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Table of Contents

Sums and Case Study

Few might lack things. Others have everything. If you have more sums, answers, please send me. Together we can get the Victory Royale. Hit or Miss, we can Hit Guys.

 

Formulas

    • GRP = Gross Rating Point
    • AEC = Average Exposure Cost
    • TA = Target Audience
    • TPC = Total Production Cost
  • CPRP = Cost Per Rating Point
      1. GRP = R     x    F
      1. R = GRP     /     F
      1. F = GRP    /     R
      1. GRP = Budget  /  CPRP
      1. Budget = GRP  x  CRRP
      1. CRRP = Budget  /  GRP
      1. CPRP= AEC   /   % of TA
      1. AEC = CRRP   x   % of TA
      1. %of TA = AEC     /    CRRP
      1. F = Number of People x Number of Times / Total Number of People
    1. AEC = Number of Spot x Cost Per Spot / Total Number of Spot

Q.1.

Create a Media Plan for the new non-stop Mumbai- New York flight aboard brand new Boeing 777-200 LR. The ticket is priced at 5, 50,000 per seat.  The schedule will last two months. The advertisements are in colour. The budget for the print campaign is three crore (30000000).

Magazine:

Single and/ or double spread

Newspaper:

Half page

Use rate card given below

Dallies

Readership

000’s [thousands]

Rates

(in sq.cm)

Magazine

Readership

000’s [thousands]

Rate (Full page) colour

The Times of India

8092

4110

India Today

6263

660000

The Hindustan Times

3947

2085

Outlook

2281

390000

The Hindu

3786

1415

Chitralekha (Gujarati)

1250

172500

The Deccan Chronicle

1638

1570

The Week

1219

275000

The Economic Times

1178

2950

Reader’s Digest

2321

120000

Mid-day

785

339

Outlook Traveller

341000

260000

Dainik Jagran

21244

3132

India Today

(HINDI) W

10683

375000

Dainik Bhaskar

17379

2569

Sarita (Hindi) W

4191

150000

Navbharat times

2958

750

Grihshobha (Hindi) M

4121

275000

 

Rate: Quarter page size equals 400 sq.cm. (25 cm (h) x 16 cm (w))

Solution

Demographic Profile:

Age:

35 to 59

Gender:

M/F

Education:

Graduate and above

Occupation:

    1. Corporate managers both private and public sectors
    1. Entrepreneurs
  1. Traders

Income:

Rs 50,000 and above

Psychographic Profile:

    1. Frequent travellers
    1. Those who are always under time pressure.
  1. Those who want to combine business with pleasure

 

Media Plan

Vehicles

CPM

Size

No of Insertions

Amount

Reasons for vehicle selection / non selection

The Times of India

0.50

 

4

13152000

Demographics and Psychographic of the product and vehicle is a perfect. CPM IS LOW, Reach is very high and very prestigious

The Hindustan Times

0.52

 

 

Nil

To avoid duplication

The Hindu

0.37

 

 

Nil

Geographic selectivity. Its publish in south

The Deccan Chronicle

0.95

 

 

Nil

Geographic selectivity. Its publish in south

The Economic Times

2.50

 

5

11800000

Demographics and Psychographic of the product and vehicle is a perfect match. Though CPM is high it is the most prestigious for the Target group.

Mid-day

0.43

 

 

Nil

Prestige of the product does not match with the prestige of the vehicle

Dainik Jagran

0.14

 

 

Nil

Geographic selectivity. Its publish in North

Dainik Bhaskar

0.14

 

 

Nil

Geographic selectivity. Publish from Central and Western India, Not available in Mumbai

Navbharat times

0.25

 

3

1800000

For corporate managers and entrepreneurs from UP and Bihar. Also to get maximum discount from TOI group as a combination rates for TOI, ECO Times and Navbharat Times

India Today

105.38

 

3

1980000

Most prestigious Business magazine for TG, Low CPM,

Outlook

170.97

 

 

Nil

To avoid duplication also CPM is very high

Chitralekha (Gujarati)

138

 

3

517500

Chitralekha is very popular amongst Gujarati Traders and Entrepreneurs in Mumbai.

The Week

225.59

 

 

Nil

High CPM to avoid duplication with India Today. The magazine is popular in south

Reader’s Digest

51.70

 

 

Nil

The prestige of the product does not match with vehicle

Outlook Traveller

0.76

 

3

780000

Low CPM and Demographics and Psychographic of the product and vehicle is a perfect match.

India Today

(HINDI) W

35.10

 

 

Nil

Hindi speaking readers not the primary target

Sarita (Hindi) W

35.79

 

 

Nil

Geographic selectivity and also the vehicle is targeting house wives,  not matching with the TG of the product

Grihshobha (Hindi) M

66.73

 

 

Nil

Geographic selectivity and also the vehicle is targeting house wives,  not matching with the TG of the product

 

Total

30029500

 

 

Date of Insertions

1st Week

2nd Week

3rd Week

4th Week

TOI/ ET/NBT

ET/IT/CL

TOI/NBT/OT

ET/IT

5th Week

6th Week

7th Week

8th Week

TOI/CL/OT

ET/IT

NBT/CL

TOI/ET/OT

 

Find out CPM of each paper.

    1. Cost of Ad / Readership x 1000.
    1. In this case figures are in thousands, so Cost of Advertisement / Readership
    1. Example, Times of India will be 4110/8092=0.50
    1. To know the total amount spent for each newspaper
    1. Multiply 800   x   Rate   x   Number of Insertions.
    1. (800 because Quarter page is 400Sq CM so double that as Ad has to be put in half page)
    1. For example for Times of India : Rate is 4110 x800 x 4 ( Number of Inserts) =13152000.
  1. Magazine directly rate x number of inserts.

Q.2.

Media 1:

Reach = 75, Frequency = 10, TPC 8, 00,000, AEC = 40,000

 

Media 2:

Reach = 20, Frequency = 20, TPC = 6, 00,000, AEC = 70,000.

Find the % TA, GRP and CPRP for Media1 and Media2

If frequency is interchanged, determine the changes for Media1 and Media 2

 

Solution:

Media 1

Gross Rating Point

= Reach X Frequency

= R x F

= 75 X 10

= 750

CPRP

= Total Production Cost / Gross Rating Point

= TPC / GRP

= 8,00,000/750

= 1066.66

% OF Target Audience

= Average Exposure Cost  /  Cost Per Rating Point

= AEC/CPRP

= 40000/1066.66

= 37.50

Media 2:

Gross Rating Point

= Reach x Frequency

= R X F

= 20 X 20

= 400

CPRP

= Total Production Cost/Gross Rating Point

= TPC / GRP

= 600000/400

= 1500

% OF TA

= Average Exposure Cost  /  Cost Per Rating Point

= AEC / CPRP

= 70000/1500

= 46.66

 

If the Frequency is interchange

Media 1:

Gross Rating Point

= Reach x Frequency

= R X F

= 75 X 20

= 1500

Cost Per Rating Point (CPRP)

= Total Production Cost / Gross Rating Point

= TPC / GRP

= 800000 / 1500

= 53.33

% OF TA

= AEC / CPRP

= 40000 / 533.33

= 75

Media 2

Gross Rating Point

= R X F

= 20X 10

= 200

CPRP

= Total Production Cost/Gross Rating Point

=600000/200

= 3000

% OF TA

= Average Exposure Cost  /  Cost Per Rating Point

= AEC/CPRP

= 70000/3000

= 23.33

 

Q.3.

15, 000 people see an advertisement 6 times, 35,000 people see an advertisement 4 times and 10,000 people see an advertisement 2 times.

Reach is 35% and the TA is 55%, AEC= 40,000.

Find, GRP, CPRP and BUDGET. If the frequency is decreased by 05 then what are the corresponding changes?

 

Now if AEC is increased by 5000, what are the corresponding changes with the new frequency?

Solution

Frequency = 4.16

 

Gross Rating Point 

= R x F

= 35 x 4.16

= 145.6

 

CPRP

= Average Exposure Cost  /  Target Audience

= AEC / TA

= 40,000 / 55

= 727.27

Budget

= CPRP X Gross Rating Point

= 727.27 X 145.6

= 105890.51

 

Frequency is decreased by 05

= 4.16 – 05

= 3.66

 

New Frequency = 3.66

 

AEC

= 40,000 + 5000

= 45,000

 

Gross Rating Point 

= 35 X 3.66

= 128.1

 

CPRP

= AEC/TA

= 45000 /55

= 818.18

 

Total Production Cost 

= CPRP X Gross Rating Point

= 818.18 X 128.1

= 104808.85

 

Q.4.

A media planner placed 20 times an advertisement of a particular brand on a media whose reach was 30%. The Average Exposure cost was Rs. 60, 000. The TA is 30%. Determine the GRP and the CPRP. If the Budget was increased by 10 lakhs and the AEC was reduced by 10,000 what is the change in CPRP. If % TA. And reach are constant. What is the change in GRP?

Solution

F=20, R=30, AEC=60,000, TA=30.

Gross Rating Point = ?

CPRP = ?

Gross Rating Point

= Reach x Frequency

= RxF

=20×30

=600

CPRP

= Average Exposure Cost /   % of Target Audience

= AEC  /  % of TA

= 60,000 / 30

=2000

 

Budget

= Gross Rating Point x CPRP

= 600×2000

= 1200000

 

If the Budget was increased by 10 lakhs and the AEC was reduced by 10,000 what is the change in CPRP.

Budget

= 1200000

= 12, 00000+ 10, 00,000

= 22, 00,000

 

Average Exposure Cost (AEC)

=60,000-10,000

=50,000

 

CPRP

= Average Exposure Cost / % of TA

= AEC / % of TA

= 50,000/30

= 1666.66

 

Gross Rating Point

= Budget / CPRP

= 22,00,000 / 1666.66

= 1320

 

The change in Gross Rating Point is 1320-660

= 660

 

 

Q.5.

A media planner prepared the following Media Plan.

Media 1

Media 2

Reach

30

40

Frequency

15

12

Average Exposure Cost (AEC)

3000

2500

% of Target Audience (%TA)

25

20

Determine the budget of both Media 1 and Media 2. If AEC is interchanged determine the revised budgets of Media 1 and Media 2

Solution

Media 1

Gross Rating Point

= R x F

= 30 x 15

= 450

Cost Per Rating Point (CPRP)

= Average Exposure Cost /  % of Target Audience

= AEC  /  % of TA

= 3000 /  25

= 120

Budget

= Gross Rating Point  x  Cost Per Rating Point

= GRP  x CPRP

= 450 x 120

= 510000

Media 2

Gross Rating Point

= R x F

= 40  x 12

= 480

Cost Per Rating Point (CPRP)

= Average Exposure Cost /  % of Target Audience

= AEC  /  % of TA

= 2500  /  20

= 125

Budget

= Gross Rating Point  x  Cost Per Rating Point

= GRP  x CPRP

= 480  x 125

= 60000

If the AEC is interchanged, then the Revised Budgets would be

Media 1

Cost Per Rating Point (CPRP)

= Average Exposure Cost /  % of Target Audience

= AEC  /  % of TA

= 2500 /  25

= 100

Budget

= Gross Rating Point  x  Cost Per Rating Point

= GRP  x CPRP

= 450 x 100

= 45000

Media 2

Cost Per Rating Point (CPRP)

= Average Exposure Cost /  % of Target Audience

= AEC  /  % of TA

= 2500 /  25

= 100

Budget

= Gross Rating Point  x  Cost Per Rating Point

= GRP  x CPRP

= 480 x 150

= 72000

 

 

Q.6.

20,000 people see an advertisement 5 times

15,000 people see an advertisement 10 times

10,000 people see an advertisement 15 times

 

The Reach is 35% and the TA is 45 %

 

The cost per spot is:

5@ Rs 80,000 per spot

8@ Rs 70,000 per spot

4@ Rs 75,000 per spot

3@ Rs 85,000 per spot

 

What is TPC? What is the GRP if the Budget is increased by 20 % and the CPRP is constant?

 

Solution

Frequency = 8.8

 

Gross Rating Point 

= R X F

= 35 X 8.88

= 310. 8

 

AEC = 75,750

 

CPRP

= AEC / TA

= 75750 / 45

 

Total Production Cost 

= CPRP x Gross Rating Point

= 1683.33 x 310.8

= 523178.96

 

 

New Budget

= 523178.96 + 104635.79

= 627814.75

 

New Gross Rating Point  

= Budget / CRP

= 627814.75  /  1683.33

= 372.95

          

 

Q.7

What is the Reach and CPRP if GRP is 250, frequency is 7.5 & TPC is 50,00000 (50 Lakhs). What is AEC if the TA is 40 %. If GRP is increased by 50. What is the final TPC?

 

Reach

= Gross Rating Point/ F

= 250 / 7.5

= 33.33

CPRP

= Total Production Cost / Gross Rating Point

= 50,00,000/250

= 20,000

 

AEC

= CPRP X TA

= 20,000 X 40

= 8,00,000

 

New Gross Rating Point

= 250 + 50

= 300

Total Production Cost 

= Gross Rating Point X CPRP

= 300 X 20.000

= 60,00000

Additional Formulas

    1. AF = OTS        /     Net Readership
    1. OTS = Readership     x       Insertions
    1. Net Readership = Readership    –    Duplication
    1. GRP = R%     x      F
    1. GVT = R(ooo’s)     x     F
    1. CPT = Total Cost     /     GVT (ooo’s)
    1. R% = No. of People Reached     /    Universe
  1. R(ooo’s) = No. of People Reached     /     1000

Time for the Answer Bank


Describe the Media Planning Process

I found this from books. However I dont know if this is right since few notes mention 5 or 7 Steps for this Particular Answer and it goes upto 10 Pages. If you feel there should be a change, please direct me.

Media Planning is the process of designing a course of action that shows how advertising space and time will together contribute to successfully achieve Marketing and Advertising Objectives.

A Media Plan is created by the Media Planner from a proper analysis about the market and its prospective customers. Media Decisions are primarily based on the creative strategy established for the Campaign and the characteristics of the target market.

Through Market Research, facts, informations, about the target market are collected and then generalized into a consumer profile. This along with the basic copy strategy and copy requirements is analysed by the media planner, taking into account the size of the advertising budget.

The Analysis is followed by matching the audience characteristics of various media with the consumer profile and by evaluating the adaptability of the physical format of the media to copy requirements.

Finally, through the exercise of judgment concerning dimensions of coverage, reach, frequency, continuity, ad size, the media plan emerges.

With all the advertising decision making the ultimate responsibility for choosing media rests with the advertising/ brand manager.

The advertising plan sets out the media for the campaign, with details of the target audience, the number of advertisements and their cost. It describes the size of press advertisements and the running time for radio commercials. This part of the plan also indicates how frequently advertisements will appear and the time span for the complete campaign.

The job of media planning involves determining the best combination of media to achieve the marketing campaign objectives.

(1) Media Mix:

Media mix refers to the various advertising channels through which a company communicates with its audience in order to fulfil a campaign as outlined in the media plan. Generally, a media mix includes radio, TV, print and online advertising endeavours. The media mix is the total amount of advertising that an agency, advertising company or media buyer has budgeted for a specific advertising strategy and media plan. For example, if a cosmetic company is releasing a new line of lipstick, its media mix is likely to include advertisements in women’s fashion magazines, commercials on style-focused networks and a healthy social media presence on online health and beauty communities.

(2) Target Market Coverage:

It is a group of people, a selected segment of everyone. Selection is needed to put effort only in those ads, which are going to reach only those people, who are potential consumers of the marketed products or services, Segmentation can be done by age, sex, occupation, income media consumption habits or educational levels etc. Coverage is a percentage, which shows that what percentage of the target audience is reached by a media. After having a complete picture of our target audience, we undertake the study of the media’s readership in terms of demographic economic and psychographics terms.

(3) Geographic Coverage:

Media strategy is based upon market coverage. If media planners want to market products nationally, they will select all-India newspapers and magazines. However, if the market is limited to a particular region, they shall select vernacular media popular in that region. In this way, media planners do not waste resources by advertising product in the regions in which it is not available, They have to see how strong a product is in a particular geographical region and advertise more in high potential areas.

(4) Scheduling:

Scheduling refers to the pattern of advertising timing, represented as plots on a yearly flowchart. These plots indicate the pattern of scheduled times advertising must appear to coincide with favourable selling periods. Most of the companies prefer to keep their advertising in front consumer at all times as a constant reminder of the product and/or brand name.   Media scheduling decisions are the decisions about the timing,  continuity and size of the ads. We have to see when to advertise, for how long about the ‘advertise, for how long, and for what time period. We have to see the size and placement of our ad.

(5) Reach versus frequency:

Reach refers to the total number of different people or households exposed, at least once, to a medium during a given period. Frequency refers to the number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle. There should be an attempt in the media objectives to balance the reach and frequency. There should be an appropriate message weight at the same time. Since advertisers have a variety of objectives and face budget constraints, they usually must trade off reach and frequency. They must decide whether to have the message be seen or heard by more people (reach) or by fewer more often (frequency).

(6) Creative Aspects and Mood:

Creative considerations such as the quality of reproduction, the colour effect, special effects, have to be considered. The medium must be important for the ad message. For example, the ads of car model would be reproduced better in colour and therefore black and white newsprint is not appropriate. Media decisions have to be made in consultation with the creative team that has actually produced the ad. A specific creative strategy may require certain media. Because TV provides both sight and sound, it may be more effective in generating emotion than other media. In developing a media strategy, the marketer must consider both creativity and mood factor.

(7) Flexibility:

The ability of the media to adapt to changing and specific needs of advertisers is flexibility. Certain media allows such flexibility with respect to the advertised message, the geographical coverage and the ad budget. An effective media strategy requires a degree of flexibility because of the rapidly changing marketing environment, strategies may need to be modified. If the plan is not built in some flexibility, the opportunity may be lost and/or the company may not be able to address new threats.

(8) Budget Considerations:

A choice of media will depend to a large extent upon the size of the advertising budget. Certain media types may be too expensive for the funds available. One of the most important decisions in the development of media strategy is cost estimating. The value of any strategy can be determined by how well it delivers the message to the audience with the lowest cost and the least

Average Frequency

Frequency refers to the number of times a receiver is exposed to the same advertisement again i.e the number of times the same message is received repeatedly by the receiver. The frequency varies from every individual and also differs in various households.

Average frequency reports the average number of times a person is exposed to an advertising schedule. It is a basic measure of schedule intensity. Average refers to an observation, taken from survey and is calculated by dividing an advertising schedule gross impressions by its unduplicated reach.

By comparing average frequency with effective frequency (desired goals), advertisers are able to evaluate a schedule performance. For most FMCG, an average frequency of three is thought to be a “magic number.” Once the media expenditure reaches this target, there is little to be gained from additional exposures.

The average frequency is calculated by the following formula:

Average Frequency = (Total exposure for all households) / Reach

The factors an organization keeps in mind while determining frequency are:

Choice of the media to be taken. It depends on variety of factors like the number of people using the media and at what point of time are the number of people maximum. This will help the firm to get the maximum audience for their commercial. Usually medias like magazines accounts for more repeat exposure hence the frequency must be low in them   The target group needs to be decided . If there are a lot of competitors the frequency needs to be increased. If the brand loyalty is high, the frequency needs not be increased to a large extent. If the brand is new, it will require higher average frequency   Message factors also matters. If the complexity is high, higher average frequency is required. On the other hand an excess increase in advertisements often leads to irritation on the part of the viewer. If the message is unique, then even if the frequency is low, the viewer remembers the message.

Hence, this concludes the definition of Average Frequency along with its overview.  

A detailed note on Media Planning process

Media Planning is the process of designing a course of action that demonstrates the advertising space and time necessary to contribute to the achievement of the marketing and advertising objectives.

The Media Plan is created by a Media Planner by surveying and analysing the market and its prospective customers. Through Market Research, an intricate study about the target market can be achieved and generalized into a consumer profile. The Media Decisions are primarily based on the Creative Strategy further designed, based on the Analysis. This along with the basic copy strategy and copy requirements is analysed by the media planner, taking into account the size of the advertising budget.

The advertising plan sets out the media for the campaign, with details of the target audience, the number of advertisements and their cost. It describes the size of press advertisements and the running time for radio commercials. This part of the plan also indicates how frequently advertisements will appear and the time span for the complete campaign.

The job of media planning involves determining the best combination of media to achieve the marketing campaign objectives.

(1) Media Mix: Media mix refers to the various advertising channels through which a company communicates with its audience in order to fulfil a campaign as outlined in the media plan. Generally, a media mix includes radio, TV, print and online advertising endeavours. The media mix is the total amount of advertising that an agency, advertising company or media buyer has budgeted for a specific advertising strategy and media plan. For example, if a cosmetic company is releasing a new line of lipstick, its media mix is likely to include advertisements in women’s fashion magazines, commercials on style-focused networks and a healthy social media presence on online health and beauty communities.

(2) Target Market Coverage: It is a group of people, a selected segment of everyone. Selection is needed to put effort only in those ads, which are going to reach only those people, who are potential consumers of the marketed products or services, Segmentation can be done by age, sex, occupation, income media consumption habits or educational levels etc. Coverage is a percentage, which shows that what percentage of the target audience is reached by a media. After having a complete picture of our target audience, we undertake the study of the media’s readership in terms of demographic economic and psychographics terms.

(3) Geographic coverage: Media strategy is based upon market coverage. If media planners want to market products nationally, they will select all-India newspapers and magazines. However, if the market is limited to a particular region, they shall select vernacular media popular in that region. In this way, media planners do not waste resources by advertising product in the regions in which it is not available, They have to see how strong a product is in a particular geographical region and advertise more in high potential areas.

(4) Scheduling: Scheduling refers to the pattern of advertising timing, represented as plots on a yearly flowchart. These plots indicate the pattern of scheduled times advertising must appear to coincide with favourable selling periods. Most of the companies prefer to keep their advertising in front consumer at all times as a constant reminder of the product and/or brand name.

Media scheduling decisions are the decisions about the timing,  continuity and size of the ads. We have to see when to advertise, for how long about the ‘advertise, for how long, and for what time period. We have to see the size and placement of our ad.

(5)Reach versus frequency: Reach refers to the total number of different people or households exposed, at least once, to a medium during a given period. Frequency refers to the number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle. There should be an attempt in the media objectives to balance the reach and frequency. There should be an appropriate message weight at the same time. Since advertisers have a variety of objectives and face budget constraints, they usually must trade off reach and frequency. They must decide whether to have the message be seen or heard by more people (reach) or by fewer more often (frequency).

(6) Creative aspects and mood: Creative considerations such as the quality of reproduction, the colour effect, special effects, have to be considered. The medium must be important for the ad message. For example, the ads of car model would be reproduced better in colour and therefore black and white newsprint is not appropriate. Media decisions have to be made in consultation with the creative team that has actually produced the ad. A specific creative strategy may require certain media. Because TV provides both sight and sound, it may be more effective in generating emotion than other media. In developing a media strategy, the marketer must consider both creativity and mood factor.

(7) Flexibility: The ability of the media to adapt to changing and specific needs of advertisers is flexibility. Certain media allows such flexibility with respect to the advertised message, the geographical coverage and the ad budget. An effective media strategy requires a degree of flexibility because of the rapidly changing marketing environment, strategies may need to be modified. If the plan is not built in some flexibility, the opportunity may be lost and/or the company may not be able to address new threats.

(8) Budget Considerations: A choice of media will depend to a large extent upon the size of the advertising budget. Certain media types may be too expensive for the funds available. One of the most important decisions in the development of media strategy is cost estimating. The value of any strategy can be determined by how well it delivers the message to the audience with the lowest cost and the least waste.

Communication Mix

Marketing is a broad business function that includes product research and development, merchandising and distribution processes and pricing, as well as communication or promotion.

“Communications Component (or communication mix) is that portion of the media plan that company uses to pursue its advertising and marketing objectives to create awareness about the product”.

The Communication Mix or often known as, Promotion Mix, refers to certain measures used to promote the Company or its Products to achieve Communication Objectives comprising of advertising, publicity, sales promotion, personal selling and direct marketing to targeted customers. Some depictions of the promotional mix include five elements, while others add a sixth — event sponsorship.

According to Philip Kotler, “A company’s total marketing communication mix also called its promotion mix consists of the specific blend of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relation and direct marketing tools that the company uses to pursue its advertising and marketing advertising.”

According to George Belch, The basic tools used to accomplish an organisation’s communication objectives are known as promotion mix and includes advertising, direct marketing, interactive/internet marketing, sales promotion, public relation and personal selling. A successful communication mix requires the right combination of promotional tools”

Advertising

Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Advertising is often the most prominent element of the communication mix. In fact, marketing and advertising are often misconstrued as the same thing. Advertising includes all messages a business pays to deliver through a medium to reach a targeted audience. Since it involves the majority of paid messages, companies often allocate significant amounts of the marketing budget to the advertising function. While it can be costly, the advertiser has ultimate control over the message delivered, since it pays the television or radio station, print publication or website for placement.

Personal Selling

Personal selling is sometimes integrated with the direct marketing element. However, many companies make such extensive use of a sales force that it is important to consider this component distinctly. Distribution channel suppliers use salespeople to promote products for resale to trade buyers. Retail salespeople promote the value of goods and services to consumers in retail businesses. Personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships. Communication processes in which sales associates help customers satisfy their needs through face-to-face exchanges of information.  Selling is more emphasized by companies that sell higher-end products and services that require more assertive efforts to persuade customers to buy.

Discounts and Promotions

Sales promotions or discounts are similar to advertising in that they are often promoted through paid communication. However, sales promotions actually involve offering a discounted price to a buyer. This may include coupons, percent-off deals and rebates. Along with ads to promote deals and coupon mailers, companies use exterior signs and in-store signage to call customer attention to the discounts. Goals of this communication tool include increasing revenue and cash flow, attracting new customers and clearing out extra inventory.

Public Relations

Public relations is sometimes somewhat similar to advertising in that much of it involves messages communicated through mass media. The major difference is you don’t pay for the time or space for the message. A television or newspaper feature story mentioning a business, for instance, isn’t paid for and can provide brand exposure. The downside of PR is that you don’t always control the messages. You can try to influence them through press releases and invites for media coverage, but the media could put a negative spin on the story. Building good relationships with the company’s various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, build Short-term benefits or incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service.ding up a good “corporate image”, and handling or heading off unfavorable rumors, stories, and events. Public Relations (PR).

Direct Marketing

Direct marketing includes some aspects of both sales promotions and personal selling. It is interactive communication with customers where the company’s message seeks or implores a response from targeted customers. E-mail and direct mail are common formats. These messages are sent to customers with special offers or calls to action, often promoting limited-time deals or new product launches. Mail-order clubs, online or print surveys and infomercials are other examples of direct marketing communication. Direct communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships.Direct marketing is the use of consumer-direct channels to reach and deliver goods and services to customers without using market middlemen.

Event Sponsorship

Event sponsorship is the element sometimes left out of the five-element communication mix. Many models include it within advertising. Event sponsorship occurs with a company pays to have a presence at a sports, entertainment, nonprofit or community events. The sponsorship may include a mix of benefits including booth representation during the event to hand out samples, gifts and literature, name mention during the event and ad spots connected to the event.

Additional Ones

Direct Marketing:

Direct communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships.Direct marketing is the use of consumer-direct channels to reach and deliver goods and services to customers without using market middlemen.

Sales Promotion:  

Short-term benefits or incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service.

Sponsorship:

Sponsorship is about providing money to an event, in turn the product or company is acknowledged for doing so. Sponsorship helps the company improve its image and public relations within the market.

Viral Marketing:

Viral marketing occurs when consumers pass on or recommend product/company/website to others. This could be via email, or bulletin boards or word of mouth.

Viral marketing may take the form of video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames, ebooks, brandable software, images, text messages, email messages, or web pages. The most commonly utilized transmission vehicles for viral messages include: pass-along based, incentive based, trendy based, and undercover based. However, the creative nature of viral marketing enables an “endless amount of potential forms and vehicles the messages can utilize for transmission”, including mobile devices.

The ultimate goal of marketers interested in creating successful viral marketing programs is to create viral messages that appeal to individuals with high social networking potential (SNP) and that have a high probability of being presented and spread by these individuals and their competitors in their communications with others in a short period of time.

Merchandising:

Merchandising refers to the methods, practices and operations conducted to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial activity.  The term is understood to have different specific meanings depending on the context. Merchandise is sale goods at a store.

Word-of-Mouth Marketing:

Word of mouth, or viva voce, is the passing of information from person to person by oral communication, which could be as simple as telling someone the time of day. Storytelling is a common form of word-of-mouth communication where one person tells others a story about a real event or something made up. Oral tradition is cultural material and traditions transmitted by word of mouth through successive generations. Storytelling and oral tradition are forms of word of mouth that play important roles in folklore and mythology. Another example of oral communication is oral history—the recording, preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker.

Oral history preservation is the field that deals with the care and upkeep of oral history materials collected by word of mouth, whatever format they may be in.

In marketing, word-of-mouth communication (WOM) involves the passing of information between a non-commercial communicator (i.e. someone who is not rewarded) and a receiver concerning a brand, a product, or a service.

When WOM is mediated through electronic means, the resulting electronic word of mouth (eWoM) refers to any statement consumers share via the Internet (e.g., web sites, social networks, instant messages, news feeds) about a product, service, brand, or company.

If the sender of word-of-mouth communication is rewarded than this process is referred to as word-of-mouth marketing, which relies on the added credibility of person-to-person communication, a personal recommendation. Using WOM as an opposing force to commercially motivated word-of-mouth marketing has been coined Proconsumer WOM.

Interactive Marketing:

Interactive Marketing refers to the evolving trend in marketing whereby marketing has moved from a transaction-based effort to a conversation. Interactive marketing features the ability to address an individual and the ability to gather and remember the response of that individual” leading to “the ability to address the individual once more in a way that takes into account his or her unique response.

Interactive marketing is not synonymous with online marketing, although interactive marketing processes are facilitated by internet technology. The ability to remember what the customer has said is made easier when we can collect customer information online and we can communicate with our customer more easily using the speed of the internet. Amazon.com is an excellent example of the use of interactive marketing, as customers record their preferences and are shown book selections that match not only their preferences but recent purchases.

Mobile Marketing:

Mobile marketing is marketing through wireless handheld devices, such as cellular telephones, and m-commerce or mobile commerce involves completing a transaction via the cell phone.

Telemarketing:

Telemarketing is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson solicits prospective customers to buy products or services, either over the phone or through a subsequent face to face or Web conferencing appointment scheduled during the call. Telemarketing can also include recorded sales pitches programmed to be played over the phone via automatic dialing.

Brand Identity:

How a business wants a brand’s name, communication style, logo and other visual elements to be perceived by consumers. The components of the brand are created by the business itself, making brand identity the way in which a business wants consumers to perceive its brands, not necessarily how it is actually perceived. Brand identity is different than brand image, which is what consumers actually think. It is constructed by the business itself. A negative gap between brand identity and brand image means a company is out of touch with market sentiment, which will make selling its products more difficult. The brand image held by consumers can reach a point at which a business or product has to rebrand itself or risk not bringing in sales.

Corporate Identity:

A corporate identity is the overall image of a corporation or firm or business in the minds of diverse publics, such as customers and investors and employees. It is a primary task of the corporate communications department to maintain and build this identity to accord with and facilitate the attainment of business objectives. It is usually visibly manifested by way of branding and the use of trademarks.

Corporate identity comes into being when there is a common ownership of an organizational philosophy that is manifest in a distinct corporate culture. At its most profound, the public feel that they have ownership of the philosophy. Corporate identity helps organizations to answer questions like “who are we?” and “where are we going?” Corporate identity also allows consumers to denote their sense of belonging with particular human aggregates or groups. In general, this amounts to a corporate title, logo (logotype and/or logogram) and supporting devices commonly assembled within a set of guidelines. These guidelines govern how the identity is applied and confirm approved colour palettes, typefaces, page layouts and other such.

Point-of-Purchase Advertising:

Displays, signs, structures, and devices that are promotional, and are used to identify, advertise, or merchandise an outlet, service, or product and serve as an aid to retail selling. The key word here is promotional. Merely stocking a shelf with soap or cereal doesn’t make for POP. Nor does a sign that says “Meat Department.”

Types

1. Signs

2. Shelf media, such as shelf-talkers and shelf strips, may be attached to existing fixtures, and they don’t take up precious floor, wall, or counter space.

3. Windows Displays.

4.  In-store Commercials.

5. Standees

In film advertising:

In-film advertising, in its most effective form, is about a brand being a part of the cinema’s content. Many global brands are now turning to this medium for the sheer impact that a movie can make on its audiences. A brand using the medium of cinema to promote its message. A number of marketers are now using movies to project the core values of their brands.

Transit Advertising:

Advertising that appears inside and outside on public transport vehicles, in waiting areas, and at stations and terminals. Transit is targeted at the millions of people who are exposed to commercial transportation facilities, including buses, taxis, commuter trains, elevators, trolleys, airplanes, and subways. The increased number of women in the work force, audience segmentation, and the rising cost of TV advertising.

Ambient Advertising:

Ambient Advertising definition is: The placement of advertising in unusual and unexpected places (location) often with unconventional methods (execution) and being first or only ad execution to do so (temporal). Newness, creativity, novelty and timing are key themes in ambient advertising. This definition is deliberately narrow and attempts to exclude ‘mainstream’ advertising Implicit in this definition are that Ambient is a moveable and somewhat subjective term and will shift according to the advertising norms of the day.

Spot Buys

When national advertisers buy airtime from local or regional television stations, it is called as national spot television or spot buys. i.e. purchase of airtime directly from a local or regional station, in contrast to purchasing from a national network. Often, retailers, dealers and franchisers are seen buying these spots. The term comes from the fact that advertisers are spotting their advertising in certain markets as contrasted to the blanket coverage offered by network schedules.

The primary disadvantages of spot television are that it requires a great deal of planning and paperwork than National Network since each market must be bought on a one-to-one basis and its more costly on a CPM basis than National Network buys and is a cumbersome process. It also faces more clutter and number of restrictions in terms of placing of spots. Also, spot slots are placed when the Viewership is the least.

Primary Purpose for Spot Buys:

  • To provide additional GRP’s in those markets with the greatest sales potential by allowing network advertisers.
  • To provide businesses with less than national or uneven distribution, a means of avoiding waste circulation incurred by network Television.
  • Controlling uneven network ratings on a market-by-market basis by allowing network advertisers to do so.
  • To support retails and provide localization for special marketing circumstances by national advertisers.

Television Advertising

Advertisements are the most expensive programmes on television in the calculation of cost by seconds, they are designed to have maximum impact in a short period of time to catch the viewer’s eye and convey their message quickly. Every element is specifically chosen to promote a specific image of the selected product.

Merits of TV Advertising:

(1) Powerful audio-visual media:

TV is the best selling media ever invented. It makes a visual as well as hearing the appeal. It is the most powerful audio and video media. The demonstration can be shown for a product making the message more appealing. Graphics in computers and animation has made it still more effective by giving it human-like qualities. TV advertisements are called ‘television commercials’ which are responsible to create an emotional impact on the audience.

(2) High Quality of Production:

The quality of television programmes has been improving content and product wise. Some sponsored programmes are made by spending a good amount of money. They do a lot of outdoor shooting. But most of the programmes are indoor shot programmes.

(3) Added advantage to distributors and retailers:

Both consumers and distributors are TV viewers. TV ads compel the distributors to stock the product, the local organisation making products will definitely improve its distribution after advertising its product on television. The single medium does a dual job.

(4) The technique with complete aspects:

In TV, there is a unique mixture of sound, colour, movement, picture, timing and demonstration in the home. It is a more powerful form of advertisement compared to radio station ads, newspaper ads, online ads and magazine ads. It greatly affects your marketing campaign by establishing a direct way to communicate with the audience.

(5) Creating Brand:

TV succeeds in building a powerful image of the company and its products. It can also project an image of the users rendering it excellent for lifestyle advertising.

(6) Wide Coverage:

TV advertising has a huge reach. At present TV services are available to more than 80% of the total Indian population thus giving a wide market. coverage area to showcase the product.

(7) Highly Engaging:

TV advertisements are highly engaging and it has the ability to make connections with the audience in an instant timeframe.

Demerits of TV Ads:

(1) Right Planning to Produce Commercials:

This medium requires planning and deliberation. Aside from the expensive airtime rates, you also have to pay a team of experts to create the advertisement for you. You will need to hire a scriptwriter, video editor, models or an advertising agency. It lacks the flexibility of other mediums like press and radio. If not rightly produced, the ad will lack finishing. But once produced as per our requirements, these ads can be repeated over a period of time.

(2) Short Timeframe:

The commercial flickers for a few seconds and goes off the air. TV ads can capture consumer attention just for a few seconds. However, this time frame is not enough to give enough information on what you are offering. Because of this, some consumers doubt the credibility of the ads and just ignore it. Also, the impact of the commercial fades away after some time.

(3) Fixed Medium:

Radio can be listened to either in a car or while walking. Newspapers are read in locals, in offices and at many other locations. Television penetrates only through the home, therefore it is fixed medium.

(4) Difficult to Edit:

 Among the disadvantages of TV advertising is the difficulty involved in making changes to your commercial. Once your commercial is filmed and placed, editing or changing the material takes more time and money, It becomes essential to get it right the first time.

(5) Depends on Creativity:

Television ads have to depend on the creativeness. If the ad is not creative enough, the audience will not pay attention and the product will not sell off.

(6) Escalating Production Costs:

The primary disadvantage of TV display advertising is the high costs. TV ads are very expensive. The longer the airtime, the more expensive it is. The cost will also depend on what time you choose to telecast your ads. Also, you have to pay for the airtime every time the ad is shown.

(7) Statutory Controls:

T.V. commercials have to conform to a broadcast code strictly.

(8) Fragmentation of Audiences:

Advertisers cannot expect to attract large homogeneous audiences when advertising during any specific program due to the huge amount of program choices available now to television viewers.

(9) Clutter:

Clutter refers to growing amount of nonprogram material from public service commission and other promotional programmes but especially commercials.

A consumer refers to television as the most cluttered of the entire advertising medium. Out of every broadcast hour of prime- time television these non-program amounts to over 15 minutes among the major television networks. The clutter problem has created a negative impact on the mind of the consumers, driving them away from television sets reducing advertising recall and identification.

(10) Intrusive:

Consumers either take time out during a commercial to make a trip to the refrigerator or surf programs on other channels. Furthermore, different technological innovations enable consumers to block advertisements altogether. The V-chip is a device that consumers can program to block unwanted content on television, including advertisements. TiVo is another similar device that allows users to store television programs without commercials.

(11) Erosion of television viewing:

Cable television and internet and other recreational activities have altered and diminished the viewing of a number of people for television programmes.

(12) Zapping and Zipping:

 Zapping refers to switching to another channel when interrupted by commercials in the middle of programs. Zipping refers to fast forwarding the prerecorded ads when watching DVD or any other pre recorded programs.

Factors affecting the choice of Television are as follows:

1) Television Rating Point:

Television Rating Point (TRP) is a tool provided to judge which programmes are viewed the most. This gives us an index of the choice of the people and also the popularity of a particular channel. Advertisers look for exposure to fairly broad audience segments and this gives a measure of coverage based on the potential of the market. These numbers are treated as a sample of the overall TV owners in different geographical and demographic sectors.

(2) The Share of Audience:

The percentage of households using television sets or tuned to a particular show during a specific period of time is called Share of the audience. Share is the people actually paying attention to program and rating is just those who have turned the TV on. This measure is used by advertisers to determine the success of a show against its competitor.

(3) Up-Front and Scatter Buys:

Advertisers purchase network television in three primary ways: Up-front (long-term), scatter (short-term) and opportunistic (or last minute) buys.

An Upfront or long-term buy is the purchase of inventory for all the quarters of the coming broadcast year. It involves guaranteed audience delivery, guaranteed cost efficiency and premium inventory.

The upfront season is followed by a second phase known as scatter plan buys. Scatter plans are usually negotiated on a quarterly basis throughout the year and this gives the buyer a better fix on the marketplace. Scatter buys offer the advertiser more financial flexibility. However, it involves efficiency and inventory risks, as the best inventory may already be sold. This is for the advertisers who want to take advantage of changing market conditions or, more often, for smaller advertisers who are shut out of the upfront buy.

Generally, scatter plans will sell at a higher CPM than up-front spots because there is less time inventory and smaller advertisers do not have the leveraged to negotiate the CPM levels of larger networks.

Opportunistic buys involve the purchase of inventory on the last minute basis if the television networks have any inventory available to sell. So they carry risks of being driven out when the right exposure is needed or could be effective because the networks are trying to get rid of last minute inventory just prior to the air date.

(4) Spot Television or Spot Buys:

When national advertisers buy airtime from local or regional television stations, it is called as national spot television or spot buys. i.e. purchase of airtime directly from a local or regional station, in contrast to purchasing from a national network. Often, retailers, dealers and franchisers are seen buying these spots. The term comes from the fact that advertisers are spotting their advertising in certain markets as contrasted to the blanket coverage offered by network schedules.

The primary disadvantages of spot television are that it requires a great deal of planning and paperwork than National Network since each market must be bought on a one-to-one basis and its more costly on a CPM basis than National Network buys and is a cumbersome process. It also faces more clutter and number of restrictions in terms of placing of spots. Also, spot slots are placed when the Viewership is the least.

Negotiation

Negotiation is the key to the Television buying. Since each advertising package is unique to a particular advertiser, there are no rate cards for network television advertising. In the Negotiation process, advertisers negotiate for a time across a number of Television options.

Pre-emption rate

A significant portion of spot TV advertising time is sold on a preemptible (the act or right of claiming or purchasing before or in preference to others) lower-rate basis, whereby the advertiser gives the station the right to sell a time slot to another advertiser that may pay a better rate for it or that has a package deal for which that particular spot is needed.

Run of Schedule (ROS)

An advertiser can allow a channel to run commercials in a lower rate at its convenience whenever the time is available rather than in a special slot.

Product protection

Every advertiser wants to keep the advertising of competitive products as far away from its commercials as possible. This brings up the question of what protection against competition an ad will get. Although some station says that they will try to keep competing for commercials 5 to 10 minutes apart and guarantee that they will not run them back to back.

Stripping

Stripping is scheduling a syndicated program on a five-day-per-week basis. That is, they will run Monday through Friday in the same time slot. This practice called stripping is since the show is stripped across a time period. It is cost efficient to buy fewer shows for multi-showings and allows a station to build a consistent audience for selling commercial to potential advertisers. Channels do not want huge rating or audience composition swings from one day to another.

Factors affecting the choice of Television are as follows

1.Target Rating Point / Television Rating Point(TRP)

TRP / Target Rating Point / Television Rating Point is a tool provided to judge which programmes are viewed the most. This gives us an index of the choice of the people and also the popularity of a particular channel. For calculation purpose, a device is attached to the TV set in a few thousand viewers houses for judging purpose. These numbers are treated as sample from the overall TV owners in different geographical and demographic sectors. The device is called as People’s Meter. It records the time and the programme that a viewer watches on a particular day. Then, the average is taken for a 30-day period which gives the viewership     status for a particular channel.

2. Share of Audience:

The percentage of households using television sets or tuned to a particular show during a specific period of time is called Share of the audience. Share is the people actually paying attention to program and rating is just those who have turned the TV on. This measure is used by advertisers to determine the success of a show against its competitor.

Percentage of radio or television sets tuned to a particular station or channel during a given period. Formula:

Television (or Radio Sets) Rating x 100
Number of Television (or Radio Sets)

The share is defined as the percentage of households using television that is watching a particular show. It is used by advertisers to determine how a show is doing against its direct competition.

3.  Up-Front and scatter Buys:

Advertisers purchase network television in three primary ways: Up-front (long-term), scatter (short-term) and opportunistic (or last minute) buys.

  • Up-Front Buys: An Upfront or long-term buy is the purchase of inventory for all the quarters of the coming broadcast year. It involves guaranteed audience delivery, guaranteed cost efficiency and premium inventory. It is a term indicating that an advertiser has purchased advertising for the coming broadcast year in an early buying season, typically for the benefit of lower rates and CPM guarantees. Purchase of TV time by advertisers during the first offering for the coming season by networks. Media buyers purchasing the slots in advance.
  • Scatter Buys: The upfront season is followed by a second phase known as scatter plan buys. Scatter plans are usually negotiated on a quarterly basis throughout the year and this gives the buyer a better fix on the marketplace. Scatter buys offer the advertiser more financial flexibility. However, it involves efficiency and inventory risks, as the best inventory may already be sold. This is for the advertisers who want to take advantage of changing market conditions or, more often, for smaller advertisers who are shut out of the upfront buy. Generally, scatter plans will sell at a higher CPM than up-front spots because there is less time inventory and smaller advertisers do not have the leveraged to negotiate the CPM levels of larger networks. Opportunistic buys involve the purchase of inventory on the last minute basis if the television networks have any inventory available to sell. So they carry risks of being driven out when the right exposure is needed or could be effective because the networks are trying to get rid of last minute inventory just prior to the air date.

4. Spot Television or Spot Buys

When national advertisers buy airtime from local or regional television stations, it is called as national spot television or spot buys. i.e. purchase of airtime directly from a local or regional station, in contrast to purchasing from a national network. Often, retailers, dealers and franchisers are seen buying these spots.

The term comes from the fact that advertisers are spotting their advertising in certain markets as contrasted to the blanket coverage offered by network schedules.

The primary disadvantages of spot television are that it requires a great deal of planning and paperwork than National Network since each market must be bought on a one-to-one basis and its more costly on a CPM basis than National Network buys and is a cumbersome process. It also faces more clutter and number of restrictions in terms of placing of spots. Also, spot slots are placed when the Viewership is the least.

Primary purpose for Spot Buys:

    • To allow network advertisers to provide additional GRP’s in those markets with the greatest sales potential.
    • To provide businesses with less than national or uneven distribution, a means of avoiding waste circulation incurred by network Television.
    • Spot buys allow network advertisers to control for uneven network ratings on a market-by-market basis.
  • National advertisers can use spot to support retails and provide localization for special marketing circumstances.

5. Negotiation:

Negotiation is the key to the Television buying. Since each advertising package is unique to a particular advertiser, there are no rate cards for network television advertising. In the Negotiation process, advertisers negotiate for a time across a number of Television options.

6. Pre-Emption rate:

A significant portion of spot TV advertising time is sold on a preemptible (the act or right of claiming or purchasing before or in preference to others) lower-rate basis, whereby the advertiser gives the station the right to sell a time slot to another advertiser that may pay a better rate for it or that has a package deal for which that particular spot is needed.

7. Run of Schedule (ROS)

An advertiser can allow a channel to run commercials in a lower rate at its convenience whenever the time is available rather than in a special slot.

8. Product protection:

Every advertiser wants to keep the advertising of competitive products as far away from its commercials as possible. This brings up the question of what protection against competition an ad will get. Although some station says that they will try to keep competing for commercials 5 to 10 minutes apart and guarantee that they will not run them back to back.

9. Stripping:

A program scheduled at the same time each day, typically Monday-Friday.. Stripping is scheduling a syndicated program on a five-day-per-week basis. That is, they will run Monday through Friday in the same time slot. This practice called stripping is since the show is stripped across a time period. It is cost efficient to buy fewer shows for multi-showings and allows a station to build a consistent audience for selling commercial to potential advertisers. Channels do not want huge rating or audience composition swings from one day to another.

Difference between SOA and rating point system

  • SOA: No of people who have switched on to a TV.  

Total households watching TV x 100
Total TV Household

  • Rating Point: No of people who have switched onto a TV Program

Total household watching a Program  x 100
Total TV Household

Split Run Facilities

The Technique used to test the effectiveness of advertising copy is called Split Run Facility. In this technique, two different versions of the same advertisement are printed, in the same press run of an issue of a particular publication, so that some of the copies contain one version of the ad and the others contain the other version.

The publication is distributed normally, but the distribution of the advertisements is split according to the request of the advertiser. Some advertisers split their run in alternate bundles; others prefer to split by Geographic Location or by Subscription versus Newsstand sales.

The purpose of the split run is to compare the effectiveness of the Two Alternate Ad Copies. Advertisers will take advantage of this option when they desire to learn which of Two Elements used in the advertising will achieve the desired objectives. Elements that are often tested are Prices, Copy Appeal, Layout, Type of Illustration, Coupon Offered or No Coupon Offered, or Premium or Rebate offered or not. The results of split-run testing are revealed by the Number of Responses to Each Advertisement. The split-run option is offered as a convenience to advertisers. However, not all publications find this option favourable.

Many newspapers offer split run facilities. The split run test is a service used for testing print advertisements in which the media cooperate with an advertiser in allowing the same space for two or more copy variations to appear in systematic rotation through the entire circulation. This permits simultaneous circulation of two or more advertisements in identical editorial surroundings with comparable audiences.

 

BDI

Brand Development Index (BDI) relates the percent of a brand’s sales in a market to the percent of the population in that same market. The Brand Development Index is an index that relates the percent of a brand’s sales in a market to the percent of total market. The brand development index measures the relative sales strength of a brand within a specific market.

BDI is used to quantify the relative performance of a particular brand in a defined customer group. It is usually done based on demographics or psychographics. It helps a company identify strong and weak segments for particular brands.

BDIPercentage of brand’s total all – India sales in the market   x 100
Percentage of total Indian population in the market

This index enables a media planner to allocate the media budget by setting his priorities. If you want to calculate BDI, you can use a calculator by clicking this link

Reach

Advertisers are mainly interested in the percentage of the total market that they can reach their messages through the media in a given area of coverage. Reach indicates the size of the unduplicated audience. When considering reach, it’s important to remember that an individual viewing or being exposed to an advertisement more than once does not increase its reach, but rather a frequency. This period of time may vary from advertiser to advertiser, but generally, four weeks is considered adequate for calculation purposes. Reach is usually expressed as a percentage of the total number of households in a prescribed area that has been exposed to the advertising message. For example, if there are a total number of 1000 households and 200 of these have been exposed to the message then the reach is calculated to be one-fifth or 20 per cent.

Programmatic Buying

“Programmatic” ad buying typically refers to the use of software to purchase digital advertising, as opposed to the traditional process that involves RFPs, human negotiations and manual insertion orders. It’s using machines to buy ads, basically.

Why does programmatic advertising matter?

Efficiency. Before programmatic ad buying, digital ads were bought and sold by human ad buyers and salespeople, who can be expensive and unreliable. Programmatic advertising technology promises to make the ad buying system more efficient, and therefore cheaper, by removing humans from the process wherever possible. Humans get sick, need to sleep and come to work hungover. Machines do not.

So robots are replacing people? Great.

Yes and no. Technology is being used to replace some of the more menial tasks that humans have historically had to handle, like sending insertion orders to publishers and dealing with ad tags, but they’re still required to optimize campaigns and to plan strategies. Programmatic technology will probably mean there are fewer ad buyers in the world, but it could also allow both marketers and sellers to spend more of their time planning sophisticated, customized campaigns instead of getting bogged down in bureaucracy.

Is programmatic buying is the same as real-time bidding, then?

No, it’s not. Real-time bidding is a type of programmatic ad buying, but it isn’t the only one. RTB refers to the purchase of ads through real-time auctions, but programmatic software also allows advertisers to buy guaranteed ad impressions in advance from specific publisher sites. This method of buying is often referred to as “programmatic direct.”

Is programmatic “the future of ad buying”?

Probably, yes. It’s impossible to tell what portion of advertising is now traded programatically, but it’s definitely on the rise. Some agencies now say they’re eager to buy as much media as possible through programmatic channels, and some major brands have even built out in-house teams to handle their programmatic ad buying as they spend more of their marketing budgets that way. At the moment, it’s mainly online ads that are traded programatically, but increasingly media companies and agencies are exploring ways to sell “traditional” media this way, including TV spots and out-of-home ads. An affiliate network is an intermediary between affiliates (publishers) and merchants (or business purpose websites) in the context of an affiliate marketing program.   An affiliate network acts as an intermediary between publishers (affiliates) and merchant affiliate programs. It allows website publishers to more easily find and participate in affiliate programs which are suitable for their website (and thus generate income from those programs), and allows websites offering affiliate programs (typically online merchants) to reach a larger audience by promoting their affiliate programs to all of the publishers participating in the affiliate network.[1]   Traditional affiliate networks enable merchants to offer publishers a share of any revenue that is generated by the merchant from visitors to the publisher’s site, or a fee for each visitor on the publisher’s site that completes a specific action (making a purchase, registering for a newsletter, etc.). The majority of merchant programs have a revenue share model, as opposed to a fee-per-action model.

    • Shareasale A major affiliate network, Shareasale has been around for 18 years and works with over 3,900 merchants across various product categories, giving you a lot of breadth in your options for what to feature on your site. Known for its honesty, transparency, and quality customer support, Shareasale is a trusted name in the affiliate marketing world, and is a great first option for anyone looking to dip their toe outside their known networks and start branching out.
  • eBay Partner Network If you’re already familiar with Amazon’s affiliate network platform, adding eBay’s affiliate program into the mix should be fairly easy to do. With 1.1 billion listings on eBay, there is certainly a wide array of options to choose from, and potential to make money. On the flip side, eBay’s payment structure could be a deterrent, as the percentage commission in comparison to other programs is smaller (50 to 70 percent), and partners are only paid monthly.
  • clickbank is an affiliate program network. Which means that they are the middle station between affiliates and the real product sellers. ClickBank is a privately held online marketplace for digital information products. It aims to serve as a connection between digital content creators and affiliate marketers, who then promote them to consumers.
  • CJ Affiliate by Conversant (formerly Commission Junction) is an online advertising company owned by Conversant, Inc. operating in the affiliate marketing industry, which operates worldwide.
  • Adfunky is a fast growing ad network and digital media company founded in 2008 by Internet veterans to boost the results of advertisers, agencies and publishers with a powerful cocktail of technology, boutique-like service and expertise.
  • 7search.com: 7Search is a Pay-Per-Click network connecting advertisers who want to reach targeted online audiences with publishers who want high-quality advertisers to occupy their open ad positions.

Demand Side Platform

A demand-side platform (DSP) is a system that allows buyers of digital advertising inventory to manage multiple ad exchange and data exchange accounts through one interface. Real-time bidding for displaying online advertising takes place within the ad exchanges, and by utilizing a DSP, marketers can manage their bids for the banners and the pricing for the data that they are layering on to target their audiences. Much like Paid Search, using DSPs allows users to optimize based on set Key Performance Indicators such as effective cost per click (eCPC), and effective cost per action (eCPA).

DSPs are unique because they incorporate many of the facets previously offered by advertising networks, such as wide access to inventory and vertical and lateral targeting, with the ability to serve ads, real-time bid on ads, track the ads, and optimize. This is all kept within one interface which creates a unique opportunity for advertisers to truly control and maximize the impact of their ads. The sophistication of the level of detail that can be tracked by DSPs is increasing, including frequency information, multiple forms of rich media ads, and some video metrics. Many third parties are integrating with DSPs to provide better tracking.

DSPs are commonly used for retargeting, as it is able to see a large volume of inventory in order to recognize an ad call with a user that an advertiser is trying to reach. The percentage of bids that are won over the bids that were submitted is called a win rate.

Demand side platforms (DSPs) are advertiser campaign management products that provide advertisers features for buying ad placements online in real time. Buying ad placements in real time through DSPs gives advertisers the ability to target their desired audiences as they are actually browsing websites. DSPs are typically managed by in-house marketing teams, advertising agencies, or agency trading desks that specialize in real-time advertising.

By providing clarity into impressions and conversions, DSPs help advertisers spend their digital advertising budgets more effectively. DSPs are nearly always packaged into advertiser campaign management products that can manage ads across display, mobile, social, search, and video advertising channels.

To purchase ads in real time, DSPs integrate with ad exchanges, which serve as a marketplace for ad inventory. Supply side platforms (SSPs) parallel DSPs. Publishers use SSPs to sell their advertising inventory in ad exchanges. Some DSPs can also integrate directly with SSPs to foster direct buys.

To qualify for inclusion in the DSP category, a product must:

Integrate with or be included in advertiser campaign management products

Integrate with ad exchanges or directly with SSPs to buy ads in real time

Allow users to make bids on ad inventory on an impression-by-impression basis (in real time)

Supply Side Platform

A supply-side platform (SSP) or sell-side platform is a technology platform to enable web publishers and digital out-of-home (DOOH) media owners to manage their advertising space inventory, fill it with ads, and receive revenue. Many of the larger web publishers of the world use a supply-side platform to automate and optimize the selling of their online media space.

A supply-side platform interfaces on the publisher side to advertising networks and exchanges, which in turn interface to demand-side platforms (DSP) on the advertiser side.

This system allows advertisers to put online advertising and DOOH advertising before a selected target audience. SSPs send potential impressions into ad exchanges, where DSPs purchase them on marketers’ behalf, depending on specific targeting attributes and audience data. By offering impressions to as many potential buyers as possible publishers can maximize the revenue. Therefore, SSPs are sometimes referred to as yield-optimization platforms. With the arrival of GDPR, Supply-side platforms are required to work along with Consent Management Platforms (CMPs)

Often, real-time bidding (RTB) is used to complete DSP transactions.

Unlike advertising networks that target buyers (advertisers), supply-side platforms provide services for publishers (website, app, and DOOH owners). Supply-side platforms are often integrated into the structure of advertising and ad serving companies, as well as ad exchanges that work with both publishers (supply side) and advertisers (demand side):


Run of Press

Placement of an advertisement in a newspaper or magazine left to the discretion of the publisher. Its placement in a particular location or a specific page usually requires payment of a premium. In broadcast media, it is called run of schedule.

ROP is a common phrase used in newspaper advertising sales. It means that your business advertisement can be placed anywhere in the paper and it is a good choice for reducing the cost of your local advertising.

What is a ROP Ad?

Newspaper advertising is a popular option for small retail businesses because it targets your local market and can bring in new customers. It is, however, filled with a number of complicated terms, conditions, and options.

Most ad rate cards focus on ROP pricing, which is popular because it is among the lowest rates in newspaper advertising.  TV advertising uses a similar option called run of schedule or run of station.

ROP’s allow editors and publishers to place ads where they fit the best in that edition of the paper. Advertisers are given options for the size of their ad and as they layout the paper, editors use their discretion on which ads to place where. These ads can appear in any section of the newspaper, except the classifieds.

Advantages

Newspaper advertising is not cheap. Requesting that your ad run in a specific section will cost you a premium price – sometimes up to 25% more – and there is no guarantee that it will even run there. Most papers will not charge you a placement fee if it cannot meet your request.

ROP ads can get you a better deal, and this is their primary advantage.  ROP ads can also be ordered, designed and run on a short deadline, plus most papers offer a variety of sizes with ROP ads as well.

Ad Placement

Placement within the paper is an important consideration, and you can often request that your ROP ad is targeted at certain reader demographics.

Advertising dollars are the backbone of the newspaper business, and they want to make you happy so you keep advertising with them. Many papers will do their best to place ROP ads in certain sections when asked.

There is a lot of debate about whether ads placed in specific locations (known as preferred placement) actually produce better results. Many advertisers will argue that there is no significant difference because today’s newspaper readers are very dedicated to scanning every page, including the advertisements.

It does stand to reason that if you can get your menswear store’s ad in the sports or business section, you might reach a few more male customers. Likewise, a florist’s ad placed in the lifestyle section or near the obituaries and wedding announcements will target readers with a specific interest. That doesn’t mean that you have to pay a premium price for those spots.

Talk to your paper’s sales rep about adding these requests to your ROP ad package (at no charge, of course). Don’t be too disappointed if it doesn’t make it in that exact location. A well-designed, eye-catching ad can pop out to the right buyers from any page!

Final Tips About Print Advertising

    • ROP ads may also be available for magazines.
    • Depending on the paper, color ads have limited placement because most pages are printed in black and white.
    • Most newspapers do not allow advertising on the front page.
    • Use a call to action or excite readers with a sense of urgency in your ad.
    • An ad dominated by a great logo or photo also grabs attention.
  • If you advertise frequently, you can reduce the cost of each ad by signing a contract. You agree to pay for a certain number of ad spots and are allowed to use them in a designated amount of time. It’s a good alternative to paying an open rate for single ads. Just be sure to use all of the ads.

What is a Media Brief

A media brief is a document which summarises a client’s communications strategy and/or campaign objectives and requests solutions to meet its objectives. It may be circulated by the client or its media agency to media owners, who respond with proposals outlining how they intend to achieve the clients’ objectives. Depending on the circumstances, a proposal may include a combination of advertising formats and platforms.

A media brief can be straightforward and precise, with a firm idea of which media are to be used and stating a specific budget or optional levels of spending. Alternatively the brief might have fewer constraints, seeking innovative approaches from media owners to fulfil its marketing objectives.

The media brief is an invaluable resource that answers all of the preliminary questions that we need in order to research, plan and present the best possible media program to achieve our clients’ objectives.

The media brief can also be referred to as a checklist for the media planners to help them prepare a media plan for a client organization. Media planning is not an isolated function but an integral part of an overall campaign planning. Hence, a media planner needs to have a thorough knowledge of all the variables.

What is an ideal media brief? In other words, what should it contain to help the media planner in making an ideal plan to help facilitate decision-making at the client’s end? With the proliferation in the media and media markets becoming more complex, given the heterogeneity of the target audience, special efforts are made to prepare the media brief. Following are the points which should be included in an Ideal Media Brief

What an Ideal Media Brief should Include

Marketing information checklist:

This should reflect the marketing objectives and proposed strategies, product characteristics, distribution channels, brand category, expenditure level and ad expenditure of close competitors, ad expenditure on the brand for the current, previous years and proposed appropriation.

The Objectives:

The Media Brief must indicate the objective or objectives which the proposed advertising is trying to accomplish. This must clearly indicate whether the objective is to introduce a new product, increase awareness about the existing brand, reinforce the current position, reposition the current brand,  relaunch a declining brand, elicit direct response, improve or enhance the company’s reputation or change the people’s attitudes towards the company, brand or product category. It would also indicate the source of business i.e. the target audience profile of the current users, proposed users etc.

Product Category Information:

It is pertinent for the media planner to have a thorough knowledge of the product category and the positioning of the brand being handled. This helps in assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the brand and also helps in setting achievable targets.

The information deals with the following broad areas like category definition, competitive brands, a market share of various brands, sales volumes of each brand etc. All of this is essential to determine the scheduling pattern.

Geography/Location:

A Media Brief helps the planner in knowing his media markets. In other words, if the product is available in only the metros, then the planner will restrict his media options to those vehicles which reach the target audience in the metros.

However, if the product is being launched on an all country basis, the media planner although keeping in view the holistic approach will also keep in mind the consumption pattern in various geographical locations for giving relative weightage to work areas, where the product usage is more.

Besides this, he will also keep in view the brand development index, sales volume and local market problems and opportunities.

Seasonality/Timing:

Information regarding Seasonality of the product is an important consideration for the media planner. When considering in the Indian Context, which includes extreme climates in different parts of the country at the same time, some products are season specific.

The sale of woollen products is always there in the hilly regions especially, Himachal Pradesh and higher reaches of Uttar Pradesh, while in southern India, except probably in some parts of Karnataka, woollen products are generally not available. The North experiences severe cold for some months, hence one sees a spurt in advertising

Besides, the planner should keep track of the sales patterns, influence factors such as festivals, holidays and the weather, spending considerations, specific sales promotions drive and client mandated spending constraint, etc.

Target Audience:

A profile of those who buy the existing product category as also those who buy competitive brands is a very important consideration for the media planner. Buying habits must also include information about buying cycles, purchase points, a frequency of purchase, etc. this helps the planner to know the consumer characteristics by category, brand and competitor; demographics—age, income, education, occupation and motivation; special market segmentations like doctors, architects, children, etc. As also media usage data for heavy users, light users of various media vehicles.

Media Mix

Media mix refers to the various advertising channels through which a company communicates with its audience in order to fulfil a campaign as outlined in the media plan. Generally, a media mix includes radio, TV, print and online advertising endeavours. The media mix is the total amount of advertising that an agency, advertising company or media buyer has budgeted for a specific advertising strategy and media plan. For example, if a cosmetic company is releasing a new line of lipstick, its media mix is likely to include advertisements in women’s fashion magazines, commercials on style-focused networks and a healthy social media presence on online health and beauty communities

Media mix means the advertising strategy encompasses the use of more than one type of advertising media to get its message across the target audience. A combination of media types is known as the media mix. No advertiser can rely only on one medium to reach his audience.

Even a small advertiser having a small media budget has thousands of media from which to choose. A typical media mix for consumer products, such as a soft drink, will include television, outdoor, POP and even the print media. this combination plays a crucial role in reaching the maximum number of consumers at the minimum cost.

Once a media plan is ready, the decision is to be made about the media mix. Selecting the media mix involves several considerations.

Factors considered while selecting a media mix

The media plan which is derived from the marketing and advertising plan has set a broad framework for media decisions. The execution of this plan depends upon the following considerations:

1. Budget:

A choice of media will depend to a large extent upon the size of the advertising budget. Certain media types may be too expensive for the funds available. For example: the cost of national transmission over Doordarshan may be too high for an advertiser. The cost of maintaining a neon sign cannot be afforded by small budget advertisers.

2. Competitor’s Strategy:

Media decisions of one advertiser are influenced by the competitor’s strategy. Some years ago only large advertisers used television in India. But with the runaway success of Nirma detergent, manufacturers large or small used television to gain maximum exposure, with the hope of creating another success story. An advertiser tries to reach the same audience as its competitors. He may also attempt to find specific target groups not reached by his competitors. In both these cases he considers his competitor’s strategy before deciding his media mix.

3. Frequency v/s Reach:

As explained in the earlier section, frequency and reach are important considerations in the media plan. Frequency refers to the number of times the advertiser reaches the same person, while reach refers to the total number of people covered. The greater the frequency with which you reach the same person through media selection, smaller the reach will be and vice –versa (assuming a limitation in the size of the budget). An advertiser will need to know the quantitative data about media audience in order to make more accurate frequency and reach decisions.

For example: If an advertiser uses radio, he may be able to afford to broadcast the advertising jingle every 30 minutes, and this increases the frequency of the radio listeners exposure to the advertised message. But the reach of this message is limited and will not cover those who are not listening to the radio. With the same budget, the advertiser can buy less radio time, place a few insertions in the print media and buy some television time. This combination will reduce the frequency at which an individual consumer is exposed to the advertised message but will increase its reach. Thus, there is always a trade-off between these two considerations.

4. Increasing distributors’ support:

Although consumer media are selected primarily to affect the consumer, the impact of media upon distribution channels, that is the middlemen, is also important. Effective use of advertising media lends support to the middleman selling efforts. Middlemen are more likely to support a brand that has greater exposure in the local media. Retailer sometimes runs their own tie-in advertising along with the producer’s advertisement, in the same media.

5. Continuity:

A decision must be made about how long an advertisement campaign should be run on one media. There is a cumulative advantage from continuity, as a greater audience will be reached in Terms of both frequency and coverage by advertisements continually placed in one medium. The same medium will have some new audience. For products such as toothpaste, soaps, that are frequently re-purchased, continuity is a more important consideration. But products that are purchased infrequently may find it more suitable to use a variety of media in order to reach varied audience. For example: the ads of Sintex water tanks.

6. Flexibility:

The ability of the media to adapt to changing and specific needs of advertisers is flexibility. Certain media allows such flexibility with respect to the advertised message, the geographical coverage and the ad budget For example: the times of India group of publication may offer advertisers the flexibility of placing ads in different editions of the paper. So if, for instance, Parle’s find that competitive activity has increased in Delhi, it may use the Delhi edition of Times of India to combat competitor’s activity.

7. Franchise Position:

Advertisers using a particular medium over a period of time may enjoy special franchise positions. Special page positions in magazines and newspapers may be reserved for them. For example: The back page of Business India may be booked by Bajaj Auto while the inside back cover of India Today may be booked on a long term basis by Wills Filter Cigarettes.

8. Standard of Acceptance and Codes of Ethics:

Most media vehicles have codes of ethics that set the standards of acceptance.

9. Cost per Thousand:

This is the most important consideration while making media decisions. Although the cost is considered while fixing the budget, the concept of cost per thousand is the accepted norm for measuring the media effectiveness. The formula for computing cost per thousand is equal to Price of the medium to the advertiser/Delivered audience (in thousands).

This formula has certain limitations. The delivered audience may not be the same as the prospective customers. Adjustments to arrive at the prospective customers are possible but this is not always easy to compute. Secondly, there is no data available to find out whether the delivered audience has actually seen or heard the advertised message.

10. Creative considerations:

Creative considerations such as the quality of reproduction, the colour effect, special effects, have to be considered. The medium must be appropriate for the ad message. For example: The ads for ice cream would be reproduced better in colour and therefore black and white newsprint is not appropriate. Media decisions have to be made in consultation with the creative team that has actually produced the ad. Within the medium selected, decisions related to unit buying, is also influenced by the creative team. There is a constant tug-of-war between the creative team and the media team . the creative team wants larger space, more TV and radio time and superior quality of POP material, while the media team along with the finance department of the client looks for  economy and maximizing the effect of every rupee spent on the media.

11. The medium and Target Consumer Match:

The media mix has to reach the target consumer. It the advertiser wants to reach men between 25 and 55 who are professional, the Economic Times will be obviously a more appropriate choice than Femina. But sometimes matching consumer profiles with media characteristics becomes a lot more difficult. For example: Media planners will find it difficult to decide which kind of households can be reached by the Hindi feature film TV slot v/s the 9 O’clock serial slot. A thorough analysis of the target market will help in making this match and will reduce wastage of media expenditure.

12. Language:  

In India this is an important consideration and depending upon which a particular ethic group has to be reached a particular language newspaper, or television and radio programme must be used.

13. Prestige of media:

It is said that the prestige of the advertising medium is transferred to the advertised product. When an ad appears in times of India, the image of the newspaper is transferred to the product and this helps in building the brand image. Sponsorship of prestigious programme such as the Oscar awards, Grammy awards, World Cup matches, are also considered prestigious advertising opportunities.

14. The Editorial Environmental:  

Since the broadcast media , that is the radio and TV media, are government  controlled, they are not perceived to have independent editorial policies. But the print media enjoys the freedom of press and each publication has its individual editorial philosophy. The editorial environment in turn influences reader profile. Advertisers would like to place their ads in publication having an appropriate editorial environment. For instance, the ads of political parties have appeared in various newspapers while the ads promoting brand name of liquor tend to use men’s magazines as their vehicles.

15. Nature of the product or services and nature of the market to be covered:

Some products have niche markets and a special direct advertising medium will be suitable for them. For example: Detergents for washing machines can be used only by people having washing machines, but daily consumer products have a wider market and hence may use mass media.

The geographical extent of the market has also to be considered. Is the market local, national or international for example: The ads of Air India will appear both in national media as well as international magazines and other media. But the ads of Indian Airlines will probably use only national media.

16. Availability of Media Time and Space:

Media time and space have to be booked in advance. When an announcement is to be made immediately, the advertiser has little choice but use the available media time and space. Most popular media slots have to be booked months in advance. Media buying has become an important component of media planning due to the cost constraints and increase in competitive activity.

Media Scheduling Methods.

Media scheduling decisions are the decisions about the timing, continuity and size of the ads. We have to see when to advertise, for how long, and for what time period. We have to see the size and placement of our ad.

Media scheduling is the very next managerial task. A media schedule is a time-bound detail of advertisements with reference to the media selected.

Media schedule portrays the total audience coverage, the message frequency and the continuity of the message. As noted earlier, coverage, reach, frequency and continuity are interrelated concepts and are to be carefully considered and weighed while developing media schedule.

Media scheduling decisions are extremely important for two reasons namely:

1. Purchases of radio and television time and news-paper and magazine space represent the largest elements of the cost in the advertising budget.

2. The success of an advertisement in achieving advertising objectives largely depends on how each show or magazine reaches the consumers in the target market segment.

Following are some of the media scheduling theories that assist the advertising executives in media schedule development. Though these provide quantitative tools of media scheduling, an advertising manager is expected to employ his judgment because, he has failed to measure accurately all the attributes of all the media open to him. Here, a mention is made of three theories of scheduling.

Many Organizations Make Use of the Three Scheduling Strategies

Scheduling refers to the pattern of advertising timing, represented as plots on a yearly flowchart. These plots indicate the pattern of scheduled times that coincide with favorable selling periods. The classic scheduling models are continuity, flighting, and pulsing.

Continuity

Alternative to continuity is fighting where advertising runs for some period and then there is a gap, and again it runs for some period. The interval between two advertising runs comes after a flight. The message can be schedule to correspond to peak purchasing periods or at a time when the audience is most receptive.

When we have a media mix alternative flights are adjusted in such a way in different media that overall continuity is achieved.

When an ad is run in the media for a long period without any gap, we are using continuity scheduling. It is used for those products, which are in demand round the years. The ads are in the form of reminder. This model is primarily for non-seasonal products and some seasonal products. Advertising runs steadily with little variation over a campaign period. There may be short gaps at regular intervals and also long gaps—for instance, one ad every week for 52 weeks, and then a pause. This pattern of advertising is prevalent in service and packaged goods that require continuous reinforcement on the audience for top of mind recollection at point of purchase.

Advantages:

    • Works as a reminder.
    • Covers the entire purchase cycle.
    • Cost efficiencies in the form of large media discounts.
    • Positioning advantages within media.
  • Program or plan that identifies the media channels used in an advertising campaign, and specifies insertion or broadcast dates, positions, and duration of the messages.

Flighting

In media scheduling for seasonal product categories, flighting involves intermittent and irregular periods of advertising, alternating with shorter periods of no advertising at all. For instance, all of 2000 Target Rating Pioneered in a single month, “going dark” for the rest of the year. Halloween costumes are rarely purchased all year except during the months of September and October.

Advantages:

    • Advertisers buy heavier weight than competitors for a relatively shorter period of time.
    • Little waste, since advertising concentrates on the best purchasing cycle period.
  • Series of commercials appear as a unified campaign on different media vehicles.

Pulsing

Pulsing combines flighting and continuous scheduling by using a low advertising level all year round and heavy advertising during peak selling periods. Product categories that are sold year round but experience a surge in sales at intermittent periods are good candidates for pulsing. For instance, under-arm deodorants, sell all year, but more during the summer months. It represents a consistent low-level advertising activity, and addition of pulse to make a high-level of advertising during certain periods.  A pulse is a period of intense advertising activity. The pulses can occur at the start while launching a new product. There can a promotional pulse of one shot, e.g., financial advertising of a company’s issue. Bursting is a technique for scheduling TV ads. Here the commercial is repeated on the same channel time and again to reinforce the message for a short period.

Advantages:

    • Covers different market situations.
  • Advantages of both continuity and flighting possible.


Advertising timing is also an important factor. It should be adjusted as per time gap exists between advertising time and its impact. Computer-based mathematical model can be formulated to study these time relations. Advertiser has to decide on advertising time for different types of products, such as frequently purchased, seasonal products, and low-cost daily consumed products. Along with seasonal or cyclical aspect, an advertiser should also consider impact of the past advertising. Many consumers continue buying even without the present advertisement.Advertising message can be timed in four ways depending upon our objectives

    1. To time the message in such a way that the customers are most interested in buying that type of a product, e.g., fridges in summer, soft drinks in summer, woolens in winter, gift items during Deepavali.
    1. To time the message in such a way that it stimulates demand in the lean period, e.g., ice creams in winter, holiday resorts in monsoons.
    1. To time in such a way that it bypass competitive campaigns, e.g., Pepsi commercials are to be aired when there are no Coke commercials.
  1. To time in such a way that the message is carried by the media when the audience is receptive to it, e.g., household products in the afternoon slot of TV when housewives watch TV.

Factors Influencing Media Scheduling:

(1) Type of Product:

If the product is seasonal then more advertisement is conducted during on-period and less advertisement can be applied during the off-season of a product. For example, Jewelry has more demand during festival periods, therefore advertiser advertised more during the festival period.

(2) Type of Audience:

There are various types of target audience such as working men or women, small children’s, housewife’s, college students. School students, elder people, younger people, etc. The advertiser has to select the target audience according to their like, dislike, utility, taste preferences, uses of the products. It means advertisers product has to be matched with the specific target audience. After selection of target audience then advertiser selects the media thereby it helps to reach awareness of the product to the specific target audience.

(3) Introduction of Product:

If the product is new then regular advertisements need to be displayed in popular media. Once the product is well established in the market then the frequency of the advertisement is decreased.

(4) Rival’s strategy in scheduling:

If rivals publishing their product by selecting of most popular media according to the time and frequency, then we too adjust our advertising time-frequency according to rival’s strategy thereby our product ki also able to compete with rival’s product.

(5) Estimation of Advertising budget:

Advertiser hab more money, than the ability able to invest money most popular media. On the other hand, if the advertiser has less money than advertiser selects those media which suit according to his advertising budget.

(6) Television / Radio Scheduling:

Advertiser selects those TV programmes whose rating is high and also retains audience to watch the program. The advertiser selects the time and place to advertise the product during that specific programme only. TV and Radio programmes are a weekly basis, daily basis or seasonal basis. Advertiser adjust the ads between the programmes thereby audience see the programme along with ads.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Newspaper Advertising

Life without newspapers is like life without a cup of tea or coffee. Newspaper is one that gives news, views, interpretations, opinions, comments and explanation regarding social, economic, political, cultural, moral, ecological, meteorological and wide variety of walks of fast changing life.

In India, there are 21 major languages, published in 91 languages, India has 20,000 newspapers. For every 40 literate persons there is one paper.

When an advertiser is placing a display ad, then the advertiser is charged the amount of space, which the Ad occupies in the Newspaper. The price of the space varies with certain factors:

    • Newspaper circulation (the larger the circulation the higher the price charged)
    • Size of ad
    • Use of colour
    • Guaranteed position in the newspaper
    • Day the advertisement runs
  • Advertising frequency

The Physical Appearance of an Advertisement often determines its attractiveness to the reader. Some aspects considered in ad preparation are:

    • Size of the ad
    • Use of colour
    • Amount of white space, i.e., not too crowded
    • Graphics chosen.
  • Typestyle and size of a Text.

Newspaper is a long running medium which is still trusted by a large mass. Many People still believe something only if it is on a Newspaper and not otherwise. A Newspaper Advertisement has many merits and advantages. However, it even has its disadvantages.

Merits of Newspaper in brief:

    • Wide coverage.
    • Quick response.
    • Regularity and frequency.
    • Flexibility and speed.
  • Economical.

Demerits of Newspaper in brief:

    • Shortest life.
    • Lack of quality reproduction.
    • Waste in circulation.
  • Possibility of duplication.

Advantages of Newspaper Advertising:

Credibility:

The respect and name which any newspaper brand carries, is directly transferred to the advertised product/service perceiving newspaper advertisements as more credible. The target customer identifies the product advertisement with the newspaper it appears in.

Segmentation:

The content of the newspaper decides the readership of that newspaper. Example, a Regional newspaper will have its own readers belonging to the respective languages. Editorial Content is also influential for its type of readers and thus offers segmentation of the market.

The Independent claims that its Readers are young decision-makers, and highly educated as well as professional. Whereas, the Times of India has a great appeal among the middle and older age groups.

 

The characteristics of selectivity and variety explained above increase the newspaper’s advantage in market segmentation.

 

Flexibility:

An Advertiser has a control over the scheduling. The Advertiser can freely issue Ads on any day of the week, as per the requirement. Newspapers offer enormous flexibility in Content, Design, Placement, Size of the Ads, Colour, Special Advertisements, etc. and frequency.

Plus, newspapers are a “rapid response” medium – you can refine Your message or change your whole campaign. Short lead times make it possible to change your messages quickly to respond to real-world events and opportunities.

An Advertiser can have maximum flexibility in the Campaign. In might be raining in one part of a country, whereas it might be winter in another. An Advertiser can easily choose to Position Advertisements regarding Winterwears and Raincoats in different regions.

If a City faces the problem of Natural Disaster, then the Advertiser can promote about how the Company can be helpful in the situation through the Paper, whereas it can also tell to other Areas of the country about the help provided by the company or safety guidelines. There are many possibilities with a Newspaper.

Measuring Reach:

With the help of The Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) it is possible to estimate the achieve Readership and Reach. ABC gives the Readership and Circulation Figures and therefore it is possible to measure the reach of different newspapers.

Mobility:

Newspaper can be carried and read anywhere, while travelling, or at the place of work. When an Advertiser makes use of the Newspaper Medium, then the Advertiser gets the Advantage of Mobility. A Reader might be carrying the Newspaper, sitting at home and reading it, going to office with it, wherever the Reader may be reading the newspaper he/she will read it with attention. And so the Advertiser gets advantage of Mobility.

Cheap:

Unlike other Mediums, Newspaper is a cheaper medium. Tends to be cheaper than other media, depending on a number of variables. And so it becomes easier for an Advertiser to Advertise.

Exposure:

Newspaper is good for repeat exposure, a vital element of effective advertising. Readers need to see something on an average of six to eight times before they “see” an ad or respond to it.

Reach:

Newspaper can reach people who otherwise have little access to other media. Many people buy a newspaper, not for the news, but to find out what’s on sale today, or what’s happening today. Movie ads are a prime example.

Penetration:

Other Mediums have a higher purchase value, and not everyone will be consuming each and every medium, at the particular time. The chances of the advertisement to not reach the audience are very high. Newspaper on the other hand is available locally in every city, state, region. And they provide a better local market penetration than magazines.

Split Run Facilities:

Many newspapers offer split run facilities. The Split Run Test is a service used for testing Print Advertisements, in which, the Media cooperates with an Advertiser in allowing the same space for two or more copy variations to appear in systematic rotation through the entire circulation. This permits simultaneous circulation of two or more advertisements in identical editorial surroundings with comparable audiences.

Limitation of Newspapers Advertising

Despite the above advantages newspapers have the following limitations :

Limited Coverage:

In India with the literacy, the level being low newspapers cannot be used to penetrate the lower income segments of the market.

Short Life:

It is often said: “as stale as yesterday’s newspaper.” A newspaper has a very limited life and therefore advertising will have little impact beyond the day of publication. Newspaper frequency varies from medium and large-city dailies to community newspapers that print weekly or bimonthly. Newspaper advertisements’ short shelf life considerably limits each advertiser’s ability to reach its target audience.

Daily newspapers are especially affected, as readers may toss only a cursory glance at each day’s paper before running out the door to work. If the reader does not read the paper by the end of that day, ads that feature daily specials will be obsolete. Some advertisers may lack funds to advertise frequently, which makes it even less likely the business will reach its potential customers.

Hasty Reading:

The ad must make its impression quickly or it will fade away from the reader’s memory.

Cost:

Small advertisers find this medium as an expensive medium to market their products especially the morning newspapers which have high tariffs for placing small ads.

Usage:

 It is not possible to demonstrate the usage of the product as in television commercials. This will refrain the consumer from experiencing the actual feel of the product.

Commercial Based:

Another thing that can be a disadvantage. of reading newspapers is that they are becoming more and more commercial based. They have started to give more and more space for the advertisements which are not the primary purpose of a newspaper.

Media Competition:

 Newspapers face unrelenting competition from other consumer information sources. Cable television provides 24-hour-a-day news along with in-depth coverage of major events and news stories. Broadcast and cable channel, Internet sites often cover additional story angles and frequently update content in close to real time. In contrast, a newspaper operates on non-negotiable production deadlines that limit the freshness of its content. This reduced ability to provide current news, plus readers’ tendency to only view select newspaper sections, has helped drive a decline in overall newspaper circulation.

Low Younger:

Market Readership: Younger consumers often receive news, entertainment information and shopping opportunities via computers and portable electronic devices. These highly mobile media meet younger adults’ needs effectively, meaning that these consumers rarely have a need or desire to browse a newspaper.

Ad Clutter:

 Newspaper pages often mix ads with editorial content, although some pages are devoted solely to advertising. A reader can easily focus on a full-page ad since no other ads compete for his attention. In contrast, m page’s multiple ads create visual clutter and competing for messages. with small Advertisers, especially businesses or unimaginative ads, risk having their ad completely passed over while the reader engages with larger or more interesting graphics. Readers viewing multiple ads may also subconsciously spend less time on each individual ad.

Things which the Question Did not ask for, but Ben Shapiro did.

Types of Newspapers Advertising:

The ads appearing in the newspaper can be divided into different categories as follows:

Display advertising:

This type of advertising uses illustrations, headlines, white space and other visual devices in addition to the text in the newspapers. This can be further divided into local and national. Supermarkets and departmental stores are among the local display advertisers. Local advertising is also referred to as retail advertising. Advertising of products which are sold and branded on a national level by marketers is national advertising.

Cooperative advertising:

The cost incurred on local ads is shared between the manufacturer and retailers this is known as co-operative advertising. Local display advertising is charged at a lower rate than the general display advertising. The manufacturer pays the retailer for advertising their products sometimes less or all of the cost incurred.

Classified ads:

These ads appear under different categories or classes such as employment, real estate, matrimonial, automobiles and so on. These ads appear in text as well as visuals which are called as classified display ads. These ads are written by the advertisers and then. sent to the press for printing. This type of advertising uses illustrations, headlines, white spaces, colours and borders in addition to the text in the newspapers.

The newspaper also put a pre-printed ad insert in the Paper. The paper with the insert is delivered to the reader. It is just a method of distribution for advertisers. It can be geographically selective and cost-effective.

Characteristics of Newspapers:

Instant delivery:

The message is delivered and conveyed in less time. The advertising copy can be written closely before going to press. This is useful when there is less time to promote a new product or making public announcements, For example, when the manufacturer of Good Knight launched “HIT” mosquito repellent, half page ads were inserted in the Times of India to announce this launch.

Selectivity:

The marketer can select the geographical area according to the language to disseminate the message to be communicated. Newspapers offer split-run facilities using which advertisers can test different campaigns in different geographical areas.

Newspapers Mechanical Requirements:

Space for placing ads in newspapers is sold on the basis of columns and inches. .Newspapers are printed in .variety of sizes, with the most common sizes being Broadsheet, Berliner, Tabloid & Compact. Newspapers have recently begun offering colour supplements. For example, the Saturday Times of the Times of India, ET Esquire of The Economic Times and the Sunday supplements of most of the newspapers.

In addition to innovative colour techniques, newspapers are adding other features to attract advertisers. Flexform advertising is one of the latest innovations in newspaper advertising offering the advertiser the opportunity in any conceivable shape. Those parts of the newspaper page not containing the advertisement are filled with editorial matter.

For example, the ads of Cinthol Lime, lime Lite and Liril have used the technique. Such conventional layouts, surrounded by editorial matter are hard for the reader to ignore.

Variety

Different variety of material is provided in the newspaper for readers to have an interest in reading. Topics related to women, politics, sports, finance, city news, comics, puzzles and crosswords, etc. An advertiser can select a target market by placing his advertisements in certain sections or pages of the paper.

Reach

Newspapers are read by most of the public in the morning. The readership is much more than the circulation.

Types of a Newspaper:

The different types of newspapers are categorized by the target audience, geographic coverage, and frequency of publication.

Factors affecting the choice of newspapers are as follows:

Reach:

Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) is a body which gives the details of a specific newspaper’s circulation. The number of copies distributed daily or weekly is the circulation which decides the reach of the newspaper.

Earned Rate:

Some newspaper organisations force advertisers to use more than one newspaper of the same publication. This practice is to avail discounts i.e. giving schemes for the total no of ads or buying space by using different editions of the same newspaper. It can offer a combination rate which is lesser than the rate of buying in each individual media. Ad rates are ROP – Run of Press, those ads can be placed anywhere on any page and advertiser has no control over it. But if a special position is preferred by the advertiser for placing the ads then rates are higher for such positions.

Split Run Facilities:

Many newspapers offer split run facilities at a little extra cost. The publication house agrees to give space to an advertiser who has prepared two same ads with variations in content which are printed on different pages of 1 the same newspaper. This permits simultaneous circulation of two or more advertisements in identical editorial surroundings with comparable audiences.

Advertising Rate:

A publishing house which offers discounted rates attracts the advertisers who have budget limitations. Publishing groups such as the Times of India offer special rates for booking space in several newspapers from the same group. (for example, an advertiser would get a competitive rate if he placed ads in the Times of India, Navbharat Times, The economic times and the illustrated weekly.

Space Available:

The positions available in the newspapers are also of a prime consideration. higher rates are charged for placing ads on the fon page, similarly, positions close to the popular sections are also in demand by advertisers.

Language

This consideration is closely related to the profile of the readers. When an advertiser wants to appeal to a specific ethnic group he may use regional language newspapers. Regional language newspapers attract products which have local markets.

Colour:

Many newspapers offer colour supplements which are more attractive than the black and white section. Advertisers are willing to pay higher rates to enjoy the colour advantage.

Time of Issue:

Time is the important decision maker in promoting a product. A new product launch would attract attention in the morning edition of a newspaper. On the contrast, afternoon newspaper will advertise household utility items.

Socio-Economic Classification

The SEC Classification is the classification of Indian consumers on the basis of parameters. Traditionally the two parameters used to categorize consumers were: Occupation and Education of the chief wage earner (Head) of the households.

The SEC classification, created in 1988, was ratified by Market Research Society of India (MRSI), is used by most media researchers and brand managers to understand the Indian consuming class. It is a method by which the population is divided into segments on the basis of their social and economic status. An effective socio-economic classification system helps us in achieving the following

Originally developed by IMRB International as a way of understanding market segments, and consumer behavior it was standardized and adopted by the Market Research Society of India in the mid-1980s as a measure of socio-economic class and is now commonly used as a market segmentation tool in India.

In the older version,the SEC Classification consists of two grids-

    • The Urban SEC Grid, which uses Education levels and Occupational criteria of the Chief Wage Earner (CWE) of a household as measures to determine socio-economic classification, and segments urban India into 7 groups (A1 to E2) and
  • The Rural SEC Grid, which uses Education and Type of House (pucca, semi-pucca, and katcha) as measures of socio-economic class, and segments rural India into 4 groups (R1,R2,R3,R4)

This is based on the assumption that higher education leads to higher income thus higher consuming potential. But we know that this may not be true always. A trader or a retailer with no qualification can earn more income than a Post graduate executive, but SEC will categorize the traders/retailers not as SEC A1or A2.

So, in order to combat this problem, the Government came up with the new SEC system on 3 May 2011.

The new SEC system is based on two variables:

1. Education of the Chief Earner.

The options are Illiterate, Literate but no formal schooling or Schooling unto 4 years, Schooling between 5–9 years, High School pass, Some college (including a diploma but not a graduate), Graduate / Post Graduate (General), Graduate / Post Graduate (Professional)

2. The number of Consumer durables(pre-decided from a list of 11 items) owned by the family.

The list of 11 items are: Electricity Connection, Ceiling Fan, LPG Stove, Two Wheeler, Color TV, Refrigerator, Washing Machine, Personal Computer/Laptop, Car/Jeep/Van, Air Conditioner, Agricultural Land

There are 12 grades in the new system starting from A1 to E3.

These grids are used to determine the consumption preferences, and purchasing power of households, and are common tools used by social and business researchers working in India. The SEC grid does not use family income levels as a measure as this data is hard to collect and it has been demonstrated that education levels and occupation criteria in India are better determinants of consumer preference. The methodology used in these tools differs from the Household Potential Index, which measures consumption intensity.

Advantages of new SEC system

    • More discrimination as compared with current systems
    • A single system for urban and rural India
    • Less subjectivity-as we no longer use occupation
  • It’s simple-easy to answer, not very time consuming, easy to classify

Disadvantages of New SEC

    • We need to be better prepared to handle minor changes to the system, because “consumer durables”penetration will change faster than education or occupation.
  • The questioning can appear intrusive to people who are unaccustomed to market research.

Factors to consider while choosing a magazine as an advertising medium / Magazine Buying

For many advertisers magazine has always been a second advertising option after television. There are different types of magazines published on the base of different market segments. For e.g. Fashion, Women, Sports, Trade, Music, Interior decor, Furniture, Spiritual and Regional magazines. Magazines are segmented by topic area. People reading magazines also tend to pay attention to the advertisements featuring in them. Trade and business journal are a major medium for B2B (Business to Business) marketing. Details of the product can be provided for an understanding of the customer. High-quality colour and images attract the attention of the target audiences. People who subscribe to these magazines read and reread them. The advertisers know that the reader would be exposed to the ad more than once and examine the issue several times.

Factors affecting choice of Magazine are as follows:

Extra Points added for clarity. The Policy is same since my first set of notes. Extra Points, so that you read and understand. And if you forget one Point, you have another extra one :’)

While planning magazine ads, we have to consider factors like circulation and readership, ad rates, placement of ads, special facilities given by the magazines.

Circulation and Readership:

Circulation is a figure which indicates the number of copies of a Magazine which would be sold per day, weekly, monthly, etc. and thereby denote the number of people who saw the Ad. However, the circulation for magazines keeps on fluctuating.

The Advertising Rates are based on a guaranteed circulation figure. It is the figure of those least number of copies which will be delivered. Primary readership of a magazine is the readership of actual buyers or subscribers. Secondary Readership get to read the magazine as it is passed on by the primary readers. Secondary readership is a matter of research. It always exceeds the circulation. (ABC) Audit Bureau of Circulation certifies a magazines circulation.

Magazines Ad Rates:

Magazine publishers fix their rates depending on various factors like circulation, quality of audience, number of audience in the business, their brand image. T The rate card shows the rate to be paid and production specifications. It also spells out agency’s commission policy and provides other relevant information. The rates increase depending upon the number of colour used. There are separate rates for Black and White and colour ads.

Bleed ad has its background colour spread all over the page till its edges. It carries an extra charge. Magazines offer a variety of sizes – full-page, half-page, quarter-page ads. Fractions of a page in several combination can be offered. Gatefold ad opens like a safe, when its two folds are opened. It occupies an extra-wide page.

Run-of-press ads are placed anywhere. The basic rates quoted by a newspaper entitle the ad to a run-of-paper (abbreviated ROP) position anywhere in the paper that the publisher chooses to place it, although the paper will be mindful of the advertiser’s request and interest in getting a good position. An advertiser may buy a choice position by paying a higher, preferred-position rate, which is similar to paying for a box seat in a stadium instead of general admission. Example, A cosmetic advertiser may buy a preferred position on the women’s page. There are preferred positions on individual pages. An advertiser can pay for the top of a column or the top of a column next to news reading matter (called full position).

Audience Selectivity:  

Magazines targets a highly selective audience. And its readers, read at the given time of its release, so it may be a week, month, or year. As we noted earlier, the audience niche reached by a publication is normally the starting point for evaluating a magazine. Successful magazines tend to appeal to relatively audience segments, especially compared to the general magazines of the 1950s such as Life, Look, and The Saturday Evening Post. However, today even the largest – circulation publications have an identifiable editorial focus. Sports Illustrated, TV Guide, and Modern Maturity all reach millions of readers but concentrate on relatively few topics.

The closest publications to the general – circulation magazines of the past are Reader’s Digest and the newspaper – distributed supplements USA Weekend and Parade. However, it is apparent that the typical consumer magazine reaches a particular demographic or lifestyle category. The combination of clearly defined demographics and compatible editorial environment make magazines important to many advertisers, either as the primary building block of a media schedule or as a valuable supplement to other media.

Exposure to a company’s primary target audiences.

Magazines can reach the defined audience segments, especially the rich or the high income households. There is no question that magazines represent the most efficient means of a significant segment of customers, however, magazine can ensure reaching to future customers. When the marketing objective is to reach affluent customers, magazines will almost always play a central role in the advertising plan.

Long life and creative options.

A TV commercial is over in 30 seconds, we whiz by a highway billboard so quickly that only a fleeting glance is possible, and the average newspaper is in the recycling bin before we leave for work. In this disposable media world, magazines stand alone as a tangible vehicle. Magazines are often used as reference sources. Articles are clipped, back issues are filed, and readers may go back to a favourite magazine numerous times before finally discarding it. Advertisers potentially benefit from each of the exposures.

Magazines also offer advertisers a wide range of flexible formats such as double-page spreads, bright colours, even product sampling. Magazines are particularly suited to long copy. Discussions of detailed product attributes for automobiles and appliances as well as advertising for financial services all lend themselves to magazines.

Credibility

Many consumer magazines are considered leading authorities in their field. The Consumers believe that due to the name and reach of the magazine, the products are endorsed by the magazine, the products are therefore genuine and reliable as well. As previously mentioned, this position and goodwill a Magazine carries along with it, acts as a symbol of faith and trust towards its consumers. This is a method of endorsing products that are advertising in the publication.

Compatible Editorial Environment

There is a wide category of audience, who are dedicated towards a medium, often during a particular period. Many people hear the radio, or watch the prime-time television, and a lot of people see billboards while they are on their way, home, from work. However, not all of these can be measured. An advertiser cannot always estimate the success of his campaign. In such cases, a medium like Magazine can guarantee a strong relationship and cooperation between the reader and the editorial content.

Reader Involvement

Reader involvement is directly related to the credibility and editorial relationship that any reader of the magazine develops with their favourite magazine.  The ultimate measure of magazine as an advertising vehicle will be determined by their ability to deliver it at a competitive cost.

Long Closing Dates

A Medium like Radio, Internet, or Newspaper possess the power of speed. They are able to deliver advertisements, news, material, and can grasp with their audience very quickly. This does not stand true in the case of a magazine, which undergoes a long process, of the sorting of data, the submission of the advertising material and when will the advertisement run. In some cases an advertisement can run 8-10 weeks after an advertiser has submitted it.

There is a long waiting time, which makes it tough for many advertisers to invest, or react to the current marketing conditions either in scheduling space or developing a competitive copy The long closing dates are one reason why most magazine copy is very general.

Availability of Demographic and Geographic Editions

National Magazines have special issues for regional or demographic readers of its total circulated editions. These special issues are called Partial Runs and are very vital for magazine advertising. On a national scale, magazine demographic and geographic editions meet the same demands of large advertisers.

Demographic Editions

Magazine offers demographic selectivity through special editions and its ability to reach special groups.

Vocational Editions

A Magazine may identify professionals or executives among its readers and allow advertisers to purchase a partial run directed only at these readers.

Advantages of Magazine Advertising:

Additional Points. The newspapers and magazines have different advantages though both belong to the print media. The peculiar advantages of magazines are:

Demographic selectivity:

Each magazine thus helps us to target a particular age group, gender group and income group. Special interest magazines provide a specific audience. Thus Femina is a magazine for young women, and Griha Shobha has a typical audience of middle-class women.

Regional Selectivity:

According to the different regions, advertisers target their reach. This automatically concentrates on the potential buyers and avoids wastage circulation.

Flexibility:

Advertisements can be made available in any shape, size and colour. Innovative adds like pop-up ads, sample-bearing ads, scented ads, etc. can be experimented.

Long life:

Magazines once bought can be read over a period of time and even be reread as per the convenience of the reader.

The durability of Message:

Since ore time is consumed in reading a magazine. It means that the chances of the ad message being seen are more in magazines. As the magazine is preserved for a longer time, the message has a durability of longer duration.

Bleed

In printing, bleed is printing that goes beyond the edge of where the sheet will be trimmed. In other words, the bleed is the area to be trimmed off. The bleed is the part on the side of a document that gives the printer a small amount of space to account for movement of the paper, and design inconsistencies. Artwork and background colors often extend into the bleed area. After trimming, the bleed ensures that no unprinted edges occur in the final trimmed document.

It is very difficult to print exactly to the edge of a sheet of paper/card, so to achieve this, it is necessary to print a slightly larger area than is needed and then trim the paper/card down to the required finished size. Images, background images and fills which are intended to extend to the edge of the page must be extended beyond the trim line to give a bleed.

Bleeds in the US generally are 1/8 of an inch from where the cut is to be made. Bleeds in Europe generally are 2 to 5mm from where the cut is to be made. This can vary from one print company to another. Some printers ask for specific sizes; most of these companies place the specific demands on their website or offer templates that are already set to their required bleed settings.

Stripping

Stripping is scheduling a syndicated program on a five-day-per-week basis. That is, they will run Monday through Friday in the same time slot. This practice called stripping is since the show is stripped across a time period. It is cost efficient to buy fewer shows for multi-showings and allows a station to build a consistent audience for selling commercial to potential advertisers. Channels do not want huge rating or audience composition swings from one day to another.

The above was what I found in our notes however I feel there should be more, so I have added from Internet. If it does not match do let me know

The most common form is known as strip syndication or daily syndication, when episodes of a television series are shown daily five times a week in the same time slot. In the 1960s and 1970s, independent stations with no news departments began viewing strip syndication as a necessary means of obtaining effective counterprogramming to the local news programs airing on network affiliates. Typically, this means that enough episodes must exist (88 episodes, or four seasons, is the usual minimum, though many syndicators prefer a fully rounded 100 episodes) to allow for continual strip syndication to take place over the course of several months, without episodes being repeated. However, there are exceptions, such as the 65-episode block (common in children’s programming), which allows for a 13-week cycle of daily showings, so there will only be four repeats in a year.

In some cases, more than one episode is shown daily. Half-hour sitcoms are sometimes syndicated in groups of two or four episodes, taking up one or two hours of broadcast time. If a series is not strip syndicated, it may be aired once a week, instead of five times a week. This allows shows with fewer episodes to last long in syndication, but it also may mean viewers will tire of waiting a week for the next episode of a show they have already seen and stop watching. More often, hour-long dramas in their first several runs in syndication are offered weekly; sitcoms are more likely to get stripped. In recent years, there has been something of a trend toward showing two consecutive episodes of a program on Saturday and Sunday nights after prime time (generally following the local news). This pattern has been particularly prominent for shows which are still in production but have run long enough to have many previous episodes available.

Factors affecting Newspapers

Factors affecting the choice of newspapers are as follows:

Reach:

Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) is a body which gives the details of a specific newspaper’s circulation. The number of copies distributed daily or weekly is the circulation which decides the reach of the newspaper.

Earned Rate:

Some newspaper organisations force advertisers to use more than one newspaper of the same publication. This practice is to avail discounts i.e. giving schemes for the total no of ads or buying space by using different editions of the same newspaper. It can offer a combination rate which is lesser than the rate of buying in each individual media. Ad rates are ROP – Run of Press, those ads can be placed anywhere on any page and advertiser has no control over it. But if a special position is preferred by the advertiser for placing the ads then rates are higher for such positions.

Split Run Facilities:

Many newspapers offer split run facilities at a little extra cost. The publication house agrees to give space to an advertiser who has prepared two same ads with variations in content which are printed on different pages of 1 the same newspaper. This permits simultaneous circulation of two or more advertisements in identical editorial surroundings with comparable audiences.

Advertising Rate:

A publishing house which offers discounted rates attracts the advertisers who have budget limitations. Publishing groups such as the Times of India offer special rates for booking space in several newspapers from the same group. (for example, an advertiser would get a competitive rate if he placed ads in the Times of India, Navbharat Times, The economic times and the illustrated weekly.

Space Available:

The positions available in the newspapers are also of a prime consideration. higher rates are charged for placing ads on the fon page, similarly, positions close to the popular sections are also in demand by advertisers.

Language

This consideration is closely related to the profile of the readers. When an advertiser wants to appeal to a specific ethnic group he may use regional language newspapers. Regional language newspapers attract products which have local markets.

Colour:

Many newspapers offer colour supplements which are more attractive than the black and white section. Advertisers are willing to pay higher rates to enjoy the colour advantage.

Time of Issue:

Time is the important decision maker in promoting a product. A new product launch would attract attention in the morning edition of a newspaper. On the contrast, afternoon newspaper will advertise household utility items.

Radio Advertising / Radio Media Buying

Radio advertising offers you the opportunity to deliver a simple yet powerful message to a targeted group of consumers that may be interested in your product or service.

Just like advertisers pay for the commercials you see on television during your favorite show, some advertisers also choose to focus their marketing dollars on radio advertising. That is, buying commercials, frequently called spots in the radio industry, to promote their products or services. Advertisers pay commercial radio stations for airtime and, in exchange, the radio station broadcasts the advertiser’s commercial to its listening audience.

In radio advertising, there are numerous types of commercials that an advertiser might employ, similar to how brands might pursue different print advertising options (newspaper vs. magazine, for example) or electronic advertising options (email vs. social media).

Advantages of Radio Advertiser

Wider Appeal: Radio advertising has mass coverage because it has a reach of rural and urban areas, irrelative whether people are literature, belonging to different languages, young or old but can listen to the radio in their leisure time or even while working.

Selectivity

Different types of radio programmes can be used for different products advertisements. Advertisements for seeds, fertilizers and pesticides can be used in the programmes meant for farmers.

Flexibility

Same ads can be repeated in different programmes to reach different types of customers. Also, changes in the commercials of radio can be done quickly as per the changing market conditions.

All Day Broadcast:

Throughout the day broadcast enables the message to reach repeatedly to the desired customers.

Lower Cost of Production:

Radio commercials can be produced in a low cost of budget and in less time; therefore it can be afforded by small firms also.

Popular Medium:

India has low literacy rates so newspapers have limited significance; radio is a popular both with advertisers and audiences. To the advertisers, news breaks on the radio are the peak listening points when it pays to advertise.

Simplicity

The simplicity of radio can be a major advantage in making tactical marketing decisions. Radio’s sense of immediacy and flexibility, all at a cost within the budget of even the smallest advertiser, has made it an important part of the strategy of many advertisers.

Flexibility and Timeliness:

An advertiser can wait until close to an air date before submitting the ad. With this flexibility, advertisers can take advantage of special events or unique competitive opportunities in a timely fashion.

Disadvantages of Radio Advertising:

Inattentiveness

Listeners may forget or miss the commercials after a period of time since radio is strictly a listening medium. It is considered a pleasant background and does not always pay attention to it.

Imageless

Products that need a demonstration or need to be seen or appreciated cannot be advertised in radio. Ads, where the product has to be seen, is a challenge in radio advertising. Humour, sound effects and music are the most effective way to create visualisation is believed by experts.

Clutter:

Increase in the number of radio stations has led to clustering of radio stations and therefore the ads are also being repeated leading to tremendous clutter in radio advertising.

Scheduling and Buying:

To reach the audience on mass scale advertisers need to buy time on several stations. This can result in complicating scheduling and evaluating.

Lack of Control:

Much is at stake on the announcer’s presentation that has to do hard-selling job. An insistent voice really irritates. Audience research on the radio is a really grey area. In India, before advertisers can think of radio as a serious medium, this research data should be easily available.

Fragmentation:

A large number of stations tries to attract the same audience in a market has created tremendous fragmentation. This means the percentage of listeners tuned to any one station is likely to be small.

Buying Radio

Advertising on the radio has consistently proven to be an effective and efficient medium to help generate brand awareness and grow business for a variety of companies and in a variety of geographical markets. But for small and mid-sized businesses that are on a tight budget, it pays to know some tricks of the trade to keep radio advertising affordable.

Despite the rise of television, cable, and the Internet as advertising platforms, radio advertising has still retained its presence in the market. Certain types of companies tend to advertise more on the radio — auto dealers, banks, jewellers, salons, and so on. They tend to be local and they often provide a phone number, website, or location so that you can reach them. “At the end of the day, a lot of them want you to come into the store”.

At one time, radio held a unique role in the media schedule of most advertisers.

It helped other media vehicles to support the schedule. It plays an important role in unanticipated marketing conditions. Radio was valuable as a niche medium. As we have seen, radio often reaches market segments that are not heavy users of other media. For example, for many teenagers radio is the primary medium, while print is very ineffective. Today, advertisers continue to use radio for each of these marketing and advertising objectives.

At one time, radio competed only with newspapers. All of these competitors have a visual element that radio lacks. It has never been more important for radio to develop creative strategies to overcome this major disadvantage. Buying radio is a part of overall media strategy. A media planner identifies the station that will reach the target audience. Then the rates are checked to match the media planning objectives. Radio offers unique characteristics that will allow it to be considered for at least a secondary role in the advertising plans of virtually all advertisers.

Using Radio Ratings:

Radio ratings are calculated in the same way as that of television. The size of the radio audience, fragmented nature of radio programs and formats has created a system in which ratings are different than TV.

Primary differences between the use of ratings in television and radio are the following:

    • Radio advertisers are interested in broad formats rather than programs or more narrowly defined television scatter plans.
    • Radio ratings tend to measure audience accumulation over relatively long periods of time or several dayparts. Mostly TV ratings are for individual programs.
    • Radio stations have a small number of listeners than television, therefore, the radio ratings are less trustworthy.
  • The advertising frequency in radio needs to be more in comparison with other media vehicles since most radio stations can reach the only limited target audience at a given period of time.

Ambient Advertising

The placement of advertising in unusual and unexpected places (location) often with unconventional methods (execution) and being first or only ad execution to do so (temporal).

Newness, creativity, novelty and timing are key themes in ambient advertising. This definition is deliberately narrow and attempts to exclude ‘mainstream’ advertising Implicit in this definition are that Ambient is a moveable and somewhat subjective term and will shift according to the advertising norms of the day.

One of the fundamental premises of Ambient is that the world is an advertising stage. Everything is a potential advertising medium—sides of cows, rockets, golf-hole cups etc.

Ambient was first used in relation to advertising in 1996 by Concord Advertising, a UK agency specializing in outdoor campaigns.

It evolved from a need to apply a single term to what was an increasing request from clients for ‘something a bit different’ in their advertising.  Clients, concerned with issues of cut-through, competition, decreased effectiveness and disinterested audiences wanted (and still want) advertising ‘with bite’ from their agencies.

This push by clients for something different saw agencies placing ads in unusual places, such on as floors, petrol pump handles and backs of toilet doors – previously not considered as locations for advertising.

Such campaigns did not fit neatly into existing categories like out-door, print, radio or television and hence anew term was coined. Unusual locations are considered a defining characteristic for Ambient advertising.

However, ‘unusual locations’ lose their point of difference with repetition and time, and so cease to be something different.

Therefore, Unusual location is not the only point of difference for Ambient. The method of execution is often unusual as well.

Holographic projections, role-plays and graffiti are a few examples of this and certainly fit within the ‘something different’ imperative

This suggests two things. Unusual location is not the only point of difference for Ambient. The method of execution is often unusual as well.

    • Messages on the backs of car park receipts
    • Hanging straps in railway carriages and on the handles of supermarket trolleys
    • Projecting huge images on the sides of buildings
  • Slogans on the gas bags of hot air balloons

Ambient media in the field of advertising are often mixed with ambient media developed based on ambient intelligent technology

Search Engine Optimization

Search engine optimization is a methodology of strategies, techniques and tactics used to increase the amount of visitors to a website by obtaining a high-ranking placement in the search results page of a search engine (SERP) — including Google, Bing, Yahoo and other search engines. Search engines have two major functions: crawling and building an index, and providing search users with a ranked list of the websites they’ve determined are the most relevant.

Crawling and Indexing:

Crawling and indexing the billions of documents, pages,  files, news, videos, and media on the World Wide Web. Links allow the search engines’ automated robots, called “crawlers” or “spiders,” to reach the many billions of interconnected documents on the web. Once the engines find these pages, they decipher the code from them and store selected pieces in massive databases, to be recalled later when needed for a search query. To accomplish the monumental task of holding billions of pages that can be accessed in a fraction of a second, the search engine companies have constructed datacenters all over the world. These monstrous storage facilities hold thousands of machines processing large quantities of information very quickly. When a person performs a search at any of the major engines, they demand results instantaneously; even a one- or two-second delay can cause dissatisfaction, so the engines work hard to provide answers as fast as possible.

 

Providing Answers:

Providing answers to user queries, most frequently through lists of relevant pages that they’ve retrieved and ranked for relevancy. Search engines are answer machines. When a person performs an online search, the search engine scours its corpus of billions of documents and does two things: first, it returns only those results that are relevant or useful to the searcher’s query; second, it ranks those results according to the popularity of the websites serving the information. It is both relevance and popularity that the process of SEO is meant to influence.

How do search engines determine relevance and popularity?

To a search engine, relevance means more than finding a page with the right words. In the early days of the web, search engines didn’t go much further than this simplistic step, and search results were of limited value. Over the years, smart engineers have devised better ways to match results to searchers’ queries. Today, hundreds of factors influence relevance. Search engines typically assume that the more popular a site, page, or document, the more valuable the information it contains must be. This assumption has proven fairly successful in terms of user satisfaction with search results.

Popularity and relevance aren’t determined manually. Instead, the engines employ mathematical equations (algorithms) to sort the wheat from the chaff (relevance), and then to rank the wheat in order of quality (popularity).These algorithms often comprise hundreds of variables. In the search marketing field, we refer to them as “ranking factors.

Search Engine Marketing

Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet marketing that involves the promotion of websites by increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) primarily through paid advertising.  The concept behind Search Engine Marketing is quite simple: when a consumer or business person searches the Web through either a text box or by clicking through a directory hierarchy, he or she is in “hunt mode.” This psychological state is unique because it signals to the search engine (and to marketers) that the person is looking for information, often of a direct or indirect commercial nature.

Marketers understand that this “hunt mode” means that the searcher may very well be at the beginning, middle, or end stages of the buying cycle. When someone is researching a product or service to satisfy an immediate or future need they are in an unusual state: they desire relevant information and are open to digesting and acting on the information at their fingertips, all made possible by a search engine. This makes search engine results some of the best sources of targeted traffic, whether this traffic originates from “organic” unpaid search listings or paid advertising listings.

Many marketers think of search engines as delivering the search results or SERP (Search Engine Results Page) in the form of purely textual results. The truth is that search results can be any mix of text, images, video, audio, or other file formats. In the United States, search engines don’t simply include Google, Yahoo and Bing; they also include commerce sites such as eBay and Amazon, as well as specialty search engines such as YouTube and Hulu for video, restaurant search engines, “people” search engines such as LinkedIn, or online business directories for local results, including IYPs (Internet Yellow Pages) and sites such as Yelp, Angie’s List, and others.

All search engines use algorithms to attempt to provide the most relevant results to each searcher, taking onto account not only the search keywords used but also the searcher’s location, device, operating system, previous search behavior, and even identity. The better any specific search algorithm for paid or organic (unpaid) results is, the happier the searcher is with the results. Because search engines compete for the attention, eyeballs, and ears of searchers, there is great incentive for constant improvement and innovation.To leverage the power contained within this targeted traffic source, marketers must understand how to effectively use both paid and organic SEM and have realistic expectations about what they can expect each methodology to achieve.

Email Marketing

 “Email marketing is way to target customers through email. As we send direct mail through the postal service, in email marketing messages are sent via email.”

Standard Definition: “E-mail is the most effective way to promote any product or service online. It is a direct & simple way to communicate with customers, prospects and subscribers. Email marketing is one of the most trusted & popular online marketing channel available for marketers. It is best medium to show your interest into customers which indicates that you care about them & want to work with them.”

 

Types of Email: There are two major types of email.

Transactional:

Transactional emails are expected messages that are received after a specific action has taken place. When a customer makes purchase on your website, you send an email to confirm order & give them further details. If you fill out a form to register for an event, then you receive a thank you email which includes further information. Other examples of transactional emails are: welcome message, account information, order or purchase status, payment confirmation, invoices etc. These emails are highly personalized and the whole content is dedicated to user action. That’s why transactional emails have high click through rate (CTR). There is no unsubscription link.

Promotional:

Promotional emails are sent to promote product & service. These emails contain offer, coupons & sales to acquire customers. They could be informational like newsletters or announcements of new product for increasing sale and brand awareness. Personalization of these emails is very low. Promotional emails are template based. You must create offer clear & add special graphics because customers don’t have time to read your email. It contains sense of urgency & clear call to action (CTA) like, “Shop Now” or “Buy Now” etc. There is an Unsubscription link.

 

Email Marketing Terminology

Unsubscribe:

When a subscriber unsubscribes, this indicates that the individual no longer wishes to receive emails from your business. People can easily unsubscribe by clicking the “Unsubscribe” link.

 

Cost per email open (CPO):

In the Cost per Open (CPO) email campaigns, email marketing service providers charge clients on the basis of number of opens achieved. Email campaign open rate is defined as the percentage of unique opens achieved post the campaign. This parameter gives the number of emails that are actually viewed by the respondents. Email open rates are a crucial factor to consider, when the goal of brand is to do more than just brand awareness. To make the Cost per Open model a success, brands need to communicate their message very effectively to the target audiences.

Cost per email sent (CPS):

Negotiation for 1000 email send based on the hiring of email marketing service provider triggering for qualified and targeted bases.

Cost per Visit:

Cost Per Visit is online advertising ad model based on where advertisers pay for the delivery of a targeted visitor to the advertiser’s website. Meaning the publisher is only paid when a user goes to a website (or blog or form, etc).

Cost per Click:

Pay-per-click (PPC), also called cost per click (CPC), is an internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites, in which an advertiser pays a publisher (typically a website owner or a network of websites) when the ad is clicked. Cost-per click is important because it is the number that is going to determine the financial success of the paid search campaigns. Advertisers return on investment, whether its over- or underpaying for each action, will be determined by how much the advertiser is paying for clicks, and by what kind of quality advertiser is getting for that investment. Since the overall ROI of the campaigns is determined by how much advertiser is paying for clicks and the quality of traffic they’re bringing in, it is important to think about cost per click in terms of both cost and value. The basic objective is to identify and target clicks that are both inexpensive and valuable.

Cost per Transaction:

In this pricing model advertiser pay only after a valid transaction is registered from the website. This is ideally suited for websites dealing with costly products or services. There might be genuine leads but actual customers are few and therefore, Cost per transaction is suitable for the high involvement category products.

Cost per form fill or cost per lead (CPL):

Cost per lead, often abbreviated as CPL, is an online advertising pricing model, where the advertiser pays for an explicit sign-up from a consumer interested in the advertiser’s offer. It is also commonly called online lead generation. A lead is an individual that has expressed interest in your product or service by completing a goal.

Outdoor Advertising

Media that reach prospects outside their homes-like outdoor advertising, bus and taxicab advertising, subway posters, and terminal advertising — are part of the broad category of out-of-home media.

Media that reaches prospects outside of their homes is called out-of-home media.  There are more than 30 different types of out-of-home media generating $5.2 billion in annual revenues in 2000.  The most common out-of-home media are on-premise signs.

It is the one medium that carries a message 24 hours a day, seven days a week, day and night, and without interruption.  It’s never turned off, zipped, zapped, put aside, or left unopened.  In addition, it’s big.  Some experts now refer to billboards as the last mass medium.  

Outdoor Advertising is the best place to reach consumers because it can’t be turned off, has an incredible footprint across India and can be extremely targeted.  An outdoor billboard is always there, every time the target group step outside.

Outdoor Advertising is so much about the audience and as such, the best companies can deliver key messages in the best locations.  The “best” locations are simply a measurement for the type of audience in that area, (purely, customer segmentation).  By being able to drill down to this level of granularity, advertisers can benefit even more by providing creative advertising to a very specific demographic.

Outdoor advertising includes various types of promotional displays, from highway billboards to transit posters and arena placement, all geared towards communicating a message to the public.

Out-of home media include outdoor posters (Billboards, Painted Bulletins and on-and-of premise signs of all descriptions. Whatever may be the slight difference in the interpretation; all outdoor ads have no editorial vehicle to carry the messages.

The viewer has to incur no expenditure, nor has he to make any effort to see an outdoor advertising, where as this is not so with other media. An ad message is not brought to the audience; it is audience who go the message, though they view it in the course of their other activities. Outdoor ads offer repeat opportunities for looking at the ad messages, either at the same place on an identical Billboard at another location.

Forms of outdoor advertising

Billboard:

What is a Billboard?

Billboards are advertisements that provide information to passing vehicles and pedestrians. These large formats out of home advertising structures typically found in high traffic areas and are viewed at distances of 50 feet or more. There are a few types of billboards and their sizes usually depend on the speed of traffic and distance from the person viewing it.

Types of billboard:

1. Bulletin Billboard:

A billboard on a highway or expressway is commonly called a bulletin. Bulletin billboards are usually located in highly visible, heavy traffic areas such as expressways, primary arteries, and major intersections. With extended periods of high visibility, billboard advertisements provide advertisers with significant impact on commuters. This is the largest standard out of home advertising format, usually measuring at 11×48 in overall size.

advertising format, usually measuring at 11×48 in overall size.

2. Poster:

 A billboard on a secondary roadway where traffic is 30 mph – 50 mph is commonly called a poster. A poster is usually about half of the width of a bulletin. Target local audiences with these billboards, which are highly visible to vehicular traffic and are ideal for the introduction of new products/services. Marketers use posters to achieve advertising objectives and increase brand awareness by placing multiple units in strategic locations while lowering the cost per thousand impressions. This is a standardized poster format, typically measuring 12’3″ x 24’6″; formally known as a 30-Sheet Poster. Posters have a “local” presence and can target demographic or geographic target very effectively. Posters are closer to street and traffic. Posters were originally called 30 sheet posters because they were once 30 pages of paper posted with glue on the billboard. Poster billboards are usually campaigns that last 4 to 8 weeks. These posters advertising campaigns are much more locally focused and can target demographic or geographic areas.  Posters are often called the “workhorse” out of home advertising because they provide wide distribution and continuity of a message. Excellent for providing instant consumers awareness for seasonal promotions, special events and new product launches.

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Due to their inexpensive price, they can be used for long term advertising campaigns and can easily fit in most ad budgets. Campaigns can be easily targeted based on geographic and demographic criteria.

They provide deep market penetration to reach both pedestrian and vehicle traffic at or near point of purchase locations. Posters are extremely cost efficient and lower the CPM (cost per thousand impressions) when added to an existing advertising campaign. Posters are digitally/screen printed on recyclable vinyl.

3. Premier Panels, & Premier Squares:

Premier Panels offer greater copy area by converting a standard 30-Sheet Poster panel into a 300 sq.ft. vinyl surface, affording copy area of 12’3” H x 24’6” W. Premier Square is a stacked Poster, wrapped with vinyl, to create a unique “square” format that is designed to draw attention to the advertiser’s message.

4. Digital Billboards

(14′ high x 48’wide, 10.5′ high x 36′ wide, or similar sizes). Digital billboards are a broadcast type of media for outdoor allowing advertisers to target their audience and flexibility. Digital Billboards offer tremendous creative flexibility allowing up-to-the-moment message opportunities. Unlike static displays, creative displays can be changed monthly, weekly, daily or hourly from a computer terminal. Digital Displays offer high-impact, crisp full-color definition and image quality. With the ability to immediately customize the advertising messages time-sensitive messages such as one-day promotions, special events, Amber and news alerts can be instantly promoted.

5. Wallscapes

(over 700 sq feet) very large format outdoor advertising that is usually in metropolitan area or a landmark location for extended viewing. Wallscapes are generally the signature piece in an outdoor campaign and create a lasting impression. Wallscapes are the largest of all the outdoor advertising products and can be several stories tall and wrap an entire side of a building. Wallscapes create maximum impact of the advertising message and are often the crown jewel of an advertising campaign. The message becomes a dramatic landmark and reaches both pedestrian and vehicle traffic with massive impact, sometimes from great distances.

These mammoth advertising displays create instant top of mind awareness and dramatic impact.  Because building designs come in such a wide variety, wallscapes can have unusual shapes and sizes which help draw the attention to them.  Sides of  buildings in urban and downtown areas, major highways and heavily traveled primary roads. Typically produced on vinyl or vinyl mesh. Programs are usually long term.

6. Spectaculars:

As the name implies, outdoor spectaculars are large, usually unique, displays designed for maximum attention in high traffic areas. They consist of special lighting or other types of ingenious material and innovations. In some cases, they utilize a building as the canvas for the message. The cost of spectaculars is very expensive and both production and space rentals are normally negotiated on a one-time basis. The minimum contract period for most spectaculars, however, is usually a year.

Other types of out of home

Kiosks

 Advertisers are extensively using pole kiosks, electric pole kiosks to reach their audience while they are out of home, whether on the roads, exhibitions or trade fairs. It is an outdoor medium that supports consecutive message display with affordability. Advertisements of this sort are constantly before the eyes of observers on the streets, be it vehicular or pedestrian. Kiosks are placed in a sequence of poles that allow for repetitive advertising and hence result in higher registration.

The kiosks are automatically lit by the lighting on the pole above them but you can also use specially designed back-lit box type kiosks for greater visibility .

Pole kiosks can be effectively used to advertise a local shop or store in the vicinity of the pole. They can be even used to give out store directions using arrows to lead the prospect to your store.

They enjoy a quick turnaround time, that is, they can be changed in a short span of time. They offer flexibility with respect to creative applications and ad content. They even support complete flow of communication of a particular campaign, being a string of information, right from introduction to benefits to contact information that can be placed sequentially on successive pole kiosks.

Compared to the billboards these kiosks are very small in size, so the message has to be to the point and legible to fast moving traffic. It should not exceed more than 3-4 words per kiosk and be spread over to 2-3 consecutive boards or kiosks if it is long. Campaigns using 3-5 consecutive boards should have some consistency and must appear and communicate as a single campaign.

Street Furniture

From the beginning of each morning to the end of the day’s rush hour and into the evening’s entertainment, the streets are busy, making them a perfect selling opportunity. Street Furniture enables advertisers to connect with consumers on a face to face level and provide broad-based coverage in many markets or a single neighborhood. Product options are abundant ranging from telephone kiosks, urban panels, news racks, beach kiosks, bus benches, to trash receptacles and more. Street Furniture is visible to pedestrian and vehicular traffic offering a high reach and frequency for brand awareness or point-of-purchase opportunities

The following are the advantages of the outdoor media:

1. The outdoor offers long life.

2. It offers geographic selectivity. Billboards give us the flexibility to vary the ad message to suit a particular segment of the market. An advertiser can use this medium nationally, globally, by region, by the market and even by specific location within those markets.

3. The advertiser can incorporate the names and addresses of his local dealers or agents at the bottom of the poster. These dealer imprint strips are called snipes.

4. The outdoor offers impact. Shoppers are exposed to last minute reminders by outdoor advertising when they are driving down to the stores or a shopping centre. Outdoor displays are in large size and in a bright colour, and have a provocative message- all of which make a good impact on prospective customers.

5. Outdoor advertising allows for a psychedelic display of the product, trademark and slogan.

6. Life-like Visuals and Lifestyle Advertising: New technology makes it easier to advertise the branch on hoardings. It reinforces the TV and Print advertising.

Outdoor alone among all other media generates for the local governments and civic bodies.

Outdoor advertising has the following limitations:

1. Since the copy of billboard ads must be brief, it places a limitation on getting the message across to the prospect in enough words. This brevity has made outdoor advertising merely supplementary advertising. The print or broadcasting media are mainly relied upon to deliver longer messages.

2. Outdoor advertising is non-selective in the sense that the audience who get the exposure are people of all ages, sexes, educational and socio-economical levels. There is no selectivity of a particular type of audience.

3. Outdoor advertising, when employed on a national basis, is relatively expensive.

4. A blind spot is the most dangerous thing that advertiser fear when it comes to outdoor advertising. The term is used to refer to a campaign that is sustained for a long -time. The question is how to continuously create novelty in hoardings. Amul has overcome blind spot syndrome.

5. There is a problem of getting reliable data on the number of people who actually see an advertisement.

6. Price of message decay: Most advertisers find that it takes more and more money every year to advertise. Message decay has emerged as a major problem for all advertisers.

7. The outdoor advertising industry is mainly a local business operation. Several individual firms run by a single businessman, own posters and painted display location. In cities, town and in road sides, which sell those individual locations for outdoor advertising to advertiser.

8. Normally, the sale of a location is for a certain period of days or weeks or months. There are also large firm owning large number of locations. Selvel and Advertiser are some of the names that are popular in outdoor location selling business. There are few chain of firms operating in this business.

9. With a regard to the location of outdoor advertising, let this point be stated clearly that its value is only in its location. In order to be effective the angle of the billboard from the road, and such other accepts has helped in gaining better attention of the motorist, are important.

Compensation Methods

Compensation methods (Remuneration), Pricing models and business models used for the different types of internet marketing, including affiliate marketing, contextual advertising, search engine marketing (including vertical comparison shopping search engines and local search engines) and display advertising.

Predominant compensation methods in affiliate marketing

The following models are also referred to as performance based pricing/compensation model, because they only pay if a visitor performs an action that is desired by the advertisers or completes a purchase. Advertisers and publishers share the risk of a visitor that does not convert.

Cost Per Action Advertising:

Cost per action (CPA), also known as pay per action (PPA) and cost per conversion, is an online advertising pricing model where the advertiser pays for each specified action – for example, an impression, click, form submit (e.g., contact request, newsletter sign up, registration etc.), double opt-in or sale. Cost per action advertising generally involves less risk for advertisers than other advertising techniques. Since you only pay when you get a lead or a sale, you are protecting yourself from potential eyeballs that won’t convert, as well as click fraud. Those possibilities can put a dent in your pocketbook fast.  At the same time, you are ensuring that you only pay when you have money coming in, or when the prospect for money coming in is relatively great.

Pay-per-sale (PPS) – (revenue share):

Cost-per-sale (CPS). Advertiser pays the publisher a percentage of the order amount (sale) that was created by a customer who was referred by the publisher. Revenue sharing. Compensation methods (Remuneration), Pricing models and business models used for the different types of internet marketing, including affiliate marketing, contextual advertising, search engine marketing (including vertical comparison shopping search engines and local search engines) and display advertising.

Pay-per-lead (PPL)/pay-per-action (PPA):

Cost-per-action or cost-per-acquisition (CPA), cost per lead (CPL). Advertiser pays publisher a commission for every visitor referred by the publisher to the advertiser (web site) and performs a desired action, such as filling out a form, creating an account or signing up for a newsletter. This compensation model is very popular with online services from internet service providers, cell phone providers, banks (loans, mortgages, credit cards) and subscription services.

Pay-per-call:

Similar to pay per click, pay per call is a business model for ad listings in search engines and directories that allows publishers to charge local advertisers on a per-call basis for each lead (call) they generate (CPA). Advertiser pays publisher a commission for phone calls received from potential prospects as response to a specific publisher ad. The term “pay per call” is sometimes confused with click-to-call, the technology that enables the “pay-per-call” business model. Call-tracking technology allows to create a bridge between online and offline advertising. Click-to-call is a service which lets users click a button or link and immediately speak with a customer service representative. The call can either be carried over VoIP, or the customer may request an immediate call back by entering their phone number. One significant benefit to click-to-call providers is that it allows companies to monitor when online visitors change from the website to a phone sales channel. Pay-per-call is not just restricted to local advertisers. Many of the pay-per-call search engines allows advertisers with a national presence to create ads with local telephone numbers. Pay-per-call advertising is still new and in its infancy, but according to the Kelsey Group, the pay-per-phone-call market is expected to reach US$3.7 billion by 2010.

Pay-per-install (PPI):

Advertiser pays publisher a commission for every install by a user of usually free applications bundled with adware applications. Users are prompted first if they really want to download and install this software. Pay per install is included in the definition for pay per action (like cost-per-acquisition), but its relationship to how adware is distributed made the use of this term versus pay per action more popular to distinguish it from other CPA offers that pay for software downloads. The term pay per install is being used beyond the download of adware.

Pay-per-click (PPC) or Cost-per-click (CPC):

Advertiser pays publisher a commission every time a visitor clicks on the advertiser’s ad. It is irrelevant (for the compensation) how often an ad is displayed. commission is only due when the ad is clicked.

Types of Social Media

What’s the first thing that pops into your head when you think about “social media?”

1. Social networking sites

Most of us are familiar with social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. These platforms help us connect with friends, family, and brands. They encourage knowledge-sharing and are all about personal, human-to-human interaction.

A social networking site is a Jill of all trades. Users can share thoughts, curate content, upload photos and videos, form groups based on interests, and participate in lively discussions. They’re built around the user and everything that’s important to them and their social circles.

Reach a target audience through ads: These platforms cultivate large, diverse communities. Advertisers can rent permission to interact with people based on specific targeting metrics. Because these platforms are incredibly data rich, we can reach a lot of the right people without blowing the entire ad budget.

Network: Engage with followers, find like-minded customers or potential business partners through hashtags and groups, and build connections.

Research: Social networking platforms are a great place for digging up customer research and using social listening tools to track conversations around specific terms. This can help us understand (and serve) our audience better.

2. Social review sites

What’s one of the first things you do when planning a trip or buying a new product? If you’re anything like us, you’ll head straight to the reviews.

Review sites like Yelp and TripAdvisor display reviews from community members for all sorts of locations and experiences. This eliminates a lot of the guesswork that goes into booking a restaurant or hotel. Not sure it’s the right thing for you? Check out the reviews and you’ll know.

Businesses can really benefit from studying their reviews, the good and the bad. It helps them:

Understand the customer’s perspective: Reviews tell us about the customer experience from their own point of view. Use this to identify what’s working and discover areas with room for improvement.

Solve problems: Reviews are an opportunity to engage with reviewers and solve any potential challenges before they become a huge deal.

3. Image sharing sites

Visual content like images, infographics, and illustrations capture our hearts, eyes and imaginations. Social media platforms like Instagram, Imgur, and Snapchat are designed to amplify the power of image sharing.

Users create, curate, and share unique images that spark conversation and speak for themselves. A picture can be worth a thousand words to your business. Use these sites to:

Encourage user-generated content: Image sharing sites are a gift for photogenic businesses. You can run campaigns encouraging users to snap and share a pic with your product and a unique hashtag.

Create inspiration: By creating, curating, and sharing your own images, you can inspire and engage users, bonding over a shared interest.

4. Video hosting sites

YouTube revolutionized the way we watch, create, and think about video. It transformed the medium into something accessible. Recent improvements in tech and connectivity helped video go the rest of the way.

Video hosting platforms like YouTube and Vimeo help creators put together content and share it to a platform optimized for streaming. This accessibility makes video a super important medium.

Share phenomenal content: Yes. This point is a bit obvious, but creators can use YouTube to build communities and get their content out there.

Engage: YouTube’s comment section offers plenty of opportunities to get to know the people watching your content.

5. Community blogs

Sometimes an image or post isn’t complex enough for the message you’ve got to share, but not everyone on the internet wants to run a blog from a self-hosted website. That’s a lot of work.

Shared blogging platforms like Medium and Tumblr give people a space to express their thoughts and help connect them with readers.

These community blog sites provide an audience while allowing plenty of room for customization and self expression. Use them to:

Develop your voice: Starting a blog can be daunting. Use platforms like Medium and Tumblr to find your voice, get some readers, and get clear about your vision.

Syndicate content: If you do have a blog, you can use community blogging platforms to share, re-purpose, and re-post older content and expose it to a new audience.

6. Discussion sites

While most of us have seen many a heated discussion happen on Facebook, discussion sites like Reddit and Quora are specifically designed to spark a conversation. Anyone is free to ask a question or make a statement, and this attracts people with shared interests and curiosities. However, unlike Facebook and Instagram, users tend to give out less identifiable information.

Research: Reddit is made up of different sub-communities. With a bit of research, you can find and engage people in your field, discover what they’re asking, and use this as a starting point for your content marketing strategy.

Answer questions: Quora users ask all sorts of questions. Answering them can help establish you as a thought leader and drive more traffic to your site.

7. Sharing economy networks

Sites like AirBnB and Rover aren’t just a cool place to find cheap holiday rentals or a pet sitter. Sharing economy networks bring people who’ve got something they want to share together with the people who need it. These communities provide opportunities that won’t exist otherwise by pooling resources on a large scale that wouldn’t be possible without tech.

8. Bookmarking Sites

Services that allow you to save, organize and manage links to various websites and resources around the internet. Most allow you to “tag” your links to make them easy to search and share. The most popular are Delicious and StumbleUpon.

In the early days of the Internet (think “Hosting your own site on Geocities” era), content discovery online was a difficult task. Nowadays, there is a plethora of interesting, useful and enlightening content online, and sifting through all of it on your own is simply impossible. Of course, search engines like Google come in very handy when you know what to look for, but when you only have a vague idea of content you’d like to read or watch, there’s bookmarking sites. These are web services like StumbleUpon, Pinterest, and Flipboard, where users collect content from elsewhere on the Internet, and save it to their account on the platform. This content can be private or public, and shared with other users. Often, these bookmarking sites will then suggest content similar to the links or images you have already saved on the network.

9. Microblogging

Services that focus on short updates that are pushed out to anyone subscribed to receive the updates. The most popular is Twitter.

10.  Interest-based networks

One of the most wonderful opportunities presented by social media is the ability to find people with common interests, no matter how niche these hobbies may first appear to be. In addition to Facebook and LinkedIn Groups and Google+ communities, there are whole networks dedicated to exploration of interest—such as Last.fm for musicians and music lovers, and Goodreads for authors and avid readers.

12. Online reviews

Location-based review services such as Yelp and Urbanspoon are getting more traction as personal social networks adopt geolocation, and more users choose to consult the Internet along with their friends for recommendations of best dining spots. There are sites to review anything from hotels, restaurant or your latest employer—and user reviews have more weight than ever before. Sites like Airbnb and Uber, the biggest service providers in the emerging sharing economy, rely largely on host and driver reviews, respectively, to determine who benefits from the service.

11. E-commerce

Last but not least, a big trend emerging across all types of social media is the ability to view and purchase desired goods with a click of a button. Sites such as Polyvore aggregate products from different retailers in a single online marketplace, and services like Etsy allow small businesses and individual crafters to sell their products without an existing brick-and-mortar location. Over the past year, e-commerce elements have been adopted by many networks whose primary functionalities place them in different categories, such as Pinterest, Twitter, and Facebook.

Cinema Advertising, its advantages and disadvantages

Screen publicity is liked by people of all ages, sex, profession, political affiliations, income groups because, it has the appeal of life-size presentation. It was the most popular form of advertising till the advent of TV and onslaught of video because of which its popularity is fading in urban areas, while it is still somewhat popular rural areas.

For showing advertisements in a movie theater, the advertiser is responsible for having his film produced and distributed. Normally, production and exhibition of the film are handled by specialized advertising agencies. Once the concept is explained by the advertiser, the advertising agency arranges for film-making. Filmmakers organize the activities of planning a shooting schedule, searching a location, hiring models, cameramen, editor, studio and other facilities.

Cinema or film advertising is like a TV on the big screen for a larger audience. Movie theatres sell time for advertisements before the film starts and in the intervals. To cover the increased costs, cinema has increasingly become supportive of the presence of advertising. In television the ad interrupts the show making it noticeable, unlike film. Advertisers use films as the medium to project the brand value of their products.

Advantages of Film advertising:

Captive Audience:

As compared to a television programme the degree of concentration is higher in watching a film In a cinema hail. Complete attention cannot be achieved during television commercial as commanded during watching a film because of the powerful audiovisual medium.

Niche marketing:

The advertiser can reach a specific market and cover a particular segment for achieving the set objectives.

Wide appeal:

Since a large number of people are sitting in one place together the message can be passed at once to them.

No Barrier

Film advertising appeals to both literate and illiterate people. There is no barrier of language as it reaches through eyes and ears. The advertiser’s message can be passed on effectively without any difficulty.

Visual Impact

Viewers are too focused on the screen whenever they’re in cinemas. Such would be the perfect opportunity to use ads and placements, especially for books. People grow curious of the things that they see. As such, visual impact plays a crucial role in cinema advertising. Many advertisers, therefore, take advantage of visual impact in promoting brands.

Younger, More Able Audience

Most young people go to cinemas to witness films catered for them, and we all know that they’re the perfect demographic for most forms of entertainment. Cinemas especially make it easier for sellers to reach out to the youth, who’d want to witness films even in trying times. Young people are the consumers of today and tomorrow, so it’s always a good idea to reach out to them.

Low Ad Avoidance

Let’s face it: in cinemas, viewers have no choice but to watch what’s in front of them. Advertisers won’t pass up the chance to take this into account and have some sort of placement in cinemas at every opportunity with movie ads.  If they’re actively anticipating for the movie, then they’d have to go through every ad shown in front of them.

Deeper Engagement

Since viewers are glued to the big screen, there’s more opportunity for them to indulge in cinema ads. By showing ads on the screen, it becomes a standard to spark discussions and stimulate conversations that’d last for a long time.  This is especially more prominent in digital cinema advertising.

More Advertising Recall

On a smaller screen, viewers won’t really mind the ads that interrupt them with information. Through the big screen, however, it’s different in a sense that there’s so much quality in displaying ads on cinema. Also, the message hardly becomes repetitive and jarring to viewers.

Disadvantages of Film Advertising:

It is Costly:

The cost of featuring the advertisements in the cinema hall is very high as fees have to be paid to cinema hail owners.

Limited Coverage:

The screening of commercial slides or advertisements in the cinema hail has the limitation of visiting the theatre, i.e. the viewer has to actually go to the cinema hall and in the process of viewing the film, the viewer tends to view the commercials also.

{ insert new antismoking ad here }

Barrier:

People of all ages are present in the cinema hail, therefore, selective advertising cannot be done on this basis.

{ don’t sigh coz the visuals are gone.}
ALEXA PLAY THE OLD SMOKING AD

Ignorance:

People are entrusted upon to see the commercials during the intervals or start of the film against their liking, Therefore there are chances of ignoring and not taking interest in the ads.

{ insert maanyavar ad here }

Late-Arriving Audience

Theatre ads typically roll for 15 to 20 minutes before a film begins. This can be problematic since much of the audience trickles in a few minutes before the start of the movie. If your ad shows early in the run, it may only hit a small portion of the audience.

{insert a horribly over stretched or 144p Ad
to get the best out of the Big Screen}

Delayed Response

Theatre advertising is a delayed-response form of advertising. This means it is intended to contribute to long-term brand development rather than drive immediate sales. While brand exposure is positive, a high percentage of the audience may forget your ad by the time they see 10 to 15 ads and a two-hour movie. In essence, the inability to do anything immediately with the message and the two-plus hours of visual stimulation can inhibit the message’s impact.

{ insert maanyavar ad here }

Limited Audience Control

You typically purchase a block of advertising spots that are played over a month or longer. Policies vary by theatre, but you often can’t handpick the films you want your ads to run before. This is a dilemma if your products and services are aimed toward a specific audience. As a wholesome, family-oriented brand, your ad might play before a PG-13 or Rated R movie. You might target a teen audience, but your ads may also run during kid or adult-oriented films.

Investment Uncertainty

As a small-business owner, getting the best value for your advertising investment is critical. Cinema advertising can have high costs and the results are difficult to measure. While you can survey guests to find out how they discovered your business, you don’t get a scientific count of how many people paid attention to your ad relative to the audience size. Plus, theaters usually base rates on anticipated or historical audience counts, but theater attendance varies based on the quality and types of films, along with the weather.

Social Network Advertising

Social network advertising, also social media targeting, is a group of terms that are used to describe forms of online advertising that focus on social networking services. One of the major benefits of this type of advertising is that advertisers can take advantage of the users’ demographic information and target their ads appropriately.

Social media targeting combines current targeting options (such as geotargeting, behavioral targeting, socio-psychographic targeting, etc.), to make detailed target group identification possible. With social media targeting, advertisements are distributed to users based on information gathered from target group profiles.

Social network advertising is not necessarily the same as social media targeting. Social media targeting is a method of optimizing social media advertising by using profile data to deliver advertisements directly to individual users. Social media targeting refers to the process of matching social network users to target groups that have been specified by the advertiser.

What is paid media?

Paid media is the simplest to understand of the three channels, consisting of any marketing that you pay for. Traditionally this would include TV adverts, radio spots, and print advertising.

Online, there are a few subcategories. Pay Per Click (PPC) adverts are a popular form of paid media. Search engine advertising is one of the most common forms of PPC. Advertisers can bid on keywords that will be displayed above the organic search results. As the name suggests, you pay every time someone clicks on the advert to be directed to your website.

Banner adverts, though decreasing in popularity and effectiveness, in part due to ad-blocking software, fall into the paid media category. This also includes retargeting, where customers who have bounced off your site are presented with your adverts elsewhere on the web.

A relatively new sphere of paid media is sponsored social media posts. The algorithm changes introduced by many social networks have resulted in reduced organic reach, so paying to boost the number of people exposed to adverts has increased accordingly.

What is owned media?

Owned media consists of the content you create and publish on a channel you own. This includes your website and blog, any ebooks and white papers you publish, and the content you distribute on your social media channels.

Owned media is primarily driven by your content marketing strategy. Providing valuable, educational content that is not overly self-promotional is the mainstay of owned media for many organizations. Promoting this content on social media is key to distributing it widely.

What is earned media?

Earned media consists of all the content and conversation around your brand or product that has been created by somebody else and published somewhere other than your owned channels.

It is gained as a result of your efforts in paid and owned. You can think of it as the amplification of your activity, as news sites and social media users pick up on your campaigns and help spread the word.

Earned media can include press coverage, social media mentions, shares and retweets, product or company reviews, and blog posts authored outside your company. Increasing the visibility and reach of your content through social media engagement will increase your earned media.

POP Advertising

Point-of-purchase or point-of-sale displays, often referred as POP and POS displays, are put in retail stores to attract consumer interest and promote sales of a product. These displays are usually created and prepared by the product manufacturer for distribution to wholesalers or retailers who sell the merchandise. These displays are usually located in stores near the product being advertised where the purchase decision is made, or at the place where payment is made, such as a checkout register.

The types of point-of-purchase (POP) displays are as varied as the kinds of businesses that use them. In general point-of-purchase advertising includes banners, signs, danglers, hangers, countertop and floor stand displays. This category also includes in-store TV monitors, electronic signs, broadcasting and automated coupon dispensers.

In today’s competitive marketplace, companies are looking for every way possible to help their product stand apart in crowded retail stores. One of the most effective ways to get a product noticed by consumers is a creative POP display. This is especially true in large stores where different brands vie for premium shelf space; well-placed POP advertising can provide a favorable competitive advantage.

Point of purchase advertising is often structured around impulse buying and utilizes displays that use specific marketing triggers designed to capitalize on the sometimes-impulsive nature of making a purchase. Therefore manufacturers will often provide some type of incentive to purchase such as a discount on the cost of merchandise, bundling or trial sizes.

In addition, poster holders, lobby displays and brochure holders are used by businesses and non-profits to market services, destinations and fundraising efforts in busy transportation environments or high traffic lobbies.

The best thing about point-of-purchase displays is that they can be used for nearly any type of product or service. From large retailers to one-of-a-kind specialty boutiques to business lobbies, almost every company can take advantage of point-of-purchase displays.

Types of POP

1. Signs

Signs Differ from displays in that the messages on them are more general. They may serve notice that a given brand is being promoted or simply direct shoppers to an area of the store where a product is on sale. Signs attached to a display may include price or other information about the product.

Shelf media, such as shelf-talkers and shelf strips, may be attached to existing fixtures, and they don’t take up precious floor, wall, or counter space.

2. Windows Displays.

These are very popular methods used by chemists’ department stores showrooms. In fact the term “Window Shopping” has been used to describe “the pull“these attractive window-displays exert on every passes-by.

Window display contents are used by manufacturers to promote retailers to display their products attractively. At present Wipro’s BabyCare product have grabbed window displays at chemists outlets.

3. Displays Cards.

These are elaborate cut-out models that are placed outside the retail outlet or placed near the cash-counters. Frooti, a tetra bricks pack soft drink used this medium effectively. Huge cut-outs of the model drinking Frooti were placed besides boxes filled with hay and foorti packs. This gave an impression that Frooti was as fresh as mangoes.

4. Wall Displays.

Here the folders may be stringed placed across the wall

 

5. Merchandising of Racks and Cases.

The manufactures may supply the display racks for their products. The round jar of Cadbury’s Eclairs placed besides the cash counters the racks to display Maggi Soups and the huge hamper with Maggi Noodles swinging at the doorway of the retail outlets are striking examples.

6. In store Commercials.

This is the latest form of P.O.P advertising. The commercials are viewed by consumers within the store and act as sales people trying to effect a sale. Electronically operated display panels near cash counters or small screens near shelf-spaces can be used to exhibit the commercials. These are common in supermarkets.

Advantages of P.O.P Advertising

1. It is the last advertising opportunity before the purchase and therefore the manufactures has to hardsell.

2. The P.O.P material is generally similar to the press and TV advertisements and therefore acts as a reminder of mass advertising.

3. It provides information and identification of the brand its image.

4. the most important advantage is that it increases the sales turnover and makes their outlets attractive.

5. Retailers recognize the value of P.O.P as it increases the sales turnover and makes their outlets attractive.

6. Sales promotion contents can be successful by P.O.P material, for example: A retailer may display the latest Pepsi promotional campaign.

7. At times it can be economical and convenient for the retailer to use P.O.P material, for Example: A manufacturer may be willing to supply one with advertising for his brand, at a cost lower than a retailer would pay for one without advertising. In short P.O.P advertising acts as a dealer aid as well as stimulant for consumers.

8. Manufacturers need not depend upon retailers to push their brands as the P.O.P acts as a pull technique.

9. As organized retail such as Big Bazar increases, self service will become the order of the day. This increases the importance of P.O.P advertising

Limitations of P.O.P Advertising

1. With growing competition manufactures are fighting for limited retail spaces. This increases the clout of retailers.

2. P.O.P material is useful only when it is placed at a high level or in an attractive manner. This may not be always possible.

3. A clutter of too many P.O.P materials may confuse the consumer.

4. Retailers are not too bothered about installing the display and when one salesman installs the P.O.P materials, the next salesman from the next sales firm replaces the display with his own. This limits the life of the P.O.P materials.

5. Wall displays and signs may get damaged or may deteriorate.

6. Display racks may misused by stocking it with competitive merchandise

7. Retailers usually do not pay for P.O.P material and therefore may not use it correctly and effectively.

8. Large manufactures having a long term relationship with the retailers and financial clout may enjoy premium places for their displays to the disadvantage of smaller manufactures

NCCS Grid

The Answer is made bigger just for informative purposes. First Three Paragraphs should cover most of the necessary points.

New Consumer Classification System (NCCS) is the new tool for classifying consumers in India. The methodology will be used by the Broadcast Audience Research Council in its soon-to-be-launched TV audience measurement system. A look at few basic questions that will help understand the NCCS better.

It was almost three decades ago that socio-economic classification (SEC) was introduced in the country to classify consumers into different groups. Over time, flaws were noticed in the system. That’s when the industry decided to revise the consumer classification system and introduce the New Consumer Classification System (NCCS), which, in many ways, is better than the SEC.

While the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) has already started using NCCS since early 2014, BARC (Broadcast Audience Research Council) is working on the system for its soon-to-be-launched audience measurement currency.

What is NCCS?

NCCS is used to classify households in India. It was co-developed by Market Research Society of India (MRSI) and Media Research Users Council (MRUC) and classifies households on two variables – education of the chief wage earner and the number of consumer durables owned by the household from a predefined list.

NCCS Grid has 12 grades ranging from A1 to E3

Why is it used?

NCCS is used to discriminate between households and define the entire consumer behaviour of a household – what will his family aspire for, gender ratio or life expectancy of a family member. It is used by IRS and will even be used in the soon-to-be-launched TV ratings methodology from BARC. It is similar to SEC but here, the attempt is to understand the behavioural variables of a consumer as well.

How different is SEC from NCCS?

SEC is an urban-only system while NCCS is national.

SEC classifies consumers on two variables – education of the chief wage earner and his occupation and is linked to one individual. It doesn’t use household parameters to classify the households, which NCCS does.

The classification of occupation was urban-oriented in the case of SEC. When SEC was launched, the interest in the rural consumers was very low. It did not include the conventional rural occupations. So, there were two different classifications. One for the rural system wherein the Rural SEC Grid used education and type of house (pucca, semi-pucca, and katcha) as measures of socio-economic class, and segmented rural India into 4 groups (R1, R2, R3, R4) and the other for urban – SEC A1, SEC A2 and so on.

What were the shortcomings of SEC?

NCCS is a far more dynamic classification showing that households are aspirational today and are not stuck at one place as they are in SEC.

Also, as mentioned earlier, SEC is linked to just an individual. It does not capture the affordability of a household adequately, which NCCS does. It is static and neither variables (education of the chief wage earner and occupation) changes significantly over time. So, mobility across segments was difficult in SEC, while it constantly keeps changing in NCCS.

How is the data for NCCS collected?

The IRS is the primary source of information about the dispersion of NCCS segments in different geographical units, from individual metros and Class I towns to village classes taken as groups at a state, socio-cultural region (SCR) or district level.

Marketers and researchers need to project their research findings back to the population of the geographic unit they are investigating. To enable this, they must incorporate the entire NCCS module into their research questionnaire and classify the output within the NCCS framework.

This is not discretionary any more as the MRSI mandates incorporation of the module into all studies conducted by its members. As more and more commercial market research uses NCCS and projects study results to populations, it will test the robustness and predictive power of the system. A classification system will only succeed if it is consistently able to produce reliable projections and predictions.

How is NCCS better than SEC?

NCCS is linked to the household and captures their affordability quotient. NCCS’ classification is a dynamic one and has the ability to change over time. Here, if one has 0 items right now, next year he can have one, then three and so on. It accepts, and can correctly represent, the dynamics playing out in India. As the country distributes more prosperity to more people, those people should rise. One must see a re-classification of the same family year after year. There might be a very spartan household that may remain spartan but then that’s where they belong. They are not going to be great consumers.

The classification system is also about the likelihood of consumption. It must correlate back to behaviour. If there is a family that doesn’t believe in having all the material goods, they are never going to. Even if they have all the money, they still choose to live life in a spartan way. On the other hand, aspirational people will keep climbing. It reflects the correct behaviour and that’s how the consumers should be classified.

In NCCS, the number of variables owned by a household matter. A family which is fairly rich and is living a simple lifestyle – owns just five of these products – can fall in the lower side of the NCCS chart. And that is the fair classification because the number of variables is also correlated to how many one will be inclined to own in the future.

Also, the classification curve should follow the normal curves of distribution of the population. There should be a few people in the both ends and more people in the middle (the bell curve). All this is reflected in the NCCS.

NCCS helps picture a consumer better than SEC. NCCS has a more secular approach in its approach to classification. It is easier from the marketing, strategy and planning point of view as here the officials can visualise the consumer behaviour better. Most importantly, it is a system that reflects a dynamic rise in a person as she or he works through their aspirations and keeps moving up.

Also, there is a cost associated with any classification. One has to invest in it so that it can happen in the marketplace and then to adopt the classification is also a cost. It’s easier for BARC to use it because when one is at the cusp of something brand new, it can adopt something new. BARC is an all new system, and the industry doesn’t have an option but to accept the NCCS.

When was NCCS actually launched in India?

NCCS was launched in 2009. The reason why it was not being used till now is believed to be inertia. When this was launched, people hesitated to use the data. They were used to the SEC system and didn’t want to move out of the comfort zone of their understanding. So, both the seller and the buyer were stuck.

Law of Persuasion

Persuasion is the ability to influence thoughts and actions through specific strategies. To master this skill, it is necessary to understand some basic principles, called the Laws of Persuasion. There are six laws that make up the Laws of Persuasion, which describe how most people respond to certain circumstances. Psychologist Robert Cialdini wrote the seminal book on the Laws of Persuasion, titled Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, in which he discusses the prevalent methods of marketing. A great deal of psychological research indicates that human beings are quite predictable in terms of behavior in response to certain stimuli, like advertisements. This is why businesses invest so much money in advertising and why consumers respond to most ads and commercials by buying the products and services they promote. An understanding of the Laws of Persuasion enables you to control how much others unduly influence you and how you can use the laws to your benefit during negotiation.

People are faced with countless decisions every day, and the laws work because they provide shortcuts to making many of those decisions. Some of the best masters of the art of persuasion in negotiation are highly successful salespeople who do their best to not only make the sale, but also to meet the needs of their buyers. As project managers, our fundamental goal is to meet stakeholder needs, so these Laws of Persuasion give us another tool we can use to increase our influence over others as we guide the project to success.

Cialdini’s Six Laws of Persuasion are:

    •    Law of Reciprocity
    •    Law of Commitment and Consistency
    •    Law of Liking
    •    Law of Scarcity
    •    Law of Authority
  •    Law of Social Proof

Law of Reciprocity

In general, people try to repay what they have received from others. If someone gives you something you want, then you will want to reciprocate because now you feel obligated. For example, the address labels you receive in the mail from various non-profit groups requesting charitable donations—even though they are a minor, unsolicited “gift,” sending them out has increased donations to non-profits significantly, because people feel compelled to “return the favor.”

Law of Commitment and Consistency

Consistency of (or at least the appearance of) thoughts, feelings, and actions is important. Once a position has been taken, people tend to stick with it and behave in ways that justify the position, even if it is wrong. Commitment to a decision, position, or cause (however small) is usually easier to increase than it is to abandon. This is why salespeople attempt to get customers to agree with them multiple times; after saying “yes” repeatedly, it is almost impossible to say “no” when it is time for the close or direct request for the sale.

Law of Liking

The old adage “opposites attract” does not hold true when it comes to influence and persuasion. When you like someone, or believe that they are “just like you,” you are more inclined to wanting to please them. Successful salespeople work hard to establish rapport, demonstrating how similar they are to you. They explore your background, noting the similarities to their own. They are people you know; sometimes your friends. Think about the in-home sales parties you may have been invited to, in which your neighbors are providing the testimonials for the product, and you don’t want to disappoint them by not buying something.

Law of Scarcity

If there is a limited supply of an item and only a few are left, then it must be good or popular, which is what the law of scarcity suggests. If something you want becomes “the last one available,” you tend to feel like you have to act immediately or you might miss out. After all, the limited supply must mean that others are buying it, and delaying might mean you won’t be able to get it again anytime soon or maybe never again.

Law of Authority

Advertisers count on the law of authority when using celebrity endorsements or “expert” testimonials. When people you admire promote a product or service, you may think, “If it’s good enough for them, then it’s good enough for me.” In addition, if you use it, you may become more like these “heroes:” better looking, wealthier, and more famous.

Law of Social Proof

Why have television sitcoms used canned laugh tracks for years? Producers wouldn’t use them unless they worked to produce audience laughter and higher ratings. Part of the reason you laugh along anyway, and in spite of yourself, lies in how you decide what socially “correct” behavior is. If you aren’t sure how to act, then you rely on those around you (or in the virtual television audience) to help you find the way to properly react. If others are doing it, then it must be the right thing to do.

Using the Laws of Persuasion

Good negotiations create win-win or mutually beneficial results; that is, results in which all parties believe they have received a good deal. A good deal is not always the same for everyone; negotiators often use different criteria to judge the success of their bargaining outcomes. It is not unusual to find “tough” negotiators using manipulative tactics based on the Laws of Persuasion. To address these tactics, you can call attention to them and steer the conversation toward a more objective solution. You can also try to prevent manipulation based on the laws by establishing ground rules or preconditions ahead of time that will preclude such strategies by using only logical principles as a standard process in negotiation.

Negotiation strategies using the six Laws of Persuasion include the following:

Law of Reciprocity

In projects there are always opportunities to use the Law of Reciprocity. If you have conceded to a demand from a team member on the timing of his or her work on an activity, you can use reciprocity to gain concession from him or her the next time you need something. When negotiating procurements with vendors, the use of limited disclosure and/or a confession for the real reason for a negotiation stance, such as “this is all the money we have,” can provoke a concession from the other party. In general, concessions follow this “tit-for-tat” rule (of course, the lower the “value” of your concession, the better).

Law of Commitment and Consistency

An application of this law would be asking a series of questions to confirm the acceptance of each specific component of a system before asking for acceptance of the whole system. Dale Carnegie, in How to Win Friends and Influence People, called this, “Get the other person saying ‘yes, yes’ immediately.” This occurs when one party asks the other side to make a number of “small” decisions that lead to only one obvious conclusion: to accept the general concession.

Examples of this may also be seen in the use of low-balling tactics, in which intentional, last-minute additions are made to what was originally a low price. The unscrupulous intention here is to get you to “invest” in a product that you initially believed cost less.

Law of Liking

The lesson from the Law of Liking, and from the application of it in sales, is the importance of establishing rapport. When you can establish rapport with your team or other stakeholders, you establish the commonality or similarity between you and improve your opportunity to influence their decisions. You can use the Law of Liking when you need to persuade the team to work harder; if team members believe you are also taking on more work and you really understand their “pain,” then they may be more willing to go the extra mile.

In sales, we often see this in the strategy of “good cop, bad cop.” The “bad cop” clearly opposes your objectives whereas the “good cop” seems to support your position. Naturally, you will tend to identify with the “good cop,” often agreeing with their concessions and goals instead of your own

Law of Scarcity

In projects, there are always constraints on time, money, and people. The Law of Scarcity tells us that the less there is of something, the more it may be desired. You can use your constraints to influence stakeholders to establish priorities in scope or requirements or to negotiate commitment to a higher allocation of a resource’s time to the project.

Law of Authority

Use the Law of Authority to establish your own credentials or credibility early in the negotiation process. When establishing your approach or explaining how or why decisions have been made, link your position to known, respected sources in order to garner credibility.

Law of Social Proof

This law works when you draw on testimonials from satisfied customers or clients (unscripted ones are the best) to encourage new prospects to buy your services or products. The law can also be used to convince your sponsor, customer, or team that others are following similar suggestions as yours. People want to feel like they are parts of an established community that already knows where it is going.

Ethical Issues

Although these laws are neither good nor bad in and of themselves, they can easily be used for positive or negative results. In an environment that seeks to follow ethical rules, the laws should only be used to make lives better. Manipulation occurs when you exploit or deceive others solely for your own gain.

Conclusion

An understanding and skilled use of persuasion are often the keys to success in both your working and personal lives. If you give people what they want, using the six Laws of Persuasion, they will most likely return the favor. When you recognize that you are being manipulated, you can expose the other side’s tactics and counter with an appropriate strategy. This will lead to more effective ways of achieving the goals of all negotiating parties.

Transit Advertising

The Answer is made bigger with the examples and everything, has chances of appearing in shortnotes.

As a small business owner, your advertising and marketing techniques may be imperative to the growth and evolution of your company. Many different modes of advertising can be implemented within a business plan, but some techniques may work better than others. Depending on what your product is and what type of demographic you are looking to advertise to, transit advertising may be one marketing method for your small business to pursue.

What It Is

Transit advertising is advertising placed in or on modes of public transportation or in public transportation areas. Using this method of advertising, ads can be placed anywhere from on the sides of buses, trains and taxis, to inside subway cars, inside bus stations and near train or bus platforms. The main purpose of transit advertising is to reach riders and acquaint them with your brand.

Importance

Transit advertising is important because it can provide high visibility for your product on a daily basis. Also, your audience may not necessarily be able to ignore your ads as they would, for example, by fast-forwarding through a television commercial or radio advertisement, or flipping past a magazine ad. Many times, it may be hard for a person to ignore an ad they are sitting across from on a train or bus, simply because it’s in their direct line of view. Also, transit advertising guarantees your small business a varied audience by age and income.

Demographic

When considering transit advertising, it’s important to assess what demographic you are hoping to reach versus who you will actually be reaching. For example, the people riding public transportation do not just include those who don’t own cars of their own. Many car owners park their cars at train or bus stations and use public transportation every day to commute to work. Studying the demographics of riders who would be exposed to your transit ads would be beneficial to your advertising plan. For instance, if you want to specifically target daily commuters, certain train or bus lines may have more commuters than other lines. Depending on your product you may want to target families, tourists, professionals or students with your advertising.

Varied Mediums

Transit advertising is quickly moving beyond only the traditional print advertisement. New technology has allowed advertisers to explore with different mediums in transit advertising. These mediums include digital advertising on plasma or LCD screens, interactive advertisements that allow you to scan a barcode with your smart phone, and “animated” advertisements set up in subway tunnels that “move” as the train whizzes past hundreds of images like a flip book.


    • Transit advertising is typically advertising placed on anything which moves, such as buses, subway advertising, truckside, and taxis, but also includes fixed static and electronic advertising at train and bus stations and platforms.
    • Airport advertising, which helps businesses address an audience while traveling, is also included in this category. Municipalities often accept this form of advertising, as it provides revenue to city and port authorities.
  • Transit advertising is a great value that gives a high visibility with a consistent daily audience. It’s economical and instantly effective without wasted circulation.

Transit provides a number of advantages to advertisers and, although still a small medium by total advertising standards, has grown at a significant rate in the past several years. Estimated revenues for transit are approximately $300 million.

The popularity of transit advertising are due to a number of factors:

  • Transit prices have low overall cost and CPM levels. Transit prices are even lower than traditional outdoor.
  • Transit reaches prospects in the marketplace and is attracting an increasingly upscale audience as public transportation becomes more popular in many cities.  In the case of interior signs, advertisers are reaching a captive audience of riders who average almost 20 minutes per trip. The nature of transit audience allows somewhat longer messages than outdoor signs.
  • The repetitive nature of the transit audience quickly builds high levels of frequency over relatively short periods.
  • Transit advertising provides a low-cost option for reaching a mobile, urban audience. With likelihood that mass transit will be more popular in the coming years; the growth of transit advertising is assured.

Added to its ability to reach this audience is the fact that municipal governments are seeking new sources of revenue and transit advertising rental space is one that is readily available.

Types of Transit advertising:

Types of Transit Advertising                    

We often come across billboard ads, hoardings, transit media (advertisements displayed on taxis, buses, cars, subways, and trains), signages, etc. which helps companies, government to reach out a large number of people.

We can design different types of transit advertising at Out of Home Creative such as transit shelters, bus panels, and bus wraps.

Let’s go a little deep into transit media with some forms and examples.

Bus Advertising

Now, why have these huge agencies chosen Bus Advertising to sell their brand? The reason, it helps to connect with people easily. It helps to cater the message to all age groups. Advertising on buses has always helped brands to reach out globally. Global Advertisers is one of the best forms of marketing a brand.

Below seen is the image of Indian e-commerce giant, Snapdeal which is using buses as their medium to advertise their brand. This type of bus advertising where signs are used on the sides of transit vehicles is King and Queen Signs.

Bus Handles and seats

Not just the bus panels or bus backs, some brands are using the grab handles of buses to promote their brand. Interesting, Right? The popular cab company, Ola used grab handles in a bus to advertise their taxi service. Motto being to use an Ola auto instead of standing in a crowded bus.

Not just the grab handles, buses have also lent their back seats to advertisers. See how a popular radio channel has used each seat’s back as a medium to deliver their message. A person sitting in the bus seat will surely have a glimpse of that particular advertisement.

Railway Advertising

Railways advertising almost similar to bus advertising thus has the edge over the latter.

In daily life, most people are traveling through railways, and in India, it is the best way to commute around the country. Railway advertising is not just necessarily include wrappings ads on the train but also putting vantage points, installing LEDs across stations and gantries (while changing platforms).

Taxi Advertising

Taxi advertising can deliver eye-level impression both day and night and can add frequency to your message as they move throughout jammed city streets.

The Engineers Choice “Ultra Cement” chose taxis to promote their brand.

Transit Shelter

In urban areas, transit shelter ads are placed on heavily traveled streets with lots of potential readers on the footpaths and in cars. The frequency of bus stops in various city areas allows an advertiser to set a message frequently along heavily traveled roadways.

For areas where don’t have billboards as an advertising option, transit shelter advertising will often be an excellent alternative.

Shelter advertising

With traditional out of home media facing falling revenues and legal restrictions, shelter advertising is a major growth area. Shelter advertising is normally used as a complementary medium to outdoor posters. It has the advantage of being able to be used in areas where zoning regulation ban outdoor.

In addition, shelter messages reach not only bus riders but vehicular traffic. In fact as much as 90- percent of the total shelter audience is vehicular.

Shelter advertising has three major advantages:

    • It is an extremely inexpensive medium. CPM levels are among the lowest of any advertising medium. It is also similar to other out-of –home media in that it generates high reach and frequency in a short time.
    • Advertisers can use shelter advertising to target specific markets. For example, a packaged good may use shelters in front of supermarkets or jeans wear on the college campus.
  • Shelter advertising is illuminated for 24- hour reach and provides maximum exposure and awareness. With 4×6 signs, shelter advertising provides stopping power for both pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Unlike other media, it rarely suffers from clutter from other competing messages.

It is obvious that shelter advertising, although accounting for a small portion of all advertising revenues, will continue to grow at a faster rate than overall advertising expenditures.

As new product categories come into the medium, we may even see larger increases in the shelter sector. Finally rather than facing the regulatory problems of outdoor, the revenues generated by shelter posters are often shared with municipal transit companies, making the medium a revenue producer to many cities facing tight budget

2. Interior Cards or Car Cards

Buses and subways usually have overhead and wall mountings for advertising. Local trains also have advertising space on their walls. These are especially useful when catering for specific target group such as women. The ads can be placed inside the women’s compartments of the local trains. 

Unlike the posters which cannot be read at length commuters in train have ample time to reach the ad. And therefore a longer copy can be used. Situational-specific advertising can also be used, for instance Godrej has used car cards very effectively. Car may be spoilt and disfigured by mischievous youngsters. The train route is drawn and below that the product is advertised. This ensures that commuters referring to the map will notice the product for its marvel soap.  

Godrej used the ad line “After the hot sticky journey you need the creamy freshness of Marvel.” The main disadvantage of this medium is that the ads environment is not pleasing for most commuters and is not a very pleasurable experience. This may put them in hostile frame of mind.

Exterior Posters.

Buses also have display ads on the outside space. BEST buses rent out the entire bus that can be attractively painted with the ad message. Dipy’s Jams was the first product that used the BEST as an advertising medium. Since then several products have used this medium effectively.

This medium is not useful during the rainy season as maintenance cost increases. It has also not succeeded in rural areas and semi-urban areas where the state transport buses ply. This is because the roads are so dusty that the buses get very dirty and the advertised message loses its appeal.

 

ROP

Responsibilities / Role of Media Buyer

Ask this to that person who sends you tons of WhatsApp Messages [if you message me this, I will riot. ]

Who is Media Buyer?

The roles and responsibilities of Media Planning and buying were often close, and held by the same person, who is within a media agency. However, today, we see Media Planning and Buying as though separate, individual and uniquely specialised Job Functions within a media organisation.

The Main Difference between Media Planning and Buying is that the Planning side is specialized on understanding what Media, a Client’s Target Customer reads, watches interacts with or even hears, to develop a Media Strategy for advertising the product accordingly. Media Buying focuses on securing these Media Advertising opportunities at the Best Position, Rates and Price for the client.

The Media Buying Specialist is a Professional who helps to decide which would be the right Media for a Product, helps to buys the media, and controls, as well as evaluates the performance of the Media Purchased.

Advertising Agencies merge and form a group and then set up an independent Media Buying Unit (MBU) to buy advertising space. The Media Buying Unit benefits not only the advertising agencies, and the advertisers because of cost-effective rates, but also the media sellers. The media sellers can negotiate for rates, with one media buying unit of a group of Ad Agencies.

Responsibilities/Role of Media Buyer

  • Maintaining Relationship:
    That one guy who sends and tags you in good memes.
    A strong relationship with the media owners is a key attribute of a successful Media Buyer which ensures that they know about new opportunities for different types of media. Along with a Client Relationship and Service which will give the Agency, a long-lasting value and goodwill in the market.Media Buyers play an important role in achieving long-lasting relationships. They attend meetings with their clients, give presentations and report back to them on the results of their various campaign thus ensuring the client has met his desired requirement.
  • Selecting Media Vehicles:
    Where will your MemeLord send you Memes? Instagram/WhatsApp/Facebook ?Media Buyers choose the Best vehicles which will fit the Target Audience’s Aperture. The media planner lays out the direction, and the buyer is responsible for choosing specific vehicles.
  • Monitoring the Buy:
    Not just Tagging or Sending. But responding to your Laughing Emojis with three extra golden Laughing Emojis [because ur memelord is autistic]The Media Buyer tracks the performance of the media plan as it is implemented, as well as afterwards. Poorly performing vehicles must be replaced or costs must be modified.
  • Make Goods:
    A policy of compensating for missed positions or errors in handling the message presentation. Ensure that the advertiser is compensated appropriately when they occur.
  • Power of Negotiation:
    Media Planners make an intrinsic plan of where an ad should appear, and media buyers speak to the companies that own the space, to ensure that it is possible for the message to reach across the desired target in those environments and, secondly that our clients pay the best possible price to appear there.This is the Negotiation Power to deliver a competitive price.
  • Optimization:
    The Media Buyer plays a crucial role in ensuring that the Advertising, Marketing and Promotional Campaigns are exposed to the right Target Audience in the most Effective Place, thereby gaining recognition as well as new customers for the product or service in question.
  • Research and Strategy:
    Media buyers conduct an extensive research in identifying the desired target and consumer insights, in recommending media channels strategic development and innovation, benchmarking historical performance tracking, implementation of planning and competitive analysis are the key attributes ln research and strategy,
  • Budget Management:
    Media buyers also need to have a practical knowledge while handling allocated money for the campaign, as they will be entrusted with a fixed budget, which must be spent wisely and appropriately.
  • Evaluation Media:
    Buyers need to keep their eye on the key performance indicators of Ad Campaigns. For instance, they might assess and evaluate data that relates to the circulation and distribution of certain media channels and relationships with media sales agencies and potential clients. They would then be reviewing the success of certain campaigns in order to make vital adjustments and changes.

Challenges and Problems faced in Media Planning

A lot many additional points included because of the fact that this can come for a more than 8 Marks. And I dont see many notes covering any changes in Media Planning because of so many new mediums.

The Media landscape continues to evolve at breakneck speed. This has hardly been called as headline news; All the Agencies are very well aware of the huge impact that Digital Technologies are using to shape the culture and societies and the shifting consumer behaviours which the agencies had on their marketing campaigns over the last few decades.

TV has reigned as supreme over the last few decades in the advertising world. Media agencies’ main tasks were isolated to planning or buying campaigns across a narrow selection of channels.

Hardly few years ago, the first smartphone was yet to be released, Facebook was unavailable to public users and Twitter was three months away from launching, YouTube was not even in Development. Now we have Apple Pay, YouTube, Snapchat, VR, Glasses, Watches, and a range of other technologies disrupting the status quo, with consumers now more likely to see ads on absolutely any type of horizontal, vertical screen possible or yet to be made possible by technology.

Clearly, media agencies must adapt quickly if they want to stay relevant in such a rapidly changing environment. Organisations not only need people with a wider set of skills than ever before but also innovative tools that empower employees to perform an increasingly challenging job.

After all, today’s planners have to do much more than simply purchase TV space and push out 30-second ads (although TV is still crucially important to the media mix). Marketers are faced with a seemingly endless list of contact points to consider for their communications, which creates opportunities and difficulties in almost equal measure.

Media planning is both a science, and an art. From a scientific perspective, the idea is relatively straight-forward – you simply gather enough data and research to understand your performance, and figure out how to match that data to the needs of your client. Unfortunately, it’s the artistic aspect of media planning that’s the hardest to grasp. It takes a great deal of trial and error to get things right, and as the industry continues to move forward at lightning-fast speeds, more planners are coming face-to-face with a number of challenging hurdles that stand between them, and success. Here are just some of the most common problems and issues media planners have to deal with on a regular basis.

Media planning requires a lot of skills and information about the market situation. Data referred to media planning goes through a continuous change. A number of problems contribute to the difficulty of following the media plan reducing its effectiveness.

Insufficient Information:

Information about customer’s age, sex, education, their demographics, etc. are essential requirements to draft a media plan. However,if a media planner does not consider information about media strategies of competitors, or media vehicles then the media plan will be highly unreliable.

While a great deal of information about markets and the media exists, media planners require a lot more than that which is available. Some of the data which is available is not measured properly, either because of lack of sufficient funds, knowledge, planning, etc.

The lack of information is even more of a problem for small advertisers, or smaller markets who may not be able to afford to purchase the information they require. As a result, their decisions are based on limited or outdated data that is provided by resources which may not be trustworthy or by the media themselves, and in some cases, no data at all.

Timing of Measurement:

Some audience measures are taken only at specific times of the year. This information is then generalized to succeeding months, so future planning decisions must be made on past data that may not reflect current behaviors.

There is no data on the audiences of new shows as well, and the audience information taken on existing programs during the summer may not indicate how these programs will do in the winter because summer viewership is generally much lower. While the advertisers can review these programs before they air, they do not have actual audience figures.

Time Pressure:

If a Media Planner spots a Change in Media Strategies of Competitors, thenn the Media Plan requires an immediate attention and change in the Plan of Action as well. There are many instances like these where there a Media Planner is constrained by time, and it compels him to make quick decisions. Many of these decisions may be done properly, however, a lot of them are done with inaccurate and proper study of the media, market, as well as planning.

Difficult in Cost Comparison:

Media vehicles have various costs depending on the situation and requirement. A choice of media will depend to a large extent upon the size of the advertising budget. Certain media types may be too expensive for the funds available.

Changing Environmental Factors

When a new series or movie launches, the popularity of an earlier popular one is likely to diminish therefore constant evaluation has to be done for the media strategies used to have a successful media plan in place.

Staying Up-to-Date With Marketing Trends

Over the years, online advertising has grown and evolved significantly. Over the last decade, consumer focus has shifted almost completely from printed media to online media, and a decline in cold-calling and direct-mail has led to the death of certain types of advertisement.

As we move further into the future, technology continues to introduce new tools and ideas that make communicating with potential customers more effective. Social media has risen as a perfect way for brands to communicate with their customers, and every day new strategies for advertising are being developed. Although all of this innovation is certainly exciting, it presents a significant hurdle for media planners, who have to somehow stay current with all the emerging changes.

The Right Medium

For an extended period of time, media planners had to book certain slots on television, radio or newspapers depending on their audience and message and the work was done. However with the changing time, and emerging trends it is getting more and more difficult to determine the channel which will deliver the message to the right target audience. The Target Audience keeps on changing their Medium very quickly due to numerous issues, like privacy issues, or spamful content, or overload of ads and unnecessary media. It is quintessential for a Media Planner to determine the right Medium, and deliver the message through it.

Inconsistent Terminologies:

Problems arise because the cost bases used by different media often vary and the standards of measurement used to establish these costs are not always consistent. For example, print media may present cost data in terms of the cost to reach a thousand people (cost per thousand, or CPM), broadcast media use the cost per ratings point (CPRP), and outdoor media use the number of showings. Audience information that is used as a basis for these costs has also been collected by different methods. Finally, terms that actually mean something different (such as reach and coverage) may be used synonymously, adding to the confusion.

Inadequate Expertise:

Media Planners have to ensure that the right balance is achieved by presenting the media proposals, timings, cost breakdowns, and helping clients to reach a final decision about their future advertising strategy. That means necessary qualification and skills are required for fulfilling the the job of a media planner. Inexperienced. And inadequate knowledge can make the media plan to a large extent.

Inaccuracy in Audience Measurement:

Audience Measurement measures how many people are in an audience, usually in relation to radio listenership and television viewership, but also in relation to newspaper and magazine readership and, increasingly, web traffic on websites.

Knowledge of audience preferences and behaviour is critical to the operation of contemporary media organizations. The name of the audience, the number of viewers, the content viewed, the amount of time spent on viewing, the type of display utilized, audience interested, and many more, all critically important to the measurement. It proves to be difficult to ascertain the number of target audience out of the total number of viewers. It is difficult to ascertain the exactly how many people watch the programme. In absence of this information media planning, may go wrong.

Overcoming Personal Bias

Evaluating new strategies as a media planner and making decisions about the best methods available to help your clients reach their goals means putting your own personal preferences aside and thinking solely from the point of view of your client, and their customers. Thinking outside of the box is an important part of innovative media planning, so it’s important that you are capable of trying new things should your clients request it – regardless of whether or not you’re a fan of the idea itself. However, this doesn’t mean that you can’t tell your client if you think a strategy is completely wrong for them.

Describe Media Audit

Media Auditing is the practice of checking the media, that a client has bought, and whether it is in the right places, at competitive prices or not. Being in the ‘right places’ is critical here since, the audit has to establish that the media was transmitted, and if that is so, then that its placements are appropriate for the target audiences, environments and tasks that the advertising client needed for his brands. To take an extreme example, there is little point in advertising denture fixative in a kids’ TV programme, however cheaply the airtime in that programme has been bought.

 

Why media audit?

Media is typically the single largest line-item in the marketing budget (the making of the ad itself is typically about a sixth of the size of the media spend). For some organizations, media space or time (ie airtime on the TV or radio) is actually the single biggest purchase they make – ahead of any single raw materials cost. Because the sums involved are large, and because they can be cost-controlled via a media audit, it is simply good business practice.

 

What does a media audit focus on?

If your organization has received any media coverage in the past, no matter how minor, a media audit will analyze that coverage. When auditing past features, it’s important to assess what aspects of your organization resonated most with journalists, producers, bloggers and editors. The audit will also analyze what pieces have been most shared or buzzed about, and will assess how well past coverage communicated your organization’s intended key messages. Armed with this information, it’s possible to identify the parts of your public relations strategy that should be adjusted to maximize the quantity and quality of your media hits.

Equally important is an assessment of your competitors and the news or trending topics in your field and market. A high-quality media audit pulls your competitors’ media coverage to get a sense of the narratives that gain interest in your field. It also reveals which reporters, publications and websites and are active in your market, and cover topics of interest to your audience. Finally, it gives you a sense of areas of the conversation that your competitors are effectively owning, and areas where your organization has an opportunity to become a leading expert.

Costs and Benefits of Media Auditing

The cost of the media audit will vary hugely, dependent upon the number of media being audited, the number of campaigns being analysed in detail, the frequency of audit. There is also a dynamic of auditor size. Bigger, better-resourced media auditors who run robust databases with developed tools, and subscriptions to syndicated data have higher overheads than those who don’t. Their fees will be correspondingly higher, but their work will be more reliable.

Typically, the client should expect his benefit to be a multiple of his fee (5:1 is often used). This is mostly easily measured in decreasing media prices, but equally he may feel the investment pays for itself in the additional visibility and control he gets over this major cost line.

The Media Audit is a multimedia survey conducted for the purpose of developing statistically valid information about the audience levels and audience characteristics of radio stations, local TV news programs, and cable TV viewing, daily newspapers, weekly and monthly publications, the Internet, social media, mobile Internet usage, local media websites, direct mail and out-of-home Media.

The Media Audit also collects socioeconomic information, product buying plans and purchasing activity for various products, services, retail stores and financial institutions which can be used to explain the quality of individual media audiences. In addition, the information can be used in explaining the customer profiles and consumer market shares for the many products, services, retail foundations and banking institutions that are covered in the survey.

Proper Execution of Media Audit

The Media Audit should be the financial reconciliation of all of the strategy, planning budgeting buying and remittance for the advertiser’s media communications. Media Audit scrutinizes processes of media buying, scheduling, planning, rates across media and compares it with a benchmark. There are various components of Media Audit

  1. Financial Audit

This audit essentially examines whether client got what it ordered, and if they are paying for what was intended.  Since the Media Buying Agency is an external agency, they have a contractual relationship to act on clients’ behalf, to buy space and time. Media Audit essentially examines whether the client got what it ordered and if they are paying for what the intended

Another aspect of financial audit is the payment. Client pays the Media Buying Agency, who in turn pays the media supplier. Did client money reach them, and did it reach on the due date? That involves reconciliation between what client paid for and where it went. Apart from this, there is also a need to check if the authority is being exercised correctly.

  1. Return of rebates and discounts
    The second type of audit is what is called ‘return of rebates and discounts’, which some media owners give the Media Buying Agencies directly for space or airtime bookings in excess of a certain volume.

So the Agencies push advertisers to spend on a given medium or channel, to gain volumes, and thus, rebates. This is called Agency Volume Discount. Advertisers would want that discount passed back to them, in proportion to their spends.

  1. Critique

The third component of media audit is a critique of the way media planning has been done by the agency. The media auditor audits the media plan to examine the plan was fair and optimum.

The best media audits are the audit of entire media process and involve all of the appropriate disciplines within financial and marketing organizations at the advertiser company. They also coordinate agency or third party buying services to create a seamless understanding and discipline. Complete media planning can only be achieved by planning for them at the time the media plan is requested. This means auditing process really starts before any advertising expenditure is authorized. The best practice to complete media audit requires the arrangement of management, marketing media and financial staffs to establish standard before any activity take place.

Various Sources of Media Research

Added additional with help of books and sites. Write based on Marks

“Survey conducted to investigate what segment of consumers read which periodicals and or listen to or watch which radio or television programs”.

Media Research relates to coverage, depth and impact of different advertising media. It is also related to frequency and the effectiveness of different advertising media. In addition, media-mix comes within the scope of media research.

Media research is also called Audience Research. It provides information as regards popularity and effectiveness of each advertising medium, the comparative position of the cost of advertising in each medium and the position of cost and benefit in the case of each Advertising Medium. This facilitates the selection of most suitable media mix for the benefit of the advertiser.

Sources Of Media Research

Media research is related to advertising reach, frequency and the effectiveness of different media and combination of media (media-mix) in reaching the target audience. Let us discuss some sources of Media research are as under

(1) Nielsen Clear Decision

This revolutionary new software platform examined media and marketing data and has been designed to work the way you do. Learn, how to drag and drop coding, visual editing and built up investigative techniques will allow you to mine the data for understanding more quickly. In addition, it also helps to see how custom report shapes and hundreds of chart options allow you to create presentation-ready reports modified for your business needs.

The Nielsen Company and its subsidiary Interactive Market Systems (IMS) have announced the launch of IMS Clear Decisions, a new software platform claiming to simplify access to media and marketing data and speed up the generation of insights from it. Billed as “the most important new software offering for media buyers and sellers in more than a decade the tool helps advertising agencies, media, companies and marketers mine data to spot markets, channels, target groups and develop Return on Investment.

The Nielsen Company is the world’s leading provider of marketing information, audience measurement, and business media products and services. Nielsen ascertains market, media and consumer behaviour across industries around the world. Nielsen amalgamate information from across their business. transform raw data into strategic insights and tailor-made recommendations. Nielsen examines and advises about composite sales and marketing issues for winning business decisions. Main Mission of Nielson is providing clients with the most complete understanding of consumers and markets worldwide.

The group says it has invested $3. 5m in the development of Clear Decisions, which uses new Microsoft. NET technology and promises a simple, flexible interface design for easy access to the most regular used analyses, Including Innovative drag and drop coding and visual editing, Nielsen will offer it to more than 16, 000 users worldwide, including ad agencies, publishers, broadcasters, marketers, and other media companies.

Nielsen Print Reach and Frequency

Nielsen IMS is the leading innovator of reach and frequency programs and the most creative writer of reach and frequency Process fitted to specific media. Nielsen MS print Reach and Frequency (Rm) is a core application with advanced user benefits faultless coordinated into its system. For example, built within Nielsen IMS Print R & F, is a powerful optimization program that created best schedule outline based on user-specific objectives, such as budget or reach.

(2) Broadcast Audience Research Council

BARC (Broadcast Audience Research Council) India is an industry body set up to design, commission, supervise and own an accurate, reliable and timely television audience measurement system for India. It currently measures TV Viewing habits of 197 million TV households in the country, using 30,000 sample panel homes. This will go up to 50,000 in the next couple of years, as mandated by the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting.

Guided by the recommendations of the TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) and MIB notifications of January 2014, BARC India brings together the three key stakeholders in television audience measurement – broadcasters, advertisers, and advertising and media agencies, via their apex bodies.

BARC India is committed towards establishing a robust, transparent and accountable governance framework for providing data points that are required to plan media spends more effectively.

3) Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC)

Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) is one of the several organisations of the same name operating in different parts of world.

ABC was founded in 1948. It is a not-for-profit, and a voluntary organisation consisting of Publishers, Advertisers and Advertising Agencies as its Members. It performs a pioneering work in developing audit procedures to certify the circulation figures of publications of members of ABC.

ABC as it is called and understood by all, is a founding member of the International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Certification. The main function of ABC is to evolve, lay down a standard and uniform audit procedure by which a member publisher shall compute its Qualifying copies. The circulation figure thus received, is checked and verified by a firm of chartered accountants which are empanelled by the Bureau.

The Bureau issues ABC certificates every six months to those publisher members whose circulation figures confirm to the rules and regulations as set out by the Bureau.

Circulation figures that are checked and certified by an independent body are an important tool and critical to the advertising business community.

ABC’s membership today includes

    • 562 Dailies
    • 107 Weeklies
    • 50 magazines
    • 125 Advertising Agencies
    • 45 Advertisers
  • 22 New Agencies and Associations connected with print media and advertising. It covers most of the major towns in India.

An Advertiser would like to know the facts and figures before investing their money in advertising. An Advertiser will also need to know how many people buy a publication and in which area. The ABC gives all these vital statistics every six months. The ABC figures are not the outcome of opinions, claims or guesswork, but they are the result of rigid, in depth and impartial audits of paid circulation of member publications by independent firms of Chartered Accountants working in accordance with the rules / procedures prescribed by the Bureau.

 

(4) Research and Analysis of Media (RAM):

RAM is an international media research company working with online surveys and analysis of advertising and editorial content for media companies, media consultants and advertisers worldwide. With hundreds of media clients and about 1000 publications in 18 countries, RAM provides the industry with cutting edge metrics of how ads, articles and other media communication are consumed and understood – and what kind of impact it has.

RAM’s vision is to provide easy to use advanced IT solutions and be the world’s leading supplier of knowledge-based and cost efficient analysis services for media companies. With probably the largest reference database in the world for media, RAM compare measured results against standard values in order to evaluate the results achieved. In a period of over 10 years, RAM has carried out over 50 million interviews of ads and editorial content in order to measure the effectiveness of the communication and the database is continuously growing.

RAM was founded in 2001 with its headquarters in Stockholm, Sweden. In 2007, RAM started a subsidiary company in the United States, Research and Analysis of Media of Americas Inc. and subsidiaries also in Norway and Finland in 2008. RAM opened 2008 an office in London for the UK & Ireland and most recently in Germany in 2012.

(5) Television Audience Measurement [TAM]

TAM Media Research is a joint venture company between AC Nielsen and Kantar Media Research/IMRB. It is one of the two television Audience measurement analysis firms of India (the other being aMap). Besides measuring television viewership, TAM also monitors advertising expenditure through its division AdEx India. It exists in the PR Monitoring space through another division – Eikona PR Monitor.

The viewership cell runs what is one of the largest People Meter TV Panels in the World with approximately 30,000 sample individuals representing all the Class-I towns (towns with population more than 100,000) polled every week for their Viewership habits. This division measures television Viewership of audiences for the 300-plus TV stations operating in India.

The company enjoyed a monopoly in the television ratings market in India till 2015.

Broadcast Audience Research Council (BARC India) was being propelled as an alternate TV viewership measurement system to the incumbent, TAM Media Research. TAM, a 50:50 joint venture between Nielsen and Kantar Media, was then responsible for the ratings that decide the fate of the `22,000 crore spending on TV advertising. It enjoyed a virtual monopoly, but its job left a lot to be desired.

BARC India was planned and executed as an alternative to TAM Media Research Pvt. Ltd. It was set up as per guidelines of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India.

It is mandated to design, commission, supervise, and own a television audience measurement system for India, and provides Indian broadcast sector with a real-time television rating points (TRP) measurement system.

(6) Comscore-Digital measurement

The regular inconsistency between census-based site analytics data and panel-based audience measurement data has long been the vulnerable point of digital media measurement. Because the two measurement techniques have different aims, they employ different counting technologies, which often results in differing the standard of measurement that can cause uncertainty among publishers and advertisers.

With the introduction of Unified Digital Measurement TM, Comscore implemented a panel-centric unified solution to audience measurement, creating a blend of these two methodologies into a best of breed approach that provides a direct link between census and panel approaches. This approach combines person-level measurement from the 2 million people. Comscore global panel with census informed size of consumption to account for 100 percent of a property’s audience.

Participating companies place tags on all their content-web pages, videos, apps and ads, and these calls are recorded by Comscore servers every time content is accessed. Comscore is able to view these calls on its global panel in addition to measuring the census tag calls. This unique perspective allows Comscore to validate that the tags are measuring activities consistent with its audience measurement methodology, Comscore applies proprietary data cleansing and validation processes, and once validated the tag counts are used to set the usage levels by the site.

Additionally, Comscore has developed a proprietary methodology to combine panel and server-side metrics in order to calculate audience reach in a manner that is not affected by variables such as cookie deletion and cookie blocking/rejection.

(7) National Readership Survey (NRS)

The History of NRS in India dates back to 1970. Since then, four NRSs have been conducted. The first was carried out by ORC (Operational Research Group) in 1970. The 2nd collectively carried out by IMRB and ORG in 1978. The third was conducted solely by HRB (Indian Marketing Research Bureau) in 1983-84, and the Fourth NRS jointly by IMRB and MARG Research Group) Bureau in 1990

What is National Readership Survey?

Generally, NRS is conducting the survey of all media, but mainly the print medium is conducted by the National Readership Survey Council. This body consists of members from the INS (Indian Newspaper Society), AAAI (Advertising Agencies Association of India) and ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulation).

The Audience covered by the NRS

The survey is conducted on an all-India basis, urban as well as rural, amongst individuals who are 12 years and older. All town classes are covered in the urban area. However, only towns with a population higher than two lakh are described on an individual basis, smaller towns are described on the basis of socio-cultural regions defined by language homogeneity, geographic homogeneity, financial and economic administration, regionalization of culture and lifestyle, caste-and class homogeneity

Type of data received from NRS:

NRS gives information on a large scale like the reach of each medium among various audiences described demographically. It also gives information on the duplication between media, as well as between vehicles within the same medium. NRS describe readers by sex, age, income, socio-economic class, occupation, education, and geographical location and lifestyle parameters such as product ownership and consumption patterns.

The area covered by NRS

The survey is conducted only on urban readers across the country. The country is primarily divided into four zones I. e.North, South, East and West. For instance, the survey in West Zone covered towns in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Goa.

The NRS-IV has covered Urban India excluding all offshore territories (such as Andaman & Nicobar Islands), Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh. Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir were excluded because of the uncertain law and order situation. Himachal Pradesh could not be included since the sample size after the exclusion of Jammu & Kashmir was too small to provide representative estimates of readership habits and media exposure.

The selection procedure of respondents for the survey was made using a two-step procedure, which are:

(a) A sample of voters was first drawn from the electoral rolls in group of a predetermined size.

(b) The addresses where the selected voters were residing were located. Within each such contacted household, adult age 15+ years constituted the frame for randomly selecting an individual for the readership interview.

Publication covered by NRS

A special Publications Committee, comprising of senior media controllers and directors from advertising agencies, decides on the Publications to be included in the NRS. The Committee identifies and includes those publication covered by ABC depending on their circulation figures. They use their collective judgment to include publications not covered by the ABC. NRS III covered 322 Publications, whereas NRS IV included 288 publications. It is to be noted here that Operations Research Group (ORG) did conduct a similar study in 1989-90 called ORG-NRS, which covered 604 publications and interviewed readers in both urban and rural areas.

Objectives of NRS

The objective of NRS is to provide advertisers, ad agencies, Publishers and others with evaluates readership-of major publications and to make broader differentiation exposures to press, cinema, radio and television. NRS is to provide information that can be used as the basis for buying and selling advertising space in the press medium.

(8) Businessman’s Readership Survey

IMRB conduct a survey on media studies such as reader reviews, reader profile survey, readership among the specific audience and specific class and on flight magazine. IMRB introduced the first time in India, a Businessman’s Readership Survey a specialized research to measure the readership of publication among the business and · professionals and the private and public sections. It provides estimates of primary and secondary readership, place of reading, the extent of business travels and use of business services. MRB has initiated a syndicated research about the readership habit of professionals engaged in various activities in India.

(9) Audience Measurement

Audience measurement evaluates how many people are in an audience, normally in relation to radio listenership and television viewership, but also in relation to newspaper and magazine readership and, growingly, web traffic on websites. Sometimes, the term is used as pertaining to executions which help broadcasters and advertisers decide who’s listening, how many people are listening. The Audience measurement is also called audience research. Measurements are broken down by media market, for which most of the part correlates with t6 metropolitan areas, both large and small. There are various Companies who conduct Audience measurement research. Following are the two developed audience

(i) IBOPE (Instituto Brasileiro de Opiniao Publica e Estatistica)

In Portuguese Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics was established in Brazil in 1942 and provides the largest collection of information in Brazilian and Latin American markets. Supporting the decision-making process of its clients, IBOPE Group provides research on media, public opinion, voting intention, consumption, behaviour, marketing, branding and other issues as required by clients.

(ii) Nielsen Company Nielsen ratings are the audience measurement systems developed by the Nielsen Company, in examples of Companies who have a measurement system an effort to determine the audience size and composition of television programming in the United States. Nielsen Media Research was founded by Arthur Nielsen, who was a market analyst, whose career had begun in the 1920s with brand advertising analysis and expanded into radio market analysis during the 1930s, culminating in Nielsen ratings of radio programming, which was meant to provide statistics as to the markets of radio shows. In 1950, Nielsen moved to television, developing a rating system using the methods he and his company had developed for radio. That method has since become the primary source of audience measurement information in the television industry around the world.

Nielsen television ratings are gathered in one of two ways

“Viewer Diaries”, in which a target-audience self-records its viewing or listening habits. By targeting various demographics, the collected statistical models provide the audiences of any given show, network, and programming hour.

Set Meters are small devices connected to televisions in selected homes. These devices collect the viewing habits of. the home and transfer the information nightly to Nielsen through a”Home Unit” connected to a phone line. The technology-based home unit system is meant to allow market researchers to study television viewing habits on a minute to minute basis, seeing the exact moment viewers change channels or turn off their TV.

Scatter Buy

Advertisers purchase network television in three primary ways: Up-front (long-term), scatter (short-term) and opportunistic (or last minute) buys. An Upfront or long-term buy is the purchase of inventory for all the quarters of the coming broadcast year. It involves guaranteed audience delivery, guaranteed cost efficiency and premium inventory.

The upfront season is followed by a second phase known as scatter plan buys. Scatter plans are usually negotiated on a quarterly basis throughout the year and this gives the buyer a better fix on the marketplace. Scatter buys offer the advertiser more financial flexibility. However, it involves efficiency and inventory risks, as the best inventory may already be sold. This is for the advertisers who want to take advantage of changing market conditions or, more often, for smaller advertisers who are shut out of the upfront buy. Generally, scatter plans will sell at a higher CPM than up-front spots because there is less time inventory and smaller advertisers do not have the leveraged to negotiate the CPM levels of larger networks.

Opportunistic buys involve the purchase of inventory on the last minute basis if the television networks have any inventory available to sell. So they carry risks of being driven out when the right exposure is needed or could be effective because the networks are trying to get rid of last minute inventory just prior to the air date.

TRP

Most of the times we have seen people watching TV and we heard about the TRP of channel or programme like the TRP of channel is increasing day by day and so on. Do you know how to calculate the TRP of a TV channel as well as shows running on a channel? Various factors are there that define the TRP of a TV channel or programme. TRP is a well known parameter for a Television. Let us study through this article about TRP, what is the mechanism or procedure to calculate the TRP, What affect it paves to the channel or programme etc.

What is TRP?

TRP is a Television Rating Point. It is the tool that tells us which channel and the programme is viewed most or it indicates the popularity of a TV channel or a programme. It shows how many times people are watching a channel or a particular programme. TRP enables the advertisers and investors to understand the mood of the people. According to the TRP of a TV Channel or programme advertisers decide where to display their advertisements and investors will decide about the investment of the money.

How to calculate or check TRP?

Do you know that TRP is calculated by Indian agencies namely INTAM and DART? INTAM is Indian Television Audience Measurement. Earlier, DART that is Doordarshan Audience Research Team was used to calculate these ratings as that time the only channel available was only Doordarshan. Still DART exists and is an agency which takes the TV viewing pattern of rural people into consideration. They randomly pick people and question them about the various channels and TV programmes and also use electronic methods to get the viewership statistics.

What is barcode and how is it made?

Following two electronic methods are there for calculating TRP:

1. People meters device is installed in some places or set in selected homes to calculate the TRP. In this way some thousand viewers are surveyed in the form of justice and sampling. These gadgets record data about the channel or programme watched by the family members or selected people. Through this meter the information of TV channel or programme for one minute is carried out by the INTAM a monitoring team i.e. Indian Television Audience measurement. After analysing the information, the team decides what is the TRP of the channel or programme. Or we can say that this data is later analysed by the agency to create a national TRP data of various TV channels and TV programmes.

2. Second method is known as picture matching where the people meter records a small portion of the picture that is being watched on the TV. This data is collected from a set of homes in the form of pictures and later on is analysed to calculate the TRPs.

What happens when TRP increases or decreases?

The increase or decrease in TRP of any programme directly affects the income of that TV channel in which the programme is coming. Do you know that any TV channel like Sony, Star Plus, Z Channel etc. earn money through advertisements? If suppose the TRP of a programme or channel is low which means that people are watching it less so, advertisers will give less advertisements and pay less.  But, if the TRP is high of the programme then more advertisements, advertisers and money. So, we can say that TRP depends not only on the channel but the programme as well. For example, if the TRP of a programme say Rising Star is higher than any other programme then advertiser would like to give advertisements in that programme and also pay more.

What is TRP Rate?

The TRP rate is one on which TRP of a TV channel is calculated. TRP of any channel or programme depends upon the programme that is displayed. It can be understood that when a film star arrives in a program for the promotion of his movie, the TRP of that programme increases automatically because people like to see that film star more.

Research and Analysis of Media

RAM, Research and Analysis of Media, is an international media research company. With about 1000 clients in 18 countries, RAM provides the industry with statistics of how ads, articles and other media communication are consumed and understood for both introducing print and digital media. RAM works with online surveys and analysis of advertising and editorial content for media companies, media consultants and advertisers worldwide.

RAM’s objective is to provide easy to use advanced m solutions and be the world’s leading supplier of knowledge-based and cost-efficient analysis services for media companies. With probably the largest reference database in the world for media, RAM compares measured results against standard values in order to evaluate the results achieved. In a period of over 10 years, RAM has carried out over 50 million interviews of ads and editorial content in order to measure the effectiveness of the communication and the database is continuously growing.

With over hundreds of media clients and about 1000 publications in 18 countries, RAM provides the industry with cutting edge metrics of how Ads, Articles and all the other Media Communications are consumed as well as understood, further giving an insight on what kind of impact it has.

RAM’s vision is to provide a simplified and easy to use, yet an Advanced IT Solution and to become the world’s leading supplier of knowledge-based and cost efficient analysis services for media companies. With probably the largest reference database in the world for Media, when compared RAM, measured results against standard values in order to evaluate the results achieved. In a period of over 10 years, RAM has carried out over 50 million interviews of ads and editorial content in order to measure the effectiveness of the communication and the database is continuously growing. RAM was founded in 2001 with its headquarters in Stockholm, Sweden. In 2007, RAM started a subsidiary company in the United States, Research and Analysis of Media of Americas Inc. and subsidiaries also in Norway and Finland in 2008. RAM opened 2008 an office in London for the UK & Ireland and most recently in Germany in 2012.

RAM provides a timely and cost-effective way to evaluate company’s products. RAM measures how advertising and editorial content works. With the help of RAM, the media can determine what engages their readers as well as prove the power of their channels for an advertiser. By offering our clients these services, RAM provides unique and strategic solutions with relevant insights t0 help increase our client’s revenue, grow their audience and give them a clear understanding of the markets in which they operate, be it local, regional or national.

Audit Bureau of Circulation

ABC is a self-reliant non-profit organization consisting of and assisted by, publishers, advertisers, advertising agencies, and commercial websites, to audit and verify circulation and site traffic claims of its members. Its annual audit report shows, among other data, the average net-paid circulation of the print media and is used by advertisers in planning their marketing campaigns. It is established in the year 1914 in the US, it has also associated in most of the other countries.

What is ABC?

Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) is one of the various organizations of the same name working in different parts of the world. The ABC established in 1948 is a not for profit, a voluntary organization involving Publishers, Advertisers and advertising agencies. It has made various methods of work in enlarging audit methods to verify the circulation data published by those newspapers and periodicals which have earned the right to display its representation

ABC is a founder member of the International Federation of Audit Bureau of Circulations. The main purpose of ABC is to develop, establish a standard and constant procedure by which a member publisher shall evaluate its net paid sales. The circulation figure so arrived at is checked and verified by a firm of Chartered Accountants which are approved by the Bureau. The Bureau supply ABC certificates every six months to those publishers whose circulation figures verify to the ordinance set out by the bureau. ABC’s membership today includes 411 Publishers of national and regional, 151 Advertising Agencies, 51 Advertisers & 20 New Agencies and Corporations joined with print media. And advertising. It covers most of the vital towns in India.

The Working of ABC

Under Bureau’s Council of Management, the main activity of Board of Director is making the body. Council members meet, frequently at least once in two months.

Bureau’s Council of Management includes the following

8 elected representatives of publisher members

4 elected representatives of Advertising Agency members

4 elected representatives of Advertiser members

The position of Chairman of the Council of Management revolves every year between the senior-most publisher member and senior most publisher member on the Council (Advertising Agency and Advertiser). Chairman is selected by the Council of Management every year. The. Bureau (ABC) verifies circulation figures of member publications every six months I. e. For the audit periods from January to June and July to December. The Audits of circulation figures are carried out by enlisted firms of Chartered Accountants as per the prescribed Bureau’s audit rules and regulations.

What is IMC

Integrated Marketing Communications is a simple concept. It ensures that all forms of communications and messages are the carefully linked together Integrated marketing communications

(IMC) is a process of managing customer relationships that drive brand value primarily through communication efforts. Such efforts often include cross-functional processes that create and nourish profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders by strategically controlling or influencing all messages sent to these groups and encouraging data-driven, purposeful dialogue with them.

IMC includes the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools, avenues, and sources within a company into a seamless program in order to maximize the impact on end users at a minimal cost. Ideally, IMC is implemented by developing comprehensive databases on customers and prospects, segmenting these current and potential customers into groups with certain common awareness levels, predispositions, and behaviours, and developing messages and media strategies that guide the communication tactics to meet marketing objectives. In doing this, IMC builds and reinforces mutually profitable relationships with customers and other important stakeholders and generates synergy by coordinating all elements in the promotional mix into a program that possesses clarity, consistency, and maximum impact.

Definition of IMC:

According to American Association of Advertising Agencies IMC is a “concept of marketing communication planning that recognises the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication discipline”.

Importance of IMC

(1) Awareness:

IMC tools play an important role in creating awareness of the products with respect to brand name and brand availability. It brings to the notice of the potential customer the new varieties of goods available in the market

(2) Information:

Product information is needed when the product is recently launched in the market. Potential customer must know about the product, features. IMC provides this information through various techniques so that the buyer can take correct decision while buying the goods.

(3) To increase sales:

A proper communication mix tends to increase the sales of the organization. This is possible as increased sales bring economies of large-scale production which enables the seller to reduce cost and increase profit. To inform the intermediaries. IMC act as a communication

(4) To inform the intermediaries:

IMC act as a communication channel between the sellers and the intermediaries like dealer and agents. These intermediaries are regularly informed through sales literature, pamphlets, brochures, price list etc.

(5) Expansion of the market:

IMC help the seller to expand the business from local level to regional level and to national level. This expansion provides his goodwill, recognition throughout the country.

(6) More specialized media:

It used to be said that mass media was enough to cover any advertiser’s needs. But with ever-increasing ad clutter, shorter attention spans and greater resistance to advertising, customers now tend to be a lot more selective. They shut out the stuff they feel they don’t need and go with the stuff that they want. Therefore with IMC sellers can retain the attention of customer by diverting their attention through various Communication Mix.

6 Successful Strategies in Negotiation

When doing business we don’t have a choice as to whether or not we negotiate.  The only choice we have is how well we negotiate.  We all go through some sort of negotiation each day.  We promote products, services, thoughts: supervisors use negotiating skills to motivate employees, set budgets and timelines, employees negotiate for promotions and raises, parents negotiate with their children to clean up and spouses negotiate each time they decide how to manage their time or finances.

Here are six important negotiation strategies that may be used in business or life in general, but pertain especially to the negotiating process:

1.  The negotiating process is continual, not an individual event.  

Good negotiating outcomes are a result of good relationships and relationships must be developed over time.  Because of that, good negotiators are constantly looking for opportunities to enhance the relationship and strengthen their position.  In some cases, the result of the negotiation is determined even before the individuals meet for discussion.

2.  Think positive.  

Many negotiators underestimate themselves because they don’t perceive the power they have inside of themselves accurately.  In most negotiating situations, you have more power than you think.  You must believe that the other party needs what you bring to the table as much as you want the negotiation to be a success.  Also, be sure that that positivity is visible during the negotiation.  Be aware of the tone of your voice and non-verbal body language while interacting with the other party.

3.  Prepare.  

Information is crucial for negotiation.  Research the history, past problems or any sensitive points of the other party.  The more knowledge you have about the situation of the other party, the better position you’ll be in to negotiate.  The most important part of preparation is Practice!  The study of negotiation is like golf or karate.  You have to practice to execute well.

4.  Think about the best & worst outcome before the negotiations begin.  

Don’t be upset if things don’t go your way.  In these instances, it’s a good time to reevaluate all positions and return to the table.   In most cases, as long as you know the highest and lowest expectations of each party a middle ground can usually be reached in the overlapping areas.

5. Be articulate & build value.  

This is key, and it’s what separates the good negotiators from the masters.  When you have a strong belief in what you’re negotiating for, you will shine.  Become a master at presenting your thoughts and ideas so that others see the value.

A tip on how to do that well:

    • Be direct when presenting a situation.  Be clear about what is expected.  Discuss ways to apply how it can happen.
  • Don’t simply talk about what needs to happen.  Discuss the consequences – how your solution will be beneficial to the other party.

6.  Give & Take.  

When a person gives something up or concedes on part of a negotiation, always make sure to get something in return.  Otherwise, you’re conditioning the other party to ask for more while reducing your position and value.  Maintaining a balance will establish that both parties are equal.

Principles of Influence

Humans, like animals, respond to certain cues automatically. Cialdini categorizes these triggers into six categories, which explain, in large part, how people influence one another and persuade others into compliance (without thinking.)

    • Reciprocation: When people give you something or do something for you, you are more likely to respond in kind.
    • Consistency: Our default is to act consistently with what we’ve already stated.
    • Social proof: When we’re uncertain of what to do, we act like others.
    • Liking: You are more likely to do something if asked by someone you like.
    • Authority: You’re more persuasive when people see you as an authority (knowledge and credibility) on the subject.
  • Scarcity: People want something others don’t have. They want something rare.

The Psychology Behind the Buying Process

1. Reciprocity

One of the most basic principles of influence is to simply give that which you want to receive. In other words, doing right by others is a good way to get others to do the same for you. This idea of reciprocity is a powerful one.

There are a couple of ways to have this reciprocity work for you. Giving others small gifts, treating others with respect, and doing favors for those in need, are all things that can win you points with other individuals.

So a good approach is to always help others and be kind when you have the opportunity, because you never know how it may help you down the line. Moreover, it is these small acts of kindness that will be remembered and come in handy when you’re in need of a favor yourself.

2. Consistency

The principle of consistency is based on the power of active, public, and voluntary commitments, which results in people actually sticking to their word. Let’s walk through these requirements in a little more detail. The first part is an active commitment. By active, Cialdini means something that is written or spoken to other’s. Having people say they will do something is a start, but when they actively commit to it they’re much more likely to follow through.

The next piece is making it public. When other’s witness this commitment, it adds a level of accountability to the statement. And no one wants to go back on their word.

Finally, it has to be voluntary. If you force someone to make an active, public commitment that they didn’t decide on themselves, you’ve accomplished nothing.

So how do you use this? Once you’ve persuaded someone to do something, get them to make these types of commitments to implement the principle of consistency and ensure there is a legitimate commitment to their words.

3. Social Proof

People rely on social cues from others on how to think, feel, and act in many situations. And not just any people, but peers. People they believe are similar to them. This is a key point and what is called social proof.

So if you wanted to influence your interns or a particular team in your department or the new hires, you need to get one of them to buy in first. When they see an employee like themselves seemingly taking action on their own or following a new directive, they are more probable to follow suit.

Having that first person take action makes all the difference and unlocks the power of social proof.

4. Liking

People like those who like them or who they perceive as friends. It’s a simple, yet powerful idea. The principle of liking can be used in a few different ways.

One method is finding common ground with the people you meet. If you can connect with them on their hobbies or interests, you’ll have a solid ground to build from. Being observant of people is a great way to pick up on any clues that may lead you to such common ground.

The other approach is genuine praise. Paying compliments and being charming can go along way to building a positive rapport with others. A word of warning though, don’t go overboard. The key here is genuine praise, don’t manufacture it to the point that you’re clearly trying to butter them up.

5. Authority

When you are perceived as an expert in an area, other’s will be more likely to defer to you. Why? Often because experts are able to offer a shortcut to good decisions that would otherwise take a long time to devise themselves. The idea then is to establish that credibility of authority and expertise.

Many often miss this opportunity because they assume others will identify their expertise automatically. You can’t leave it up to interpretation because it will often be overlooked.

There are a number of ways to establish such authority. A quick and easy one is to make visible all diplomas, credentials, and awards in the office or workplace to establish your background. Of course this may not always be an option. Another approach is to convey expertise through short anecdotes or background information shared in casual conversations.

Just remember, your expertise isn’t always a known quantity, so be sure to convey it when you get the chance.

6. Scarcity

People value what is scarce. It’s just basic supply and demand. As things become more scarce, they becoming more valuable to others. There are a few ways that you can use the principle of scarcity to persuade others. One is simply to make offers limited-time, limited-supply, or one-time, which immediately creates a sense of scarcity.

At the same time, how you present such opportunities matters too. If you focus more on loss language, or language that demonstrates what you will lose out on rather than gain, your message becomes more powerful.

Finally is the exclusivity approach. Providing access to information, services, or other items to a limited set of people creates a sense of exclusiveness. This often gets translated into being a favor to those people or that you value them more than others.

If you can combine all of these to frame a situation, your powers of persuasion greatly increase. So try to utilize limited offers, loss language, and exclusivity, to create a sense of scarcity.

Digital Media Planning

I am slightly confused about this. Will update this.

Mobile Advertising

Mobile advertising is a form of advertising via mobile (wireless) phones or other mobile devices. It is a subset of mobile marketing.

It is estimated that mobile app-installed ads accounted for 30% of all mobile advertising revenue in 2014, and will top $4.6bn in 2016, and over $6.8bn by the end of 2019.Other ways mobile advertising can be purchased include working with a Mobile Demand Side Platform, in which ad impressions are bought in real-time on an Ad exchange. Another report has indicated that world wide mobile digital advertising spend would reach $184.91 bn in 2018, $217.42 bn in 2019 and $247.36 bn in 2020.

A report by comScore reveals that 69% of digital media time is spent on mobile, 4% up from the previous year, largely driven by smartphone app usage (consumers spend 92% of their time on smartphones in apps, 7% up from the previous year, according to Flurry Analytics research data). It’s no surprise then that mobile advertising spend has soared

Mobile advertising can include anything from video ads and mobile website display to in-app ads. The very nature of mobile (as a personal device) calls for a personalised approach with precisely targeted advertising campaigns for the best return on investment. And, a number of mobile advertising companies have emerged to support this trend.

WAP:

Mobile Websites are often referred to as WAP sites.  WAP stands for Wireless Application Protocol, which is a standard that is used to guide how the mobile version of a website is designed, created, and displayed.  Some mobile websites have unique device detection capabilities.  This means that the mobile website is able to identify not only that you are using a mobile device, but what kind of device you are using.

The mobile website is then modified so that it displays in the best format possible for your specific device.  One advantage of this is that the mobile website is accessible from a wide variety of mobile devices; there are a lot of different types of cell phones out there!  Another advantage is that the user does not have to download a program to their mobile device in order to view the website. All they need is a data connection and a mobile browser, which is a standard feature that is pre-installed on many phones sold today.

Applications

Mobile Applications are a useful tool for Advertisers. They can be used to track the consumers, the sales, the growth of the campaign, and many more things. With each passing day the technological possibilities enable many more features to an Advertiser. Applications are designed uniquely for the devices on which they are installed. An application has the potential to offer unique features that take advantage of what that device has to offer.  However, this uniqueness also means that an app which is designed for an Operating System like Android, Tizen, iOs, will not work on another (for example, an Android phone) and a separate app needs to be developed.  Apps often have many features that will work based on the information stored on the device, however some parts may require a connection to the Internet in order to provide updates.  This is especially true for most apps from news organizations as their primary content is constantly being updated.

What makes mobile advertising such a winning platform for advertisers, is that it offers a better return on investment than traditional practices. Double Click, Google’s Advertising entity, has reported that mobile Ads on social networks have higher click-through rate, while traditional ads cannot be monitored efficiently..

Social media platforms make an excellent venue for native advertising as well, because the ads are so easily integrated into mobile news feeds. Add to that how easy it is to share information on mobile devices and you can see why native ads and mobile social networking is such a powerhouse combination.

Mobile Ad Types

Banner

Still the most popular mobile ad format, the banner ad uses an unobtrusive “banner” at the top or bottom of the screen which features relevant text and graphics. Banner ads rely heavily on brand recognition, with little space to provide detailed information. Its a simple and safe way for a brand to get their name and product viewed by as many people as possible.

Native

Native ads are ads that don’t really look like ads. Rather than present a banner with relevant information, native ads attempt to seamlessly integrate with the publisher’s app. The ad format mimics that of the original app format for optimal user experience.

Video

Video ads are simple in their concept yet complex in their execution. They are literally videos that play either while a user opens or interacts with a mobile application. They require a substantial budget, but offer a high level of user engagement. Video ads on Facebook, Instagram, YouTube or any other platform, have the same parameters as photos when it comes to characters and call to action options. The aspect ratio for the video you use will vary depending on what your ad objective is.

Interstitial / Canvas

Interstitial ads are interactive ads that display across the entire screen, often while an app is loading or after an app is closed. Interstitials offer users a chance to partake in high-level engagement with an advertisement’s product, often featuring compelling and creative call-to-actions.

A Canvas / Interstitial advertisement is one that is designed to cover the entire viewing screen with an image or video. The larger pixel style allows marketers to have more creative freedom with the content they show, and it’s much easier to create a deliberate call to action with this ad type.

Promoted Trends

If you’re not that familiar with Twitter, a trending topic is one that is popping up in the most conversations. Trending topics are posted as a list on the side of the page. A promoted trend advertisement will put your story at the top of that list.

Traffic Campaigns

A traffic campaign is meant to take users directly from the content they are viewing to the product/service website.

Conclusion

Mobile advertising can be conducted on absolutely any mobile website, application or operating system. The platform is potentially very lucrative for ad campaigns, but it’s important to put in the research prior to launching. There are endless mediums available in the platform, and each platform will have a definitive audience you can address to. Think about your target market demographics and which platforms lend themselves to those people. Budget is obviously a big factor, too, but as you’ve seen, most platforms offer a variety of options that can accommodate various goals and budgets.

Social Media Advertising

The Entire Video means this Answer

I just thought about it.

Ad Design was a subject about designing Ads. Why did we make our own brands and it logos and everything. Apart from that, I am thinking of continuing the notes after TY as well. Probably go to higher and lower education as well.

To all those who ever dreamt of anyone, to everyone whos ever loved somebody man.

To anyone whos ever eaten a Cheeseburst Pizza. I believe you will get married man. And if you do, do let you kids know that Eppy uploads Notes on www.siped.org

Also tell your kids to follow me on Instagram.

{have been avoiding jokes okay.. I was told this sem is serious.}

{but followers are necessary}

{follow me on insta, and subscribe on youtube as well. I upload stolen content.}

Broadcast Audience Research Council (BARC)

BARC (Broadcast Audience Research Council) India is an industry body set up to design, commission, supervise and own an accurate, reliable and timely television audience measurement system for India. It currently measures TV Viewing habits of 197 million TV households in the country, using 30,000 sample panel homes. This will go up to 50,000 in the next couple of years, as mandated by the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting.

Guided by the recommendations of the TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) and MIB notifications of January 2014, BARC India brings together the three key stakeholders in television audience measurement – broadcasters, advertisers, and advertising and media agencies, via their apex bodies.

BARC India is committed towards establishing a robust, transparent and accountable governance framework for providing data points that are required to plan media spends more effectively.

With a panel that is currently being scaled up to 180,000 individuals, BARC India is also the largest measurement company of its kind in the world.

 

Not necessary, read for knowledge, or ignore as it were

a message sent by your CR on the class group.

;-; Why is my class ignoring my messages ;-;

BARC: TV Audience Measurement Methodology

The entire BARC India process can be broadly bucketed as follows:

Establishment Survey – A research study used to gather specific details of households and individuals to be used together with Census data in the preparation of universe estimates for TV audience characteristics – geographic, demographic, socio-economic status, etc. The Establishment Survey also serves as a randomly selected pool of TV owning households for use in the ongoing selection and recruitment of panel households

Panel Locations & Identification – Identification of a specific sample locations

Panel Selection and Training- Selection, recruitment, meter installation & training of household members

Panel Management- Supervision of panel operations with strict adherence to established standards

Measurement and Viewing Data Capture- Watermarking and BAR-O-Meter Technology used to identify & capture TV viewing events

Processing, Audience Estimation and Reporting- Process of error checking, editing, validating, weighting, projecting to universe and delivering audience estimates to BARC India clients in a form suitable for reporting, analysis and commercial use

BARC India Media Workstation (BMW)- BARC’s desktop software application used to report and analyse audience data in the format required by individual customer segments.

 

Nielsen Clear Decision

This revolutionary new software platform examined media and marketing data and has been designed to work the way you do. Learn, how to drag and drop coding, visual editing and built up investigative techniques will allow you to mine the data for understanding more quickly. In addition, it also helps to see how custom report shapes and hundreds of chart options allow you to create presentation-ready reports modified for your business needs.

The Nielsen Company and its subsidiary Interactive Market Systems (IMS) have announced the launch of IMS Clear Decisions, a new software platform claiming to simplify access to media and marketing data and speed up the generation of insights from it. Billed as “the most important new software offering for media buyers and sellers in more than a decade the tool helps advertising agencies, media, companies and marketers mine data to spot markets, channels, target groups and develop Return on Investment.

The Nielsen Company is the world’s leading provider of marketing information, audience measurement, and business media products and services. Nielsen ascertains market, media and consumer behaviour across industries around the world. Nielsen amalgamate information from across their business. transform raw data into strategic insights and tailor-made recommendations. Nielsen examines and advises about composite sales and marketing issues for winning business decisions. Main Mission of Nielson is providing clients with the most complete understanding of consumers and markets worldwide.

The group says it has invested $3. 5m in the development of Clear Decisions, which uses new Microsoft. NET technology and promises a simple, flexible interface design for easy access to the most regular used analyses, Including Innovative drag and drop coding and visual editing, Nielsen will offer it to more than 16, 000 users worldwide, including ad agencies, publishers, broadcasters, marketers, and other media companies.

Nielsen Print Reach and Frequency

Nielsen IMS is the leading innovator of reach and frequency programs and the most creative writer of reach and frequency Process fitted to specific media. Nielsen MS print Reach and Frequency (Rm) is a core application with advanced user benefits faultless coordinated into its system. For example, built within Nielsen IMS Print R & F, is a powerful optimization program that created best schedule outline based on user-specific objectives, such as budget or reach.

Components of Media Plan with Relevant Examples

Look I am not sure about this question.
But just study this because it will feel sad otherwise.

What Is Media Planning?

You are creating advertising for a new product. To complete this task, you need to go through the media planning process. Media planning in advertising is the making of decisions to deliver a message to the target audience.

The Process

Now that you understand what media planning is, it is time to review the process. The process includes:

Market Analysis

Performing a market analysis involves determining who your audience is. The audience is the number and type of people your advertising targets. The audience can be classified according to age, sex, income, occupation, etc. Performing this analysis will help you to project costs and determine the right media for your campaign.

Establishing the Media Objective

The media objective is the goal of the media plan. To establish this objective, you must determine your goal for reach, frequency, circulation, cost, and penetration. Reach is the amount of people the message is in front of over a period of time. Frequency is the average number of times the message is in front of those people. Circulation is used for printed advertisements. This is the number of prints that are produced and sent out. Cost is broken down into two different sections: cost per thousand (CPM) and cost per person (CPP). It is important to understand the cost as you are budgeting. The cost will tell you which form of media is the best option for your business. Penetration is the number of audience members reached by the advertising. The company must determine if it wants to take over a market or just reach a certain group prior to setting the penetration goals and strategies.

Setting the Strategy

Now that you understand who you are marketing to and how much it will cost you, you will need to make a decision about what type of media you will use. Some options include Internet, television, radio, newspaper, consumer and business publications, and interactive media platforms. Which option reaches the largest audience? How often will it reach the audience? Does it fit in your budget?

Implementation

Now you have a plan. Now it’s time to set it in motion. This is when you buy media. Media buying is the purchasing of the space in the selected media. This involves committing to the media provider, submitting the ad, and paying the bill. This is the exciting part. You see all your hard work come together.

Evaluation and Follow-up

After everything is said and done, it is time to see how successful your media plan was. To do so, you need to follow-up and evaluate the results. Ask yourself, ‘Did we meet media objectives? How successful were the strategies?’ The success of this media plan will determine future media plans.

Now that you understand the process, let’s take a look at a few examples.

Examples

Example #1: You are promoting a new candy bar. This candy bar has nutrition that gives you energy. Therefore, the target audience is athletes.

Athletes are not usually lounging around watching television. They listen to a lot of radio. You’ve determined you can advertise through an online radio company that plays advertisements one time every ten minutes. You’ve set a goal (media objective) of getting your advertisements in front of 1,000 people (reach) per day (frequency). The number of advertisers is limited to six per station, so you are guaranteed once every hour (frequency). Their stations average 200 listeners per hour. With a cost of $1,000 per day, 4,800 listeners per day, you are paying $0.21 per person (CPP). This fits in your budget, so you implement the media plan.

After two weeks you evaluate the media plan. You successfully met your media objective of reaching at least 1,000 people per day. There was also a 20% increase in sales. You continue the campaign.

Example #2: You are hired to advertise an air-sanitizing bomb. This product has been on the market for a while but hasn’t taken off. It needs advertising. The market analysis determines your audience should be schools and daycares. These businesses house a lot of germs!

You set a goal (media objective) of 500 people (reach) per week (frequency) seeing the advertisements. An Internet campaign focusing on email marketing seems like a good option. You find a company that will send the e-mails to 300 e-mail addresses per day. It costs $0.50 per e-mail, five days per week, for a total of $750/week. You’ll reach 1,500 people. The cost is $0.50 per person (CPP). This fits into your budget, so you move forward.

One month after implementation, you start the evaluation process. Sales have increased by only five percent. When you reach out to school administrators, you find that they are not seeing the e-mails; the school servers are blocking them. You decide it’s time to look at a new media plan.

Key Terms in Media Planning

    • Media Planning: The making of decisions to deliver a message to the target audience
    • Audience: The number and type of people your advertising targets.
    • Media objective: The goal of the media plan.
    • Reach: The amount of people the message is in front of over a period of time.
    • Frequency: The average number of times the message is in front of those people.
    • Circulation: The number of prints that are produced and sent out in printed advertisements.
  • Penetration: The number of audience members reached by the advertising.

comScore Digital

comScore is an American media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises; media and advertising agencies; and publishers.

ComScore Digital is a competitive intelligence tool that allows agencies, advertisers & publishers to quantify and evaluate the overall display advertising landscape.

The regular inconsistency between census-based site analytics data and panel-based audience measurement data has long been the vulnerable point of digital media measurement. Because the two measurement techniques have different aims, they employ different counting technologies, which often results in differing the standard of measurement that can cause uncertainty among publishers and advertisers.

With the introduction of Unified Digital Measurement, Comscore implemented a panel-centric unified solution to audience measurement, creating a blend of these two methodologies into a best of breed approach that provides a direct link between census and panel approaches. This approach combines person-level measurement from the 2 million people. Comscore global panel with census informed size of consumption to account for 100 percent of a property’s audience.

Participating companies place tags on all their content-web pages, videos, apps and ads, and these calls are recorded by Comscore servers every time content is accessed. Comscore is able to view these calls on its global panel in addition to measuring the census tag calls. This unique perspective allows Comscore to validate that the tags are measuring activities consistent with its audience measurement methodology, Comscore applies proprietary data cleansing and validation processes, and once validated the tag counts are used to set the usage levels by the site.

Additionally, Comscore has developed a proprietary methodology to combine panel and server-side metrics in order to calculate audience reach in a manner that is not affected by variables such as cookie deletion and cookie blocking/rejection.

Data collection and reporting

comScore maintains a group of users who have monitoring software (with brands including PermissionResearch, OpinionSquare and VoiceFive Networks) installed on their computers.In exchange for joining the comScore research panels, users are presented with various benefits, including computer security software, Internet data storage, virus scanning and chances to win cash or prizes.

comScore estimates that two million users are part of the monitoring prog ram. However, self-selected populations, no matter how large, may not be representative of the population as a whole. To obtain the most accurate data, comScore adjusts the statistics using weights to make sure that each population segment is adequately represented. To calculate these weights, comScore regularly recruits panelists using random digit dialing and other offline recruiting methods to accurately determine how many users are online, aggregated by geography, income, and age. Correcting the comScore data requires having accurate demographics about the larger pool of users. However, some comScore users are recruited without being asked to give demographic information and, in other cases, users may not be truthful about their demographics. To ensure the accuracy of the data, comScore verifies its users’ demographics during the course of measuring statistical data.

The corrected data is used to generate reports on topics ranging from web traffic to video streaming activity and consumer buying power.

Gross Impression

Gross Impressions is the total number of individual people or households represented by a given media schedule. It is sometimes confused with Gross Rating point which is the number of impressions rather than the number of audience.

But according to Gross impressions, only one unique impression is counted per campaign. The reports for unique impressions will show visitors’ activities which is got from the cookie in the browser of the customer. If the cookie in the browser is deleted or a new user login is created and used a new impression is calculated.

Hence, this concludes the definition of Gross Impressions along with its overview.

It is the total number of a total number of Potential exposures (audience size by the number of times the ad message is used during a period). Gross impressions are a summation of exposures of the target audience to media vehicles in a media plan. Each exposure is counted as one impression.

Example

Suppose an advertiser puts advertisements on a programme of a TV channel viewed Five Times by 6000 people (6000*5) in the target audience and Seven Times by 6000 people(6000*7) in a four week period. Also, suppose during the same four week period, the ad has been placed on another programme of a second TV channel viewed 3 times by 3000 people(3000*3) in the target audience,  the Gross impressions would be

Gross Impression = (6000×5) + (6000× 7) + (3000×3) = 81000

The first group receives. 30000 impressions,
The second group receives 42000 impressions and the

Third group receives 9000 impressions. Thus in all 81000 impressions are received during a four week period. As duplication is ignored between the media vehicles while summing up the impressions, we use the term gross.

Gross impressions are therefore the measuring stick by what the success of an advertisement is viewed by, as well as how advertisers and publishers are reimbursed by the advertising brand.

OTS [Opportunities to see]

hentai

OTS is measuring the strength of the medium/its efficiency at reaching and conveying a message to consumers.

Opportunity To See or OTS is a measure in advertising media which denotes number of times the viewer is most likely to see the advertisement. It is basically frequency of media exposure. It is used in media planning or advertising media selection to answer the question- how many times.

This term is used by marketers and analysts to differentiate between total audience reach and total no. of people who actually see it. It signifies that not all reported audience actually read or see the ad. Example, If 100 people buy a magazine which contains an ad for the company then the reach can be said 100 but how many times each one of them has seen or read the ad is denoted by OTS.

The possible exposure of the advertising message to one audience member is called an opportunity to see (OTS). The term, “Opportunities to see”, is used to clarify that all reported audiences are not the same.

In magazines, a reader has recognized the magazine and some editorial, which proves that they have read the magazine. On local TV, Viewers have watched 5 minutes out of the quarter-hour in which the ad ran — these are not necessarily comparable measures of audience. Media planners/analysts will often then adjust the OTC by some noticing adjustment: what percentage of each vehicle is actually likely to notice the ad. OTS clarifies that no further adjustment has been made to the gross audience estimates, that it is the number of people who have read the magazine not the number who read a particular ad.

Average Impressions

This has very rare chance of being asked. I stumbled across this question somewhere so I have added.

The average frequency at which an ad is seen by users in a given demographic bucket. A frequency of 1 means that a user was seeing an ad for the first time, a frequency of 2 means it was seen twice, and so on. A higher average means that more of your audience saw your ads multiple times, while a lower frequency means that most people saw your ad only once or twice.

Average impression frequency is calculated using the following formula:

Average impression frequency = Audience impressions / Unique audience

By default, the average impression frequency is based on whichever date range you’ve selected, but you can also specify a different time period breakdown.

Frequency

Average frequency reports the average number of times a person is exposed to an advertising schedule. It is a basic measure of schedule intensity. Average refers to an observation, taken from survey and is calculated by dividing an advertising schedule’s gross impressions by its unduplicated reach.

By comparing average frequency with effective frequency (desired goals), advertisers are able to evaluate a schedule performance. For most FMCG, an average frequency of three is thought to be a “magic number.” Once the media expenditure reaches this target, there is little to be gained from additional exposures.

Advertising frequency, refers to the number of times a member of the public encounters an advertisement, whether it’s in print, television, radio, online, or other media,

Advertisers usually want to increase frequency to make sure a target audience sees their ads, and a number of formulas are used to determine the optimal level of exposures.

If the message reaches the audience just once, is it enough to influence their buying or should they be exposed to the message more than once in order to reinforce the message? If so, then how many times a household should be exposed to the same message?

Thus, frequency refers to the number of exposures to the same message that each household supposedly receives. Since the frequency may differ for different sets of households, an average frequency is calculated by the following formula: for Total exposures for all households

Average Frequency = Total Exposures for all Households / Reach

If the total number of exposures is 400 and the reach is 50 then the Average Frequency is 8. This means that the average household is exposed to the same message eight times.

Reach

The number of people in a defined segment who are exposed to an advertising message in a given medium over a given time. Reach is also known as penetration or coverage.

Reach refers to the total number of different people or households exposed, at least once, to a medium during a given period.

Advertisers are mainly interested in the percentage of the total market that they can reach their messages through the media in a given area of coverage. Reach indicates the size of the unduplicated audience.

When considering reach, it’s important to remember that an individual viewing or being exposed to an advertisement more than once does not increase its reach, but rather a frequency. This period of time may vary from advertiser to advertiser, but generally, four weeks is considered adequate for calculation purposes.

Reach is usually expressed as a percentage of the total number of households in a prescribed area that has been exposed to the advertising message. For example, if there are a total number of 1000 households and 200 of these have been exposed to the message then the reach is calculated to be one-fifth or 20 per cent.

Reach v/s Frequency

Frequency and Reach are important considerations in the media plan.

Frequency refers to the number of times, an Advertiser Reaches the Same Person.

Reach refers to the Total Number of People Covered.

The greater the frequency with which you reach the same person through media selection, smaller the reach will be and vice –versa (assuming a limitation in the size of the budget). An advertiser will need to know the quantitative data about media audience in order to make more accurate frequency and reach decisions.

For example: If an advertiser uses radio, he may be able to afford to broadcast the Advertising Jingle every 30 minutes, and this increases the frequency of the radio listeners exposure to the advertised message. But the reach of this message is limited and will not cover those who are not listening to the radio. With the same budget, the advertiser can buy less radio time, place a few insertions in the print media and buy some television time. This combination will reduce the frequency at which an individual consumer is exposed to the advertised message but will increase its reach. Thus, there is always a trade-off between these two considerations.

Reach refers to the total number of different people or households exposed, at least once, to a medium during a given period.

Frequency refers to the number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle.

There should be an attempt in the media objectives to balance the reach and frequency. There should be an appropriate message weight at the same time. Since advertisers have a variety of objectives and face budget constraints, they usually must trade off reach and frequency. They must decide whether to have the message be seen or heard by more people (reach) or by fewer more often (frequency).

ADMAR Satellite Cable Network Study.

A nationwide survey was commissioned in 1993, to access the reach and viewership profile of the CWCR (Country Wide ClassRoom) programmes.

The Vision of CWCR is to electronically reach to a large number of students, teachers and the general public with the quality educational material, so as to address the issues of accessibility to higher education with equity and quality through Educational Television programmes (ETV).

The aim is to spread the knowledge and expertise of academicians working in various departments of the Universities/Colleges and institutes of higher education through National television network, UGC began its transmission of Country Wide ClassRoom (CWCR) programme from 15th August 1984 through Doordarshan National network.

The study was conducted by ADMAR, a reputed market research organization covered 27 towns of all sizes (10,000+) and a sample 15,300 distributed in Six Geographic regions North, East, West, South, Central and North-eastern zones of the country.

The main findings of the study conducted by ADMAR are as follows :

    • The size of audiences consisting of both primary and secondary target groups for the programmes was estimated at 121.78 million.
    • Out of this 21.3 million have watched the CWCR programmes at least once
    • 1.57 million were estimated to watch the programmes on daily basis.
  • The average day reach of the programmes in the primary target group was estimated at 0. 38 million.
    • Not only at the undergraduate level but also at the Higher Secondary Level and at academics as well as higher cumulative and average day viewership was noticed.
    • North-east, south, central zones reflected higher viewership than North, East, and Western Zones. Cable operators were found showing CWCR programmes in the central zone.
  • Due to limited ownership of television sets among underprivileged groups viewership was noticed among higher-income households and from Mgher socioeconomic levels.

The students who have been taught in regional languages were not able to make the best use of the CWCR programme as the viewership was more proficient in English.

The findings of ADMAR survey have reinforced some of the micro-studies undertaken by the researchers. Tine high evidence of viewing for CWCR programmes at the higher secondary level(10+2) level, among non-collegiate, housewives, and senior citizens who comprised of a highly motivated group of beneficiaries of CWCR programmes, is reflected in the feedback reports.

The ADMAR study draws more light on the viewership of primary target group, which is, the undergraduate students. Also, television has a little role to play in education for adolescents and adults fails to justify the claim of misinformed critics.

Pulse

Pulsing combines flighting and continuous scheduling by using a low advertising level all year round and heavy advertising during peak selling periods. Product categories that are sold year round but experience a surge in sales at intermittent periods are good candidates for pulsing. For instance, under-arm deodorants, sell all year, but more during the summer months. It represents a consistent low-level advertising activity, and addition of pulse to make a high-level of advertising during certain periods.  A pulse is a period of intense advertising activity. The pulses can occur at the start while launching a new product. There can a promotional pulse of one shot, e.g., financial advertising of a company’s issue. Bursting is a technique for scheduling TV ads. Here the commercial is repeated on the same channel time and again to reinforce the message for a short period.

Advantages:

    • Covers different market situations.
  • Advantages of both continuity and flighting possible.


Advertising timing is also an important factor. It should be adjusted as per time gap exists between advertising time and its impact. Computer-based mathematical model can be formulated to study these time relations. Advertiser has to decide on advertising time for different types of products, such as frequently purchased, seasonal products, and low-cost daily consumed products. Along with seasonal or cyclical aspect, an advertiser should also consider impact of the past advertising. Many consumers continue buying even without the present advertisement.Advertising message can be timed in four ways depending upon our objectives

    1. To time the message in such a way that the customers are most interested in buying that type of a product, e.g., fridges in summer, soft drinks in summer, woolens in winter, gift items during Deepavali.
    1. To time the message in such a way that it stimulates demand in the lean period, e.g., ice creams in winter, holiday resorts in monsoons.
    1. To time in such a way that it bypass competitive campaigns, e.g., Pepsi commercials are to be aired when there are no Coke commercials.
  1. To time in such a way that the message is carried by the media when the audience is receptive to it, e.g., household products in the afternoon slot of TV when housewives watch TV

Flight

In media scheduling for seasonal product categories, flighting involves intermittent and irregular periods of advertising, alternating with shorter periods of no advertising at all. For instance, all of 2000 Target Rating Pioneered in a single month, “going dark” for the rest of the year. Halloween costumes are rarely purchased all year except during the months of September and October.

Advantages:

    • Advertisers buy heavier weight than competitors for a relatively shorter period of time.
    • Little waste, since advertising concentrates on the best purchasing cycle period.
  • Series of commercials appear as a unified campaign on different media vehicles.

Advertising timing strategy where ads or commercials are run during a period (called a flight) followed by a period of no advertising (called a hiatus) followed by a flight … and so on. This practice is contrary to the recency theory which argues that any gap in promoting a product will hurt its sales and, therefore, advertising should be continuous.

Flighting might offer other benefits for your advertising campaign, according to the book “Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion,” by Thomas C. O’Guinn and colleagues. Buying large blocks of advertising time or space might qualify you to receive discounts, saving you more money. Also, concentrating your advertisements can make a strong impact on the consumers you reach during a short period, which might be better for your business than making a lesser impact on a larger group of consumers across a longer period.

Aperture Marketing

f you’re into photography, you know that a camera’s aperture is the opening that lets light in to record the picture.

A small aperture (the size of the opening) makes more of the image in focus.

A larger aperture makes only a part of the image in focus and the rest will be fuzzy.

One is not necessarily better than the other. It just depends on what kind of shot you want to take. This is an interesting analogy for your advertising. Think about your advertising this way…

When you’re trying to reach a wider audience (you want more image in focus), you need to use a very concise and clear value proposition. A singular message. There’s just too much static in the world. People simply won’t remember you if you’re trying to communicate a variety of messages. Be focused. Communicate your message consistently, over and over again.

When you’re trying to reach a very specific audience (small area in focus), instead you need to widen your messaging to communicate all the ways you can service them. They want a customized experience just for them. They need to be convinced why your product is better than all the generic ones out there. So broaden your messaging and tell them all the reasons why you’re perfect for them.

Video Advertising

Video Advertising refers to advertising on video cassettes and CDs. CDs and cassettes of famous and hit films carry advertisements in between the film similar to TV advertising. Video generated commercials can be seen in supermarkets, transit stations and waiting rooms.

It is low-cost medium as compared to other mediums of advertising. But due to the growth of cable television popularity of video advertising has declined. These cassettes are often categorized into three general types: promotional videos, demonstration videos, and training videos. Promotional videos are used to create awareness among both consumers and investors. These kinds of videos can be played on monitors from store showrooms to those in parking garages. They can also be used by salespeople to help with their sales pitches.

Demonstration videos can be used in a direct mail or “V- Mail” campaign to introduce consumers to a business’s products and services, though the cost associated with such campaigns is usually prohibitive for small enterprises, Finally, videos have become an increasingly popular tool for internal use in the business world.

Human resources and sales departments often use videos to replicate their employees. Such videos reduce the amount of time experienced staff is required to spend on training their employees. These videos also make sure that the information each employee receives is consistent, communicating agreed upon business objectives.

Advantages of Video as an Advertising Medium:

(1) Low Cost:

Video advertising is cheaper than television.

(2) Targeting different categories of Consumers:

Video targets different categories of consumers depending upon the type of movies and languages. An English movie will have a different clientele than a Marathi or a Hindi one.

(3) Advertising as Per Situation:

 It is possible to insert an ad before or after as per the appropriate situation.

(4) Wide Coverage.

This medium has been used effectively by the advertisers to reach and penetrate the desired audience, Using video cassettes of films and commercials of the product they have captivated the rural as well as the urban audience.

(5)  Speed

As a race one of the most basic things that technology has done to us is make us impatient. People want information and they want it fast. Naturally, they would prefer to spend two minutes watching a video rather than ten minutes reading a text. In this sense, videos can communicate their most important points to their target audience in very little time. This sort of aggressive marketing means that your message can get maximum exposure in a very short period of time.

(6) Emotional Impact:

Aside from everything written above video is memorable, has an emotional impact and has scope to communicate visually. These alone are excellent reasons to have a promotional video.

(7) Video Helps Convey Complex Information More Clearly:

When it comes to explaining complex ideas or information, a video is oftentimes much more suited to the task than the written word. An informative demonstration on how to use a product can communicate your message more effectively than complex, in-depth instructions and specifications.

Limitations of Video as an Advertising Medium:

(1) Zapping:

The fast-forwarding of ads as per convenience as the viewer may not want to watch the advertisement is known as zapping. It has been a problem area for an advertiser, to overcome this computer has been used to superimpose ads on the frame of the film itself.

(2) Short Life:

A large number of films are released every month and the life of a new film is somewhere between one week and two months. At the end of this period, the pirated cassettes will have some another film taped on them. Thus while new films have large viewership and are ideal for a number of campaigns, several media planners prefer old evergreen films for long-term objectives.

(3) Variety:

Though there are several video magazines the ads are more popular in film based cassettes. This limits the market penetration in up-market segments. The alternative is the English feature films which can reach the upmarket consumers. But the poor quality of films imported by the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC) has been a handicap.

(4) Nuisance:

Number of ads has less value especially the ones which are imposed in between the movies and videos. This automatically creates boredom watching the same ads, again and again, leads to a negative appeal.

(5) Pirated Cassettes:

The ads placed in the pirated cassettes could have a poor editing quality thus it does not give the desired effects.

(6) Limited Product Reach:

Although video gives advertisers the ability to reach a wide audience, it is primarily oriented toward consumers. This means that it may not be the best possible medium for advertising industrial, technical, or business-oriented products and services.

Advantages of Direct Marketing

What Is Direct Marketing?

Direct marketing is a marketing method and form of advertising where companies deliver physical marketing materials to a group of customers or targeted prospects about a product or service they are offering. Direct marketing aims to influence the customer or targeted prospect to perform a specific action.

Direct marketing is an effective and powerful way to share information about a product or service to prospects.

What Are Different Forms Of Direct Marketing

Below is a list of different forms of direct marketing businesses can send out:

    • Newsletters
    • Postcard Marketing
    • Phone Calls
    • Vouchers/Discount Codes
    • Email Marketing
    • Text Messages
    • Brochures
  • Flyers

Advantages of Direct Marketing

There is a range of advantages of direct marketing, these are summarised below:

Builds Loyalty

A well-run direct marketing campaign can build brand loyalty by continual brand messaging on direct marketing channels. This is particularly effective where multi-channel messaging is used, e.g. email, direct mail, SMS, etc. all in one consistent joined-up coherent campaign.

Direct

As the name suggests, this technique is direct. This engagement directly with the customer eliminates price hikes due to “middlemen” and provides a direct approach. This has benefits as the organisation is totally in charge of the contact and can apply in-house CRM techniques to effectively manage the relationship.

Effective

Direct marketing, when managed well, has a long-standing reputation for high profitability and great ROI.

Monitorable

Tracking and monitoring can be put in place to effectively analyse the results of a campaign. Strengths can be accentuated and weaknesses eliminated with a view that through continual tweaks/enhancements campaign ROI and metrics will only continue to grow in the medium-long term.

Personalised and Targeted

Direct marketing can be personalised based on the actual experience of working with a customer and/or socio-economic factors. Even for prospects, personalisation can be achieved through techniques such as customer segmentation and data profiling.

Reduced Competitor Awareness

Competitors will have a much lower level of awareness with direct marketing as it is direct to the customer. Other marketing techniques such as TV, radio, internet advertising, etc. are public and open to counter-moves by competition.

 

Disadvantages of Direct Marketing

There are some disadvantages of direct marketing, these are summarised below:

Environmental Impact

Some of the direct marketing channels are associated with having an environmental impact (most noticeably direct mail). This can be reduced by targeted direct mail campaigns and using environmentally friendly materials. This marketing technique is no worse than many indirect marketing methods (e.g. billboard posters).

Image Impact

It’s a common perception that image can be adversely affected by some direct marketing campaigns (direct mail and telemarketing in particular). Whilst this is true for poorly managed campaigns, the effects can be avoided by ensuring contacts are opted-in and happy to receive marketing messages (which is best practice anyway!).

Limited Reach

This is a “perceived” disadvantage of direct marketing to many. The limited reach is due to the fact that mass broadcast techniques (e.g. TV, radio, internet advertising, etc.) are not used. Although it’s true that the reach is less, the reach achieved is more specific and targeted. Reach can be extended by buying high-quality targeted opt-in additional contacts from reputable sources such as Baker Goodchild.

Privacy Intrusion

The main drawback of direct marketing is its links with privacy intrusion (this is particularly related to telemarketing and direct mail). This is definitely the case with badly managed campaigns and links closely to the image impact above. Once again, with true opt-in consent and best practice campaign management, privacy would not be an issue.

Television Audience Measurement

Television Audience Measurement (TAM) Media Research is a 50:50 joint Venture Company between Nielsen Media Research (NMR) / AC Nielsen and Kantar Media Research (KMR) / IMRB that mostly analyses TV Viewership in India.

During the mid-1990s, the Industry Body, later recognized as Joint Industry Body (JIB), comprising Indian Society of Advertisers(ISA), Indian Broadcasting Foundation (IBF) and advertising agencies Association of India (AAAI), looked at the TV as an essential block of their Media/Marketing plan.

The Key, however, was to get the advertising investments in Television Channels measured. Return on Investment was the phrase. All these industry stakeholders wanted to keep a regular track of the variation of Audience Behaviour across markets & viewed profile and understand how they react to boost such as TV programme changes, marketing and. promotional changes, distribution changes, scheduling changes, etc.

This is when JIB approached two global loyal in Media and market Research-Nielsen (India) Private Limited and Kantar Media Research-to forms the best Television Audience Measurement (TAM) system with the blend of the best practices.

After a series of blueprint exchanges and adjustments, the Indian TV Industry appointed TAM Media Research which started its function in 1998. Ever since, the mandate remains to operate ‘For’, ‘Of’, ‘By’ the industry. Ever since TAM has been maintaining its elementary Key Result Areas of answering the following questions

    • What do the Indian audiences watch on TV?
    • Which programmes are being accepted and rejected by the audiences?
    • Where are these programmes watched? Is one geography/state/city/market strata’s viewing preference different from the others?
    • At what time of the day are people watching?
  • What is the profile of TV Viewers? Can they be segmented?

– Age

– Gender

– Socio-Economic Classes

  • What platforms are Audiences watching TV?
    • Terrestrial
    • Cable and Satellite – Analog
  • Cable and Satellite – Digital
  • How do viewers respond to changes in stimulus such as:
    • Changes in content type or story lines
    • Changes in scheduling of the programme
    • Changes in the distribution or the accessibility of the channel
    • Markt changes like On-Air, activations, PR, Celebrity participations, etc.
    • Influence of technology – Digital STB households VS Analog Households.
  • Environmental changes:
    • Power supply failure
  • Political or Natural calamity diversions

TAM Media Research is a joint venture company between AC Nielsen and Kantar Media Research/IMRB. It is one of the two television Audience measurement analysis firms of India (the other being aMap). Besides measuring television viewership, TAM also monitors advertising expenditure through its division AdEx India. It exists in the PR Monitoring space through another division – Eikona PR Monitor.

The viewership cell runs what is one of the largest People Meter TV Panels in the World with approximately 30,000 sample individuals representing all the Class-I towns (towns with population more than 100,000) polled every week for their Viewership habits. This division measures television Viewership of audiences for the 300-plus TV stations operating in India.

The Monopoly

The company enjoyed a monopoly in the television ratings market in India till 2015.

Broadcast Audience Research Council (BARC India) was being propelled as an alternate TV viewership measurement system to the incumbent, TAM Media Research. TAM, a 50:50 joint venture between Nielsen and Kantar Media, was then responsible for the ratings that decide the fate of the `22,000 crore spending on TV advertising. It enjoyed a virtual monopoly, but its job left a lot to be desired.

BARC India was planned and executed as an alternative to TAM Media Research Pvt. Ltd. It was set up as per guidelines of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India.

It is mandated to design, commission, supervise, and own a television audience measurement system for India, and provides Indian broadcast sector with a real-time television rating points (TRP) measurement system.

Factors of Media Planning

(1) Nature of Product

Product to be advertised can be an industrial product or consumer product. Industrial products can better be advertised in their specific trade-journals magazines, Consumer products can better be advertised through mass media such as Television, Newspaper, Outdoor Advertising etc. In the same way products for export can be advertised in such magazines which have circulation in other countries like -products from India, Product finder. Fashionable products can be advertised in fashion magazines like-Filmfare, Femina, Stardust etc.

(2) Nature of Customers:

An appropriate media plan must consider the class of consumers, for whom advertising is to be done. Different consumers are dissimilar in their age-group, sex income, personality, educational level, and attitude. On the basis of consumer traits or attributes, consumer groups can be Men, Women, Children, Young, Old, Professional, Businessmen, High-income group, Middle-Income group, Low-income group, Literate, Illiterate etc.

    • Age: For advertising for kids-products, television is the best media for communicating message Even in TV, and can be given in cartoon-related TV channels. If the target audience is young then television, magazines are suitable. If target audience consists of old-age-group, then newspaper, television, is a good choice.
    • Level of Education: If target-audiences are highly educated, then advertisement should be given in magazines, national newspapers, internet, and television. U target audiences are less educated, then local newspaper printed in local languages, low-profile magazines, TV are suitable. If audiences are illiterate, then print-media is not suitable. Here broadcast media is a good choice.
  • Number of Customers: If a number of target customers are more, than mass-media like television, the newspaper will be considered. If a number of target customers are less, than direct mail-media, Tele-advertising are suitable.

(3) Characteristics of Distribution Channels:

Distribution channels can be classified on the basis of the geographical distribution of goods or services of the advertiser. Distribution channels may be classified as a local distributor, regional distributors, national distributors, international distributors.

    • Local Distributor: If the product is to be distributed locally or regionally, then media with local coverage and reach should be considered like a local newspaper, cable-network etc.
    • National Distribution: If product is distributed on national level, the nmedia with national coverage like national dailies (newspaper), national level TV channels will be suitable.
  • International Distribution: If the product i8 to be sold at international level, then media having reached and Circulation in foreign countries will be effective e. g. Internet, Magazines with circulation in foreign countries, TV channels having international overage like BBC should be considered. If a number of dealers are less, then direct-mail-media can also be selected.

(4) Advertising Objectives:

If the product is to be sold at international level, then media having reached and Circulation n foreign countries will be effective e. g. Internet, Magazines with circulation in foreign countries, TV channels having international overage like BBC should be considered. If a number of dealers are less, then direct-mail-media can also be selected.

(5) Nature of Message

If the advertising message is informative in nature, then the newspaper medium will be suitable. If ad- message is to persuade consumers, then they need to be given emotional-appeal, rational-appeal, demonstration of the product, then television media will be considered for advertising.

For example, if ad-message is to inform the potential customers of sale-promotion schemes, discount-offers, exchanger, festival-offers, then it can be advertised through posters, banners, newspaper-inserts and newspaper. If ad-message is to inform and persuade for the new product launched by the advertiser, it can be advertised in television, newspaper. Through TV, the advertiser can demonstrate the new product, show its uses, compare it with existing products and create the need for the new product,

(6) Size of Ad-Budget:

If the amount of advertising budget is more, than costly media like television, national dailies, and popular magazines can be selected, If the amount of Ad-budget is less, than media like posters, banners, cable-network, local newspapers, pamphlets will be suitable.

Role Or Importance Of Media Research

(1) Readers, Viewers and Profile:

Media research helps to perceive the profile of the readers, listeners and viewers in respect of their age, income, occupation, buying-pattern and other demographic and socio-economic details. Such profile assists to draft effective ad messages to the target audience.

(2) Choice of Media

Proper media research assists to select the most acceptable media mix that would be required by the advertiser depending upon the category of product, prospects, ad budget, etc. The advertiser will select that media which has maximum · readership or viewership or listenership of the target audience.

(3) Booking of Time and Space:

Media research empowers Media Planners to understand the ratings of TV or Radio Programmes. Media planner can book time and space in the media depending upon the programmes viewed or articles read by the target audience.

(4) Help to Media Owners

The media research assists the media owners to improve their programmes or editorial contents so as to increase listenership, viewership and readership. It also assists the media owners to fix charges for their time and space that would be used by the advertisers.

(5) Sponsorship of Programmes

It assists the advertiser to select a special programme for sponsorship. The advertiser may choose the sponsorship of that programme which is mostly viewed or listened by the target audience.

(6) Gains to Audience:

Audience gets better editorials and Programmes as the media owners make every effort to improve their programmes or editorials, so as to attract the attention of a large number of readers, listeners, or viewers. This would bring more advertising income.

(7) Gains to Media Planners

Media planners collect the information about media popularity, reach and its effectiveness from media research. It assists the media planners to understand the rating from the various Programmes on TV channels and on radio through Television Rating Points (TRP) reports and also helps to understand the circulation trends of Newspapers and magazines through Audit Bureau of Circulation Reports (ABC).

(8) Gains to Research Organizations:

There are various Research Organizations such as Indian Marketing Research Bureau (IMRB), the Operations Research Group (ORG), Marketing and Research Group (MARG), Pathfinder India, Market Research and Advisory Services (AARAS) etc. They conduct the research regularly and update their information which is useful to those who are in the field of advertising.

Circumstances Affecting Advertising Budget:

There are various circumstances taken into consideration while deciding of advertising budget. Following are the main circumstances which affect advertising budget:

(1) Area of Market: If the market is national and international areas then advertiser require more fund on the other hand if the market is regional and local area then advertiser require less fund. Advertising expenditure in the local and regional area is less because it is incurred. Only for a particular market segment. On the other hand, the advertising expenditure in the national and international area is more because it is incurred for wide market coverage.

(2) Steps of Product life cycle: Product lifecycle divided into four steps they are: Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Decline. Under introduction and growth stage of product requires massive advertisement with a higher advertising budget. If the product is at the stage of maturity then sale promotion works more than advertising. Advertising expenditure is decreased under maturity stage. If the product is in maturity stage then it requires less advertising expenditure.

(3) Advertising Strategy: There are three types of advertising strategy: establishing 4 strategies, holding strategy and accumulating strategy. Under establishing, strategy marketer needs more budget for increasing market share and for developing a market plan. So the advertising expenses increase as compared to last year. In holding strategy the continuous advertising is done underdeveloped market area with the same level of advertising budget as conducted in a previous year. In accumulating strategy advertiser reduce advertising expenses in order to acquire higher short-term profit by saving advertising expenditure and get benefit from advertising done in an earlier year.

(4) Product distinction: If a product has unique characteristics, qualitative, utilities and benefits then such type of product require less advertisement or advertisement budget and such type of unique product is different from competing product and customers are also influence to this type of product because of its uniqueness. On the other hand, if the product is a common product or may be similar to competitors product then such type of product requires more advertisement or advertisement budget, effective messages, emotional appeal towards customers and also requires repeated advertisement in order to remind the product in the minds of customers.

(5) Changes in price: The companies who charge a high price on the product as comparing the competitor’s product then such type of product require more advertisement and huge advertisement budget. This type of product creates special image and status in the market and customers are also influenced to such type of product because of most effective and attractive advertisement. This type of product is called as a high-status product. For e.g., Fair & Lovely beauty cream.

(6) Competitors advertising expenditure: If competitors are spending more on advertising then we have to spend more amount on advertising to save reputation, goodwill in the market and also maintain brand awareness or preferences in the market. On the other hand, if the competitors are spending less on advertising then we have to spend less amount on advertising to continue in the market with less advertisement budget. It means our advertising budget depends upon competitors ad budget.

(7) Type of Product: For consumer goods requires more advertisement budget as compared to industrial goods. In case of consumer goods requires more effective advertising messages, emotional appeal, better means of communication which helps to influence the customer to purchase the product. In case of industrial goods requires less advertising budget as compared to consumer goods. Companies do not spend more on advertising for industrial goods.

(8) Approaches of advertising: Advertising budget depends upon different approaches of advertising. For short term investment advertiser spend a lesser amount on advertising and for long-term investment advertiser spend more on advertising. This is because for long-term investment advertiser expects more return on investment as compared to short-term investment.

(9) Financial resources: Advertising is depended upon the availability of fund. If an advertiser has more financial resources then he can able to spend more on advertising and if the advertiser has less financial resources then he spends less according to the availability of fund.

(10) Economic condition:

An economic condition also affects o advertisement budget. The economy may pass through boom or depression. During boom condition, company spend more on advertising because in this period company get a higher profit, more sale, increase the demand of the product and also increase market share and goodwill of the company. On the other hand during depression period company spend less on advertising because general demand level is low

Media Strategy

Every work to be done needs a plan of action so that the work is done in a desired and correct manner. Media Strategy plays a very important role in Advertising. The role of Media Strategy is to find out the right path to transfer or say deliver the message to the targeted customers.

A Media Strategy should consider the questions like, How many people see / hear / read all the advertisements / promotional offers, and buy the product / service?

Whichever category is selected by the planners of the organization, they should select a proper media to convey their message.

If the product is for a big amount of customers then a mass media option can be selected like TV, radio or newspaper. The best examples for this type are detergent ads, children health drinks and major regular used products such as soap, shampoo, toothpastes etc.

If the planners want to change the mind of people doing window shopping or just doing shopping for sake of name, then point of purchase type can be opted by the company. This helps the company to explain their point to the buyers and convince the buyers to go for their product.

If the planners want to sell their product on one to one basis, then the third option is direct response type. Here, the company people directly contact the customers via emails, text messages, phone calls or meeting for giving demos. Thus, this process of media strategy plays an important and vital role in the field of Advertising.


The basic intention of media strategy is not only procuring customers for their product but also placing the right message to the right people on the right time and of course that message should be persuasive and relevant. So, here the planners of the organization decide the Media Strategy to be used but keeping the budget always in mind.

A Media Planner needs to consider a few questions so that the plan, and the campaign is carried out properly.

    • Where to advertise ?
    • When to advertise ?
  • What media type to use ?

Where is the place for showing or delivering advertisement. In short it means the geographical area from where it should be visible to the customers who use or are most likely to use the product or services offered. The place does not mean only TV or radio but it can also be newspapers, blogs, sponsorships, hoardings on roads, ads in the movie break in theatres, etc. The area varies from place to place like it can be on national basis, state basis and for local brands it can be on city basis.

When is the timing to show or run advertisement. For e.g. you cannot show a raincoat ad in the winter season but you need to telecast ad as soon as the summer season is coming to an end and rainy season is just about to begin. The ad should be delivered with perfect timing when most customers are like to buy the product. The planners need to plan it keeping the budget in mind as the maximum of 20% of revenues of the company can be used in the advertisement section. Different products have different time length for advertisements. Some products need year long ads as they have nothing to do with seasonal variations e.g. small things like biscuits, soaps, pens, etc and big services like vehicle insurance, refrigerators, etc. Some products need for three or four months. E.g. umbrellas, cold creams, etc. So the planners have to plan the budget according to the time length so that there is no short of money at any time in this process.

What is what type of media is to be used for delivering the message.

There are basically two media approaches to choose from.

    • Media Concentration approach

  • Media Dispersion Approach

  • In media concentration approach, the number of categories of media is less. The money is spent on concentrating on only few media types say two or three. This approach is generally used for those companies who are not very confident and have to share the place with the other competitors. They don’t want anyone to get confused with there brand name so this is the safest approach as the message reaches the target consumers.
  • In media dispersion approach, there are more number of categories of media used to advertise. This approach is considered and practiced by only those people who know that a single or two types of media will not reach their target. They place their product ads in many categories like TV, radio, internet, distributing pamphlets, sending messages to mobiles, etc.

A Media Strategy describes how the advertiser will achieve the stated media objectives: which media will be used, where, how often, and when.  Advertisers develop media strategies by blending the elements of the media mix. When formulated correctly, it enables an advertiser to rise above the clutter of ads, and stand out in the competition.

Media strategy expects media planners to be creative in using the media. The use of the media should complement and supplement each other. The ad should be consistent with the editorial environment of the media. The placement should be strategic. The media’s creative potential is fully used.

 The ad should provoke readers to look at it more than once. It should be engaging enough, say incorporation of a crossword puzzle in the copy of the ad. We can use non-traditional media like a Tamasha show or a magic-show. Media can be used to build credibility.


Points for this Answer which is believed to be the best for this question and is also super long. Either go for above or the ones mentioned below.


Factors Influencing Media Strategy

    1. Target Market Profile
    1. Nature of the Message
    1. Geographic Market Priorities
    1. Timing of Advertising
  1. Reach/Frequency/Continuity

Media strategy has to cover decisions taken in the areas of:

    1. Geographic selectivity
    1. Cost efficiency of the selected media.
    1. Media selection
  1. Scheduling of the ads

A. Geographic Selectivity:

Media strategy is based upon market coverage. If media planners want to market products nationally, they will select all-India newspapers and magazines. However, if market is limited to a particular region, they shall select vernacular media popular in that region. In this way, media planners do not waste resources by advertising product in the regions in which it is not available. They have to see how strong a product is in a particular geographical region and advertise more in high potential areas.

Marketers measure the sales strength in particular market by making use of two Ratios – Brand Development Index and the Category Development Index.

BDI and CDI are indices comparing the relative strength of a market to overall sales.  The Brand Development Index (BDI) is an index compared to overall brand sales.  The Category Development Index (CDI) is an index compared to overall category sales.  Like any index, a score of 100 is average.  The formulas are simple:

BDI = (% Brand Total Sales – Brand Sales in India / % Indian Market Population) x 100


CDI =
(% Brand Total Sales – Brand Sales in India / % Indian Market Population) x 100

    • Brand Development Index

      Brand Development Index (BDI) relates the percent of a brand’s sales in a market to the percent of the population in that same market. The Brand Development Index is an index that relates the percent of a brand’s sales in a market to the percent of total market. The brand development index measures the relative sales strength of a brand within a specific market.

  • BDI is used to quantify the relative performance of a particular brand in a defined customer group. It is usually done based on demographics or psychographics. It helps a company identify strong and weak segments for particular brands.

BDIPercentage of brand’s total all – India sales in the market  x 100
Percentage of total Indian population in the market

This index enables a media planner to allocate the media budget by setting his priorities. If you want to calculate BDI, you can use a calculator by clicking this link

Category Development Index

The category development index (CDI) is an indicator of how well a product or service category performs in a given market segment as compared to its performance in the total market as a whole. To determine CDI, a category’s percentage sale in a specific market is divided by the total population percentage of that market and then multiplied by 100. A CDI value above 100 is considered good.

It measures the sales potential of product category. Thus it takes into account the potential of all competitors selling the same category. The Category Development Index helps marketers identify strong and weak segments for categories of goods and services. These segments are mainly formed on the basis of demographic or geographic information. CDI gives information about the areas which are doing well as compared to others and thus advertising budget allocation can be done easily to maximize a product category knowledge and profit.

CDI =   Percentage of product categories total all India sales      x   100
Percentage of total Indian Population in the market

These numbers over 100 are considered good but comparing the BDI to the CDI provides the most insight. If you want to calculate CDI, you can use a calculator by clicking this link

B.         Cost Efficiency of Media Vehicles:  

Finally, media planners analyze the cost efficiency of each medium.  A common term used in media planning and buying is, Cost-Per-Thousand (CPM) And Cost-Per-Point (CPP) which are two methods of evaluating media efficiency. CPM is a ratio based on how much it costs to reach a thousand people. CPP is a ratio based on how much it costs to buy one rating point, or one percent of the population in an area being evaluated.

Cost-per-point is calculated by using the following formula:

 

CPP =   Cost of advertising schedule purchased
Gross Rating Points (GRPs or “grips”)

  1. Cost Per Thousand (CPM), which is based on the medium’s Total Audience (ad cost divided by the number of thousands of people in the audience).However, media planners are more interested in cost efficiency, which relates to the cost of exposing the message to the target audience rather than to the total circulation (percentage of total audience held by the target market times the subscriber base = the cost per thousand to reach the targeted market). The media planner must evaluate each medium’s advantages and disadvantages, using all the criteria to determine:

– How much of each medium’s audience matches the target audience.

– How each medium satisfies the campaign’s objectives and strategy.

– How well each medium offers attention, exposure, and motivation.

CPM (costs per mille/thousand) is an advertising term that represents the cost of one thousand ad impressions. One impression is essentially a potential customer viewing an ad. CPM is calculated by taking the cost of the advertising and dividing by the total number of impressions, then multiplying the total by 1000 (CPM = cost/impressions x 1000). More commonly, a CPM rate is set by a platform for its advertising space and used to calculate the total cost of an ad campaign.

Cost-per-thousand is calculated by using the following formula:

  1. The media planner may want to calculate the Cost Per Rating Point (CPRP) or Cost Per Point (CCP) of different broadcast programs.  This is done the same way as cost per thousand, except you divide the cost by the rating points instead of the gross impressionsCPM is calculated by taking the cost of the advertising and dividing by the total number of impressions, then multiplying the total by 1000 (CPM = cost/impressions x 1000). More commonly,Cost per Point (CPP) is a measure of cost efficiency which enables you to compare the cost of this advertisement to other advertisements. CPP is calculated as Media Cost divided by Gross Rating Points (GRPs).

C. Media Selection

Media planning and selection are of top significance once the advertising goals and the organisation have been set. Media planning and selection deals with media identification, identification of factors governing media and vehicle choices, laying down criteria for media selection and evaluation of each media against another, developing media-mix, resources allocation and media scheduling.

Media selection is possible when one knows about the ‘reach’ and ‘impact’ of each medium and media vehicle. Media planning, therefore, is the study of different advertising media and media vehicles in depth that facilitates media selection and development of media-mix that is most suitable for the firm in question.

A ‘medium’ is the carrier of advertising message. It is the means to deliver the advertising message. Each advertiser is to go in for right massage carrier or a set of carriers keeping in mind the cost, efficiency and specialties of the medium or media.

Every advertiser has good many media for his selection. Broadly, these can be classified as indoor, outdoor, direct and display. Each media has sub carriers called vehicles.

Following is the brief description of each media and media vehicles:

A. Indoor advertising media:

Indoor advertising media represents the use of those vehicles by the advertisers that carry the message right into the houses or indoors of the audiences.

These vehicles are:

(1) Newspapers

(2) Magazines

(3) Radio

(4) Television and Film.

Here, the message reaches the audience indoors when it is cozy and in receptive mood because, house is the resting place for the inmates to relax.

1. Newspapers:

Life without newspapers is like life without a cup of tea or coffee. Newspaper is one that gives news, views, interpretations, opinions, comments and explanation regarding social, economic, political, cultural, moral, ecological, meteorological and wide variety of walks of fast changing life. In India, there are 21 major languages, published in 91 languages, India has 20,000 newspapers. For every 40 literate persons there is one paper.

2. Magazine

Magazines are the periodicals published weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly and annually. They cover a wide variety of topics providing light leisure reading in easy chairs. Well known, though provoking and authentic articles from almost all branches of human knowledge are given along with entertaining items like puzzles, cartoons, comics and the like.

Indian magazine-world supplies at present 4,200 weeklies, 2,000 fortnightlies, 7,800 monthlies, 400 quarterlies and 10,000 annual numbers totaling 22,600. For every 35 literate persons, there is one such magazine.

3. Radio:

Radio advertising can be aptly called as ‘word of mouth’ advertising on a wholesale scale which was accepted in 1920. It has a history of 71 years to-date. India, as a late beginner, started commercial broadcasting only in 1967 by now radio has covered 100 per cent of population. At present, there are 175 medium wave transmissions, 60 short wave transmitters and 110 F.M. transmitters.

At present, there are 60 million sets which work out a set for every two people. The advertisements may be straight commercials dialogue, commercials dramatised , commercials integrated commercials and musical commercials.

4. Television:

Radio ruled the scene between 1920 and 1970. Its greatest and latest rival has been television that smashed its supremacy from 1950s.

In India, it was commissioned for the first time in 1959 and went commercial in 1976 and transformed into colour in 1982. By now, 90 per cent of the population is covered by the way of television.

We have 10 million sets working in India giving a figure of one set for every 100 people. Television advertisements are called as television commercials lasting for 10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds. These may be ‘stop motion’, ‘puppets’, ‘cartoons’ or ‘line-action type’.

5. Film advertising:

Film advertising is yet another medium of publicity characterized by sound, motion, colour, vision and timeliness. This audio-­visual medium has a wide range of exhibits starting from an ordinary slide presentation to the ad films screening.

Slide is the protected glass piece covering ad message. The films shot and screened are ‘filmlets’, ‘solus’ and ‘magazine’ type. They are in the time range of 15 second to 300 seconds. In India, Blaze Advertising Agency takes film production and distribution.

The exhibition is done by theatre owners. There are 6,000 cinema towns with 15,000 permanent cinema houses with an average capacity of 1,000 seats. There are 3,000 touring theatres with the average capacity of 450 seats.

Of late, the importance of cinema has been reduced as India has more than 3 million sets of VCRs and VCPs. and 1 lakh video parlours.

B. Outdoor advertising media:

Outdoor advertising is the only one of its kind that has been carried for ages. This Is the media to reach the people when they are out of doors. The ad message is delivered to the audience like print and broadcast media; rather the message is placed in strategic places exposed to moving audience.

Its strength is tremendous because, 97 per cent of the total adult population moves out of doors every week. Its vehicles are: posters, printed displays, electric signs, travelling displays, sky writing, sandwich men and the like.

A ‘poster’ is a sheet of paper pasted on a wooden or a card or metal board depicting the ad massage. It can be standardized or non-standardised as to size and colours.

The success of poster rests on poster designing and the site of pasting. A ‘printed display’ is the painted bulletin and the wall painting. It is standardised metal sheet of rectangular shape hung on hoarding stands at strategic places.

An ‘electrical sign’ is a spectacular sign giving light effects, creating charming and enchanting scene in the dark. A ‘travelling display’ is an advertising sign seen in and outside travelling vehicles like train, buses, car, taxis, trams, autos and the like.

A ‘sky writing’ is a kind of publicity where message is spread in the sky in the form of a smoke or fire-workers nor the lights. A ‘sandwich-men’ advertising is the team of tall and dwarf men singing and spending the ad message and is the oldest and the simplest of all vehicles of outdoor advertising.

C. Direct advertising media:

Direct advertising is one of the oldest methods of reaching the consumers. Direct advertising covers all forms of printed advertising delivered directly to the prospective customers instead of indirect distribution like news-papers and magazines.

This printed matter is distributed house to house by personal delivery, handed to persons on the sidewalks, placed in the automobiles, stuck under the wind-screen of an automobile, handed over at the retail outlets or sent through post.

It takes different forms to deliver the sales message to the prospects through the medium of mail or person. These are post cards envelope enclosures, broad-sides, booklets, catalogues, sales letters, gifts novelties, stores publications, package inserts and free samples.

D. Display advertising media:

Display advertising or promotional advertising is hinged on the concept of display. Display is the systematic arrangement of samples of saleable products to catch the imagination and the notice of the people.

Display demonstrates directly about the product or products by presenting them than by telling and selling the points indirectly. It is also called as P.O.A. or point of advertising.

Promotional advertising has three vehicles namely, displays, showrooms and showcases and exhibitions and fairs.

‘Displays are basically of two types namely, ‘window’ and ‘counter’. ‘Window’ display implies showing of goods in the front window of the shop. It is window showmanship.

Coming to ‘showrooms’ and ‘showcases’, ‘showroom’ is a specially designed room or a room-cum-office, rented or owned, located in the prominent place of the sales territory used mainly for display, demonstration and after sale services.

On the other hand, ‘showcase’ is a glass-box, a glazed case, a cabinet with glass-doors or glass-panes or a glass cupboard designed to display the products in an artistic way.

These are placed in the conspicuous places like railway stations, airports, bus terminals, cinema houses, or specially rented buildings, city squares, parks, post offices and other market places.

D. Media Scheduling

Media scheduling decisions are the decisions about the timing, continuity and size of the ads. We have to see when to advertise, for how long, and for what time period. We have to see the size and placement of our ad.

Media scheduling is the very next managerial task. A media schedule is a time-bound detail of advertisements with reference to the media selected.

Media schedule portrays the total audience coverage, the message frequency and the continuity of the message. As noted earlier, coverage, reach, frequency and continuity are interrelated concepts and are to be carefully considered and weighed while developing media schedule.

Media scheduling decisions are extremely important for two reasons namely:

1. Purchases of radio and television time and news-paper and magazine space represent the largest elements of the cost in the advertising budget.

2. The success of an advertisement in achieving advertising objectives largely depends on how each show or magazine reaches the consumers in the target market segment.

Following are some of the media scheduling theories that assist the advertising executives in media schedule development. Though these provide quantitative tools of media scheduling, an advertising manager is expected to employ his judgment because, he has failed to measure accurately all the attributes of all the media open to him. Here, a mention is made of three theories of scheduling.

Timing: 

Advertising message can be timed in four ways depending upon our objectives

    1. To time the message in such a way that the customers are most interested in buying that type of a product, e.g., fridges in summer, soft drinks in summer, woolens in winter, gift items during Deepavali.
    1. To time the message in such a way that it stimulates demand in the lean period, e.g., ice creams in winter, holiday resorts in monsoons.
    1. To time in such a way that it by-pass competitive campaigns, e.g., Pepsi commercials are to be aired when there are no Coke commercials.
  1. To time in such a way that the message is carried by the media when the audience is receptive to it, e.g., household products in the afternoon slot of TV when housewives watch TV.

The importance of time element must be understood in the purchase behavior of the customer by doing suitable research.

Most Organizations Use One of These Three Scheduling Strategies

Scheduling refers to the pattern of advertising timing, represented as plots on a yearly flowchart. These plots indicate the pattern of scheduled times that coincide with favorable selling periods. The classic scheduling models are continuity, flighting, and pulsing.

Continuity

Alternative to continuity is fighting where advertising runs for some period and then there is a gap, and again it runs for some period. The interval between two advertising runs comes after a flight. The message can be schedule to correspond to peak purchasing periods or at a time when the audience is most receptive.

When we have a media mix alternative flights are adjusted in such a way in different media that overall continuity is achieved.

When an ad is run in the media for a long period without any gap, we are using continuity scheduling. It is used for those products, which are in demand round the years. The ads are in the form of reminder. This model is primarily for non-seasonal products and some seasonal products. Advertising runs steadily with little variation over a campaign period. There may be short gaps at regular intervals and also long gaps—for instance, one ad every week for 52 weeks, and then a pause. This pattern of advertising is prevalent in service and packaged goods that require continuous reinforcement on the audience for top of mind recollection at point of purchase.

Advantages:

    • Works as a reminder.
    • Covers the entire purchase cycle.
    • Cost efficiencies in the form of large media discounts.
    • Positioning advantages within media.
  • Program or plan that identifies the media channels used in an advertising campaign, and specifies insertion or broadcast dates, positions, and duration of the messages.

Flighting

In media scheduling for seasonal product categories, flighting involves intermittent and irregular periods of advertising, alternating with shorter periods of no advertising at all. For instance, all of 2000 Target Rating Pioneered in a single month, “going dark” for the rest of the year. Halloween costumes are rarely purchased all year except during the months of September and October.

Advantages:

    • Advertisers buy heavier weight than competitors for a relatively shorter period of time.
    • Little waste, since advertising concentrates on the best purchasing cycle period.
  • Series of commercials appear as a unified campaign on different media vehicles.

Pulsing

Pulsing combines flighting and continuous scheduling by using a low advertising level all year round and heavy advertising during peak selling periods. Product categories that are sold year round but experience a surge in sales at intermittent periods are good candidates for pulsing. For instance, under-arm deodorants, sell all year, but more during the summer months. It represents a consistent low-level advertising activity, and addition of pulse to make a high-level of advertising during certain periods.  A pulse is a period of intense advertising activity. The pulses can occur at the start while launching a new product. There can a promotional pulse of one shot, e.g., financial advertising of a company’s issue. Bursting is a technique for scheduling TV ads. Here the commercial is repeated on the same channel time and again to reinforce the message for a short period.

Advantages:

    • Covers different market situations.
  • Advantages of both continuity and flighting possible.

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