally distributed by or to, a television network, in contrast to theatrical films, which are made explicitly for initial showing in movie theaters.

Corporate Films

Corporate Films, or corporate videos, are used to connect the boardroom to its employees and convey the company’s ethics and ethos to the consumer. Video content online has become increasingly popular for company websites alongside the written material. Video content stands an 80% higher chance of engagement as it requires less from the viewer and keeps their attention focused on the screen for longer. Production companies also create films for fundraising, awareness and promotional purposes. In the world of business, films are necessary communication tools that can create engagement and inform opinion.

Producers working within the corporate sector need to be astute to the needs of the client, and also need a firm grasp on how best to use a creative medium to display corporate rhetoric. With advertising revenue decreasing and the trend for high-quality content online, production companies are creating customer facing films for social media and public consumption. Corporate production companies cater across the spectrum from the large multinationals, government organisations to high street shops, charities to industrial manufacturing companies. The types of film corporate production companies produce are:

    • Online Commercials. Freedom from the 30 seconds of screen time and significantly cheaper, commercials for online content are of a lower budget but have the opportunity to go viral if they have a great story behind them. Making shareable content is a way of organically promoting your company.
    • Training Videos. Staff training or first aid training videos can be a useful tool in the workplace, and save companies significant amounts of money when looking to induct employees.
    • Films for conference. The conference itself can be filmed, allowing viewers full access to the extended content from the day’s events. Films are also made for the conference, such as an address from the CEO if not in attendance.  
    • Consumer testimonials. Connecting potential customers to previous customer experience whether on the website or within the online consumer marketplace.
    • Industrial. Films aimed at companies working within a specific industry, used for business to business marketing or at trade shows.
    • Internal communications. Films made to be placed on company intranets are a useful tool to connect senior staff with their employees.  
    • Promotional or branded content. Promotional films are largely web or intranet based. They can come in the form of panel discussions designed to showcase products and create interaction.
  • Charity film. One of the most efficient ways for charities to reach out to their supporters and funders is via a film. A film detailing the work they carry out, who it affects and what you can do to make a difference is a major asset to fundraisers.

Trace the development of Indian cinema on the Global Platform.

The Indian film industry is the largest film producing industry in the world. In 2015 alone, India produced a total of 2,445 films in 42 languages. India is clearly a film crazy and star worshiping nation. The first film was produced in India and it was 1913’s ‘Raja Harishchandra’, directed by the father of Indian cinema, Dadasaheb Phalke. The first Indian talkie film was made in 1931. It was callled ‘Alam Ara’ and it was made by Ardeshir Irani.

Post 1947, which is when India gained independence from the British, the scope and content of the Indian film industry, especially Hindi language films, increased. Raj Kapoor’s 1951 film, ‘Awaara’ premiered in the Soviet Union and was immediately lapped up by the audiences. Mehboob Khan’s 1957 film, ‘Mother India’, was the first Indian film to have been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Feature film. This helped Indian cinema gain prominence worldwide.

The period of 60s, 70s and 80s saw the rise of stars such as Dilip Kumar, Amitabh Bachchan, Rajesh Khanna and many others. Aside from the emergence of the dominant film genre, that was ‘Masala’, Indina cinema saw the rise of parallel and realistic cinema, heralded by directors such as Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Shyam Benegal and many others. But at the same time, the period of 80s is always considered to be the lowest phase in Indian cinema, as a lot of vulgar and cheap content, intended to pander to the lowest common denominator, were churned out.

Finally, in 1991, India opened up an illustrious new chapter in it’s industry- the opening of it’s secluded economy for International markets and companies. The arrival of LPG- Liberalization, Globalization and Privatization- gave local filmmakers immense access to international expertise and resources.

In May 1998 Bollywood was conferred official status as an industry, and so began the liberalization of that industry. Duirng the 90s, the rise of the burgeoning Indian middle class, the emergence of the NRIs and the dominance of Western entertainment in Indian households forced local mainstream filmmakers to make movies that catered to these audiences.

Films such as Aditya Chopra’s 1995 blockbuster ‘Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge’ (which is the longest running film to date), Karan Johar’s 1998 mega hit ‘Kuch Kuch Hota Hai’ and 2001’s ‘Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham’ catered to the sentiments of its intended audience- NRIs- which made them blockbusters overseas.

The post Globalization period saw the rise of mega stars such as Shahrukh Khan, Salman Khan, Aamir Khan, kajol, Madhuri Dixit and many others. There was also a marked change in the content of the films made in India. While films prior to 1991 refrained from touching on taboo subjects, the films post 1991 saw many directors attempting bolder stories which found audiences….and courted controversies.

Hollywood benefited the most from the opening up of the Indian market as it could showcase more films from the USA to the Indian audiences.

Although the Indian film industry has reaped fruits from this historic decision taken in 1991, there have been some pitfalls. For starters, the rise of the Multiplex culture, which enabled more screens and shows for more than one film, marked the decline and eventual demise of the Single screen system, for long the darling of the masses.

Internet was the biggest invention of the 90s, and by the end of the decade, it found adopters in India, who were exposed to a lot of free content from across the world that was better than what local content creators made.

By any standards, the rise of the Indian middle class has been impressive.  

Minuscule during India’s Independence in 1947, 1999 estimates put the current number at around 300 million. The middle class can be subdivided further into upper middle class, the middle middle class and the lower middle class. This has brought about a sea change in consumption patterns, from cars to butter to entertainment. A large proportion of this group are English speaking and, having grown up on cable TV, do not necessarily respond to the standard song-dance melodramas that is the Bollywood staple.

Piracy is a major offender because it puts up illegal copies online for free download, that robs the film off it’s theatrical revenue. Till date, filmmakers and producers are fighting against this menace, with limited results.

Bollywood has long been plagued with accusations of shady business practices. For much of its existence, Bollywood has been very parochial business controlled by a handful of movie producers and clans. Most films have been privately financed, often at monthly rates of interest of 2% or more. Many of the lenders have been accused of having links with the underworld. Cost overruns and production delays have been endemic,

In the early 1990s, the decline of the middle class film going audience meant Bollywood was creating more fare intended for lower class consumption. The films created during this period could be roughly divided into three groups: action films (revenge dramas) shown mostly in cheap theaters; comedy (movies featuring actors like Govinda and the like), which mostly catered to lower-class taste but were becoming popular with a wider audience; and the big budget romantic movies. The latter type was the most successful both in India and abroad and continues to be the big revenue-earners even today. Examples of these include movies directed by old guard Bollywood directors such as Yash Chopra and Shubhash Ghai. The themes are mostly based on old feudal romance within the Hindu patriarchal society but with very stylized presentations. Movies like Hum Aapke Hai Kaun and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayange falls in this genre of films and have been copied many many times.


Discuss about the contribution and impact of Indian Regional Cinema citing appropriate examples.

Just as Hindi cinema is categorized into mainstream and parallel cinema, similarly the regional cinema also developed its own mainstream and parallel cinema. The mainstream regional cinema developed its own formulas for success depending on the demands of its audiences and at the same time produced individual film makers who wished to depart from main stream formula films towards the making of what is called `auteur’ films. Regional cinema has been officially patronized by the government by the establishment of state level Film development corporations and the institutionalization of national awards, in which regional cinema is given due recognition.

Regional Films in India

Mainstream cinema in India is dominated by Hindi language films which typically make up a significant portion of total domestic box-office collections. However, over the last few years, regional language films have been growing in popularity with releases in a greater number of theatres both within and outside the Indian territory.

Early Mumbai films can be called Marathi films because they were not only directed by great Marathi directors like Dada Saheb Phalke and V. Shantaram, Acharya P K Atre and Master Vinayak. They were also produced with the help of film companies owned by Marathis and with technicians who were from Maharashtra.  But Marathi cinema in Mumbai was soon subsumed by Hindi cinema because of Hindi cinema’s reach and popularity. Only in recent times, with directors like Dada Kondke, and Jabbar Patel has Marathi cinema again come into its own.

Within regional languages, the South-Indian segment is an important market in terms of number of film releases with the four southern states comprising Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala together accounting for a majority of the total number of film releases in India. Other regional language markets in India include films made in Bengali, Bhojpuri, Marathi, Punjabi etc. The total domestic box-office collections from regional language films in India are estimated to be about Rs 1,508 crore.

Regional cinema seems to have two things going for it: tiny budgets and small audiences. These seeming disadvantages mean more freedom for the filmmaker, who needn’t focus all his energy on making it to the 100-crore club or juggling star egos. Nishikant Kamath, who directed the National Award-winning Dombivali Fast (Marathi) as well as the block-busting Bollywood movie Force, said in an interview with Indian Express, “In regional films, I can experiment, take new-comers, take risk with the story. But when I am doing mainstream where lots of money is involved, I have to take bigger stars, have a set up…”

Think of regional cinema as a specialty restaurant, offering authenticity and variety from Bollywood’s multi-cuisine mishmash. Regional films can be as escapist and divertingly illogical as anything by Rohit Shetty, most of whose hits are Tamil and Telugu remakes. But they are also often more personal, courageous and unpredictable. Thanks to them, and the multiplexes, distributors and film festivals bringing them to your neighborhood, you never have to sit through another bad Hindi — or English — film just because there’s nothing else to watch. The alternative is here and it’s speaking in tongues.


Explain technological development of cinema from silent era to contemporary time.

A film is a set of moving images compiled together to convey a story or information. The first film was made by Lumiere Brothers on 12 February 1892 which was of workers leaving the factory. The films made after that till 1924 were all silent films. Films as a medium is a merger of sound media the Phonograph and moving images called movies, but failed.

However this did not stop filmmakers from making movies. They relied on excessive use of physical movements to convey the feelings, emotions, conversation  through facial and bodily movements. To enhance the storytelling they made use of Titles which are words written at the bottom for the people to read and understand.

Since moving pictures were silent theater owners hired musicians to play the music that fit the mood of what was happening in the movie: sad music when the baby was sick, scary music when the monster approached, and happy music when the lovers got married. For those who could hear it, the music made the movie more enjoyable.

Over the period of time with technological development and with the invention of electricity some inventors brought together movies and recorded sound. They went to Hollywood. No production house was ready to use sound in their films. They approached Warner Brothers who had established various theaters across America and also made films which did not do well. They decided to keep making silent movies, but to use the new invention to record music to accompany the silent pictures. The record would replace the live musicians in the theater. This invention was known as “Vitaphone”. Don Juan was the first film to use Vitaphone and The Jazz Singer was the first sound movie made in the year 1927.

Modern technology has changed modern film making for the better. In the last few years, using the latest technologies has been vital in the film making process. This has caused films to evolve over the years with each progressing idea, technology, and technique, allowing filmmakers to bring their vision to life more accurately and more convincingly to the big screen. Film production has also become very fast to meet the growing demand for movies as the channel for distribution increase and audiences broaden. The development of technology has affected an extremely wide array of areas concerning film, including the production process, the way films are viewed, how the films are distributed, and even how they are promoted.

  As digital technology has improved in recent years, this practice has become dominant. Digital film making refer to a number of different processes and techniques used in modern films, and can simply mean the use of digital cameras, or more extensive digital aspects such as characters and environments created completely within a computer. Traditional films were quickly degradable, flammable and expensive. Traditional film reels had to be shipped to movie theaters, whereas a digital movie can be distributed to cinemas in a number of ways: over the Internet or dedicated satellite links or by sending hard drives or optical discs such as Blu-ray discs. Digital film making does not require costly materials, and though digital motion picture cameras are certainly expensive, the overall investment is significantly smaller.

Post production is another area where digital trumps the usage of film. Adding visual effects to film is often a precise art, where the effect had to blend flawlessly with what was being shot. This software also allows editors to work on entire sections of a film, easily piecing scenes together after the post production effects are added in. That includes audio, which now has a high definition digital file that ensures the audience will hear every word and action that they see. The end result is a piece

of film that looks cleaner, with effects that blend seamlessly with the movie. Modern technologies used in today’s cinema include Visual effects such as Computer Generated Imagery (CGI), Motion Capture, 3D, IMAX. Visual effects involve the integration of live-action footage and generated imagery to create environments which look realistic, but would be dangerous, expensive, impractical, or impossible to capture on film. Visual effects are often integral to a movie’s story and appeal. Although most visual effects work is completed during post-production, it usually must be carefully planned and choreographed in pre-production and production.

One of the films that used the most advanced technologies was James Cameron’s Avatar. It used the specially developed Performance Capture feature. Two new kinds of camera’s were also invented. The virtual camera and the simul camera which work together. Indian Cinema isn’t behind in adding Visual effects. With Computer graphic facilities of 80’s and 90’s digital image revolutionized in India. The first complete computer graphic film was a Telugu movie AMMORU (1995) in which the graphics were by Hollywood technician Christopher Stanley. Bollywood had been using VFX since mid of the first Decade of 21st century. Baahubali took VFX of Indian Films to the next level.


Discuss in length about the origins and spread of Parallel Cinema in India.

A blanket term designated to certain types of films produced in India that stray away from the conventions of popular mainstream cinema. Although it accommodates minor film movements within, Parallel Cinema is not a film movement in itself and has no theoretical framework standardising it. The films and filmmakers associated with this tag often have little to do with each other ideologically or stylistically.

Parallel cinema refers to offbeat movies or simply can be understood as art movies. Indian mainstream cinema along with its huge commercial success in the previous decades follows the common themes and formula stories. The margin of showing the existing social realities and complexities of relationships is usually sidelined for sake of maximizing profit and gross rate success. This led to the birth of new wave of cinema formerly known as parallel cinema. The Parallel cinema has strong influences of social realism Indian theatre.

Parallel Cinema in India has assumed various forms through the years, starting from the Neorealism-influenced films of Nehruvian India, through the more politically radical films of the Seventies and the liberal humanist films that are called independent cinema.

Major names affiliated with Parallel Cinema include Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, Shyam Benegal, M. S. Sathyu, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Girish Kasaravalli and G. Aravindan.

The line between Parallel Cinema and mainstream cinema has progressively been blurring as we witness certain mainstream filmmakers experimenting with form and ideas and with socially-engaged cinema reducing itself to a formula. Nevertheless, the ghost of what has been known as Parallel Cinema has always been resurrected to label, contain, Market or Reject formally or intellectually challenging films.

Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s The Rat Trap (1981) centres on an idle, even good-for-nothing, man who takes his privileged position in the patriarchal and feudal system for granted, until it all comes down like a pack of cards. The direction is academic, with a keen eye towards framing, colour and composition. This quintessential Parallel film deals with themes that are rarely confronted in mainstream cinema.

One of the major features of the films classified under Parallel Cinema is their fixation on social critique, so much so that some filmmakers have called it “complaint box cinema”. Many of these films are first and foremost screeds against feudalism, corruption, nepotism, patriarchy and religious intolerance. More radical, politically-engaged ones deal with modernisation and class warfare and regularly lean towards the left of centre.

Parallel films are characterised by their rejection of popular forms, especially the song and fight sequences, their affinity for rural settings or working class, use of method actors, a penchant for close-ups and lengthy shots, a spare use of musical score, toned down colour palettes, their frequently formalist approach to composition and, sometimes, even experimental editing patterns. Through the years, these films have almost always been funded by state-owned institutions.


Write a note on the importance of Promotion.

The movie making process happens in three stages: pre-production, production (shooting) and post-production. From developing a story that can be made into a film to the release, movies go through various processes that make them what they finally are. And one of the most important process, especially in the current generation, is marketing. Earlier, people went to the theaters just by seeing the posters or hearing the song or by seeing who is acting in the film but today, our worlds have become wider, we have social media, we will get to know whether a film is good or bad within hours. Here, the promotion of a film plays a major role. And today we will take a look at what actually marketing does in the success of a film and how important it is to promote a film in the right way.

..

Promotion for a film had started as an information or a notice to the people, the format was like a film titled XYZ is releasing, it is based on whatever theme and so-and-so is acting in it and directing it. Later on, announcements were made all over the town about the films coming up. By the invention of television, things became easier as they aired short promos or the songs of the latest films that tempted the people to go and watch them. As the number of movies being made increased, the promotions had to be more captivating. By this time there were several movie magazines, special entertainment columns in newspapers etc. Makers were forced to think bigger when it came to marketing a film. And that revolution of thinking bigger has brought the film promotions to the stage we see now. If it is a Bollywood mainstream film, the promotions start 40 days before the release, the trailer and song launches are done in a grand manner and the stars visit TV show sets, malls and colleges to promote their films. When we look at the south, most of the promotions happen within the last two weeks to the release. Very few films come up with special strategies and the others follow the same pattern of promoting a film through TV programmes and releasing impressive promos.

Promotion is actually selling the film to the audience, they have to tempting and captivating so that the people would go to the theaters to watch the film. If it is a big star’s film, there will be a hype from the fans, the fans would create a good opening to their favorite star’s film. But only few of the star vehicles create an impact among the neutral audience as well. Every film is different and every film deserves to be promoted differently. The wrong promotion can end up to be a disaster. Established production houses will have a good marketing team for their films. From at what occasion the first look poster must be released to creating new methods to promote a film, every step will be planned. Often the promotion is outsourced to promotional agencies as well. In this process, the makers would hire a good promotional agency and discuss how they can promote the film and release the money. Online promotion itself is different from the on-field promotions. Online promotion for a Malayalam/Tamil film will cost between 1 to 6 lakhs on average.

..

A minimum quantity of good promotion is a must for any film. There are films that released with no prior marketing and succeeded with mouth publicity but that doesn’t happen always. If at least the trailer or songs have grabbed some attention, then that would do some good to the release. The basic promotion can be done in two weeks and if that managed to grab attention then it will be a benefit. A good producer will always know the importance of marketing a film. They won’t hesitate spending money on the promotion. The producer must be well aware of the budget, the actors’ remuneration, what would be the expected opening and finally how much money he can release on the promotion and what kind of promotion the film requires. If we look at two examples of Baahubali and Kabali, the promotions costed as much as production cost but both the films grabbed that much attention and earned good profits. A perfectly proportioned movie promotion can help even an average film earn profits.

Throughout the recent years we have seen some amazing promotional strategies. If it’s Bollywood, Shah Rukh Khan, who is known as the king of marketing, had arranged an entire dance reality show for promoting his film Happy New Year. Hrithik Roshan’s Bang Bang dare also was a superhit strategy. When we travel South, Baahubali 2 had a lot of hype anyway but the team never let the fire of excitement exhaust, they were constantly coming up with new merchandises and small informations on the film. Kabali’s promotion had made even the Hollywood enquire about Rajinikanth’s stardom, the publicity on the airplane was a historic event. Few films have given challenges to the audience through social media or asked the viewers to do dubsmashes on their dialogues, these tactics have worked well because this makes the people feel being a part of the film and they get the attention of celebrities. A very recent promotional strategy that looks super exciting is for Rana Daggubati’s Telugu film Nene Raju Nene Mantri. The team has created a chance for the audience to get photographed with Rana and Kajal Aggarwal through Augmented Reality. The idea is pretty cool and surely people will get excited about it. And each time we get something new, we will think more about it, we will discuss more about it. So more uniqueness is equal to more attention.

Every week of every month has more than two movie releases. The people lead a busy life and there is television, social media and much more in their lives. If they must be brought into the cinema halls, the film must give them some hope. The promotion must convince the viewer that their money and time will be worth it. A well promoted film is already half successful. It doesn’t matter if it has new faces or superstars, if the promotion is good the crowd appears from first show and if the promotion is bad it will take some time for the people to decide whether to hit the theaters or wait for the television premier. Every step in film making is really important but nowadays the marketing is very crucial as that alone can fill the seats.


Describe the different types of transitions.

​​In film editing, transition refers to how one shot ends and the next begins, and the filmic device that bridges one to the other. Many different types of transitions have been employed since the early years of cinema. Some are outdated, used mainly to refer to those first years, but others are still greatly used today. Each type invokes a different emotion. Understanding those emotions is essential to master editing.

The Dissolve

The dissolve is an editing technique where one clip seems to dissolve, or fade into the next. As the first clip is fading out, getting lighter and lighter, the second clip starts fading in, becoming more and more prominent. The process usually happens so subtly and so quickly, the viewer isn’t even aware of the transition.


A great example of this technique can be seen in Ransom’s _flossy music video, Famous Last Words. Watch carefully at the very beginning: you’ll see the camera pan up the façade of the apartment building (often called an establishing shot because it establishes the location of the action) and then dissolve into the next scene, where you see the cat owner saying “Here kitty, kitty.”

The Wipe

This transition is the opposite of the dissolve in that it draws attention to itself. The best example of the wipe is what’s known as the Iris Wipe, which you usually find in silent films, like Buster Keaton’s or the Merrie Melodies cartoons—the circle getting smaller and smaller. Other wipe shapes include stars, diamonds, and the old turning clock.

The Star Wars films are chock-full of attention-grabbing wipes. Here are two good examples from The Empire Strikes Back. The first shows the clock wipe; the second, the diagonal wipe (pay no attention to the broken blocks at the start of the second clip–that’s a technical glitch, not part of the film!):

The Cutaway

As the name implies, in the basic cutaway, the filmmaker is moving from the action to something else, and then coming back to the action. Cutaways are used to edit out boring shots (like people driving to their destination—why not see what the character is seeing or even thinking sometimes?) or add action to a sequence by changing the pace of the footage. My favorite use of the cutaway is in Family Guy where the technique is used to insert throwaway gags.

The L Cut

The L Cut, also called a split edit, is a very cool technique whose name dates back to the old analog film days.

The audio track on a strip of celluloid film runs along the side, near the sprocket holes. In the L Cut transition, the editor traditionally cut the picture frames out of the strip, but left the narrow audio track intact, thus creating an L-shape out of the film. A different camera angle, or scene was then spliced into the spot where the old picture was, so the audio from the old footage was now cut over the new footage.


Of course, with digital editing, one doesn’t need to physically cut anything anymore, but the transition is still widely used, and the name has remained the same.

There are many examples of this kind of cut in the following clip from the movie Quiz Show. Notice in the beginning how effective the L cut over to the dinner table is, allowing us to read Rob Morrow’s expression. Split edits like these are especially effective in portraying conversations. Imagine how a simple conversation between two people might look if all we ever got was a ping-pong edit back and forth between the two people talking. The L cut allows the viewer to read the emotion on the listener’s face, as the dialogue continues over.

The Fade

The fade in and fade out usually signal the beginning or end of a scene, especially if the filmmaker is fading to/from black. This is the most common, of course, but fading to white has become trendy, too. The opening title sequence from the HBO series Six Feet Under features many fades to black and a couple brief fades to white. The very last bit in the sequence fades slowly to white, and is my all-time favorite example of the transition.

Wipe

Wipes are dynamic. They happen when one shot pushes the other off frame. George Lucas deliberately used them throughout the Star Wars series.


Explain different shots in relation to human figure.

A Brief One Liner Description of Every Type of Shot is given on the last page

One of the first things students are taught in film school is the nomenclature of the basic types of camera shots. This common language is essential for writers, directors, camera operators, and cinematographers to effectively communicate visual elements of a shot, particularly the size of a subject—often a person—within the frame. Provided here is a list of the essential shot types that you need to know, along with a brief description. For the purpose of this article, it will focus mostly on subject size and camera angle and ignore camera movements, such as tracking shots, dolly in, etc.

There are many ways in which you can frame your subject, from seeing their entire body to only their eyes. Generally speaking, we can break this down into three main shot sizes: Long, Medium, and Close. Long shots (also commonly called Wide shots) show the subject from a distance, emphasizing place and location, while Close shots reveal details of the subject and highlight emotions of a character. Medium shots fall somewhere in between, putting emphasis on the subject while still showing some of the surrounding environment.

It’s important to note that the following shot types only relate to subject size within the frame, and don’t directly indicate what type of lens is used to capture the scene. The choice of lens—and, thus, the distance of the camera from the subject—remains an artistic decision for the Director and/or Director of Photography. With that in mind, on to the list!

Extreme Long Shot (aka Extreme Wide Shot)

Used to show the subject from a distance, or the area in which the scene is taking place. This type of shot is particularly useful for establishing a scene (see Establishing Shot later in the article) in terms of time and place, as well as a character’s physical or emotional relationship to the environment and elements within it. The character doesn’t necessarily have to be view able in this shot.

Long Shot (aka Wide Shot)

Shows the subject from top to bottom; for a person, this would be head to toes, though not necessarily filling the frame. The character becomes more of a focus than an Extreme Long Shot, but the shot tends to still be dominated by the scenery. This shot often sets the scene and our character’s place in it. This can also serve as an Establishing Shot, in lieu of an Extreme Long Shot.

  Full Shot

Frames character from head to toes, with the subject roughly filling the frame. The emphasis tends to be more on action and movement rather than a character’s emotional state.

  Medium Long Shot (aka 3/4 Shot)

 Intermediate between Full Shot and Medium Shot. Shows subject from the knees up.

  Cowboy Shot (aka American Shot)  

A variation of a Medium Shot, this gets its name from Western films from the 1930s and 1940s, which would frame the subject from mid-thighs up to fit the character’s gun holsters into the shot.

  Medium Close-Up

Falls between a Medium Shot and a Close-Up, generally framing the subject from chest or shoulder up.

  Close-Up

Fills the screen with part of the subject, such as a person’s head/face. Framed this tightly, the emotions and reaction of a character dominate the scene.

  Choker  

A variant of a Close-Up, this shot frames the subject’s face from above the eyebrows to below the mouth

  Extreme Close Up  

Emphasizes a small area or detail of the subject, such as the eye(s) or mouth. An Extreme Close Up of just the eyes is sometimes called an Italian Shot, getting its name from Sergio Leone’s Italian-Western films that popularized it.

Shots indicating camera angle/placement

In addition to subject size within a frame, shot types can also indicate where a camera is placed in relation to the subject. Here are some commonly used terms:

Eye Level

Shot taken with the camera approximately at human eye level, resulting in a neutral effect on the audience.

  High Angle  
Subject is photographed from above eye level. This can have the effect of making the subject seem vulnerable, weak, or frightened.
  Low Angle  

Subject is photographed from below eye level. This can have the effect of making the subject look powerful, heroic, or dangerous.

  Dutch Angle/Tilt  

Shot in which the camera is set at an angle on its roll axis so that the horizon line is not level. It is often used to show a disoriented or uneasy psychological state.

  Over-the-Shoulder Shot  

A popular shot where a subject is shot from behind the shoulder of another, framing the subject anywhere from a Medium to Close-Up. The shoulder, neck, and/or back of the head of the subject facing away from the camera remains viewable, making the shot useful for showing reactions during conversations. It tends to place more of an emphasis on the connection between two speakers rather than the detachment or isolation that results from single shots.

  Bird’s-Eye View (aka Top Shot)
A high-angle shot that’s taken from directly overhead and from a distance. The shot gives the audience a wider view and is useful for showing direction and that the subject is moving, to highlight special relations, or reveal to the audience elements outside the boundaries of the character’s awareness. The shot is often taken from on a crane or helicopter.
  Establishing Shot  

Usually the first shot of a scene, this is used to establish the location and environment. It can also be used to establish mood and give the audience visual clues regarding the time (night/day, year) and the general situation. Because they need to provide a great deal of information, Establishing Shots are usually Extreme Long Shots or Long Shots.

  Master Shot  

Term given to a single, uninterrupted shot of a scene. This shot can be the only shot used by a director to cover a scene, or edited together with additional shots. While it’s commonly a Long or Full Shot, a Master Shot can be a closer shot, or consist of multiple shot types if the camera is moving throughout the scene.

  Point of View Shot (POV)  
Shot intended to mimic what a particular character in a scene is seeing. This puts the audience directly into the head of the character, letting them experience their emotional state. Common examples are of a character waking up, drifting into unconsciousness, or looking through a scope or binoculars.
  Reaction Shot  
Shows a character’s reaction to the shot that has preceded it.
  Two Shot  
A shot in which two subjects appear in the frame.


Explain French New Wave Cinema with Example.

French New Wave, which is also known as French Nouvelle Vague, can be considered as one of the most influential film movements that took place in the history of cinema. The ripples created by this cinematic movement can even be felt today. A group of critics, who wrote for a French film journal called Cahiers du Cinema, created the film movement. It began as a movement against the traditional path that French Cinema followed, which was more like literature. The French New Wave had the potential to bring a radical change to French cinema.

Few of the leading French movie directors supported the French New Wave at its inception. They include Jacques Demy, Agnes Varda, Alain Resnais, Louis Malle, Jacques Rivette, Eric Rohmer, Claude Chabrol, Jean-Luc Godard and Francois Truffaut. These directors have produced hundreds of movies to the French cinema industry and their involvement created a tremendous impact on the success of French New Wave. As a result, many other French directors were influenced by it, which created an ideal platform to deploy the radical change that the French cinema industry required.

Characteristics of the French New Wave Films

Low Production Values

They were simply a group of film enthusiasts meeting to discuss film, and eventually concluding that they wanted to make their own movies instead of just talking. All of had some interesting ideas concerning film, but they had no studio backing and very little money to put their ideas into action.

Despite this set back, they still elected to at the  very least attempt to enact these theories. However in the economic depression of a post-World War II, they found it difficult to make a film with their own very limited budget. Dues to this, they sought low budget alternatives to the standard production techniques that big budget studios would use on their films.

Editing

Perhaps the most noticeable thing about a film from this movement is its editing style. Editing was supposed to be invisible, disguised under a set of rules concerning how the style and order of shots should be presented so that the audience never notices it. That may be the first thing the New Wave directors wanted to avoid, they strove to be noticed and discussed.

The audience should become more aware of the techniques being used to create the film and using a shot to contrast opposing shots preceding them. So jump-cuts were used to establish the bare essentials which were then knitted together in a stylistic and innovative way.

Breaking the Fourth Wall

Improvisation was heavily used, but this was not necessarily ground breaking, but something else that the actors did do that was unique at the time was addressing the camera or acknowledging the existence of the industry.

Director Acting as Overall Creator

Today, directors are seen as the primary creative force behind movies, displaying their own vision and techniques onto the screen instead of being dominated by studio control. This was solidified in the French New Wave as a filmmaking technique called Camera-Stylo that meant that a director should use their camera in the same way that a writer would use their pen.

Moving Cameras

Another classic rule was that to establish a new location one needed to set up a new shot, emphasise the change in environment and scenery. But more than a few times, the directors of this movement would simply pan the camera towards their new location if it was in close proximity.

Pacing

The editing stylisation of the movement eventually became a method in its own right. The directors would look at each scene and ask if it was necessary to the message, plot or themes of the film. If it was not, then it would be cut. Then they went a step further and started cutting out moments that were not important to the scene itself. This whole technique sped up the film drastically, forcing the audience to pay attention and crafting a much faster pace in their movies.

Playing with the Framing

The reason other filmmakers had avoided this was because they felt that such an act would break the illusion of the film. But the French were not worried about maintaining an illusion, they wanted people to notice their techniques and therefore had no issues altering one of the most fundamental laws of cinema, changing the size of their frame at different points in the film.

Themes

Above nearly all else, the French New Wave was about filming the truth. It was a self- conscious rejection of the literary period pieces that were being made at the time and a stronger desire to shoot youthful, socially representative themes.

Contempt for Audience

Rather than simply using their images to stun and awe the audience, but to play with their own expectations and conceptions. They wanted to shock their audiences out of inactiveness, be bold and direct instead of simply providing them with escapism.

Breaking Their Own Rules

After a while they began to break their own rules of filmmaking. By going beyond their own established techniques, they ensured that the movement could always evolve and adapt, it could always find a way to speak directly to an audience and challenge the status quo, it could always be relevant and important and amazing.

French New Wave cinema was a personal cinema. The film-makers were writers who were skilful a examining relationships and telling humane stories. Truffaut’s films were particularly autobiographical His first full-length film The 400 Blows drew upon his early life, and the life-story of the main character Antoine Doinel was developed through three subsequent films: Antoine et Colette (1962), Baiser Volés (1968) and  Domicile Conjugal (1970).

The Nouvelle Vague film-makers, being critics, were very knowledgeable about cinema. Their films incorporated elements of American genres, for example, film noir in A Bout de Souffle, the gangster movie in Tirez le Pianiste and the thriller and the musical in Godard’s Bande á Part (1964).

The American jazz music that was popular in Paris at the time also featured in some of the films, for example, the Miles Davis score for Ascenseur pour l’Echafaud.  

The French New Wave directors were prolific film-makers. The five Cahiers directors  (Truffaut, Godard, Chabrol, Rivette and Rohmer) made 32 films between 1959 and 1966.

Although the films represented a radical departure from traditional cinema, and where aimed at a young intellectual audience, many of them achieved a measure of critical and financial success, gaining a broad audience both in France and abroad. Truffaut’s The 400 Blows, for example, won the Grand Prize at the 1959 Cannes Film Festival, while Breathless was a big European box office hit. This contributed to the growing influence of these directors. After 1964 the experimentation elements of the French New Wave was already starting to become assimilated into mainstream cinema.

The directors meanwhile diverged in style and developed their own distinct cinematic voices. Truffaut incorporated more traditional elements in his films, for example, while

Godard became increasingly political and radical in his film-making during the 1960s.  

[forget everyone but not Godard]


What is Neo- realism in cinema and its impact on Indian filmmakers?

Italian Neo Realism was a fierce, unique reaction to the mainstream propaganda called white telephone films. These films highlighted superiority of upper class and were a hollow portrayal of their exuberant lifestyle. Amidst the trauma of World War 2, where Italy was facing many poignant problems these films did nothing socially, ideologically or morally. A group of Avant-Garde Filmmakers laid down definite rules of stylistic and ideological approach to these films

The Neo Realist Movement began in Italy at the end of World War 2 as an urgent response to political turmoil and desperate economic conditions afflicting the country. Directors such as Reoberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, and Luchino Visconti took up cameras to focus on lower class characters and their concerns, using non professional actors, outdoor shooting, very small budget and a realist aesthetic. Like Soviet films, Neo Realist films the characters that the mainstream industry would treat as extras. Their struggles provided more real and closer approach to films

India is well acknowledged for making and successfully marketing of commercial cinemas, better know as Bollywood Massala‟ movies. In addition to commercial cinema, there is also Indian art cinema; known to film critics as

The Indian Neo Wave Or Parallel Cinema‟ Many people in India plainly call such films as art films stands at sharp contrast to mainstream commercial movies. From the 1960s through the 1980s, the parallel cinema was patronized primarily by different state and central governments. Directors could get government grants to produce non-commercial Art films usually on Socio-cultural themes. Their films were showcased at state film festivals. These films had limited acceptance to the lay movie watchers in India and overseas.

The pursuant directors of such art based parallel cinema owed too much to numerous foreign influences like Italian Neo-Realism or French New Wave, Avant Garde cinema movements etc. Among the best known New Cinema directors, were Bimal Roy, Chetan Anand, Ritwik Ghatak, and Satyajit Ray. Few of the best known films of this genre are the Apu Trilogy (Bengali) by Satyajit Ray and Do Bigha Zameen (Hindi) by Bimal Roy. Undoubtedly Satyajit Ray was the most affluent among the parallel cinema directors.

Major names affiliated with Parallel Cinema include Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, Shyam Benegal, M. S. Sathyu, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Girish Kasaravalli and G. Aravindan.

In South India, the parallel cinema was well flourished in Kerala. Malayalam movie makers like Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, and M. T. Vasudevan Nair were quite successful. Starting the 1970s, Kannada film-makers from Karnataka state produced a string ofsolemn, low-budget films. In other markets of south India, like Tamil and Telugu etc are ruled by  popular cinema which makes the box office hit. Still, a few directors, such as Balachander, Bharathiraja, Balu Mahendra, Siddalingaiah, Dr.K.Vishwanath, and Mani Ratnam have achieved fair amount of success at the box-office balancing elements of art and entertainment together

The line between Parallel Cinema and mainstream cinema has progressively been blurring as we witness certain mainstream filmmakers experimenting with form and ideas and with socially-engaged cinema reducing itself to a formula. Nevertheless, the ghost of what has been known as Parallel Cinema has always been resurrected to label, contain,       MARKET or reject formally or intellectually challenging films.

Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s The Rat Trap (1981) centres on an idle, even good-for-nothing, man who takes his privileged position in the patriarchy and feudal system for granted, until it all comes down like a pack of cards. The direction is academic, with a keen eye towards framing, colour and composition. This quintessential Parallel film deals with themes that are rarely confronted in mainstream cinema.

Objectives

One of the major features of the films classified under Parallel Cinema is their fixation on social critique, so much so that some filmmakers have called it “complaint box cinema”. Many of these films are first and foremost screeds against feudalism, corruption, nepotism, patriarchy and religious intolerance. More radical, politically-engaged ones deal with modernisation and class warfare and regularly lean towards the left of centre.

Style

Parallel films are characterised by their rejection of popular forms, especially the song and fight sequences, their affinity for rural settings or working class, use of method actors, a penchant for close-ups and lengthy shots, a spare use of musical score, toned down colour palettes, their frequently formalist approach to composition and, sometimes, even experimental editing patterns. Through the years, these films have almost always been Funded by state-owned institutions.


Explain Axis, Laxman Rekha in relation to continuity with examples.

The word Laxman Rekha is the Culturally Accepted word and is formed on the Ideas and Basis of the word Axis

In film making, the 180-degree rule is a basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and another character or object within a scene. An imaginary line called the axis connects the characters, and by keeping the camera on one side of this axis for every shot in the scene, the first character is always frame right of the second character, who is then always frame left of the first.

The camera passing over the axis is called jumping the line or crossing the line; breaking the 180-degree rule by shooting on all sides is known as shooting in the round. The 180-degree rule enables the audience to visually connect with unseen movement happening around and behind the immediate subject and is important in the narration of battle scenes.

When you film a scene using separate shots, it’s important that people understand where everything in the scene is. You can use the 180 degree rule, together with looking space and eyeline match, to help them.

The 180 degree rule

 
Shot 1: Long shot

Imagine you’re looking at a scene from the side. You can see the whole scene. If you look at one character, they are on the left hand side of the scene facing right. The other character is on the right side of the scene facing left.

You could just show your scene in long shot, but that would mean we couldn’t see facial expressions, or details of what characters are doing, very well. It would also be quite boring because the camera position doesn’t change.

Shot Reverse Shot

     
Shot 2 : Mid Shot Shot 3: Closeup Shot 4: Big Closeup

It’s much more interesting if you get closer and use separate shots, such as mid shots and closeups. It’s best if the camera moves round so it’s almost full on to the characters. This way we can see their expressions and identify with their emotions.

Shooting like this – first in one direction, then in the other direction – is called shot reverse shot.

The shots work together because the camera is still (just) on the same side of the characters as it was in the long shot. When the shots are edited together, we understand that they are looking at each other, because they are looking in the same direction as they were in Shot 1.

To make sure this works, we need to imagine a line between the two characters. This is called the axis of action.

Then we need to keep the camera on one side of that line. If you break the rule you have ‘crossed the line‘. In the diagram below, the camera needs to stay in the blue shaded area. (The rule also applies if the character is looking at a thing rather than another person.)

This is called the 180 degree rule because the camera can’t move more than 180 degrees (half a circle) around the characters.

Crossing the line

If the camera swaps over to the other side for one of the shots, the pictures won’t work together. Instead of facing each other, the characters now look as if they are facing in the same direction.

Interviews

The 180 degree rule works for interviews as well, cutting between interviewer and interviewee. But you can get problems with eyeline if you’re filming up close and wide angle: the interviewee may seem to be looking well off to one side, which seems evasive. You can reduce this effect by keeping both camera positions really close to the axis, and moving back (using a standard or medium telephoto lens setting) to reduce the angle between the interviewee’s eyeline and the camera.

Moving subjects

If a character is moving, the axis is the direction they are moving. If you cross the line they’ll look as if they are going in a different direction.

Tip: the main characters in films usually move from left to right. Bad guys, or people who are going to obstruct the main character, go right to left.


What is the difference between Take, Shot, Scene & Sequence?

Take

A take is a single continuous recorded performance. The term is used in film and music to denote and track the stages of production. n cinematography, a take refers to each filmed “version” of a particular shot or “setup”. Takes of each shot are generally numbered starting with “take one” and the number of each successive take is increased (with the director calling for “take two” or “take eighteen”) until the filming of the shot is completed.

Film takes are often designated with the aid of a clapperboard. It is also referred to as the slate. The number of each take is written or attached to the clapboard, which is filmed briefly prior to or at the beginning of the actual take. Only those Takes’ which are vetted by the continuity person and/or script supervisor are printed and are sent to the film editor.

Shot

A shot is a single continuous angle of view that probably only shows one part of the action at the scene. A sequence is a complete “chapter” of the story. When the shot is filmed that is a take. If the take isn’t good then there will need to be another take, also known as a re-take.

Shot is created the moment you turn the camera on (begin recording) until the moment you turn it off.A Shot (in Editing) is the footage between two edits or cuts in the video material. A “Shot” can be as short as a single frame or it can be many minutes long. The criterion for a “Shot” is not the length of time that the camera is running – it’s all about the continuity of the action.

Scene

A scene is a series of shots taken from different angles of an action on a single location and continuous time. A scene is a unit of story that takes place at a specific location and time. If one of these changes, you have a new scene. A scene is a collection of shots and a shot is every time you have an edit. A scene is the exact location where the action is happening.


e.g The two chaps are having food.
The location is the room and they are eating. There are different angle shots but the action and time is the Same.

Sequence

When a number of scenes can be considered to form a distinct unit in the film or video or where the action continues or progresses along each of the scenes, then it is considered as a Sequence. It is usually connected either by continuity of location or time or both. The sequence is part of the structure of film or video – this Structure includes:

    • Shots
    • Scenes (and then)
  • Sequences

The filmmaker or videographer uses Shots to build Scenes. And then uses Scenes to build Sequences and thus. Builds his entire film or video. By using this Structure in an intelligent and compelling manner he produces a film or video that tells a coherent story that audiences will love.


How has digital technology contributed in modern film making process?

The introduction of digital photography, the rapid transformation in data storage which came along and the development of internet paved way for the digital filmmaking era. We are witnesses to this transition. Though the ‘Film Vs Digital’ is one debate that may continue for few more years (some veterans have criticized digital technology because of quality and other conversion issues) it is notable that film technicians from around the world have been adapting to the changes. It is true that the impact of digital technology has its pros and cons but the transformation cannot be ignored. New-age aspiring film makers are required to be geared up to the latest developments and should be aware of how the art of film making has gone through various stages in the past 100-150 years. Most of the experts are of the opinion that the current digital era is one of the major transformations the world of cinema has gone through till date.

Digital Era of Filmmaking – What are the Major Changes? 

Change in Production

Production is the stage of filmmaking where the movie is actually shot. In recent times there has been a steady rise in use of digital cameras (cameras that capture images in digital format rather than on films) in Hollywood and all other movie industries around the world. Though few big budget Hollywood movies of recent times were shot using film cameras, the industry currently is relying mostly on digital equipment for producing films. More than 90% of Hollywood films are shot using digital cameras today.

The cost of production is low for movies produced using digital cameras. This is one of the major reasons why filmmakers from around the world are preferring digital over film cameras for making movies. Today, we have aspiring film makers who use equipment as simple as a mobiles and handy-cam to make movies. The capability of digital technology has simply destroyed all conventional boundaries and has opened the door  for a new world of great possibilities.

Change in Post-Production

In the past, editing or post-production was one of the most tedious jobs in filmmaking process. Filmmakers had to rely on manual techniques during filming to create visual effects in movies. Thanks to advanced film-editing software products, today it is possible to create the effects of an imaginary world and fuse it seamlessly to the footages that are shot using digital camera. This is one of the biggest leap digital technology has brought in the process of making movies. Visual effects is a dedicated field in movie business which has been in great demand in recent times. 

Change in Screening Methods

When asked about the biggest responsibility after completion of the movie, producers often point out at the job of handling and storing the canister (the circular box that has the film roll.) With digital technology, the storage method has changed and today it is much easier to handle and transport movies to theatres than in the past. Servers, hard disks and videotapes are being used to store movies and digital projectors are being used to screen them. There are other alternative platforms new-age filmmakers are looking at. Internet has made it possible for filmmakers to showcase their film to audience of a greater geographic range. Social media platforms and all other online promotional strategies can be adopted to ensure that the movie reaches out to more number of audience from around the world.


What is Italian Neo-realism and its attribute?

Italian Neo Realism was a fierce, unique reaction to the mainstream propaganda called white telephone films. These films highlighted superiority of upper class and were a hollow portrayal of their exuberant lifestyle. Amidst the trauma of World War 2, where Italy was facing many poignant problems these films did nothing socially, ideologically or morally. A group of Avant-Garde Filmmakers laid down definite rules of stylistic and ideological approach to these films

The Neo Realist Movement began in Italy at the end of World War 2 as an urgent response to political turmoil and desperate economic conditions afflicting the country. Directors such as Reoberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, and Luchino Visconti took up cameras to focus on lower class characters and their concerns, using non professional actors, outdoor shooting, very small budget and a realist aesthetic. Like Soviet films, Neo Realist films the characters that the mainstream industry would treat as extras. Their struggles provided more real and closer approach to films

Neorealist films were generally filmed with nonprofessional actors although, in a number of cases, well-known actors were cast in leading roles, playing strongly against their normal character types in front of a background populated by local people rather than extras brought in for the film.

They are shot almost exclusively on location, mostly in rundown cities as well as rural areas due to its forming during the post-war era.

Neorealist films typically explore the conditions of the poor and the lower working class. Characters oftentimes exist within simple social order where survival is the primary objective. Performances are mostly constructed from scenes of people performing fairly mundane and quotidian activities, devoid of the self-consciousness that amateur acting usually entails. Neorealist films often feature children in major roles, though their characters are frequently more observational than participatory.

Open City established several of the principles of neorealism, depicting clearly the struggle of normal Italian people to live from day to day under the extraordinary difficulties of the German occupation of Rome, consciously doing what they can to resist the occupation. The children play a key role in this, and their presence at the end of the film is indicative of their role in neorealism as a whole: as observers of the difficulties of today who hold the key to the future. Vittorio De Sica’s 1948 film The Bicycle Thief is also representative of the genre, with non-professional actors, and a story that details the hardships of working-class life after the war.

In the period from 1944–1948, many neorealist filmmakers drifted away from pure neorealism. Some directors explored allegorical fantasy, such as de Sica’s Miracle in Milan, and historical spectacle, like Senso by Visconti. It was also the time period when a more upbeat neorealism emerged, which produced films that melded working-class characters with 1930s-style populist comedy, as seen in de Sica’s Umberto D.

At the height of neorealism, in 1948, Visconti adapted I Malavoglia, a novel by Giovanni Verga, written at the height of the 19th century realist verismo movement (in many ways the basis for neorealism, which is therefore sometimes referred to as neoverismo), bringing the story to a modern setting, which resulted in remarkably little change in either the plot or the tone. The resulting film, The Earth Trembles, starred only nonprofessional actors and was filmed in the same village (Aci Trezza) as the novel was set in.

More contemporary theorists of Italian neorealism characterize it less as a consistent set of stylistic characteristics and more as the relationship between film practice and the social reality of post-war Italy. Millicent Marcus delineates the lack of consistent film styles of neorealist film.Peter Brunette and Marcia Landy both deconstruct the use of reworked cinematic forms in Rossellini’s Open City. Using psychoanalysis, Vincent Rocchio characterizes neorealist film as consistently engendering the structure of anxiety into the structure of the plot itself

tl;dr

  1. A Message: For Italian Filmmakers Cinema is a way of Expression and Communication in the true sense of this word.
  1. Topical Scripts inspired by concrete events; Great Historical and Social Issues are tackled from the point of view of the Common People.
  1. A Sense of Detail as a means of authentication.
  1. A Sense of the Masses and the ability to surprise (De Sica) or Manipulate them in front of camera (De Santis, Visconti): the Protagonists are captured in their relationship to the Masses.

5.Realism: Reality filtered by a very delicate Sensitivity.

  1. The Truth of Actors : often Non Professionals.

7.The Truth of Decor and a refusal of the studio.

8.The Truth of the Lighting.

  1. Photography Reminiscent of the reportage style stresses the Impression of Truth.

10.An Extremely Free Camera: its unrestricted movements result from the use of post synchronization.


Highlight the main features of corporate films. How are they different from mainstream cinema?

I am not really sure about this Answer very much, if you have a better one, please let me know in the Feedback form along with your Email ID

In today’s world of globalization, cinema has been in its most dynamic form ever. It usually combines with other disciplines and forms an unusual mix of enlightenment, entertainment and experience. These projects come with their unique purposes which utilize the grammar of films and have a definitive audience. Small videos about travelling, corporate rules and code of conduct, policies, instructional film or academic video lessons for students across the globe, have filled out space everywhere.

A lot of young filmmakers worldwide are chased for such projects which have a huge impact on their specific target audience.

One of the important fields is corporate videos. This is one of the fastest growing and equally creative areas where videos and films of various durations are produced rapidly. These films are shot like documentary film, incorporating real events and people.

Corporate films are the films that highlight the Work, Culture, Progress, Strategies, Policies, Clientele And Services Of Any Company. These films can be from 7-10 minutes to 60 minutes; depending upon the expanse of the company. These films are shown to clients and collaborators, as they ae the instant acknowledgement with about the host company in audio-visual form. Most of the time, these films are shot on digital format with multi camera set up in order to capture various point of views candidly.

Corporate films also use documentary style narration or interviews of concerned people to build dialogue with the viewer. But unlike other formats of films, corporate films are not available for public viewing as they are reserved under private rights of the producing company for its screening and circulation.

Corporate Videos are the latest trend which is dominating the world of internet. We often see people chanting a new mantra – watch and learn. Be it educational industry, entertainment or any business for that matter, advertising through corporate films has become the new model. Let’s see the ten features of corporate videos which make people fall in love with the videos.

1) Fun to Watch:
Corporate films are fun to watch as most of the Add comes with a story. People love to watch stories which is live shot or animated. Stories of any kind always fascinate people simply because; stories are fun, be it old, new or retold.

2) Engaging:
A Corporate film produced by corporate video company keeps the audience engaged. The story and characters make the audience feel their core. They see themselves amongst the characters of the video and this helps in keeping them engaged.

3) Colorfully Animated:
The world of animation is always colorful. Animated videos created will give the ultimate visionary delight of colors with their unique animated setup and characters.

4) Easily accessible:
Since the boom of social Media, accessing corporate videos is easy. All people have to do is to log on to their social media accounts like facebook, LinkedIn and YouTube.

5) Free factor:
Anything that is free is always admired greatly. Since no one has to subscribe or pay to watch videos, corporate films are widely watched and circulated among their networks.

6) Less time consuming:
Corporate Video companies produce corporate films which are short and educating. People don’t like to spend much time going through a long brochure and hence a short video grab their attention.

7) People are WEBians: 
Today we see diverse people on the web. Irrespective of gender and age, people love the internet and hence going online is one of their favorite routine.

8) No buffering:
In the early boom of the internet, video buffering was one of biggest drawback. Now, as the technologies have elevated, video need no buffing. People even can watch video in offline mode. This very factor has given way to the high video consumption.

9) Social media is video friendly:
All Social media are very video friendly and support High Definition corporate films. An HD video is always adored by people and hence they never lag behind watching videos.

10) Education:
Although the videos produced by corporate video production company are entertaining, its main focus is to educate people about their services or products. Since their purpose holds good, corporate video production studios liberally spread their films on social media.


How Bicycle thieves created new realism in filmmaking education as well as developed socio-cultural theory?

One might speculate what Bicycle Thieves would be like in colour, however the black and white aspect highlights the tone of the film being a bleak, depressing emotion – contrary to the usage of colour which would highlight liveliness and energy and go against the tone of the film.The tone of the film enhances the message of presenting the gloomy conditions of poverty in post-war Italy. The reconstituted reportage, based on daily life and events, also adds more ‘truth’ to the film and is not the making of a documentary but rather shown and seen in a documentary-type way and aids to make available the focus of temporary altering and moving from one area or subject to another.

Truth is an important principle of neorealism, as truth brings realism. This can be seen through the truth of the characters, lighting, location, décor, camera shots, camera angles and editing. This not only brings about authenticity but also creates a much stronger message for the audience. In Bicycle Thieves, there is a correlation between truth and sentiment, and the political statement


Which are justifiably both used in this film without overpowering one another in order to positively enhance the films message. Inevitably, in order for a director to get an actual event (post-war) understood by his audience – truth and realism is the most effective approach.

Neorealism focuses on the characters and themes without much focus on the plot itself as the plot is seen to warp the truth about people. Thus, the film would’ve not only been boring if there was no sentiment, but to know and understand a situation, one must be put in a position where you have the opportunity of learning a great deal about the faith and frustrations of a human being. Equally, a boring film is a failed film. Through this, neorealist’s are able to portray truth to a greater extend through bringing about simplicity yet a means of understanding the ‘real’ life; a main appeal in films even today.

The storyline being as simple as the search for a bicycle doesn’t take the political statement too far away from the message. Likewise, the actual characters in the film are everyday normal people. The workman was found in the factory, the child was wondering around the streets and the wife was a writer. Similarly, the locations and décor are real and not built-up or made-up, the lighting is natural which attempts to present reality as it is, the editing is invincible which enhances truth and the camera is free which is unrestricted and brings about a far more convincing viewing.

With the storyline of the characters and the truth which is by principle brought about, I fully agree that it brings about sentiment. However, It puts you (the audience) in a far more heart-felt and understanding position which I believe brings about the political statement in a far more expressive way, rather than a theoretical and cold approach. And as some agree, “it’s not even sentimental – it’s just painful.”

In response to the representation of the political statement made in this film, we are clearly able to see this in noticeable scenes in the film. In the first scene, the camera follows Ricci from the unemployment gathering to his wife where the housing project is in the background, which is fully exhibited to the viewer showing the bleak conditions. We see the men and woman arguing about employment and shortage of water. This emphasis on long and medium shots which appeals to the ‘truth’ in the film enhances the political message due to the events getting exhibited on a whole

Thus we see here that sentiment is not overwhelming the political statement, but rather the political statement is actually taking dominance in the shots. The central object is the bicycle. They are everywhere and yet precious, and the frailty of the Ricci family’s position is enforced when Antonio’s bicycle is stolen. Here, the object brings sentiment to enforce the political statement, and what I find even more interesting is how the title changed from ‘Bicycle Thief” to “Bicycle Thieves” as ultimately it becomes a vicious cycle of survival – as one has to steal their own bicycle back from the thief, therefore becoming a thief – resulting in ‘thieves.’

This therefore constitutes to the message of the film, for the continuous struggle of the haves and have-nots. Through the character of Antonio, It is the hope that drives him and allows him to move on in his quest to find his stolen bicycle. Although the directors glumness drives the plot, it is ultimately the clash with human optimism which gives the film affective power – and without the human sentiment one can argue that the film would not produce affective power. If we look at three scenes, we are able to see how sentiment brings power to the political statement.

In one scene we see Antonio and Maria trade in their bed linen. The camera moves away from them and we see the heaps of bed-linen behind the counter, a tacit bleak reminder of the extensive nature of unemployment while recognizing its effect on the heart of families’ household lives. Again we see how realistic the lighting is and the framing is loose to incorporate the environmental conditions to promote the political message.

In another scene we see Ricci reporting his bicycle stolen and is directed by the policeman to the piles of alike reported cases. His account and circumstances are not singular, and we see here how it is not only this family that is going through this – but also a lot of people. Thus portraying the political message that goes beyond this family’s personal sentiment. Here we are also shown how humanitarianism prohibited Ricci from pressing official charges anti the thief, and the same moral fiber that spared him after he was caught stealing a bicycle. After seeing Bruno in tears, the sufferer understood Ricci’s condition and let him go.

Such a film was essential in Italy as through this family we have the opportunity of being a bystander to the brutality of a civil war between fascists and its on going of killing and reprisals through seeing how this effects one, and how not only effecting this family – but many others. “Italy in post-war was in need of healing and compassion even at the cost of a perceived injustice.” (Paul Baxa, 2011) Healing does not come from the government and leaders of the country, but come from within the everyday man on the streets – you and me. Thus, from the Ricci’s, those being affected by the war and living within such conditions – as well as the audience viewing this film who can in many ways relate.


What is regionalism? Explain various elements of Indian regional cinema.

Region as a geographical unit, is delimited form each other. Region as a social system, reflects the relation between different human beings and groups. Regions are an organised cooperation in cultural, economic, political or military fields. Region acts as a subject with distinct identity, language, culture and tradition. Regionalism is an ideology and political movement that seeks to advance the causes of regions. As a process it plays role within the nation as well as outside the nation i.e. at international level. Both types of regionalism have different meaning and have positive as well as negative impact on society, polity, diplomacy, economy, security, culture, development, negotiations, etc.

India is home to one of the largest film industries in the world. Every year thousands of movies are produced in India. Indian film industry comprises of Hindi films, regional movies and art cinema. The Indian film industry is supported mainly by a vast film-going Indian public, though Indian films have been gaining increasing popularity in the rest of the world, especially in countries with large numbers of emigrant Indians. India is a large country where many languages are spoken. Many of the larger languages support their own film industry. Some of the popular regional film industries in India are Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Punjabi. The Hindi/Urdu film industry, based in Mumbai, formerly Bombay, is called Bollywood.

Regional Indian films are the keys to the Indian cinema. India is unique in its kaleidoscope of diverse languages and cultures. Although one can talk of regional films, there is an incessant crossover of talents- Bengali film directors directs Hindi or Oriya films; Tamil directors direct Telugu films.

The diverse regional cinemas in India strive to maintain their distinctive identities and provide an important dimension of the cultural wealth and diversity of India’s regional films.

The Bengali language cinematic tradition of West Bengal has had reputable filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen among its most acclaimed. Recent Bengali films that have captured national attention include Rituparno Ghosh’s Choker Bali, starring Aishwarya Rai. Bengali film making also includes Bangla science fiction films and films that focus on social issues.

Tamil cinema is one of the largest film industries in India. It is based in the Kodambakkam district of Tamil Nadu. Tamil films have good portrayal of Tamil culture which has subdued sexual expressions and moderate glamour, unlike its northern counterpart.

The Telugu language film industry of Andhra Pradesh is one of the largest in India in terms of number of movies produced in a year. The Telugu cinema industry is based in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. According to Wikipedia N.T. Rama Rao frequently worked in mythological movies and ruled the Telugu cinema for nearly two decades.

The Malayalam films find audiences in India’s Kerala state, which has the highest literacy rate and an established tradition of theatre.98 Malayalam film industry has a tradition in artistic cinema, exemplified by the works of Adoor Gopalakrishnan and G. Aravindan as well as a tradition in commercial cinema with stars such as Mohanlal and Mamooty acting in films which drew masses of fans.

Kannada cinema borrowed heavily from Kannada literature and even from cinema in other Indian languages.Kannada cinema gained prominence as a regional medium in the 1970s but has somewhat faded since then.

Some of the earliest Indian filmmakers, such as Dadasaheb Phalke belonged to the state of Maharashtra, which is where Marathi cinema finds its audience.

Combining every aspect of region regional cinema gives an wholesome idea about one particular culture to its audiences.


How sound design and editing are soul of film making?

Film editing is technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film which increasingly involves the use of digital technology. The film editor works with the raw footage, selecting shots and combines them into sequences which create a finished motion picture. Film editing is described as an art or skill, the only art that is unique to cinema, separating filmmaking from other art forms that preceded it, although there are close parallels to the editing process in other art forms such as poetry and novel writing. Film editing is often referred to as the “invisible art” because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that he or she is not aware of the editor’s work.

Editing describes the relationship between shots and the process by which they are combined.  It is essential to the creation of narrative space and to the establishment of narrative time.  The relationship between shots may be graphic, rhythmic, spatial and/or temporal.

GRAPHIC RELATIONSHIPS

Graphic matches, or match cuts, are useful in relating two otherwise disconnected scenes, or in helping to establish a relationship between two scenes.  By ending one shot with a frame containing the same compositional elements (shape, color, size, etc.) as the beginning frame of the next shot, a connection is drawn between the two shots with a smooth transition.

RHYTHMIC RELATIONSHIPS

Rhythm editing describes an assembling of shots and/or sequences according to a rhythmic pattern of some kind, usually dictated by music.  It can be narrative. In either case, dialogue is suppressed and the musical relationship between shots takes center stage.

SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS

The Establishing Shot or sequence serves to situate the audience within a particular environment  or setting and/ or to introduce an important character or characters. The establishing shot is usually the first or the first few shots in a sequence, and as such, it must be very efficient in portraying the context.

Sound is everything that you hear in a movie i.e. human voices, sound effects and music. These things have a great impact on the audience.

These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases which in turn create desired effects. Topics which essentially refer to the three previously mentioned tracks are discussed below.

There are two categories of sound in film: Diegetic and Non-Diegetic. Diegetic Sound refers to all those audio elements that come from sources inside the world we see on the screen, including dialogue, doors slamming, footsteps, etc. Non-Diegetic Sound refers to all those audio elements that come from outside of the fictional world we see on screen, including the musical score and sound effects.

Human Voice

Dialogue authenticates the speaker as an individual or a real person rather than the imaginary creation of a story teller. As is the case with stage drama, dialogue serves to tell the story and

expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor.

Music:

Background music is used to add emotion and rhythm to a film. Usually not meant to be noticeable, it often provides a tone or an emotional attitude toward the story and/or the characters  epicted. In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood. For example, dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster. Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes. For example, a particular musical theme  associated with an individual character or situation may be repeated at various points in a film in order to remind the audience of salient motifs or ideas.

Sound Effects

Isolated Sounds: Isolated sounds include the sounds of everyday items like doorbells, car horns and telephone rings. These are the real and specific sounds that you hear such as dogs barking, guns firing, doors slamming and car tires screeching during a car chase.

Specialty Effects:

Specialty effects include sounds that are designed to be used for objects and places that exist only in our imaginations. You might use special effects in cartoon, fantasy and science fiction productions.  They would enhance the production by creating a special sound for a space transporter, the magic of a genie’s brass lamp, or for gigantic purple people eater cartoon animals.

Foley Sounds:

Foley sounds are synchronized with the visuals in a motion picture or television program.  This synchronization process is also called audio sound replacement. The magic of Foley places footsteps into a film soundtrack – recreates the rattle of a coffee cup being put down on a table – provides the realistic rustle of clothing and the ever popular punch in the face.  These and many other sounds must be dubbed during post production on the film’s soundtrack in order to be heard by the audience. They are named after Jack Foley – a pioneer in the sound replacement field.

Background Ambiences:

Background ambience tracks provide the basic environment for a production.  They provide all of the subtle atmosphere that makes the film-goer or radio listener really feel like he is in a courtroom, a church, a train station, a thunderstorm or a jungle.

Silence:

It keeps the audience intrigued, arrests attention and builds intensity and foreshadows impending doom.

To conclude the following are the reasons why sound in a film is important:

    • Builds tension
    • Sets the mood
    • Adds realism
    • Links the scenes
    • Creates a notion
    • Foreshadows Impending doom
    • Makes you think twice as much as you would
    • Advances the plot & keeps the audience intrigued
    • Adds a tone of emotion & rhythm to the film and to the character
  • Provides more information about the location of the scene


Write a critical analysis of your favourite movie

A short and sweet document gave me some tips on how to analyze the Film. A full length answer can be made by you by Searching the Web for your Favourite Movie

How to Analyze a Movie

  1. Costumes and props – What are they wearing? How does it fit the mood? Are the costume changes important and noticeable? How well did the props play in? Were they useful or too obtrusive?
  1. Setting and Background – Does the setting fit the scene? Are the background actions distracting or do they steal your attention? Is it believable or way too fake?
  1. Acting – Did you believe the characters? Not if you like them or not, but did they make you believe they were real?
  1. Camera Techniques – What sort of shots does the director typically use and what is the impact of them?
  1. Music – How does the music fit in? Is it distracting or too soft? Does it help move the movie along?
  1. Pacing and Organization – Does the movie flow well or is it choppy? Too quick? Too slow? Was it in any sort of discernible order or was it confusing?
  1. Writing – How was the story, plot, and dialogue? Did it keep you interested? Was it believable? Were you provided with all of the information you needed to follow along?
  1. Back story – Was it a low budget or high budget film? What sort of work have the actors, producers, and directors done in the past?
  1. Summary – Include a short, but helpful summary of the plot but be sure you don’t give away the ending.
  1. Opinion – Obviously, this is your review so make sure you make it clear what you thought of it. Maybe on a scale of one to ten or give it a grade. Make this part clear.


Note on Language of Cinema

Film and video programs are efforts at communicating and just like speaking English, tapping out Morse code, or waving semaphores, there is a whole language that can be learned including words, phrases, grammar, punctuation, rules, and common practices. And like any other language, the more thoroughly you master it, the more effectively you can communicate.

While the writer conceives the story, and the director realizes it, it is you, the editor who is the storyteller; given the task of organizing the thoughts and ideas and transmitting the intended message to the audience.

Communication is both an art and a craft. Part inspiration and part perspiration. Effective editing requires both aspects, and while you can’t necessarily be taught the art of eloquence, you can study and practice the rules of the language, and hone your craft so you can edit quicker, more efficiently, and communicate more effectively because of it.

Effective storytelling requires doling out the who, what, where, when, why and how answers in equal parts and just in time as the listener is wondering about them. If you dwell too long on one of the questions, without answering the others, the story becomes tiresome and the audience stops listening.


Understanding the historical, technical, and cultural significance of the film language is incredibly important, and in an essay by Martin Scorsese, he writes at length about how understanding it is not only imperative to create better films, but also for experiencing the intricate design of a cinematic story, and fully appreciating the auteurs who have managed to become masters of a widely foreign, albeit universal tongue.

Being able to read a film has a range of significance in our world. Scorsese touches on a few areas in his article that explain how film language is important historically, technically, and socially.

Historically

The history of the “language” of cinema started, arguably, with the very first cut. The first glottal stop or fricative that set apart the constant flow of sound, or in cinema, images, developing a rich and profound language.

Edwin S. Porter’s The Great Train Robbery from 1903 is one of the first and most famous examples of cutting. In the first few minutes of the film, there is a shot of the robbers bursting into the train depot office. In the background we can see a train pulling in, and in the next shot, we’re outside with the robbers as the train comes to a stop near them. The significance of that is that the audience realized that the train in the first shot was the same one that was in the second, and it all happened in one action (it didn’t pull in twice.)

https://youtu.be/Bc7wWOmEGGY

Further along the timeline, filmmakers continued to advance and add to the language of film. D.W. Griffith managed to weave together 4 separate storylines by cross cutting scenes from different times and places in Intolerance. Sergei Eisenstein forwarded the idea of the “montage” most famously in Battleship Potemkin  and his first feature Strike. Continuity editing, shot sizes, including the close-up, the use of color, parallel editing, camera movement — all of these things and more began to speak to audiences and filmmakers in new and exciting ways.

Technically

These techniques began to solidify and become standard. The old way of making a film — one take or multiple long takes filmed in a wide shot — began to evolve into much more complex visual narratives. Films could encompass hours, days, years out of a characters story thanks to continuity editing. The shot-reverse-shot editing allowed for the use of close-ups and different camera angles. Certain shot compositions began to speak to audiences in different ways, giving the frame itself a life and language of its own.

Being able to read and speak the language of film as a filmmaker is a skill that must obviously be mastered. Everything on-screen — the lighting, the shadows, the size of the shot, the angle, the composition, the blocking, the colors, everything — is a word spoken to your audience.

For example the shot from Vertigo that employs the “Vertigo Effect”. Second-unit cameraman Irmin Roberts invented this “zoom out and track in” technique, known as the “contra-zoom” or “trombone shot”. Roberts, essentially, invented a new word in the language of motion pictures that means “dizziness”, “fear”, “terrifying realization”, etc.

https://youtu.be/je0NhvAQ6fM

Socially

There’s a great Proust quote that my visual literacy professor shared with us one day in class, “The real voyage of discovery consists, not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.”  Films of the early 1900s were all about showing something exciting and different: cats boxing, a woman dancing, a train arriving. But, the filmmakers who developed the visual language of cinema were the ones who began to see things in a new light, and as they screened their films, audiences began to learn the language their films were speaking.

Today, filmmakers and viewers are visually literate, but not many viewers realize it. We, myself included, tend to allow the spectacle to overtake us — we get wrapped up in the story, the visuals, and the music. We feel sad when we watch an on-screen break up or fight between two people who had been close, but we may fail to realize, or at least consciously identify, that a lot of the drama that leads to that climax was created using visual queues.

Many audiences in the past took for granted this form of communication until the film critics that eventually ushered in the French New Wave, like Truffaut, as well as American critic Andrew Sarris took a closer look at the filmmaking of Alfred Hitchcock.

Scorsese mentions that because Hitchcock’s films came out almost like clockwork every year (Scorsese likens this to a sort of franchise,) his film Vertigo kind of disappeared into the heap of movies that came out that year. It wasn’t a failure by any means, but it wasn’t the overwhelming success we today would expect it to have been.

Today, the Master of Suspense is revered as one of the greatest filmmakers of all time, but it wasn’t until Cahiers du Cinema and critics like Truffaut and Sarris began studying Hitchcock’s work, decoding the film language Hitchcock used, that a more solid understanding of film language started to emerge.

They realized that Hitchcock had his own “dialect”, which helped develop the auteur theory. Without visual literacy, there wouldn’t be auteurs — the genius and skill of history’s greatest filmmakers could potentially be lost on a an audience that doesn’t know how to read between the lines of a film.

Understanding the concepts of visual literacy is not only a skill for filmmakers, but all who experience films, because films are such a huge part of our lives. Scorsese says:


Is there any difference between Commercial Ads & Public Service Ads.

Commercials Ads

Commercials are a type of advertisement identified by the use of voice and length of time  

-Typically 10 to 60 seconds.

Using voice in this type of advertisement requires purchased time to run the pre-recorded voiceover (commentary over or without images) or dialogue/monologue by an actor in the commercial.

Examples of commercial placement include television, radio, Internet or kiosks at public places such as malls, airports and public transportation stations. Commercials are also increasingly used at gas stations, grocery stores and medical offices where consumers watch while they wait.

Public Service Announcements
Also known as PSAs, go by many names. Unlike traditional commercials, Public Service Announcements (PSA) are primarily designed to inform and educate rather than sell a product or service. The goal of a PSA is not to make a big sale, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness for a problem. The strategy here is to educate first and provoke a feeling and reaction after that. However, sometimes money is solicited, although usually not for profit.

Topics Covered by Public Service Ads

As long as there have been advertisements, there have been ads for charitable causes, government issues (including war), politics, religion and health & safety issues.A typical PSA will be for the latter, with topics including:Drinking and Driving,Texting and Driving,Drug Addiction,Obesity,Smoking,Fitness,Education etc. PSAs can be seen anywhere traditional ads are seen, including television and radio, outdoor, online, direct mail and in print. Due to the nature of the ads, many insertions are provided at a discount.


Does proper distribution help in success of a film?

The Question has been Repeated, and Repeating the Same Answer doesn’t make sense, so here are a few points

Yes it does, Filmmakers need to get a good, rock-solid understanding of how film distribution works. Successful filmmakers who recoup their budget and repay investors, are the ones who develop a distribution strategy before they embark on the filmmaking process, and sometimes before they write the script.

Consider these essential points filmmakers need to be aware for proper distribution:

  • Forget the global deal. Split rights is where deals are at: Commonplace are split rights deals, where distributors cherry pick territories and then decide which national rights they want. It could be they are interested only in TV, or DVD for example, leaving the other pieces of the distribution window to the producer to try to max out money-wise.
  • Getting your film into cinemas costs a fortune: Booking ad space in newspapers and magazines has become very costly. Add to that the cost of PR and social media assets the cost of a theatrical release starts to look like the budget of a small nation. Remember that the exhibitor (theatre owner) takes a fair whack, and the distribution company will take a third off the top, and the amount left in the pot from all those cinema admissions starts to shrivel. From the ‘profit’, the distributor then deducts the costs associated with the release.
  • Service deals can work: Booking ad space in newspapers and magazines has become very costly. Add to that the cost of PR and social media assets the cost of a theatrical release starts to look like the budget of a small nation. Remember that the exhibitor (theatre owner) takes a fair whack, and the distribution company will take a third off the top, and the amount left in the pot from all those cinema admissions starts to shrivel. From the ‘profit’, the distributor then deducts the costs associated with the release.
  • Beware the middleman: Certain middlemen exist to represent slates of films by newcomers on the premise that they have an excellent filtering process through which they cherry pick the best of the new, raw, undiscovered talent to prospective distributors.
  • Network like mad: it’s a small industry, and it’s a people industry. The more you network with fellow filmmakers, the more you will learn about the industry and the good ‘uns and the bad ‘uns.


“To paint it’s lines and colours, to film its image capturing” Explain the language of cinema with the help of above statement.

Cinema, the fusion of several arts including painting, dance, music, poetry, sculpture, architecture, photography, editing etc, is a unique art. What makes cinema unique is its life like quality. People on the screen can be seen walking, talking, laughing, weeping, dancing, singing, sleeping, driving etc. as it happens in real life.

Although the actions of a cinema do not take place in real time or in real life, yet it is believable. What distinguishes cinema from other arts is its ‘movement.’ The ‘movement’ makes cinema life like. Cinema does not look artificial. Through frontal shot, a director can make a character to ‘talk’ to the audience. No doubt, it is one-way communication. However, the audience becomes the part of the action that takes place on the screen.

A house cannot move. Painting cannot move. The tree on a canvas cannot move. The photograph cannot move. Each image or frame is static. When twenty-four frames/photos per second are projected on a screen at a particular speed, the images appear to be moving. There is no physical movement on the screen; it is an ‘illusion of movement.’ What gives movement to cinema is the concept of ‘persistence of vision.’ Life consists in movement. A dead body cannot move. Any person in deep sleep also has movement. When any person breathes, s/he moves. Therefore, it is the motion of events, which gives the cinema a unique identity of being life like. The nature of cinema to record the undirected objects also distinguishes it from other arts. For example, sun cannot be directed to set or rise in a particular way. The director cannot direct a falling leaf in a particular desired way. Some undirected objects are also recorded when the director shoots a film. When the action is being recorded and a leaf falls, the camera records the natural movement of the leaf.

Rudolf Arnheim says that, “…film reproduces motion and events as accurately as it does the shape of things…the arts are greatly concerned from the beginning with things in action: hunting scenes, war, triumphal processions and funerals, dances and feasts.

As compared to other arts, films have high commercial value. Today cinema has become an industry. An industry can be set up only where a large number of people consume the ‘product.’ Cinema has become a multi-crore industry. It is an economic activity. Today it is impossible to imagine a world without cinema.

In this connection, Satyajit Ray says, “Somebody – I do not remember who – has defined the Cinema as the highest form of commercial art. After ten years in this profession, I have no quarrel with that definition.”Cinema makes people laugh and cry, sad and happy etc. Today good quality literature is being translated into cinematic narratives. The director taken for the current study, Gulzar bases 3 most of his films on literary stories. For example, he bases his film Khushboo on a story by Saratchandra Chattopadhyay.


Why are Songs an Integral Part of Indian Cinema

The Indian film industry, also known as Bollywood, is the second largest film industry. This industry has gained immense success worldwide. One of the distinctive features of Bollywood is the presence of songs and dances in the movies. This form of creative art displayed by Bollywood has been the primary reason for the popularity of this industry. The songs and dances have been the integral part in a movie from the early days of Bollywood. Every motion picture contains at least four or more songs or dances. These songs and dances express the emotion of the character or the situation in the film. They also play vital role in gaining the attention of the audience.

Every song raises different themes. Emotion such as love, anger and sadness are represented in a song. By taking into account, some of the super hit Indian songs of the past eight years, we will understandon why and how are the songs presented in Bollywood.

A major emotion presented in Bollywood music is love. One such song is “Silsila

Yeh Chahat Ka” from the film ‘Devdas’ released in 2002. This song is about a young girl eagerly waiting her lover. The actress and her lover had fallen in love with each other during their childhood. However, they were parted when the actor goes to England for academic purpose. Finally, the actor arrives back to his country after many years. The actress hears this news and she is filled with joy. She sings this song to express her excitement to meet the actor. She expresses her thoughts in the song. The lines “Silsila Yeh Chahat Ka Na Maine Bujhne Diya” states that the actress has never let down her desire to love the actor. Although so many years had passed, she still loves him and she looks forward to meet him. The lines “Ho Mere Piya Ab Aaja Re Mere Piya” explain the audience how impatient she has been to meet her lover.

Another major emotion expressed in Bollywood music is anger. The song

“Chale Chalo” from the film ‘Lagaan’ released in 2001 expresses anger. This film is about late 19thcentury India when the country was in the hands of British rulers and the Indians fight forheir land. The actor sings the song to influence his fellow citizens to overthrow the British colony. The opening lines of the song goes, “Baar Baar Haan, Bolo Yaar Haan, Apni Jeet Ho, Unki Haar haan” implies that they aspire to gain victory. The character commands everyone to speak out that they would bring down their enemies. In the song, the actor busily reaches out to the crowd convincing them to revolt against the British colony. Another line “Chale Chalo,Chale Chalo, Mit Jaave Jo Takraave, Chale Chalo” states that whoever attempts to bring them down shall be destroyed. The actor sings this song in order to boost the confidence of his countrymen.

One may notice by now that songs and dances in Indian cinemas are meaningful. Crewmembers of the film devote plenty of time to make it successful. The songwriter, musicians and singer put their best effort to create a melodious song that best describes the emotion or situation occurring in the motion picture. In the other hand, the choreographer gives detail emphasis on the dance steps and facial expression of the actors in order to make the song more presentable. It is the responsibility of the costume designers to arrange for suitable clothing to be worn in the song.

Finally, the director and cameraman focus on the background for the song to make the song more realistic. Each songs and dances in Indian cinemas inform the emotion or situation undergone by the character. The filmmakers attempt to create all these scenes intricate and interesting as possible. In this research, the readers would also realize that songs and dances are created in Bollywood to entertain the audience. The costumes, make-up, lightings, background, and emotions are presented perfectly to gain the attention of the audience.

To gain the attention of the audience and entertaining them has been of much importance for dramatist to filmmakers from early days. Shakespeare’s play “The Tempest”, in Act 4, Scene 1, displays mesmerizing event wherein the lead character Prospero calls upon spirits to perform masque for his daughter Miranda who is about to marry Ferdinand. The spirits perform a masque celebrating the lovers’ engagement. Shakespeare has written this scene to draw the attention of the audience. He was an innovative and creative writer having known the method to catch the attention of the audience back in the early 17th century. Similarly, songs and dances appear in Indian cinemas to enthrall the audience of modern generation.

While this is one of the reasons, Songs are also added in a Film to play the role of Time Skip. Usually a Song will convey things in a faster, comic, easy, convenient manner, and a particular setting can also be established though the songs.

Apart from this, songs can also be used to play with the emotional mind of the audience, and then suddenly shift realities by adding a Plot Twist right after the song.


How medium of cinema is melting pot of all mediums?

Really not sure…


Why Indian cinema is not getting proper nominations or prizes in Academy awards for best foreign film (Oscar)

India makes about 1500 movies per annum, which is almost half of the total movies made around the world. But how many movies have won an Oscar. Everyone would jump up and say Slumdog Millionaire, but Slumdog Millionaire, Life of Pi and Gandhi which have resulted in Indians winning Oscars were conceptualised, produced and directed by Non-Indians. Everyone in India were flattered by these movies and everyone hoped that these movies would win The Best Picture award in the Oscar,Slumdog Millionaire won this prestigious award. And most celebrated as though this was kind of victory for Indian Movie Industry, but actually its a shame that non of these were completely Indian Movies.

Only 5 indians have won oscars, Bhanu Athaiya, Russell Pookutty, AR Rahaman, Gulzar & Satyjit Ray. Satyajit Ray received honorary award in 1991 and all others have worked in the movies made by foreign production houses.

Most of the Indian movies which are submitted for Oscars are of poor quality and if we have sent a good movie than we don’t publicise in the world market. In 1957, India for the first time sent a movie for Oscars, Mother India and it was also nominated in the final five, but couldn’t get the nod for the Best Foreign Picture. The next two movies which were nominated in the final five were Salam Bombay! (1988) and Lagaan (2001). It’s really surprising for a country which makes about 1500 movies, to fail so miserably in the Oscars.

Why does Indian movie doesn’t win an Oscar or frequently get nominated.

  1. We don’t send our best movies to the Oscar:

Yes, its true we don’t send our best movie to Oscar. Since 1957, India has sent 45 movies for Oscars only two of these movies won National Award for Best Picture, they were “Apur Sansar” (The World of Apu) by Satyajit Ray and “Adaminte Makan Abu” (Abu, Son of Adam). In the year 1970, 1975 and 1976 India didn’t send its official submissions, but in these years, “Samskara”, “Chomana Dudi” & “Mrigayaa” had won the national awards. Movie “Samskara” a kannada movie had even won the Bronze prize at Locarno International Film Festival. In the Year 1998, India sent movie “Jeans” as its official entry, pushing aside movie “Samar” by shyam Benagal which won the national award. But still we chose to send “Jeans” which was a below average movie, because it had one face which was globally recognised around the world – Aishwarya Rai. In the year 2007, “Eklavya – The Royal Guard” was the official entry, but back in India it was proved that it was given an international push because the director pulled the right strings in the selection committee.

  1. Palgarised Movies:
    Most of the movies in India could be categorised as Romcoms (Romance and Comedy) and the storyline of most of these movies are same, but with a minor twist and turns. In the Recent past, most of our movies are beyond logic and are re-makes of an another movie either Indian or Hollywood. In the year 2012, India sent “Barfi!” as its official submission. But this movie had many scenes which were directly inspired (lifted) from the international classics and how could we expect this to be nominated, let alone win the Oscar. But by sending Barfi! India made a big mistake which sidelined the movies of great caliber in international film arena, may be one these could have garnered an oscar, the movies which lost out to Barfi! were “Kahaani”, “Paan Singh Tomar” and “Dirty Picture”.
  1. Cultural Differences : Most of the Indian movies are lengthy when compared to western movies. Most of Indian movies incorporate a minimum of 5 – 6 songs which makes the movies 30 to 35 minutes longer and these songs are most of the times are irrelevant to the story. Most of the movies which win an Oscar in the Foreign picture category would have a great story and unique characteristics of the host country in the movie.
  1. Lack of Publicity : Incase a great movie from india goes for Oscar, the movie is not publicised in the international market to draw right kind of audiences. Many times India sends wrong choice of movies to Oscars and once in a while it sends a great movie, but totally miss out on the pre-nomination publicity that’s required for a movie. Only movie which received right amount of publicity before being nominated in the Oscar race were, “Lagaan”, “Bandit Queen”, “Salaam Bombay!” & “1947 Earth”.
  1. Biased Selection committee in FFI : From 1957 to 2012, India has sent 45 movies to Oscars out of this 30 movies were from Bollywood, but during the same period Bollywood movies which won the National Award were only 8, why this bias while submitting the best movie from India. The biggest losers during this period were the movies from Bengali, Malayalam and Kannada Industry which had 14, 12 and 7 movies respectively. FFI has been known for its goof-ups which came out publicly on two occasions, while Ekalavya and Barfi! were selected as India’s Official Submission to Oscars.
  1. Star & Budget Factor : Indians in recent times aren’t watching sensitive and meaningful movies, rather everyone is behind the movies which has a combination of SuperStars, Big Budget, Gimmicks, Item Song, etc. Many argue that movies is a way of relaxation and entertainment, and totally disregard movies which are very humble, low-budget and Acting based. Recently a Kannada Movie “Koormavatara” which had won 6 – 7 international awards wasn’t even had a single theater to be released in Karnataka, as all theaters have been booked for Big Budget Kannada, Hindi, Telugu, English, etc movies.  This movie wouldn’t be much different from “Amour”, an Austrian film which won the Best Foreign Movie Oscar this year.
  1. Meaningless Award Functions  : India has multiple Award for each category, for example award for the Leading Actor, the categories would be Best Actor, Most Sensational Actor, Critics Award Male, Viewers choice Award, MoneyMaker Award etc, and in this various categories each and every big star gets an award and acting gets sidelined. In Bollywood alone we have 8 different award ceremonies presented by each and every entertainment channel, and where everyone is a winner in these ceremonies.

Look at this example :

Big Star Awards 2012

Best Actor in Comedy: Abhishek Bachchan , Best Actor in Romantic film: Shahrukh Khan, Best Actor in Action: Akshay Kumar, Best Actor Popular: Ranbir Kapoor

Colors Screen Award

Best Actor: Ranbir Kapoor & Irrfan Khan, Best Actor Popular : Salman Khan

Until we change the attitude of our film making and selection process, until then no Indian Movie would win an Oscar. If we conduct a poll most of the people in India would choose a classic movie than the current line of movies. FilmMaking is an art, but in recent years it has changed to a business model, acting has given way for gimmicks, marketing and item songs. But we have glimmer of hope as we have seen some of new generation movies of Kahaani, A Wednesday, Udaan, Gandhi My Father, Paan Singh Tomar, etc. Let’s hope we do things right and get rewarded with an Oscar in future


Explain the contribution of Dada Saheb Phalke to Indian Cinema.

Dhundiraj Govind Phalke

(30 April 1870 – 16 February 1944)

Popularly known as Dadasaheb, was an Indian producer-director-screenwriter, known as the father of Indian cinema. Phalke was an educated man, who read Sanskrit and had studied architecture and painting. He longed to bring Indian mythology on to the screen and finally made his first feature film Raja Harishchandra in 1913, now known as India’s first full-length feature, Phalke also made trick films including Birth of a Pea Plant and documentaries. As early as 1917 he shot How Films Are Made to explain and demostrate the process of filmmaking to the public. Phalke experimented with camera and editing techniques and constantly enlargened his repertoire. He worked on script, production, direction, shooting and editing of his films himself. He made 95 movies and 26 short films in his career, till 1937, including his most noted works: Mohini Bhasmasur (1913), Satyavan Savitri (1914), Lanka Dahan (1917), Shri Krishna Janma (1918) and Kaliya Mardan (1919).

The Dadasaheb Phalke Award, for lifetime contribution to cinema, was instituted in his honor, by the Government of India in 1969, and is the most prestigious and coveted award in Indian cinema.

Early life and education

Dhundiraj Govind Phalke was born on 30 April 1870 in Deshastha Brahmin family at Tryambakeshwar, 30 km from Nasik, Maharashtra, India, where his father was an accomplished Sanskrit scholar.

He joined Sir J. J. School of Art, Mumbai in 1885. After passing from J.J. School in 1890, Phalke went to the Kala Bhavan in Baroda, where he studied sculpture, engineering, drawing, painting and photography.

Film

After watching a silent film, The Life of Christ and envisioning Indian gods on the screen. Phalke made his first film, Raja Harishchandra, in 1912; it was first shown publicly on 3 May 1913 at Mumbai’s Coronation Cinema, effectively marking the beginning of the Indian film industry. Around one year before, Ramchandra Gopal (known as Dadasaheb Torne) had filmed a stage drama called Pundalik and shown it in the same theater. However, the credit for making the first indigenous Indian feature film is attributed to Dadasaheb Phalke, as it is said that “Pundalik” had British cinematographers.

Once again, Phalke proved successful in his new art and proceeded to make several silent films, shorts, documentary feature, educational, comic, tapping all the potential of this new medium. Film, having proved its financial viability, soon attracted businessmen who favored money over aesthetics.

    


Explain the factors responsible for the resurgent Neo-Realism. (7)

Italian Neorealism is a style of film characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors. Italian neorealist films mostly contend with the difficult economical and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, reflecting the changes in the Italian psyche and the conditions of everyday life: poverty and desperation. Neorealism is properly defined as a moment or a trend in Italian film, rather than an actual school or group of theoretically motivated and like-minded directors and scriptwriters. Its impact nevertheless has been enormous, not only on Italian film but also on French New Wave cinema and ultimately on films all over the world. “

Italian Neorealism came about as World War II ended and Benito Mussolini’s government fell, causing the Italian film industry to lose its center. Neorealism was a sign of cultural change and social progress in Italy. Its films presented contemporary stories and ideas, and were often shot in the streets because the film studios had been damaged significantly during the war.

The neorealist style was developed by a circle of film critics that revolved around the magazine on Cinema, including Luchino Visconti, Gianni Puccini, Cesare Zavattini. The critics attacked the white telephone films that dominated the industry at the time. As a counter to the poor quality of mainstream films, some of the critics felt that Italian cinema should turn to the realist writers from the turn of the 19th to 20th century.

In the Spring of 1945, Mussolini was executed and Italy was liberated from German occupation. This period, known as the “Italian Spring,” was a break from old ways and an entrance to a more realistic approach when making films. Italian cinema went from utilizing elaborate studio sets to using the countryside and the city streets to provide a more “realistic” setting.

Neorealism became famous globally in 1946 with Roberto Rossellini’s Rome, Open City, when it won the Grand Prize at the Cannes Film Festival as the first major film produced in Italy after the war.

Ideologically, the characteristics of Italian neorealism were:

    • A new democratic spirit, with emphasis on the value of ordinary people
    • A compassionate point of view and a refusal to make facile (easy) moral judgements
    • A preoccupation with italy’s fascist past and its aftermath of wartime devastation
    • A blending of christian and marxist humanism
  • An emphasis on emotions rather than abstract ideas

Stylistically, Italian Neorealism was:

An avoidance of neatly plotted stories in favor of loose, episodic structures that evolve organically

    • A documentary visual style
    • The use of actual locations – usually exteriors – rather than studio sites
    • The use of nonprofessional actors, even for principal roles
    • Use of conversational speech, not literary dialogue
  • Avoidance of artifice in editing, camerawork, and lighting in favor of a simple ‘styless’ style

What is the difference between Newsreels & Public Service Ads.

Newsreel is a form of short documentary film prevalent between 1910s to 1960s, regularly released in a public presentation place and containing filmed news stories and items of topical interest. It was a source of news, current affairs, and entertainment for millions of moviegoers until television supplanted its role in the 1950s. Newsreels are now considered significant historical documents, since they are often the only audiovisual record of historical and cultural events of those times. Newsreels were typically exhibited as short subjects preceding the main feature film into the 1960s. There were dedicated newsreel theaters in many major cities in the 1930s and 1940s and some large city cinemas also included a smaller theatrette where newsreels were screened continuously throughout the day.

Public Service Announcements, also known as PSAs, go by many names. Unlike traditional commercials, Public Service Announcements (PSA) are primarily designed to inform and educate rather than sell a product or service. The goal of a PSA is not to make a big sale, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness for a problem. The strategy here is to educate first and provoke a feeling and reaction after that. However, sometimes money is solicited, although usually not for profit.

Topics Covered by Public Service Ads

As long as there have been advertisements, there have been ads for charitable causes, government issues (including war), politics, religion and health & safety issues.A typical PSA will be for the latter, with topics including:Drinking and Driving,Texting and Driving,Drug Addiction,Obesity,Smoking,Fitness,Education etc. PSAs can be seen anywhere traditional ads are seen, including television and radio, outdoor, online, direct mail and in print. Due to the nature of the ads, many insertions are provided at a discount.


Describe Melodrama & Musical with examples.

BAHU TUNE YEH CHAPATI COMMUNI*** KE SHAPE MAI KYU BANAYI!!!

BATTLE MUSIC PLAYS.

A WILD BAHU APPEARED.

BAHU USED RONA DHONAA
MORE MUSIC PLAYS. And thats melodrama. Whats Musical? Literally Bollywood.

Melodrama is a type of narrative in which the over-dramatic plot-line is designed to play on people’s emotions—sometimes at the expense of character development, sub-text, and nuance. Moreover, melodramas tend to feature reductive plot lines and characters that are stereotypical archetypes. In literature and narrative, an archetype is a character that is a quintessential example of a theme or virtue or idea. Satan, for example, is a classic archetype of absolute evil. Melodrama is a term that has been widely applied over the last two centuries, which is a big part of why it’s hard to define in any concrete way. Given this ambiguity, it might be easier to explain through example. For instance, the 1935 film the wizard of oz contains many characteristics of a melodrama: there are very clear lines drawn between good and evil: each character is a classic archetype (dorothy = innocence, aunt em = love, lion = courage, etc.), And it follows a familiar plot line from disruption (tornado) to adversity (witch/finding oz) to resolution (returning home).

In the present, the word melodrama tends to have negative connotations. For example, a person who is acting hysterical or over-emotional might be called melodramatic.[i am not melodramatic plx stop] In the context of literature and theater, however, it is merely used to describe a certain type of story that emerged around the late 18th and early 19th century. The earliest melodramas were classified as such for the ways in which they used music. Fight scenes, for example, might be accompanied by intense orchestral arrangements, while romantic scenes could be accompanied by something softer. This was to heighten the emotional impact of scenes. If we go back to the wizard of oz, think about when dorothy first sees the witch riding her bicycle in the tornado—the music is high pitched and fast to convey a sense of dread. Another good example would be the shower scene in psycho (1960), where the screech of stringed instruments underscores the terror of the moment.

Musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing. The songs usually advance the plot or develop the film’s characters, though in some cases they serve merely as breaks in the storyline, often as elaborate “production numbers”.

The musical film was a natural development of the stage musical after the emergence of sound film technology. Typically, the biggest difference between film and stage musicals is the use of lavish background scenery and locations that would be impractical in a theater. Musical films characteristically contain elements reminiscent of theater; performers often treat their song and dance numbers as if there is a live audience watching. In a sense, the viewer becomes the diegetic audience, as the performer looks directly into the camera and performs to it.

Many of the Disney Films have a Musical Setting, even Bollywood Films like Lagaan, Rang de Basanti, Jagga Jasoos have a Musical Theme


Distributor

People who decide where to distribute the movie. Geniuses at Star/HBO who decided to air GOTS7 Episode in India, and gladly leaked for us. Distribution is everything. Like Anime Movies are never Aired in India. But Kenichi, and Motu Patlu and Chotta Bheem is. My God. Distributors are one send movies to other cities, countries, etc.

    • In the value chain of film making, production, distribution and exhibition are the three key segments, of which, the distributor is the key stake holder.
    • It includes distribution to the theatres, to homes through vcd, dvd, and satellite.
    • The flow of product in the distribution industry is as follows: a film property is produced by the production company, which then sells the distribution rights to the distributor. These rights are often bid for by distributors through film markets or through sales agents.
    • Often, the distributor will bid for the distribution rights before production is finished and the distributor pays an advance to the production company. The rights to show the film property are then bid for by exhibitors.
    • The distribution people down the line (in remote parts of india) play a very big role in the film hits and misses.
    • These distributors have an uncanny ability to ‘smell what is right’ and the money-making opportunities therein. In the initial stages of a distribution deal, sometimes even before production has started, the distributor will assign a project director to the film to determine promotional materials required and to develop marketing ideas and events.
  • A unit publicist (who is responsible for the promotional campaign during production and for preparation of publicity materials and press coverage during the production) and unit photographer (responsible for publicity stills) will be selected.


Corporate Films

Corporate Films, or corporate videos, are used to connect the boardroom to its employees and convey the company’s ethics and ethos to the consumer. Video content online has become increasingly popular for company websites alongside the written material. Video content stands an 80% higher chance of engagement as it requires less from the viewer and keeps their attention focused on the screen for longer. Production companies also create films for fundraising, awareness and promotional purposes. In the world of business, films are necessary communication tools that can create engagement and inform opinion.

Producers working within the corporate sector need to be astute to the needs of the client, and also need a firm grasp on how best to use a creative medium to display corporate rhetoric. With advertising revenue decreasing and the trend for high-quality content online, production companies are creating customer facing films for social media and public consumption. Corporate production companies cater across the spectrum from the large multinationals, government organisations to high street shops, charities to industrial manufacturing companies. The types of film corporate production companies produce are:

    • Online Commercials. Freedom from the 30 seconds of screen time and significantly cheaper, commercials for online content are of a lower budget but have the opportunity to go viral if they have a great story behind them. Making shareable content is a way of organically promoting your company.
    • Training Videos. Staff training or first aid training videos can be a useful tool in the workplace, and save companies significant amounts of money when looking to induct employees.
    • Films for conference. The conference itself can be filmed, allowing viewers full access to the extended content from the day’s events. Films are also made for the conference, such as an address from the CEO if not in attendance.  
    • Consumer testimonials. Connecting potential customers to previous customer experience whether on the website or within the online consumer marketplace.
    • Industrial. Films aimed at companies working within a specific industry, used for business to business marketing or at trade shows.
    • Internal communications. Films made to be placed on company intranets are a useful tool to connect senior staff with their employees.  
    • Promotional or branded content. Promotional films are largely web or intranet based. They can come in the form of panel discussions designed to showcase products and create interaction.
  • Charity film. One of the most efficient ways for charities to reach out to their supporters and funders is via a film. A film detailing the work they carry out, who it affects and what you can do to make a difference is a major asset to fundraisers.

Commercial Ads

Commercials are a type of advertisement identified by the use of voice and length of time  

-Typically 10 to 60 seconds.

-Mera Bharosa bass Revital

-Harpic

Using voice in this type of advertisement requires purchased time to run the pre-recorded voiceover (commentary over or without images) or dialogue/monologue by an actor in the commercial.

Examples of commercial placement include television, radio, Internet or kiosks at public places such as malls, airports and public transportation stations. Commercials are also increasingly used at gas stations, grocery stores and medical offices where consumers watch while they wait.


Pre-Production

In pre-production, every step of actually creating the film is carefully designed and planned. The production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, and may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents. The nature of the film, and the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine (or fewer). These are typical crew positions:

    • Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
  • Director: is primarily responsible for the storytelling, creative decisions and acting of the film.
      • Assistant director (AD): manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the production, among other tasks. There are several types of AD, each with different responsibilities.
      • Film producer: hires the film’s crew.
      • Unit production manager: manages the production budget and production schedule. They also report, on behalf of the production office, to the studio executives or financiers of the film.
          • Location manager: finds and manages film locations. Nearly all pictures feature segments that are shot in the controllable environment of a studio sound stage, while outdoor sequences call for filming on location.
        • Production designer: the one who creates the visual conception of the film, working with the art director, who manages the art department, which makes production sets.[2]
      • Costume designer: creates the clothing for the characters in the film working closely with the actors, as well as other departments.
      • Makeup and hair designer: works closely with the costume designer in order to create a certain look for a character.
      • Casting director: finds actors to fill the parts in the script. This normally requires that actors audition.
      • Choreographer: creates and coordinates the movement and dance – typically for musicals. Some films also credit a fight choreographer.
      • Director of photography (DP): the head of the photography of the entire film, supervises all cinematographers and Camera Operators
      • Production sound mixer: the head of the sound department during the production stage of filmmaking. They record and mix the audio on set – dialogue, presence and sound effects in mono and ambience in stereo. They work with the boom operator, Director, DA, DP, and First AD.
      • Sound designer: creates the aural conception of the film, working with the supervising sound editor. On Bollywood-style Indian productions the sound designer plays the role of a director of audiography.
    • Composer: creates new music for the film. (usually not until post-production)

Short Films

Short films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals and made by independent filmmakers for non profit, either with a low budget or no budget at all. They are usually funded by film grants, non profit organizations, sponsor, or personal funds. Short films are generally used by filmmakers to gain experience or prove their talent in order to gain funding for future films from private investors, entertainment companies, or film studios.

A short film is any motion picture not long enough to be considered a feature film. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as “an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits”. The term featurette originally applied to a film longer than a short subject, but shorter than a standard feature film.

The increasingly rare term “short subject” means approximately the same thing. It is an industry term which carries more of an assumption that the film is shown as part of a presentation along with a feature film. “Short” is an abbreviation for either term. Short films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals and made by independent filmmakers for non profit, either with a low budget or no budget at all. They are usually funded by film grants, non profit organizations, sponsor, or personal funds. Short films are generally used by filmmakers to gain experience or prove their talent in order to gain funding for future films from private investors, entertainment companies, or film studios.

Longer and shorter films coexisted with similar popularity throughout the early days of film. However, comedy short films were produced in large numbers compared to lengthy features such as D.W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation. By the 1920s, a ticket purchased a varied program including a feature and several supporting works from categories such as second feature, short comedy, 5–10 minute cartoon, travelogue and newsreel.


Follow shot

Follow shot or tracking shot is a specific camera angle in which the subject being filmed is seemingly pursued by the camera, for example by a Steadicam. The follow shot can be achieved through tracking devices, panning, the use of a crane, and zoom lenses resulting in different qualitative images but, nevertheless, recording a subject (performer) in motion.

Follow shots are typically used in film to establish audience alignment with the perspective of the character being followed and to follow them. The audience is made aware of the character’s presence and is able to observe them in action, while also being forced to identify with the character. It is considered neither first-person perspective nor third-person perspective.


Camera Shot

Camera shots are used to demonstrate different aspects of setting, themes and characters. Camera angles are used to position the viewer so that they can understand the relationships between the characters. These are very important for shaping meaning in film as well as in other visual texts. If you’re looking to work in film and television, it’s no secret you’ll have to get familiar with the camera and knowing the basic shots and angles can be hugely propitious for your skills to shine.

In filmmaking and video production, a shot is a series of frames, that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. Film shots are an essential aspect of a movie where angles, transitions and cuts are used to further express emotion, ideas and movement. The term “shot” can refer to two different parts of the filmmaking process:

In production, a shot is the moment that the camera starts rolling until the moment it stops.

In film editing, a shot is the continuous footage or sequence between two edits or cuts.

The term “shot” is derived from the early days of film production when cameras were hand-cranked, and operated similarly to the hand-cranked machine guns of the time. That is, a cameraman would “shoot” film the way someone would “shoot” bullets from a machine gun.

A camera shot is the amount of space that is seen in one shot or frame. Camera shots are used to demonstrate different aspects of a film’s setting, characters and themes. As a result, camera shots are very important in shaping meaning in a film. Reviewing the examples on the right hand side of this page should make the different camera shots clearer.

An extreme long shot contains a large amount of landscape. It is often used at the beginning of a scene or a film to establish general location (setting). This is also known as an establishing shot.

A long shot contains landscape but gives the viewer a more specific idea of setting. A long shot may show the viewers the building where the action will take place.

A full shot contains a complete view of the characters. From this shot, viewers can take in the costumes of characters and may also help to demonstrate the relationships between characters. For more information on costumes and acting refer to Chapter 4.

A mid shot contains the characters or a character from the waist up. From this shot, viewers can see the characters’ faces more clearly as well as their interaction with other characters. This is also known as a social shot

A close-up  contains just one character’s face. This enables viewers to understand the actor’s emotions and also allows them to feel empathy for the character. This is also known as a personal shot.

An extreme close-up contains one part of a character’s face or other object. This technique is quite common in horror films, particularly the example above. This type of shot creates an intense mood and provides interaction between the audience and the viewer.

When analysing a film you should always think about the different camera shots and why they are being used. The next time that you are at the cinema or watching television see what camera shots are being used.

Important: These camera shots are used in all forms of visual texts including postcards, posters and print advertisements.


Cinematographer

Cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography.

The cinematographer selects the camera, film stock, lens, filters, etc., to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; in some instances the director will allow the cinematographer complete independence; in others, the director allows little to none, even going so far as to specify exact camera placement and lens selection. Such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other; the director will typically convey to the cinematographer what is wanted from a scene visually, and allow the cinematographer latitude in achieving that effect.

Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld, originally the Coen brothers’ DP; Jan de Bont, cinematographer on films as Die Hard and Basic Instinct, directed Speed and Twister. In 2014, Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan’s three Batman films, made his directorial debut with Transcendence; whilst British cinematographers Jack Cardiff and Freddie Francis regularly moved between the two positions.


Auteur theory

Before 1960s, Films were recognized by writer, production, etc. However some said No Son, We Directors are the Core of the Film, and so people started realising that Directors make the film and without them everything can collapse. That all Folks.

Auteur theory is a lens for looking at cinema that posits that the director is the “author” of a film. The theory argues that a film is ultimately a reflection of the director’s vision; so, a film by a given filmmaker will feature recognizable, recurring themes and visual tropes that allow a viewer to observe a consistent artistic identity throughout the director’s body of work.

Auteur theory is an imperfect way of imagining cinema that frequently fails to recognize the contributions of the numerous people who participate in the process of making a film. However, the idea of a single artistic conscious shaping a film gave the young, often commercial artform of film a new sheen of artistic legitimacy and respectability. It also allows us to create a neat narrative of cinematic history and to observe the ways in which the ideas and fixations of a great director (particularly one who controls multiple aspects of the filmmaking process, such as writing and editing) do shape a film. Whatever its shortcomings, auteur theory is a vital tool of cinematic literacy.

The genesis of the term is often credited to the critics of the French film journal Cahiers du cinéma, many of whom went on become the directors of the French New Wave. However, according to New York University professor Julian Cornell, the idea existed prior to its popularization by the Cahiers writers, who simply refined the theory.

In all of Hitchcock’s films, viewers can observe certain images and ideas that occur again and again – from images of icy blondes and people falling to the theme of doubling and the idea of “the gaze”.

Vertigo (1958)

Rear Window (1954)


Animated Films

Animated Films are ones in which individual drawings, paintings, or illustrations are photographed frame by frame (stop-frame cinematography). Usually, each frame differs slightly from the one preceding it, giving the illusion of movement when frames are projected in rapid succession at 24 frames per second. The earliest cinema animation was composed of frame-by-frame, hand-drawn images. When combined with movement, the illustrator’s two-dimensional static art came alive and created pure and imaginative cinematic images – animals and other inanimate objects could become evil villains or heroes.

Animations are not a strictly-defined genre category, but rather a film technique, although they often contain genre-like elements. Animation, fairy tales, and stop-motion films often appeal to children, but it would marginalize animations to view them only as “children’s entertainment.” Animated films are often directed to, or appeal most to children, but easily can be enjoyed by all.


Shot Division

No Idea. Help me out.


Mise-en-scene

When applied to the cinema, mise-en-scène refers to everything that appears before the camera and its arrangement—composition, sets, props, actors, costumes, and lighting. The “mise-en-scène”, along with the cinematography and editing of a film, influence the verisimilitude or believability of a film in the eyes of its viewers. The various elements of design help express a film’s vision by generating a sense of time and space, as well as setting a mood, and sometimes suggesting a character’s state of mind. “Mise-en-scène” also includes the composition, which consists of the positioning and movement of actors, as well as objects, in the shot. These are all the areas overseen by the director. One of the most important people that collaborates with the director is the production designer. These two work closely to perfect all of the aspects of the “mise-en-scène” a considerable amount of time before the actual photography even begins. The production designer is generally responsible for the general look of the movie, leading various departments that are in charge of individual sets, locations, props, and costumes, among other things.Andre Bazin, a well-known French film critic and film theorist, describes the mise-en-scene aesthetic as emphasizing choreographed movement within the scene rather than through editing.

Because of its relationship to shot blocking, mise-en-scène is also a term sometimes used among professional screenwriters to indicate descriptive (action) paragraphs between the dialog.

Mise-en-scène (French Word, “placing on stage”) is an expression used to describe the design aspect of a theatre or film production, which essentially means “visual theme” or “telling a story”—both in visually artful ways through storyboarding, cinematography and stage design, and in poetically artful ways through direction. It is also commonly used to refer to multiple single scenes within the film to represent the film. Mise-en-scène has been called film criticism’s “grand undefined term”.

The distinctive mise-en-scène of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Germany, 1920) features stark lighting and jagged architecture


Objective Camera

An objective camera shot usually involves the camera observing the action in a scene ‘objectively’. The shot is essentially looking in on the action.

Objective shots are shots that imply little to no explanation or perspective of the events in front of the camera, they pose you, the viewer, as almost a fly on the wall, merely an observer. Directors such as Ozu, Weerasethakul, and Linklater in his Before Trilogy, use these styles.

Watch this Cringe Video to understand


Continuity

A Good Friend Jui Teli suggested prominent changes in this Answer. Thanks Jui! 

Shooting a movie over a period of days, weeks or even months can be a very difficult task – especially when it comes to maintaining continuity.

When everything in the shot, scene and movie is consistent, then you’ve succeeded in maintaining continuity. If an actor picks up a cup with her right hand, the cup has to be in her right hand in the next shot, to stay consistent and maintain fluidness and continuity. When a feature film is shot, there is usually only one camera and the scene is done many times.

The director will usually want to shoot the scene a variety of ways. Shooting a scene from various angles and shot sizes is known as coverage. The more coverage, the more options the editor and director have during the editing process. However, the more you shoot a scene, the greater the risk is that you will have lapses in continuity. Think about it. Actors have to do the same movements, wear the same costumes and move the same places, all over many hours and usually days of shooting. How can you possibly maintain continuity?

The person in charge of continuity on a film set is the script supervisor, who must maintain a record of scenes shot and how they may have deviated from the original script. The script supervisor also creates a continuity report and works with an assistant to make sure continuity is maintained.

The continuity report provides a detailed record of the day’s shoot, including crew list, camera settings, weather and the acting, audio and picture quality of each shot. The continuity report also describes in detail the action that occurs and any possible continuity problem areas. The assistant will take pictures of costumes, hair and makeup, set dressings, actor positions and props to compare when setting up later takes of the scene.

This report helps cut down on the continuity errors, which, if caught early enough, can be fixed, but only through an expensive re-shoot. Yes, today filmmakers can fix some errors through digital touch-ups, but that too is very expensive and usually beyond the financial and technical abilities of the typical video producer.

Maintaining continuity can be a difficult task. However, if you maintain a detailed record of every scene, with supporting pictures and script notes, you should be able to avoid family, friends and clients pointing out the little continuity problems that can creep into your production. Just keep your eyes open for the little things.

Continuity editing is the process, in film and video creation, of combining more-or-less related shots, or different components cut from a single shot, into a sequence so as to direct the viewer’s attention to a pre-existing consistency of story across both time and physical location.

Often used in feature films, continuity editing, or “cutting to continuity”, can be contrasted with approaches such as montage, in which the editor aims to generate, in the mind of the viewer, new associations among the various shots which can then be of entirely different subjects, or at least of subjects less closely related than would be required for the continuity approach.


Post Production

Post-production, or postproduction, is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, and photography. It occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, radio programs, advertising, audio recordings, photography, and digital art. Post-production includes all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments.

Post-production is many different processes grouped under one name. These typically include:

    • Video editing the picture of a television program using an edit decision list (EDL)
    • Writing, (re)recording, and editing the soundtrack.
    • Adding visual special effects – mainly computer-generated imagery (CGI) and digital copy from which release prints will be made (although this may be made obsolete by digital-cinema technologies).
    • Sound design, sound effects, ADR, foley, and music, culminating in a process known as sound re-recording or mixing with professional audio equipment.
  • Transfer of colour motion picture film to video or DPX with a telecine and color grading (correction) in a color suite.

The post-production phase of creating a film usually takes longer than the actual shooting of the film and can take several months to complete because it includes the complete editing, colour correction, and the addition of music and sound. The process of editing a movie is also seen as the second directing because through post-production it is possible to change the intention of the movie. Furthermore, through the use of color grading tools and the addition of music and sound, the atmosphere of the movie can be heavily influenced. For instance, a blue-tinted movie is associated with a cold atmosphere and the choice of music and sound increases the effect of the shown scenes to the audience.

Post-production was named a “dying industry” by Phil Izzo. The once exclusive service offered by high-end post-production facilities have been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system (NLE). As such, traditional (analogue) post-production services are being surpassed by digital, leading to sales of over $6 billion annually.[citation needed]


Zoom shot

A zoom is technically not a camera move as it does not require the camera itself to move at all. Zooming means altering the focal length of the lens to give the illusion of moving closer to or further away from the action.

The effect is not quite the same though. Zooming is effectively magnifying a part of the image, while moving the camera creates a difference in perspective — background objects appear to change in relation to foreground objects. This is sometimes used for creative effect in the dolly zoom.

Zooming is an easy-to-use but hard-to-get-right feature of most cameras. It is arguably the most misused of all camera functions.


Subjective camera

The SUBJECTIVE camera films from a personal viewpoint. The audience participates in the scene action as a personal experience. The viewer is placed in the picture, either on his/her own as an active participant, or by trading places with a person in the picture and seeing the event through his/her eyes. The viewer is involved in the picture when anyone in the scene looks directly into the camera lens – thus creating an eye-to-eye relationship with the viewer. Example: Camera in front seat of roller coaster.


Director

A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. Generally, a film director controls a film’s artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film.

The film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film’s budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films.


Fast Motion

Slightly Similar to Timelapse, so yea. This is Shrek Movie but in 3 Minutes, here

Time-lapse photography is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured. The frame rate is much lower than that used to view the sequence. When played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster and thus lapsing. For example, an image of a scene may be captured once every second, then played back at 30 frames per second; the result is an apparent 30 times speed increase. In a similar manner, film can also be played at a much lower rate than it was captured at, slowing down fast action, as slow motion or high-speed photography.

Processes that would normally appear subtle to the human eye, e.g. the motion of the sun and stars in the sky or plant growth, become very pronounced. Time-lapse is the extreme version of the cinematography technique of undercranking. Stop motion animation is a comparable technique; a subject that does not actually move, such as a puppet, can repeatedly be moved manually by a small distance and photographed; the photographs can be played back as a film, showing the subject appearing to move.


Trolley Shot

a form of photo-bombing, using a shopping trolley as a prop.

I feel this is similar to tracking shot, suggestions accepted

A tracking shot is any shot where the camera moves alongside the object(s) it is recording. In cinematography, the term refers to a shot in which the camera is mounted on a camera dolly that is then placed on rails – like a railroad track. The camera is then pushed along the track while the image is being filmed. A tracking shot generally runs lateral to or alongside its subject since the tracks would be visible in a shot of any distance that moved toward or away from its subject (a maneuver which is formally called a dolly shot and which is usually performed on a freestanding dolly that is not rolled along tracks).

The technique is often used to follow a subject that would otherwise leave the frame (ergo, it is often called a following shot), such as an actor or vehicle in motion.[1] In this spirit, any conveyance, including via a motorized vehicle, like a car, may also be used to create a tracking shot. A handheld or Steadicam mounted camera following a similar trajectory is called a tracking shot as well. While the core idea is that the camera moves parallel to its subject, a tracking shot may move in a semi-circular fashion, rotating around its subject while remaining equidistant


Storyboard

A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at Walt Disney Productions during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios.

Film

A film storyboard is essentially a series of frames, with drawings of the sequence of events in a film, like a comic book of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand. It helps film directors, cinematographers and television commercial advertising clients visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur. Besides this, storyboards also help estimate the cost of the overall production and saves time. Often storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement.

In creating a motion picture with any degree of fidelity to a script, a storyboard provides a visual layout of events as they are to be seen through the camera lens. And in the case of interactive media, it is the layout and sequence in which the user or viewer sees the content or information. In the storyboarding process, most technical details involved in crafting a film or interactive media project can be efficiently described either in picture or in additional text.

Animatics

In animation and special effects work, the storyboarding stage may be followed by simplified mock-ups called “animatics” to give a better idea of how the scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a series of still images edited together and displayed in sequence with rough dialogue (i.e., scratch vocals) and/or rough soundtrack added to the sequence of still images (usually taken from a storyboard) to test whether the sound and images are working effectively together.


Screenplay

A screenplay or script is a written work by screenwriters for a film, video game or television program. These screenplays can be original works or adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions, expression and dialogues of the characters are also narrated. A screenplay written for television is also known as a teleplay.

Format and style

The format is structured so that one page equates to roughly one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ball park estimate and often bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 12 point, 10 pitch Courier Typeface.

The major components are action (sometimes called “screen direction”) and dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects. The dialogue is the words the characters speak, and is written in a center column.


Nouvelle vague

Lol if you dont know this, you are a fail. Attend some lectures more

A movement in French cinema in the 1960s, led by directors such as Jean Luc Godard and François Truffaut, that abandoned traditional narrative techniques in favor of greater use of symbolism and abstraction and dealt with themes of social alienation, psychopathology, and sexual love. Also called nouvelle vague.

New Wave (French: La Nouvelle Vague) is a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s. French New Wave, which is also known as French Nouvelle Vague, can be considered as one of the most influential film movements that took place in the history of cinema. The ripples created by this cinematic movement can even be felt today. A group of critics, who wrote for a French film journal called Cahiers du Cinema, created the film movement. It began as a movement against the traditional path that French Cinema followed, which was more like literature. The French New Wave had the potential to bring a radical change to French cinema.

The French New Wave directors took advantage of the new technology that was available to them in the late 1950s, which enabled them to work on location rather than in the studio. They used lightweight hand-held cameras, developed by the Eclair company for use in documentaries, faster film stocks, which required less light, and light-weight sound and lighting equipment. Their films could be shot quickly and cheaply with this portable and flexible equipment, which encouraged experimentation and improvisation, and generally gave the directors more artistic freedom over their work.  

The films had a casual and natural look due to location filming. Available light was preferred to studio-style lighting and available sound was preferred to extensive studio dubbing. The mise-en-scène of Parisian streets and coffee bars became a defining feature of the films. The camera was often very mobile, with a great deal of fluid panning and tracking. Often only one camera was used, in highly inventive ways; following characters down streets, into cafes and bars, or looking over their shoulders to watch life go by. Eric Rohmer’s La Boulangère Du Monceau (1962) opens by establishing the action in a specific location in Paris, and is almost entirely filmed in the streets, cafes and shops of this area. In Breathless (Breathless) (1959), the cinematographer Raoul Coutard, who worked on many of the French New Wave films, was pushed around in a wheelchair – following the characters down the street and into buildings. Innovative use of the new hand-held cameras is evident, for example, in Truffaut’s The 400 Blows (1959), where a boy is filmed on a fairground carousel.  


25 Shots

    • Full Shot Covering Full Subject, Top to Bottom
    • Medium Shot Half Body
    • Closeup Shot Chest and Above
    • Depth Shot Outdoor and Indoor, Interior and Exterior
    • Low Angle Shot Camera Lifted Upwards
    • High Angle Shot Shot of Downward
    • Eye Level Position of Camera and Angle Not Changeing,
    • Overhead Camera Lifted very High, to cover the floor
    • Dutch Angles Camera is tilted sidewards
    • POV Shot A Subjects Point of View is captured by Camera
    • PAN Shot Moving the camera lens to one side or another. [180]
    • Tilt Shot Tilt Camera (from Up to) Downwards
    • Dolly Shot Move Camera Away from Subject
    • Tracking Shot The Camera is on Track, and gives a stable shot while tracking
    • Handheld The Camera is held in your hand
    • Deep Focus Whole Frame should be focused
    • Shallow Focus Background should be totally blud
    • Rack Focus We change the focus, from one sub to another [viceversa]
    • Wide Angle Lens A Wide Angle Lens Shot? Which captures more area and depth?
    • Telephoto Lens When the subject is far away
    • Normal Lens Type of lens, full mid close
    • Zoom Shot
    • OTS Over the shoulder
  • Still Shot
error: