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Brand Slogans

In this subject, we need to remember brands, slogans, and many things. I am adding a few Brand Slogans which you should read once, you can use these in the examples.

 

Here is a list of some of the best brand slogans from India. Even though some of these brands are not Indian, their slogans are customized for India. Also since these are Indian brands, many of the slogans are also in Hindi.

 

This list is only an indicative list. It is neither exhaustive nor a ranking of brands. Also, it is not presented in any particular order.

 

 

 

  1. Amul: The taste of India
  2. Pepsi: Yehi hai right choice baby
  3. Thumbs Up: Taste The Thunder
  4. Surf: Daag Acche Hain
  5. Tata Safari: Reclaim Your Life
  6. Asian Paints: Har Ghar Kuch Kehta Hai
  7. Air Deccan: Simplify
  8. Rasna: I love you Rasna
  9. Frooti: Fresh N Juicy
  10. Coca-Cola: Thanda Matlab Coca-Cola
  11. Raymond ’s: The Complete Man
  12. Bajaj: Hamara Bajaj
  13. Dairy Milk: Swad Zindagi Ka
  14. Bingo:  No Confusion, Great Combination
  15. Boost: Boost is the secret of our energy
  16. Polo: The mint with a hole
  17. Lifebuoy: Lifebuoy hai Jahan, tandurusti hai wahan
  18. Ceat: Born Tough
  19. MRF: Tyres With Muscle
  20. Idea: An Idea can Change your life
  21. Hutch: Wherever you go, our network follows
  22. Maggi: Taste Bhi, Health Bhi
  23. Onida: Neighbor’s Envy, Owner’s Pride
  24. Kingfisher: The King of Good Times
  25. Airtel: Express Yourself
  26. Fevicol: Fevicol ka mazboot jod hai Tootega Nahi!
  27. Hero Honda: Desh Ki Dhadkan
  28. Indian Army: Do you have it in you?
  29. Malayala Manorama: Nobody Delivers Kerala Better
  30. Tata Sky: Isko Laga dala to life to life jingalala
  31. LIC: Zindagi Ke Saath bhi, Zindagi ke Baad bhi
  32. Nike: Bleed Blue
  33. Wills: made for each other
  34. Lux: Beauty bar of film stars
  35. Chlormint: Dobara mat poochna
  36. Tata Salt: Desh ka namak
  37. Big Bazaar: Isse sasta aur Accha Kahin nahi
  38. The Economic Times: Journalism of Courage
  39. Videocon: The Indian Multinational
  40. Mentos: Dimag ki batti jala de
  41. Kit Kat: Have a break, have a kit kat
  42. Red FM: Bajate Raho
  43. Radio Mirchi: It’s Hot!
  44. Taj Mahal: Wah Taj!
  45. Telegraph: The Unputdownable
  46. ICICI: Hum Hain na
  47. Sprite: Bujhaye pyas, baaki all, bakwas!
  48. Alpenliebe: Jee lalchaye, Raha na Jaye [Remember Gamers, Men and Women, Alpenliebe is a combination of two German words. It means Heartbeat in German. Alpen is a Mountain, and Liebe is Heart or Love.]

 

  1. Lays: No one can eat just one
  2. HDFC Std Life: Jiyo sar utha ke

 

Concepts

I found this in a document, sent by a friend. It’s available on my site as well. I have just made changes in it.

1. Brand

A name, a term, a symbol or a design or a combination of these, that is intended to identify the products or services of one business or group of businesses and to differentiate them from those of competitors Example: Mcdonald’s , Nike , Close-up , Google etc.

 

2. Core Identity

The core identity represents the timeless essence of the brand. It contains brand association that is most likely to remain constant as the brand travels to new markets and products. The core identity, which is the central to both the meaning and success of the brand. More resistant to change Includes elements that make the brand both unique and valuable

 

Example,

McDonald’s Value Offering, Quality, Service, Cleanliness,

Nike Thrust, User, Performance, Enhancing lives ,

Close up Up Gel form, User, Red color

Dove ¼ moisturizer

 

3. Extended identity

The extended identity Includes elements that provide texture and completeness.It fills in the picture, adding details that help portray what the brand stands for

 

Example,

McDonalds Extended Identity

Brand Personality :fun laces, exciting , cool

Symbol: LOGO: Golden arc

Slogan: “ I’m lovin it “

Brand Customer Relationship: Place for kids , family & friends

Sub brands: Toys

Organizational Association: Ronald McDonald house, helping hand for children

Endorses:Happy family

 

4. Brand identity

The outward expression of the brand, including its name and visual appearance. The brand’s identity is its fundamental means of consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand’s differentiation from competitors  For e.g Vodafone ZOO ZOO, Britannia Signature tune

 

5. Brand Positioning

The distinctive position that a brand adopts in its competitive environment to ensure that individuals in its target market can tell the brand apart from others.

Positioning involves the careful manipulation of every element of the marketing mix. This process of creating point of similarities and points of difference in consumer’s mind is called Brand Positioning

 

6. Perceptual mapping

Perceptual mapping does is to represent consumer perceptions-in (usually) two-dimensional space so that the manager can readily see where his own brand is positioned in the mind of his prospect and in relation to other

Perceptual maps can help identify where (in the market) an organization could position a new brand. Perceptual mapping help organization identify gaps in the market.

 

7. Brand personality

Brand Personality can be defined as a set of human characteristics associated with a brand.

 

It is how the brand behaves. Includes gender, age, socioeconomic class, psychographic and emotional characteristics. For example, Marlboro is ‘masculine’ while Virginia Slims is ‘feminine.’ IBM is ‘older’ while Apple is ‘younger.’ India Today is ‘old-fashioned’ while Outlook is ‘trendier.’

 

8. Generic Branding

When a particular product category is used as a brand name by a company it is known to be a generic branding.

Examples,

Xerox associated with photocopying product category.

Band Aid associated with product category antiseptic plaster.

Crocin associated with product category paracetamol.

 

9. Co-Banding

Co-branding is an arrangement that associates a single product or service with more than one brand name, or otherwise associates a product with someone other than the principal producer. The typical co-branding agreement involves two or more companies acting in cooperation to associate any of various logos, color schemes, or brand identifiers to a specific product that is contractually designated for this purpose. There are two types of co – branding i.e. Ingredient Co-Branding and Composite Co-Branding.

 

Examples,

Coca Cola with Mcdonald’s

Sunfeast Farmlite digestive  biscuits made from Aashirvaad atta

Intel with HP

ICICI bank visa card with Big bazaar

 

10. Ingredient Co-Branding

is another form of co- branding .

Ingredient  co – branding implies using  a renowned brand as an element in the production of another renowned brand

 

Examples,

Sunfeast Farmlite digestive  biscuits made from Aashirvaad atta

HP or any computers with Intel Processors

Sunsilk with  Keratin Micro technology

Pantene with Pro V

 

11. Composite Co-Branding

Composite Co- branding strategy involves two existing brands and composite with these two to make or create a composite brand name for a new product.

It refers to the use of two renowned brand names in a way that can collectively offer a  distinct product / service that could not have been possible individually

 

Examples,

iPhone with Jio

Coca Cola with McDonalds

Exclusive Citibank Platinum VISA Credit card for Jet Airways Flyers

 

12. Brand Vision

The ability to see your company’s future through your customer’s eyes. The brand’s guiding insight into its world

 

13. Brand equity

A set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol, that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and / or to that firm’s customers”. The sum of all distinguishing qualities of a brand, drawn from all relevant stakeholders, that results in personal commitment to and demand for the brand; these differentiating thoughts and feelings make the brand valuable and valued

 

14. Brand extension

Brand extension is when a firm uses an established brand name to introduce a new product.When a new brand is combined with the existing brand , the brand extension can also be called as sub brand. An existing brand that gives birth to a  brand extension is referred to as the parent brand. If the parent brand is already associated with multiple products through brand extension then it may also be called a family brand For e.g Dove -Dove Shampoo, Dove Conditioner , Dove Body lotion etc

 

15. Line Extension

The parent brand is used to brand a new product that targets a new market segment within a product category currently served by the parent brand. A line extension often involves a different flavor or ingredient variety, a different form or size, or a different application for the brand e.g Maggi Masala Noodles, Maggi Atta noodles, Maggi chicken Noodles etc.

 

16. Moving the brand up  

When the existing brand name is too much of a drag , the only feasible alternative is likely to be the creations of a standalone brand. Another strategy that a brand adopts for moving the brand up is by introducing ‘limited edition’, special edition for example ‘ Mont blanc pens fall in the is category . For instance its writer’s edition was based on famous authors such as Charles Dickens , Oscar wilde, etc.

 

17. Moving the brand down.

Today’s markets, from tires to clothes to computers, are becoming increasingly value centered. More and more buyers are turning from prestige and luxury to lower-cost brands that deliver acceptable quality and features.

 

For e.g Nokia moved their brand down by launching Nokia ASHA for the labour / worker class, Not very high priced , it had the potential to affect the minds of the target audience in a very positive way .

 

18. Multi Branding

The depth of branding strategy concerns the number and nature of different brand marketed in the product class sold by a firm.  The main reason to adopt multiple brands to pursue multiple brand segments.

These market segments may be based on all types of consideration – different price segments, different channels of distribute, different geographic boundaries and so forth. For e.g Unilever has Surf excel, Rin and Wheel in the same product category Detergent

 

19. Multi Product Branding

Multi Product branding strategy  is when an organization uses one name for all its products . This approaches is also referred as blanket or family branding strategy.

It is an attempt to leverage corporate brand equity, in an attempt to create product brand  recognition e.g Godrej – Godrej storewell, Godrej Navtal , Cadbury makes Cadbury Five Star, Cadbury Dairy Milk , Cadbury Perk etc

 

20. Mix branding

Mixed branding  is a strategy of producing the same good but marketing it to different segments under different names. The segmentation does not have to be price-related. The best example is Toyota and Lexus. Toyota in the U.S. was perceived as a “value” brand and Lexus targeted the more expensive market.

 

21. Generic brand

A product that is named only by its generic class (e.g., drip-grind coffee, barber shop. Other products have both an individual brand and a generic classification (Maxwell House drip-grind coffee, Maurice’s barber shop).

Generic brand products are often thought to be unbranded, but their producer or reseller name is usually associated with the product, too e.g Food Bazar Rawa, Food Bazar Maida. This approach is usually associated with food and other packaged goods, but many other consumer and industrial products and services are marked as generics e.g Kerosene, Aspirin

 

22. Brand licensing

Brand Licensing is a contractual agreement whereby a company allow another firm to use the brand name, patent, trade secret or other property for a royalty or a fee.

 

Licensing also assists companies entering global markets with minimal risk.

Licensing can be quite lucrative for the licensor. It has long been an important business strategy for designer apparel and accessories such as Garfield cat, Disney’s Mickey Mouse or celebrities and designers such as Martha Stewart , Tommy Hilfiger

 

23. Umbrella branding

An umbrella brand can be referred to as a brand when a group of products possess the same brand name which is known as a family brand or an umbrella brand. Different products having different images are put together under one major brand or parent brand and are marketed by the firm.

Umbrella branding does not mean that the whole product portfolio of a firm will fall under one brand name as company can go for different approaches of branding for different product lines.

 

Example

Amul is an example of umbrella brand. Amul Butter, Amul Cheese spreads, Amul Milk, Amul ice creams, Amul ghee all fall under single brand name AMUL.

Godrej is another example of umbrella brand. Products like locks, steel cupboards, office furniture electronic typewriters, desktop printers, refrigerators, air conditioners etc. all come under one parent name GODREJ

 

24. Brand hierarchy

A brand hierarchy is a means of summarizing the branding strategy by displaying the number and nature of common and distinctive brand elements across the firm’s products, revealing the explicit ordering of brand elements.

Perhaps the simplest representation of possible brand elements and thus potential levels of a brand hierarchy—from top to bottom—might be as follows

Corporate Brand : Hindustan Unilever Ltd.

Range Brand : Dove

Individual Brand : Dove Shampoo

Modifier Brand: Dove Shampoo- Hair therapy

 

25. Range Brand

Range / family brand is the second level in Brand Hierarchy. It is defined as a brand that is used in more than one product category but is not necessarily the name of the company or corporation itself.Brand spread across a range of product categories.

 

Example, Corporate Brand is Hindustan Unilever Ltd., and the Range Brand is DOVE.

 

26. Brand Repositioning

Repositioning is the task of implementing a major change the target market’s perception of the product’s key benefits and features, relative to the offerings of competitive products.

 

Sometimes, marketers feel the need to change the present position of the brand to make it more meaningful to the target segment. This change in position, and finding a new position for the brand, is called brand repositioning.

Repositioning also happens due to various other reasons such as falling sales, viable position , bringing new customers etc. For e.g Dettol toilet soap was positioned as a beauty soap initially. It did not work. Dettol, the parent brand (antiseptic liquid) was known for its ability to heal cuts.

 

The extension’s “beauty “positioning was not in tune with the parent’s “germ-kill” positioning. The soap therefore had to be repositioned as a germ-kill soap and it faired extremely well after repositioning.

 

27. Brand image

The customer’s net “out-take” from the brand. For users this is based on practical experience of the product or service concerned; (informed impressions) and how well this meets their expectations; and for non-users it is based almost entirely upon uninformed impressions, attitudes and beliefs.

 

28. Brand awareness

Is the ability of a potential buyer to recognize or recall that a brand is a member of a certain product category.It refers to the strength of a brand’s presence in the consumer’s mind.A link between product class and brand is involved.

For e.g the use of a large balloon with the word Levi’s on it may make the Levi name more salient, but it will not necessarily help improve name awareness.

However, if the balloon is shaped to resemble a pair of Levi’s 301 jeans, the link to the product is provided, and the balloon’s effectiveness

 

29. Aided recall

Aided awareness consists in aiding the target audience to recall brands.

In this the researcher casually asks the respondent if he is aware of any more brands in the category.

 

30. Brand association

The feelings, beliefs and knowledge that consumers (customers) have about brands.. A brand association is anything “linked” in memory to a brand.

Thus, McDonald’s could be linked to a character such as Ronald McDonald, a consumer segment such as kids, a feeling such as having fun, a product characteristic such as service, a symbol such as the Golden Arches

These associations might include product attributes, a celebrity spokesperson, or a particular symbol. Brand associations are driven by the brand identity – what the organization wants the brand to stand for in the customer’s mind.  A key to building strong brands, then, is to develop and implement a brand identity.

 

31. Unaided awareness

Refers to the few brands, which immediately come to mind. It measures the brand’s impact, i.e. to what extent it is spontaneously associated with a given product category for. E.g  Chocolate -Have a break Kit kat

 

32. User imagery

User imagery can be based on either typical users (people you see using the brand) or idealized users (as portrayed in advertising and elsewhere). User imagery can be a powerful driver of brand personality, in part because the user is already a person and thus the difficulty of conceptualizing the brand personality is reduced. For  e.g TVC of Raymond’s,( playing with puppies) focuses on soft side of man (i.e. caring and loving) and also on subtle aspects of life styles of executives

 

33. Functional Benefit

The most visible and common basis for a value proposition is a functional benefit—that is, a benefit based on a product attribute that provides functional utility to the customer.Such a benefit will usually relate directly to the functions performed by the product or service for the customer.

Example, Volvo is a safe, durable car because of its weight and design, Quaker Oats provides a hot, nutritious breakfast cereal, A BMW car handles well, even on ice, Huggies deliver comfort and fit, so leaks are reduced

 

34. Emotional benefit

When the purchase or use of a particular brand gives the customer a positive feeling, that brand is providing an emotional benefit.The strongest brand identities often include emotional benefits

Example, Excited in a BMW, Energetic and vibrant when drinking Coke, In control of the aging process with Oil of Olay, Strong and rugged when wearing Levi’s

 

35. Value proposition

A brand’s value proposition is a statement of the functional, emotional and self-expressive benefits delivered by the brand that provide value to the customer

An effective value proposition should lead to a brand—customer relationship and drive purchase decisions

 

36. Sub Brand

It stretches endorser brand that add association. A brand personality   or any other quality which creates brand identity. For example, Nestle KitKat, Cadbury Dairy Milk, Sony PlayStation or Polo by Ralph Lauren

 

37.Brand manager

Brand Managers  have traditionally had  strategic and tactical responsibility for their brand , including having responsibility for the brand identity and position , maintaining that identity by securing needed investments and make sure that all media efforts are consistent with the identity .

 

The brand manager’s role was first developed by Procter & Gamble in the mid- 1930s for brands representing distinct business of manageable size, is now being applied in more complex organization

 

38.Brand Equity manager

Some firms have separated brand strategy from the implementation of the marketing program. A brand equity manager (sometimes labeled as a brand manager) is in charge of creating and maintaining the brand identity and coordinating it over products and markets. The brand equity manager monitors, reviews, and perhaps approves the tactics from a brand strategy perspective.

 

39.Range Brand Manager

Firms with range brands are naturally organized by products. The range brand manager supports the brand by making sure that there’ is an overall brand strategy accepted by everyone and that managers are sensitive to both the need to support the brand identity and the need to avoid inconsistencies. This task involves developing communication vehicles that maximize brand identity synergies across the organization.

 

40.Global brand manager

Each country has a complement of national brand managers, each of whom is charged with marketing his or her respective.

 

Global Brand manager  is who is charged with developing a brand identity worldwide, ensuring that the companies in each country are faithful to the brand strategy, communicating and facilitating best practices, and encouraging consistency and synergy across countries

 

41.Niche brand

A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focusing. So the market niche defines the specific product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the price range, production quality and the demographics that is intended to impact. It is also a small market segment. For example, sports channels like STAR Sports, ESPN, STAR Cricket  target a niche of sports lovers

 

42. Silver bullet

A silver bullet is a brand or sub-brand that positively influence the image of another brand. It can be a powerful force in creating, changing and maintaining a brand image. e.g.. When IBM ThinkPad was launched it has provided a significant boost in public perception of the IBM brand.

 

43. Perceived Quality

Perceived quality can be defined as the customer’s perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service with respect to its intended purpose, relative to alternatives. Perceived quality is an intangible, overall feeling about a brand.It is, first, a perception by customers.

 

It has been shown to drive the financial performance and is often a major (if not the principal) strategic thrust of a business. Perceived quality is linked to and often drives other aspects of how a brand is perceived

 

44. Endorser Brand:

An endorser brand is an established brand that provide credibility and success, It usually represents organization rather than product because organizational association such as innovation, leadership and trust are particularly relevant for endorsement e.g Mc Chicken, McBurger, McTiki, etc

 

45. Brand Revitalization :

Change is always the catalyst that drives a brand revitalization. It could be increased competition, market or industry trends, business acquisitions or expanding product lines.

 

Whatever is driving the change, you can revitalize your brand by clarifying and simplifying the brand’s promise then consistently communicate it at every customer touch point. This will define what makes you different and give customers a stronger, more compelling reason to do business with you.

For e.g Cadbury Dairy Milk Silk promoted for adult market.

 

46. Logo

Is the visual signature of the brand. It is a long-term property of a brand and needs to be handled cautiously. A brand logo consists of five distinct elements : Colour , Font , geometric shape, Slogan and Brand name .Example : Nike swoosh, . Coca-Cola is always written in a particular manner, AXIS bank special colour, Castrol in Castrol logo

 


What is a brand, how does it differ from a product?

{A YouTuber is a Brand, His Merchandise and Products are Products}

{sipe is a Brand. Answer Banks are Product} {I tbvh blush whenever someone other than me mentions sipe.} {Before Proceeding further, I want to let you know that along with Internet and Books. I have also referred Seth Publications, which has quite helpful content on this subject. I am not endorsing it any manner!}

 

What is a ‘Brand’

Definition by American Marketing Association

A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of these, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from competitors.

A brand is an identifying symbol, mark, logo, name, word and/or sentence that companies use to distinguish their product from others. A combination of one or more of those elements can be utilized to create a brand identity. Legal protection given to a brand name is called a trademark.

 

Breaking down the word “B R A N D”

A brand is seen as one of a company’s most valuable assets. It represents the face of the company, the recognizable logo, slogan or mark that the public associates with the company. In fact, the company is often referred to by its brand, and they become one and the same. A company’s brand carries with it a monetary value in the stock market (if the company is public), which affects stockholder value as it rises and falls. For these reasons, it’s important to uphold the integrity of the brand.

 

Creating a Brand

When a company decides to settle on a brand to be its public image, it must first determine its brand identity, or how it wants to be viewed. For example, a company logo often incorporates the message, slogan or product that the company offers. The goal is to make the brand memorable and appealing to the consumer. The company usually consults a design firm or design team to come up with ideas for the visual aspects of a brand, such as the logo or symbol. A successful brand accurately portrays the message or feeling the company is trying to get across and results in brand awareness, or the recognition of the brand’s existence and what it offers. On the other hand, an ineffective brand often results from miscommunication.

 

Once a brand has created positive sentiment among its target audience, the firm is said to have built brand equity. Some examples of firms with brand equity — possessing very recognizable brands of products — are Microsoft, Coca-Cola, Ferrari, Apple and Facebook.

 

If done right, a brand results in an increase in sales for not just the specific product being sold, but also for other products sold by the same company. A good brand engenders trust in the consumer, and, after having a good experience with one product, the consumer is more likely to try another product related to the same brand. This phenomenon is often referred to as brand loyalty.

 

Brands Throughout History

Brands have long been used to set products apart and have taken many different forms. For example, the oldest known generic brand still used today is an herbal paste from India called Chyawanprash. In the 13th century, Italians began putting watermarks on their paper as a form of branding. The term “brand” also refers to the unique marks burned into the hides of cattle to distinguish the animals of one owner from those of another.

 

Brand v Product

The product is the reason buyers would want to spend some money for it, even if it was served without any additional information.

 

The brand is the active part of a product’s image, the “text” that tells a story about the product.

 

When people are offered a “blind test” of a beverage, they are experiencing just the product. When they pre-order a product just because Apple / Starbucks / EA makes them, they are reacting on the brand’s merits, without knowing much about the product. Both ways of experiencing are valid, and usually complement each other.

 

If you have a weak brand and a superb product, only luck will determine if anyone will try it out at all. A superb brand can sometimes cover for a weak product, but in this day and age of ubiquitous information, not for very long.

 

Products perform a function.

They have properties that when combined together do something for customers. The problem is that within any given category, most products perform similar functions. There’s very little differentiation. Ingredients are ingredients and they tend to be the same across a category.

 

Products are all about what they do for people. Products fulfill a customer’s needs.

 

Functions, ingredients and needs — that’s what makes up a product.

 

Brands offer an emotion.

Brands are actually quite different from products because they don’t just cover a customer’s needs, they fulfill a customer’s wants.

 

We don’t fall in love with products — we fall in love with brands. Brands offer a promise and an emotion. Brands are about how they make people feel. Brands fulfill a customer’s wants.

 

Promises, emotions and wants — that’s what makes up a brand.

 

In short, while you may need a product, you will want a brand.

 

So for example, I may need a cup of coffee, but I personally want to get it at Starbucks.

 

{I honestly prefer this guy near my college. Me and one of my friend, usually go there after college. Having Cutting Chai is far relaxing.}

 

Coffee is the product in this case and caffeine is the ingredient. I need it to get going in the morning and I could get it literally anywhere, including at Dunkin’ Donuts, the corner market or at home. But I choose Starbucks.

 

Starbucks is the brand in this case, and the experience at Starbucks is the emotion I want in the morning. I want a Starbucks coffee because of the unique experience I get and from how it makes me feel. It prepares me for the day ahead and makes me productive in the morning. With Starbucks coffee, I am ready! I want Starbucks for how it makes me feel.

 

Products equal functions. Brands equal emotions.

Hopefully you can see that products are basically at parity to each other, they fulfill the same needs. Brands are what differentiate because of how they uniquely make people feel.

 

It is important to contrast a brand and a product. According to Philip Kotler, well-regarded marketing academic, a product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a need or want. Thus, a product may be a physical good (e.g., a cereal, tennis racquet or automobile), service (e.g., an airline, bank, insurance company), retail store (e.g., a department store, specialty store, or supermarket), person (e.g., a political figure, entertainer, or professional athlete), organization (e.g., a nonprofit organization, trade organization or arts group), place (e.g., a city, state, or country), or an idea (e.g., a political or social cause).

 

 

Product

Brand

Meaning A product is an item which is ready for sale in the market. A brand is something which distinguishes a product from other products in the market.
What is it? A product is What you need? A brand is What you want?
Uniqueness A product can be easily copied. A brand has a distinguished identity, that cannot be copied.
Created by Manufacturers Customers
Can it be replaced? Yes No
What they do? A product performs the functions. A brand offers value.
Appearance A product may be tangible or intangible in nature. A brand is intangible.
Time Horizon A product can be outdated after some time. Brand remains forever.

Key Differences Between Product and Brand

The following are the major differences between product and brand:

 

  1. The product is an item or service produced and offered by the company for sale in the market. A brand is an entity like the logo, symbol or name used by the companies, to make their products identifiable among other products in the marketplace.
  2. A product can be your need, but the brand is something more than that. You can understand it with an example like it is your need to wear outfits and footwear, but it is your want to wear outfits of SUPREME and footwear of Nike.
  3. Copying a product is easy, but it’s hard or says impossible to copy a brand.
  4. Companies create products. On the other hand, Brand is created by us i.e. customers; it takes years and years to build a brand loyalty.
  5. Products can be replaced by other products because it becomes obsolete over time. In contrast to this, brands are forever.
  6. Product performs its general functions, but a brand offers value to the customers.
  7. The product is tangible or intangible in nature. However, a brand is intangible it can only be experienced.

 

Conclusion

At first instance, the two seems same, but if you start searching the differences, then you will come to know their actual meanings. The significant difference between product and brand is that a product is a single entity, but there can be millions of products under a single brand. So, the brand is a wider term than a product. The name of a product among people is just because of the brand.

Write a note on co-branding

Co-Branding is a marketing strategy that utilizes multiple brand names on a good or service as part of a strategic alliance. Also known as a “brand partnership,” Co-Branding (or “co-branding”) encompasses several different types of branding collaborations typically involving the brands of at least two companies. Each brand in such a strategic alliance contributes its own identity to create a melded brand with the help of unique logos, brand identifiers and color schemes. The point of Co-Branding is to combine the market strength, brand awareness, positive associations and cache of two or more brands to compel consumers to pay a greater premium for them. It can also make a product less susceptible to copying by private label competition.

 

Breaking Down ‘Co-Branding’

Co-Branding is a useful strategy for many businesses seeking to increase their customer bases, profitability, market share, customer loyalty, brand image, perceived value and cost savings. Many different types of businesses, such as retailers, restaurants, car makers and electronics manufacturers, use Co-Branding to create synergies based on the unique strengths of each brand. Simply put, Co-Branding as a strategy seeks to gain market share, increase revenue streams, and capitalize on increased customer awareness.

 

Co-Branding can be spurred by two (or more) parties consciously deciding to collaborate on a specialized product. It can also result from a company merger or acquisition as a way to transfer a brand associated with a well-known manufacturer or service provider to a better-known company and brand. Co-Branding can see more than just name and brand associations; there may also be a sharing of technologies and expertise, capitalizing on unique advantages of each Co-Branding partner.

 

A Co-Branded product is more limited in terms of audience than a broad, single-name corporate product. The image it conveys is more specific so companies must consider whether Co-Branding can yield benefits or if it would alienate customers accustomed to a single name with a familiar product identity.

 

Companies should choose Co-Branding partners very carefully; as much as a company can benefit from a relationship with another brand, there can also be risks. A good strategy is to slowly roll out a Co-Branded product or service before publicizing and promoting it, thereby giving the marketplace time to vet it.

 

Types of Co-branding

Co-branding is of two types: Ingredient co-branding and Composite co-branding.

 

  1. Ingredient Co-branding implies using a renowned brand as an element in the production of another renowned brand. This deals with creation of brand equity for materials and parts that are contained within other products. The ingredient/constituent brand is subordinate to the primary brand.For instance – Dell computers has co-branding strategy with Intel processors. The brands which are ingredients are usually the company’s biggest buyers or present suppliers. The ingredient brand should be unique. It should either be a major brand or should be protected by a patent.Ingredient co-branding leads to better quality products, superior promotions, more access to distribution channel and greater profits. The seller of ingredient brand enjoys long-term customer relations. The brand manufacture can benefit by having a competitive advantage and the retailer can benefit by enjoying a promotional help from ingredient brand.
  2. Composite co-branding refers to use of two renowned brand names in a way that they can collectively offer a distinct product/ service that could not be possible individually. The success of composite branding depends upon the favorability of the ingredient brands and also upon the extent on complementarities between them.

 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Co-branding

Co-branding has various advantages, such as – risk-sharing, generation of royalty income, more sales income, greater customer trust on the product, wide scope due to joint advertising, technological benefits, better product image by association with another renowned brand, and greater access to new sources of finance.

But co-branding is not free from limitations. Co-branding may fail when the two products have different market and are entirely different. If there is difference in visions and missions of the two companies, then also composite branding may fail. Co-branding may affect partner brands in adverse manner. If the customers associate any adverse experience with a constituent brand, then it may damage the total brand equity.

 

Co-Branding Strategies

According to branding and marketing experts there are four distinct Co-Branding strategies:

 

Market penetration strategy: A conservative strategy that seeks to preserve the existing market share and brand names of two partnered or merged firms.

Global brand strategy: Seeks to serve all customers with a single, existing global co-brand.

Brand reinforcement strategy: Exemplified by the use of a new brand name.

Brand extension strategy: The creation of a new co-brand name to be used only in a new market.

 

Co-Branding vs. Co-Marketing

Co-Branding and Co-Marketing are similar concepts in that both involve partnerships between brands that seek to bolster their marketing efforts, but they differ in how they are executed. Co-Marketing aligns the marketing efforts of two partners, but does not result in the creation of a new product or service. Co-Branding, by design, is based on the creation of a new product or service.

 

Co Branding Examples

Co-Branding is all around you. Consider these examples:

 

  • Taco Bell’s Doritos Tacos Locos: Specialty food item co-developed by Yum! Brands, Inc. and PepsiCo subsidiary Frito-Lay, Inc.
  • ‘Your Ride. Your Music’: Uber and Spotify collaborate to allow Uber users to create playlists to use during their Uber trips.
  • Supermarket foods: Pillsbury baking mixes/Hershey’s products; Ruffles/Buffalo Wild Wings chips; Kellogg’s/Jif Peanut Butter cereal.
  • Sony Ericsson: A mobile phone joint venture between Sony Corp. and Ericsson that utilized Sony’s name and Ericsson’s manufacturing and tech. The partnership later ended with Sony buying out Ericsson.

 

Explain Product Branding vs Corporate Branding

Corporate branding and product branding are two different terms specifically involved in the creative design. There’s a clear difference between the two but before we list these differences, let’s define each.

 

Product branding, also called individual branding, as defined by Wikipedia is “a branding strategy in which products are given brand names that are newly created and generally not connected to the names of existing brands offered by the company.”

 

On the other hand, corporate branding is the practice of promoting a corporate entity brand name, rather than its services or products. The scope of corporate branding is generally broader compared to service and product branding.

 

Corporate Branding Basics

Brand awareness is usually the starting point for new companies. Building a certain image and reputation in the mind of your consumers helps you carve out your place in your target audience distinct from competitors. For example, Apple invests heavily in maintaining its reputation as a cutting-edge mobile technology and device maker. Its corporate brand is why people line up out the doors every time the company launches a new product. A strong brand image adds immediately value to a new product once it hits the market. Top quality, best service, lowest cost, most environmentally friendly and family-oriented are examples of general reputations companies may develop.

 

Techniques

Corporate brand marketing takes place in a few different ways: image advertising, cause-related advertising, advocacy advertising and green marketing. Some companies use only one of these, while others use them all. Image advertising simply means ad messages focused on key attributes of the company. Cause-related and advocacy advertising are similar and deal with marketing attempts to tie your brand to important social issues or events or other causes your customers support. Green marketing involves messages to show that your company is a leader in promoting environmental preservation. Swedish furniture retailer IKEA stresses its recycling and renewal programs, along with natural reforestation, which means it replaces trees used in making products.

 

Product Branding

Unless your company only makes or sells one product, you also need to invest in marketing for each new product launch. While the Apple brand carries over in each product launch, the company also needs to spend time building up the perception of a given product. Each new version of its iPhone, for instance, must convey product messages about quality features and technology breakthroughs. Product branding is also a way for companies to branch out. Manufacturers must use strong product branding when they launch a product they weren’t previously known for. An example of this is when hair products designer Volare partnered with car brand Ferrari to launch a new sleek, high-performing curling iron.

 

Attributes

Product branding can succeed by emphasizing a variety of attributes. The key is distinguishing which benefits your product offer that are bigger or better than competitors. Best quality, unique features, sleek design, durability, reliability and performance are some traits companies may use to brand products. Video game maker Nintendo separated itself from Sony, Microsoft and other top game system manufacturers by emphasizing versatility with its Wii system. The company has promoted games for all generations, including fitness games, components and accessories for people who want to work out at home.

 

Now that we’ve defined both terms, here’s the difference between the two for a clearer and better understanding of corporate and product branding.

 

1. Shift in Focus

While the two may still be interrelated, the difference lies in their focus. Corporate branding is focused on the corporation as well as its beliefs and ideologies. As for product branding, the focus is on the product or services and/or its customers.

 

2. Change in Focus From Customers to Stakeholders

While product branding targets consumers, corporate branding targets all the stakeholders of the company. This would include industry groups, government agencies, partners, suppliers, and all interested parties.

 

3. Responsibility

The efforts that go into product branding is the responsibility of the company’s marketing department. On the other hand, the efforts for corporate branding is the responsibility of the entire organization. For corporate branding to be truly successful, it requires the alignment of external and internal communication all to create a single image broadcast across the media.

 

4. Change in Horizon

The brands of products are usually short-lived whereas corporate brands must survive on in both the past and the future. Corporate brands are symbols of the company’s vision and heritage.

 

 

Generic Brand

Generic brands of consumer products (often supermarket goods) are distinguished by the absence of a brand name. It is often inaccurate to describe these products as “lacking a brand name”, as they usually are branded, although with either the brand of the store where they are sold or a lesser-known brand name which may not be aggressively advertised to the public. They are identified more by product characteristics.

 

They may be manufactured by less prominent companies or manufactured on the same production line as a ‘named’ brand. Generic brands are usually priced below those products sold by supermarkets under their own brand (frequently referred to as “store brands” or “own brands”). Generally they imitate these more expensive brands, competing on price. Generic brand products are often of equal quality as a branded product; however, the quality may change suddenly in either direction with no change in the packaging if the supplier for the product changes.

 

For example, a kind young man, Epsit, wants to have some Thumbs Up. He could buy Thumbs Up, or he can buy some generic grocery-store cola You know those with weird covers, and usually are at sale through the year round?
The Thumbs Up brand cola has a good logo and a price tag of “Bring Back the Big Bottle for ₹35” or the “Kaanch ka Bottle for ₹10” or “I am never buying a hideous plastic bottle which is smaller than my palm for ₹20”.

The generic brand has an obscure, less appealing logo but its cheaper. I wonder if Patanjali will ever launch some thumbs up. Ram Dev used to criticize it on TV for a really long time. Both taste about the same to Epsit, so he buys the generic brand.

 

I actually go for Lassi or Fruit Beer, or Chai is a better refreshment than any of this, but this was for example.


What is a ‘Generic Brand’

A generic brand is a type of consumer product that lacks a widely recognized name or logo because it typically isn’t advertised. Generic brands are usually less expensive than brand-name products due to their lack of promotion, which can inflate the cost of a good or service. Generic brands are designed to be substitutes for more expensive brand-name goods. Generic brands are especially common in supermarket goods and pharmaceuticals, and tend to be more popular during a recession.

 

Breaking Down ‘Generic Brand’

Generic brands are often known for their trimmed-down packaging and plain labels, as well as their lower prices. For example, a supermarket may offer its own generic product next to a name-brand product to appeal to a cost-conscious customer. A variation of a generic brand is a private label brand (also “store brand,” “own brand” or “private brand”), in which an item carries the brand of a store. Some stores offer both value and premium versions of the same private label product.

 

Generic brands may be made on the same production line as name-brands or made by lesser-known manufacturers. They may be of the same quality as a similar name-brand product. Despite the difference in cost between name-brand and generic brands, there is little taste or nutritional difference between them. In some cases — without factoring in cost — some generics may even be preferable to name brands. Still, most consumers believe that generics are of a lesser quality compared to brand names. When comparing generic and brand-name products consumers tend to pay close attention to and compare their lists of individual ingredients.

 

Generic Brands: Brand-Name Generics

Some well-known name brands have become genericized. This can happen when a company loses trademark protection or if a name enters the lexicon:

 

  • Aspirin is trademark in 80 countries, but is the name used by any company in the U.S. for any acetylsalicylic acid product.
  • Dumpster was a trademarked type of mobile garbage bin, but is now the general name for any product serving this purpose.
  • Zipper was a trademark of rubber products maker B.F. Goodrich used in rubber boots.
  • Escalator was a trademark of Otis Elevator. Now it refers to any such device.

 

 

Brand Positioning

Brand positioning has been defined by Kotler as “the act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market”. In other words, brand positioning describes how a brand is different from its competitors and where, or how, it sits in customers’ minds.

 

A brand positioning strategy therefore involves creating brand associations in customers’ minds to make them perceive the brand in a specific way.

 

Why is brand positioning important?

By shaping consumer preferences, brand positioning strategies are directly linked to consumer loyalty, consumer-based brand equity and the willingness to purchase the brand. Effective brand positioning can be referred as the extent to which a brand is perceived as favorable, different and credible in consumers’ minds.

 

Brand Positioning refers to “target consumers” reason to buy your brand in preference to others. It is ensures that all brand activity has a common aim; it is guided, directed and delivered by the brand’s benefits/reasons to buy; and it focuses at all points of contact with the consumer.

 

In order to create a distinctive place in the market, a niche market has to be carefully chosen and a differential advantage must be created in their mind. Brand positioning is a medium through which an organization can portray it’s customers what it wants to achieve for them and what it wants to mean to them. Brand positioning forms customer’s views and opinions.

 

Brand Positioning can be defined as an activity of creating a brand offer in such a manner that it occupies a distinctive place and value in the target customer’s mind.

 

Example, Kotak Mahindra positions itself in the customer’s mind as one entity- “Kotak ”- which can provide customized and one-stop solution for all their financial services needs. It has an unaided top of mind recall. It intends to stay with the proposition of “Think Investments, Think Kotak”.

 

The positioning you choose for your brand will be influenced by the competitive stance you want to adopt.

 

Brand Positioning involves identifying and determining points of similarity and difference to ascertain the right brand identity and to create a proper brand image. Brand Positioning is the key of marketing strategy. A strong brand positioning directs marketing strategy by explaining the brand details, the uniqueness of brand and it’s similarity with the competitive brands, as well as the reasons for buying and using that specific brand. Positioning is the base for developing and increasing the required knowledge and perceptions of the customers. It is the single feature that sets your service apart from your competitors.

Example, Kingfisher stands for youth and excitement. It represents brand in full flight.

 

A strong brand must have following attributes:

  • Relevancy
    A strong brand must be relevant. It must meet people’s expectations and should perform the way they want it to. A good job must be done to persuade consumers to buy the product; else, in spite of your product being unique, people will not buy it.
  • Consistency
    A consistent brand signifies what the brand stands for and builds customers trust in brand. A consistent brand is where the company communicates message in a way that does not deviate from the core brand proposition.
  • Proper Positioning
    A strong brand should be positioned so that it makes a place in target audience mind and they prefer it over other brands.
  • Sustainable
    A strong brand makes a business competitive. A sustainable brand drives an organization towards innovation and success. Example of sustainable brand is Marks and Spencer.
  • Credibility
    A strong brand should do what it promises. The way you communicate your brand to the audience/ customers should be realistic. It should not fail to deliver what it promises. Do not exaggerate as customers want to believe in the promises you make to them.
  • Inspirational
    A strong brand should transcend/ inspire the category it is famous for. For example- Nike transcendent Jersey Polo Shirt.
  • Uniqueness
    A strong brand should be different and unique. It should set you apart from other competitors in market.
  • Appealing
    A strong brand should be attractive. Customers should be attracted by the promise you make and by the value you deliver.

 

There are various positioning errors, such as-

  • Under Positioning-
    This is a scenario in which the customer’s have a blurred and unclear idea of the brand.
  • Over Positioning-
    This is a scenario in which the customers have too limited a awareness of the brand.
  • Confused Positioning-
    This is a scenario in which the customers have a confused opinion of the brand.
  • Double Positioning-
    This is a scenario in which customers do not accept the claims of a brand.

 

Examples

  • Maggi is positioned as an evening snack among the youth and in young urban mother’s mind – ‘good to eat, fast to cook and anytime snack’
  • Maruti Cars are positioned as Value for Money Cars  SX4 car is positioned as “ Car for Men with career success”
  • Kellogg’s cereal is positioned as a breakfast food  Woodland shoes are positioned as shoes that last long – “Leather that weathers”
  • 7-Up is positioned as an Un-cola drink
  • Parker Pen is positioned as a pen that marks a corporate executive’s identity.
  • Thums-Up and Mountain Dew are positioned as Adventure Brands
  • Maruti Omni is positioned as MUV: ambulance, delivery van, school van, etc.
  • Mercedes-Benz: Engineered like no other car in the world
  • BMW: The ultimate driving machine.
  • L’Oreal: Because you’re worth it.
  • Walmart: Always low prices. Always.
  • Nike: Just do it
  • Coca-Cola: The real thing

There are 7 positioning strategies

  1. Positioning by Product
  2. Positioning by Price/Quality
  3. Positioning by Use or Application
  4. Positioning by Product class
  5. Positioning by Product user
  6. Positioning by Competitor
  7. Positioning by Cultural symbols

 

1. Positioning by Product Attributes and Benefits

Associating a product with an attribute, a product feature or a consumer feature. Sometimes a product can be positioned in terms of two or more attributes simultaneously. Generally whenever a brand is launched, it’s positioned on product attributes. Consider the example of Ariel that offers a specific benefit of cleaning even the dirtiest of clothes because of the micro cleaning system in the product. Colgate offers benefits of preventing cavity and fresh breath. Surf excel – Daag ache hain.

 

2. Positioning by Price/Quality

One way they do it is with ads that reflect the image of a high-quality brand where cost, while not irrelevant, is considered secondary to the quality benefits derived from using the brand. Premium brands positioned at the high end of the market use this approach to positioning. Another way to use price / quality characteristics for positioning is to focus on the quality or value offered by the brand at a very competitive price. ICICI prudential Ad and also the wheel detergent or Rin soap which always focuses on the value addition and Price- Rin Bar @ Rs 5/-

 

3. Positioning by use or application

Another way is to communicate a specific image or position for a brand is to associate it with a specific use or application. Example: Vanish is positioned as stain remover- Think Pink forget stains. Colgate pain out Gel

 

4. Positioning by product class

Often the competition for a particular product comes from outside the product class. The product is positioned against others that, while not exactly the same, provide the same class of benefits. Airlines know that while they compete with other airlines, trains and buses are also viable alternatives Dove is positioned as a moisturizer, not a soap. Dettol soap is positioned as a germ killer.

 

5. Positioning by product user

Positioning a product by associating it with a particular user or group of users is yet another approach. Facebook, Sunsilk GOG.

 

6. Positioning by Competitor

Competitors may be as important to positioning strategy as a firm’s own product or services. This approach is similar to positioning by product class, although in this case the competition is within the same product category. For e.g. Onida was positioned against the giants in the television industry through this strategy, ONIDA color TV was launched with the message that all others were clones and only Onida was the leader. Neighbors envy owners pride. Moov compares itself with Iodex. AMD compares with NVidia. Each and every Phone compares with iPhone.

 

7. Positioning by Cultural Symbols

An additional positioning strategy where in the cultural symbols are used to differentiate the brands. Examples would be Hamara Bajaj, Tata Tea, Ronald McDonald, India Gate Basmati Rice,etc. Each of these symbols have successfully differentiated the product it represents from competitors.

 

 

Role of Value Proposition in Brand Positioning

Value propositions and positioning statements are part of marketing strategies designed to differentiate small or large companies from their competitors. A company’s value proposition describes the benefits of its products and services. A single value proposition may contain several positioning statements, which are more focused messages that form the basis of advertising campaigns.

 

Target Customers

The main objective of a marketing strategy is to define and reach the target customer demographic. Segmenting the market is especially important for small businesses because they cannot go after every segment and need to allocate their limited resources selectively. Value propositions and positioning statements can shape a company’s marketing message and alter its product-design strategy to maximize its chances of attracting those who influence and make final purchase decisions.

 

Value Proposition

Value propositions describe the functional and emotional benefits of companies and their brands. Functional benefits are linked to specific product features, while emotional benefits refer to positive feelings that customers experience when using a company’s products and services. For example, the functional benefit of a gardening tool could be the efficient removal of lawn weeds, but the emotional benefit could be its ease of use by people with knee ailments. Value propositions are not necessarily about offering the cheapest products. They are about convincing customers that they are getting value for their money. For example, a consulting company may be able to charge premium rates for its services if it can demonstrate a record of accomplishment of cost savings and process improvements.

 

Positioning Statement

Positioning statements flow from value propositions. Positioning statements should describe why customers should use one product over another. For example, a small bakery’s positioning statement could be its multigrain breads and custom-designed cakes that appeal to customers who are looking for flavorful and creative products that are different from the standard mass-produced items at big-box grocery stores. Correct positioning could determine market-share gains and profitability. In this case, the bakery is trying to position its products in the market segment that includes customers who want high-quality, high-priced goods. If it tries to compete solely on price, it may not survive because bigger companies can use their buying power to drive down input costs. Companies should be prepared to modify their positioning statements to respond to changes in the business environment.

 

In Short, an effective value proposition communicates what a custom can expect to receive by using a product. Think of the value proposition what you are promising the customer. Value is often the difference between a customer’s perceptions of the cost versus the anticipated benefits realized. The benefits encompass not only the direct benefits of reaching a desired goal, for example, 20%  Whiter Teeth, but also the Indirect Benefits like Ease of Use.

 

Contrast this with a positioning statement which defines a products advantages versus those of a competitor or competitors overall. It also explains why this difference matters.

 

Value propositions and positioning statements are both exceptionally valuable communications mediums that help companies promote its brands effectively.

 

Considerations

Marketing strategies and advertising campaigns are effective when value propositions translate into market share gains. Successful advertising campaigns have consistent messages across all media platforms, such as television and the Internet. Advertising messages are usually based on value propositions and positioning statements. For example, if the value proposition of a restaurant is its exclusive reliance on organic produce, its advertising fliers and radio spots should highlight the benefits of consuming organic foods.

 

 

Brand Portfolio

As businesses introduce or acquire more and more divisions, managing these seemingly separate entities can become a challenge. By gathering each business unit into a brand portfolio, business leaders can more easily manage the strategy and operation of the individual brands from a bird’s eye view.

 

The Brand Portfolio refers to an umbrella under which all the brands or brand lines of a particular firm functions to serve the needs of different market segments. In simple words, brand portfolio encompasses all the brands offered by a single firm for sale to cater the needs of different groups of people.

 

Brand portfolio is generally created because each brand has certain boundary beyond which it cannot fulfill all the needs of different market segments.

 

The advantage of having the Brand Portfolio is that management can keep a check on all the brands as a whole and frame the policies with a broader perspective. Also, the resources can be allocated to the brand that needs the most.

 

Definition

A brand portfolio is simply the collection of brands under a company’s control. Small businesses with just one shop may have only a single brand, but large and multinational corporations may have dozens of distinct brands in their portfolios. In some cases, a business may present the same product or line under different brands in different markets; each of these brands is a component of the company’s brand portfolio.

 

Examples

As of publication, General Motors has 14 brands in its portfolio. These brands include Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet and OnStar in the United States. International brands include Baojun, Holden, Jiefang, Vauxhall and Wuling. GM also sells adapted versions of many of the cars sold as Chevrolets in the United States under the Opel brand in international markets.

 

Types

Large brand portfolios consist of up to three types of brands. A sub-brand maintains the greatest distance from the parent company and may present itself to the public as a somewhat separate organization. An endorsed brand is presented as an offering of the parent company rather than as a distinctly different line of products. If an organization introduces an entirely new brand, it may use some of the parent company’s marketing heft and recognition to help the new line gain momentum; these introductions are known as new brands.

 

Advantages

Brand portfolios allow businesses to compete in many different marketplaces with an array of product lines. The different brands under which the company presents its products and services allow the organization to differentiate its products from its other lines. GM, for example, uses its Cadillac brand to compete in the luxury market, participates in the work truck arena under the GMC brand and operates under the OnStar brand in the in-car services marketplace. An active brand portfolio can use energy and momentum from one brand to energize others that may be slowing. In addition, organizations can help reduce costs by centralizing strategy, administrative and operational support and even manufacturing processes, across brands. If one brand fails to perform, the organization can often sell or discontinue that brand with minimal impact on other aspects of its portfolio.

 

Portfolio Size

The size of an organization’s brand portfolio can vary significantly from industry to industry and even from business to business. While there is no ideal number of brands, professional business consultants at McKinsey & Company recommend keeping brand portfolios as small as possible to minimize administrative expenses associated with operating multiple brands.

 

What are functional, self-expressive and emotional benefits?

Functional Benefits

Functional benefits are based on a product attribute that provides the customer with functional utility.

 

The goal is to select functional benefits that have the greatest impact with customers and support a strong position relative to competitors. However, it is important to keep in mind that functional benefits often fail to differentiate, can be easy to copy and may reduce strategic flexibility.

 

Examples of functional benefits include the phone capability of an iPhone, the thirst-quenching offered by a bottle of water and the warmth of a wool sweater.

 

The most visible and common basis for a brand value proposition is a func­tional benefit—that is, a benefit based on a product attribute that provides functional utility to the customer. Such a benefit will usually relate directly to the functions performed by the product or service for the customer. For laser printers, functional benefits might be their speed, resolution, quality, paper capacity, or lack of downtime. Other examples are as follows:

 

  • Volvo is a safe, durable car because of its weight and design.
  • Quaker Oats provides a hot, nutritious breakfast cereal.
  • A BMW car handles well, even on ice.
  • A 7-Eleven store means convenience.
  • Coke provides refreshment and taste.
  • kalingad_dynasty is amazing. Follow, Share, Subscribe, Love, Hate, Heart, Stalk.

 

Functional benefits, especially those based upon attributes, have direct links to customer decisions and use experiences. If a brand can 4 dominate a key functional benefit, it can dominate a category. Colgate, for example, led the toothpaste category for decades with the White Powder, then Paste. Competitors were forced to position their brands along inferior dimensions such as fresh breath and white teeth.

 

The challenge is to select functional benefits that will “ring the bell”  with customers and that will support a strong position relative to competitors. The latter task involves not only creating a product or service that delivers but also communicating that capability to customers. Communication, of course, is always a nontrivial task; sometimes, it may be extremely difficult.

 

Functional benefits have some limitations—they often fail to differentiate, can be easy to copy, assume a rational decision-maker, can reduce strategic flexibility, and inhibit brand extensions. One way to overcome these limitations, already explored, is to expand the brand identity perspective beyond product attributes by considering the brand-as-organization, person, and symbol. Another is to expand the value proposition to include emotional and self-expressive benefits as well as functional benefits.

 

Self-Expressive Benefits

Self-expressive benefits provide an opportunity for someone to communicate his or her self-image.

 

They heighten the connection between the brand and the customer by focusing on something linked to his or her personality. Self-expressive benefits focus on the act of using the product, as opposed to the emotional benefits associated with the result of using the product.

 

A self-expressive benefit can include the elegance and the feeling of being cool projected by the Apple iPhone, the raw masculinity projected by the Harley-Davidson motorcycle brand or the luxury displayed by carrying a Louis Vuitton bag.

 

Russell Belk, a prominent consumer behavior researcher, once wrote, “That we are what we have is perhaps the most basic and powerful fact of consumer behavior.” What Belk meant was that brands and products can become symbols of a person ‘s self-concept. A brand can thus provide a self-expressive benefit by providing a way for a person to communicate his or her self-image. Of course, each person has multiple roles—for example, a woman may be a wife, mother, writer, tennis player, music buff, and hiker. For each role, the person will have an associated self-concept and a need to express that self-concept. The purchase and use of brands is one   way to fulfill this need for self-expression. For instance, a person may define himself or herself as any of the following:

 

    • Hip by buying fashions from the Gap
    • Sophisticated by using Ralph Lauren perfume
    • Successful and powerful by driving a Lincoln
    • A nurturing parent by serving Quaker Oats hot cereal

 

  • Woke AF by using Patanjali.

 

  • That American Dream Life by using Tupperware
  • Privileged Significant Others if you get Cadbury Silk
  • Done with Life, learnt to smile if you have Tapri wala Chai
  • Instantly Lost Respect and became degenerate if you put it on Instagram.
  • The Highest Social Rank if you make TikTok Cute Videos [if u chuckled u get it]

 

 

 

Emotional benefits

Emotional benefits provide customers with a positive feeling when they purchase or use a particular brand. They add richness and depth to the experience of owning and using the brand.

 

Examples of emotional benefits include the “feel-good” factor when purchasing groceries carrying a fair-trade label or when donating to charities such as the Heart & Stroke Foundation. Buying local or organic foods has also started to carry emotional benefits, although most brands in these areas are niche brands that are currently not well known to others than enthusiasts.

 

When the purchase or use of a particular brand gives the customer a positive feeling, that brand is providing an emotional benefit. The strongest brand identities often include emotional benefits. Thus a customer can feel any of the following:

 

    • Safe in a Volvo
    • Excited in a BMW or while watching MTV
    • Energetic and vibrant when drinking Coke
    • In control of the aging process with Oil of Olay
    • Strong and rugged when wearing Levi’s

 

  • Scared AF if lost a Tupperware

 

  • Almost rich if using OnePlus
  • Smart if using MacBook
  • Diligently Happy if following kalingad_dynasty
  • No need to blush <3

 

 

 

Emotional benefits add richness and depth to the experience of owning and using the brand. Without the memories that Sun-Maid raisins evoke, that brand would border on commodity status. The familiar red package, though, links many users to happy days of helping Mom in the kitchen (or to an idealized childhood, for some who wish that they had such experiences). The result can be a different use experience — one with feelings—and a stronger brand. To discover what emotional benefits are or could be associated with a brand, the focus of research needs to be on feelings. How do customers feel when they are buying or using the brand? What feelings are engendered by the achievement of a functional benefit? Most functional benefits will have a corresponding feeling or set of feelings.

 

Self-Expressive Versus Emotional Benefits

 

Sometimes there is a close relationship between emotional and self-expressive benefits. For example, there is only a subtle difference between feeling rugged when wearing Levi’s jeans or expressing the strong, rugged side of yourself by wearing them. The differences between the two perspectives, however, can be important. Proving one’s success by driving a Lincoln might be significant, whereas “feel­ing important” may be too mild an emotion to surface in a brand identity analysis or in its execution. Thus it is helpful to consider self-expressive benefits separately.

 

In general, in comparison to emotional benefits, self-expressive benefits focus on the following:

 

  • Self rather than feelings
  • Public settings and products (for instance, wine and cars) rather than private ones (such as books and TV shows)
  • Aspiration and the future rather than memories of the past
  • The permanent (something linked to the person’s personality)  rather than the transitory
  • The act of using the product (wearing a cooking apron confirms oneself as a gourmet cook) rather than a consequence of using the I product (feeling proud and satisfied because of the appearance of a well-appointed meal)

 

 

 

Umbrella Branding

Brand marketers are continuously searching for innovative ways to achieve and retain a competitive advantage. Effective and attractive growth can be obtained by increasing market share. This can be done by launching new products in the market or increasing the sales volume and bottom line of products already existing in the market.

 

Attracting new customers and getting higher sales volume requires the addition of new customers as well as the increase in the repeat purchase rate. This is relatively easier for the company to implement. However, increasing the bottom-line of an existing product is relatively difficult because of competitive factors as well as the cost of marketing and advertising. The best way to increase the bottom line is to increase brand loyalty amongst customers.

 

Umbrella branding (also known as family branding) is a marketing practice involving the use of a single brand name for the sale of two or more related products. Umbrella branding is mainly used by companies with a positive brand equity (value of a brand in a certain marketplace). All products use the same means of identification and lack additional brand names or symbols etc. This marketing practice differs from brand extension in that umbrella branding involves the marketing of similar products, rather than differentiated products, under one brand name.

 

Hence, umbrella branding may be considered as a type of brand extension. The practice of umbrella branding does not disallow a firm to implement different branding approaches for different product lines (e.g. brand extension).

 

Given the enormous cost and the extremely high failure rate of new product developments especially in fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) categories, brand extension strategies have been developed to better implement new products into the market.

 

One of the branding strategies is Umbrella branding, also known as family branding. The concept of umbrella branding represents a marketing practice which involves selling many related products under a single brand name. Therefore, it involves creating huge brand equity for a single brand. In practice, implementing umbrella branding can be challenging marketing for the marketer because he needs to effectively coordinate amongst all individual brands. But in reality, it can be an amazing advantage as well.

 

The basic idea behind this strategy is to enhance the marketability of products and it follows the psychological concept that any product that carries the same brand name is produced using the same high standards of quality. So a brand may have 10 product lines, but the trust on that brand leverages the attributes of all the 10 product lines.

 

Example of Umbrella branding –

In order to make it more clear, let’s take a concrete example such as Apple. Under the Apple brand, a customer can find iPhone, iPad, Macbook, Mac Air, Apple watch, etc. The original brand of the Apple company has been the Mac computers, and hence it is at the apex of the Umbrella. But, then the umbrella divided further into the iPad, iPhone and others to cover all the other products within the umbrella.

 

Usually, the master brand elements have to be incorporated in all products as it commands trust, respect and loyalty. Once people have discovered the trust of one single brand, they will be interested in trying the other products of the same brand due to the application of umbrella branding.

 

The rising brand image of the parent brand due to increase in a number of products, and assuming that it maintains the quality, can represent a powerful competitive advantage especially in competitive markets such as the electronics and telecommunication industry.

 

Another great advantage of this marketing practice is that once a well-known brand wants to introduce another product, there will be no cost required for brand creation.  Therefore, new product launch becomes easier and cheaper as it can find already available recognition and market set up.

 

To sum it up, when customers go shopping, they usually search for their favourite brand, because they are loyal to it. As customers get more positive experiences from that single brand, the more likely they in purchasing other products from the same brand.

 

There are also companies/brands which prefer to market their products individually, such as Coca-Cola, creating in such a manner an identity for each of their products.

 

However, if the customers get any bad or unsatisfactory experiences from one of the products of a brand, they might avoid all the products of the respective brand. Therefore, if one product will fail, the entire brand will face failure.

 

Example of Umbrella brand failure

Recently we have observed the case of Nestle brand being affected. Maggi, the flagship product of Nestle, recently bombed across India and several other countries because of its high lead content. What has happened is, besides Maggi, many other brands of Nestle has taken a hit.

 

If there is a problem in the flagship product of Nestle, would there be problems in other individual products of the company as well? As Nestle is an umbrella brand, there was negativity against all individual products of the brand.

 

So, Umbrella brand has terrific advantages as proved by HUL and P&G as well as other umbrella brands over the years. However, in certain cases, Umbrella brand can affect all the products together. In short, Umbrella branding is a concept of “All for one, and one for all”.

 

Consumer Segmentation

 

Customer segmentation is the practice of dividing a customer base into groups of individuals that are similar in specific ways relevant to marketing, such as age, gender, interests and spending habits. Customer segmentation, also called consumer segmentation or client segmentation, procedures include:

 

Most of us would be well versed in the theory and significance of consumer segmentation. What is the profile of the consumers whom our brand will serve and what are their needs? We would also be familiar with target marketing, that is directing all marketing, promotional and media efforts for a brand to a chosen, a sharply defined group of consumers. Positioning theory marks its departure by placing emphasis on the target consumers perceptions of brands in relation to other brands. But its main focus, like all good marketing theory and practice, is on the target consumers characteristics, needs and expectations. Since we are inevitably faced with complex and heterogeneous markets, this means a multitude of consumer segments.

 

One cannot think of ‘positioning’ a product or a brand except in relation to a particular target segment. You position a Bank Fixed Deposit for those investors who prize security along with a moderate return. You position an ‘Un-fixed Deposit’ for similar investors but who, in addition, would prefer easy liquidity for their deposits without undue loss of return If you wanted to broaden the market for Bank Fixed Deposits by appealing also to those investors who favour high returns and are willing to shoulder risks, your only hope is to position Bank Fixed Deposits in terms of a ‘portfolio’ of investments in which high-return and high-risk investments are balanced with moderate-return, no-risk investments, plus tax benefits. In fact, either management judgement or research can lead to defining yet another segment of investors as those who want the best of both the world’s-a high return with low or ‘managed’ risk. Unit Trust ‘Master Share’ was positioned for just such a segment, followed by Canara Bank’s ‘Canshares’ and State Bank’s ‘Magnum’ shares. What, you may wish to debate, is the difference in the positioning of these three ‘brands’ of investment? What is the ‘distance’ between them as perceived by investors?

 

Leading brands – those with very large market shares-tend to position themselves across several segments; for example, Horlicks, “the great nourisher” (about 45% market share). Other brands are focussed more narrowly like Complan which is the “complete planned food for growing children”.

 

The closer our product is to a commodity, the lesser the degree of market segmentation and even lesser is the opportunity for sharply defined positioning. We can observe this with regard to the toilet soap market in India, for example. At the lowest end of the organized sector toilet soap market is the so-called ‘economy category’. It has only a few brands.

 

As we move up to the ‘premium category’ which accounts for about a quarter of the total toilet soap tonnage and where margins are generally higher – we find no fewer than 87 brands listed. You can well imagine the amount of jostling among these brands to gain a loyal segment of users who would be attracted to a particular brand, for its functional benefits and emotional values and give it a position in their mind, as well as a place in their shopping list

 

Positioning is a theory that was born out of the intense competition let loose by a great proliferation of brands. This makes it necessary to understand who our closest competitors are and how we should seek to be unique among the similar. In such competitive product markets, only such a brand will survive which has been able to identify the segment that it will serve, the particular benefits to pull that segment and has engineered its position to match most closely with the needs and ‘dreams’ of that segment. Thus, positioning a brand and the target segment for which it is designed must be considered together as integrated parts of one strategy. Integrated, because just as a brand must be positioned to appeal to a target consumer segment, a consumer segment too, would respond to a brand that occupies the position preferred by it Target market and positioning strategies are like the two sides of a coin. They are inseparable; each depends upon the other.

 

Advantages and Limitations for Branding

Branding is the marketing term often used when one is talking about companies introducing and establishing themselves in the minds of the consumers. Let’s look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of branding

 

Advantages of Branding

 

Awareness

The harder a company works on its branding and identity, in most cases, the more awareness it creates. For example, Coca-Cola is known worldwide for its product. A consumer can see it in a foreign county, with labeling in a foreign language and know it is a Coca-Cola product. The red color and shape of the bottle is an immediate trigger in many minds as to the fact that the drink is a Coca-Cola product. This is branding and identity at its best.

 

Consistency in the Marketplace

The more often a customer sees your brand in the marketplace, the more often he will consider it for purchase. If the brand and identity are truly kept consistent, the customer is more likely to feel that the quality is consistent and to become a loyal follower of the brand. However, this means that the product must maintain a consistency that reflects the image as well.

 

Customer Loyalty

Well-executed branding helps create customer loyalty by reinforcing the purchase of merchandise in the consumer’s mind. For sporting products, a campaign focused on physical fitness and not on a particular product helps establish the brand as a leader in the industry for both previous and future customers. When the product is associated with a lifestyle, it keeps consumers pursuing similar goals coming back.

 

Premium prices

Branding helps the company in charging a premium price for their product because a strong brand can charge a higher price than its competitors which in turn leads to higher profit margins for the company. An example would be Apple and Samsung charging a higher price of their smartphones than Sony and Huawei because customers have that brand image that Apple and Samsung have the best quality when it comes to smartphones.

 

Barrier to entry on the market

Having a strong and established brand under your portfolio in the market can be a barrier for entrance of new competitors on the same market as your. The potential new competitors will know that there is a strong leading brand and they may never make a decision to entry on the market.

 

Disadvantages of Branding

 

Huge development costs

The biggest disadvantage of branding is that it involves huge cost because brands are not created overnight and companies have to spend huge sums on advertising and publicity. Often the brand marketers calculate the ROBI (Return of Brand Investment) as they tend to predict and justify the brand development process.

 

Can Become Commonplace

Many brands strive to be No. 1 in the minds of consumers. For example, in many parts of the U.S., people request a Coke when they go to a restaurant, not necessarily meaning a Coca-Cola product, but any soda. While it is the goal of branding to become the standard, it is not the goal to become the generic term of a line of products.

 

Negative Attributes

If a product or service experiences a negative event, that will become attached to the brand. For example, a massive recall or unintentionally offensive ad campaign can tarnish a company’s brand and image, causing the company to need to build a whole new brand and identity to recapture its place in the market.

 

Changing the perception for the brand is hard

Another disadvantage of branding is that if due to some reason brand gets a bad name or reputation than it is very difficult, if not impossible to regain the original position or status of the brand. It’s similar to basketball MVP, one bad pass can led to losing the game and you’re no more perceived as MVP. The mistake Maggi made, also took them time to recover. You all remember the image which used to loiter on Orkut saying Frooti has some blood, it still gets forwarded in 3018, still can’t drink Frooti. Also, Milo. Anybody remembers it?  [we made a project on Milo btw. Me, Rahul, Tejas, Shruti, Amruta, Shrey, Zil. It was fun. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RNm4HaEbBwM  ]

 

Pigeonholes / Backfires

Sometimes establishing a strong brand identity can backfire when a company needs to pivot in response to changing market conditions. A bakery known for sweet cakes may find it hard to rebrand as a purveyor of gluten-free goods when its name calls to mind images of pastries, frosting and sprinkles.

 

High Costs

A primary drawback of branding is that it costs money to develop and promote a strong brand. Ideally, your investment provides ample return to justify the costs, but this is not guaranteed. As noted, companies that build strong brands do so over time through regular investments in advertising. Additionally, they invest in market research and product development to be able to offer high quality. These costs leave little room for error in buying, pricing and forecasting sales.

 

What Can Be Lost

The reason for ineffective branding is often linked to inconsistency. Website fonts, color pallet, products, taste, services that don’t match the ones found on referrals, promotions or advertisements indicate inconsistency that make it difficult for consumers to verify the authenticity of your communications. They may also be hesitant to trust your professionalism. If you can’t decide what colors or word style best represents your business, how can you expect potential customers to trust the consistency or quality of your goods or services?

 

Limited Flexibility

One necessary evil of thoroughly defining a company or product’s brand is that it can limit your flexibility moving forward. Kleenex, for instance, has struggled in some of its attempts to develop and promote products beyond facial tissue. The company is so ingrained as a leader in that product category that it is difficult for customers to see the company as a marketer of anything else. Companies have been able to extend brands in some cases by emphasizing company strengths over product attachments.

 

 

Brand Manager

A brand manager must be ever aware that he may suddenly find himself face-to-face with an infiltrator from across the historical border. For instance, Pond’s Cold Cream comfortable position seems to have been suddenly challenged by a brand from another product class altogether. The first appearance of Lakme Winter Care Lotion ad may well have come as a rude shock being described as a ‘greasy cold cream’ by this violator of traditional boundaries which claims, to boot, that it is “cold cream and moisturizer in one” and is “so much more than cold cream”.

 

A Brand Manager is responsible for adapting a brand strategy for a company’s target market.

 

As the ‘brand guardian’, brand managers maintain brand integrity across all company marketing initiatives and communications, and may manage a portfolio of products.

Brand managers have strong communication skills and need to maintain good relationships with colleagues and external contacts.

 

Brand Managers must have a good understanding of their audience and customers and have strong creative, analytical and organization skills. A Brand Manager must also have a good handle on consumer and market insights, including the ability to analyze market data, and he or she may be tasked with conducting consumer research. The position requires close collaboration with marketing, advertising and media departments.

 

Most employers require Brand Managers to have a degree in business, marketing or a related degree. Many prefer that Brand Managers also hold an advanced degree.

 

What activities are part of the brand manager role?

  • Brand strategy, including the setting of style guides, brand guidelines, brand vision and value proposition for short as well as long-term
  • Planning and execution of all communications and media actions on all channels, including online and social media
  • Assisting with product development, pricing and new product launches as well as developing new business opportunities
  • Creating and managing promotional collateral to establish and maintain product branding
  • Managing the budget for advertising and promotional items
  • Competitor and customer insights analysis
  • Analysis of sales forecasts and relevant financials and reporting on product sales

 

Overholser of Young and Rubicam calls this – the choice of product class – the first ‘positioning’ decision of the advertising strategist. He has to decide whether to compete broadly within the conventional product class, to compete with only some segment of the conventional product class, or to attract users from some other product class

Line Extension Strategy

What Is a Product Line Extension?

Think about when you really want that package of Chocolate Cookies. Let’s call them Patanjali Cookies. As you walk by the display in the grocery store, you pick up a package and look at the food label. You see the number of calories, and you just can’t buy them.

 

However, what if there was a light version of Patanjali Cookies with half the number of calories? You’d put that package in your cart, wouldn’t you? Making a light version, creating a mint flavor, offering a snack version, and creating a special Diwali, Sankranti Special, are types of product line extensions.

 

A product line extension is when a company creates a new product in the same product line of an existing brand. The strategy for an extension could be a different color or size, and it may have different ingredients or come in different flavors. The company is marketing the value and quality of the existing product line to introduce more choices to consumers.

 

Product line extensions are fairly low risk because you already have a successful brand. But, you don’t want to overexpose your brand to the point where consumers are confused about what types of products you offer. So, it’s important to maximize your exposure, but be smart about it. There may be times when a brand extension is a better marketing decision.

 

A product line extension may be defined as the use of an established product’s brand name for a new item in the same product category.

 

Product Line is a particular category of product that is offered by a company.

 

The objective is to serve different customer needs while taking advantage of an already established products brand name.

 

Line extension can be done in three ways:-

 

Down market stretch

A company positioned in the upper or the middle segment of the market may decide to introduce low priced products. This may be due to strong growth opportunities in the low priced market segment, competitors trying to eat up market share by entering the low priced range or the company feels the upper end of the market is stagnating.

 

For example- Gillette was known for its upper-end shaving razors. But it introduced Gillette Vector as a low priced Gillette Vector to cater to the lower end of the market.

 

Up-Market stretch

Companies may wish to enter the upper end of the market for more growth, higher margins, or simply to position themselves as full-line manufacturers.

 

For example:- Bisleri introduced a special variant of packaged water ‘Bisleri Vedica’, claimed to be having special minerals.

 

Two way stretch

Companies serving the middle market might decide to stretch their line in both directions. This is usually done to gain market dominance.

 

For example:- Titan first introduced watches in the middle price segment. It then stretched its range to premium segment watches (Titan edge, Nebula and Xylus) and the economy segment (Titan Sonata).

 

Hence, this concludes the definition of Line Extension along with its overview.

 

What Is a Brand Extension?

A brand extension is when a company uses an existing brand to create new product categories. This gives a company the chance to extend its brand with recognition from the existing products. For example, Oprah extended her brand by launching a magazine and a television network.

 

Brand extensions do have some risks, even for Oprah. Some marketing experts were concerned that Oprah was out of her league. Both took a large investment of marketing funds to distinguish them from current company products as well as competitors. What does a magazine from Oprah give us that other magazines don’t? How is Oprah’s television network giving us something different from what we already have?

 

Oprah’s television personality and success eventually carried over after much time and money. When leveraged correctly, products may be readily accepted because of the popularity of the existing types of products. With others, it may take more of an investment.

 

 

Brand Ambassador [Practical]

This might be asked as a small question which has to be answered practically. You have to remember few celebrities and the personality they carry.

  • Aamir Khan would be suited for a Brand aiming for Perfection Designated
  • Akshay Kumar would be best suited for Fitness, Action based Brands
  • Shah Rukh Khan is usually taken for Luxurious Brands
  • Deepika Padukone is taken for Women Centric Luxurious Products
  • Taimur Ali Khan can also be shown for a children specific product.

 

Further is the explanation of what a Brand Ambassador is

 

A brand ambassador (sometimes also called a corporate ambassador) is a person who is hired by an organization or company to represent a brand in a positive light and by doing so help to increase brand awareness and sales. The brand ambassador is meant to embody the corporate identity in appearance, demeanor, values and ethics.

 

The key element of brand ambassadors is their ability to use promotional strategies that will strengthen the customer-product-service relationship and influence a large audience to buy and consume more. Predominantly, a brand ambassador is known as a positive spokesperson, an opinion leader or a community influencer, appointed as an internal or external agent to boost product or service sales and create brand awareness. Today, brand ambassador as a term has expanded beyond celebrity branding to self-branding or personal brand management. Professional figures such as goodwill and non-profit ambassadors, promotional models, testimonials and brand advocates have formed as an extension of the same concept, taking into account the requirements of every company.

 

The term brand ambassador loosely refers to a commodity which covers all types of event staff, varying between trade show hosts, in store promotional members and street teams.

 

According to Brain, the job of a brand ambassador was undertaken typically by a celebrity or someone of a well-known presence, who was often paid considerably for their time and effort. Nowadays however, a brand ambassador can be anyone who has knowledge or can identify certain needs a brand is seeking. The fashion industry however, solely rely on celebrity clientele in order to remain brand ambassadors.[3] Furthermore, brand ambassadors are considered to be the key salesperson for a product or service on offer. They must remain well informed when it comes to the brand they are representing, due to their nature of being the go-to person when questions arise from consumers.

 

The brand ambassador’s job is to drive results through communication tools either publicly, such as social media, or privately including emails, messaging and further one-to-one channels.

 

History of Branding

The modern word Brand is derived from the word “Brandr”, a word from Ancient Norse meaning “to burn”. Around 950 A.D. a “brand” referred to a burning piece of wood. By the 1300s it was used primarily to describe a torch, essentially a burning piece of wood that is used as a tool. By the 1500s the meaning had changed to refer to a mark burned on cattle to show ownership.

 

Individual ranches would each have their own unique mark so ownership could be determined if their animals were lost, stolen, or mixed in with animals from another ranch. Each brand had to be simple, unique, and easy to identify quickly – essential traits that are still common to modern logos.

 

The 1820’s saw the rise of the mass production and shipment of trade goods. As products like ale and wine began to see larger batches and wider distribution, producers began burning their mark into crates and cases of goods to distinguish themselves from their competition

 

In 1870, is became possible to register a trademark to prevent competitors from creating confusingly similar products. Brands promised functional benefits such as Coca Cola’s 1905 slogan , “Coca Cola Revives and Sustains”. Brands themselves had become valuable.

 

The introduction of radio and television gave manufacturers new ways to create demand for their products. In 1928, Edward Bernays , the nephew of Sigmund Freud, published a book called Propaganda By the 1960’s, marketers were using mass media to associate brands with emotional benefits rather than functional ones. By the 1980’s, distribution channels reached around the globe, and consumers had more choices than ever.

 

The rise of the internet and social media is driving the next stage of the evolution of branding. Unlike consumers of the past, internet-connected people of today aren’t satisfied to merely consume – they want to participate. Social media brands like YouTube and Facebook rely on their users to help establish their value and how they are perceived by the public.

Core Identity

The core identity represents the timeless essence of the brand. It is the center that remains after you peel away the layers of an onion or the leaves of an artichoke. The following are illustrations of identities:

  • Michelin—advanced-technology tires for the driver who is knowledgeable about tires
  • Johnson & Johnson—trust and quality in over-the-counter medicines
  • Lifebuoy – Washes off Germs
  • Dettol – Antiseptic, Protection
  • Rubbermaid—value and innovation, plus a heritage of making practical plastic products for the home
  • Saturn—world-class quality; treating customers with respect and as a friend
  • Black Velvet—soft and smooth; priced a cut above the popularly priced brands

 

The core identity, which is central to both the meaning and success of the brand, contains the associations that are most likely to remain constant as the brand travels to new markets and products. For example, when Black Velvet expands to new countries, it is super-premium brand), and it always delivers the “soft and smooth” product and message.

 

The core identity for a strong brand should be more resistant to change than elements of the extended identity. Ivory’s “99/100% pure” and “it floats” slogans reflect an identity that has lasted 1 more than one hundred years. The brand position and thus the communication strategies may change, and so might the extended identity, but the core identity is more timeless.

 

Ultimately, the core identity follows from the answers to some tough, introspective questions.

  • What is the soul of the brand?
  • What are the fundamental beliefs and values that drive the brand?
  • What are the competencies of the organization behind the brand?
  • What does the organization behind the brand stand for?

 

One brand strategist observed that if you get the values and culture of the organization right, the brand identity takes care of itself. For many brands, there should be a close correspondence between the values of the organization and the core identity.

 

The core identity should include elements that make the brand both unique and valuable. Thus the core identity should usually contribute to the value proposition and to the brand’s basis for credibility.

 

Sometimes a Slogan can capture at least part of the Core Identity:

  • ‘Utterly, Butterly, Delicious”, the most significant Amul Butter Slogan suggests the Delicious Taste a Butter can Deliver.
  • “Maggi 2 Minute Noodles” signifies how easily and fast the Noodles can be made.
  • “Thumbs Up : Taste the Thunder” signifies a Strong Feeling.
  • “We’re Number Two; He Try Harder” suggests that Avis is committed to delivering the best customer service.
  • “The Relentless Pursuit of Perfection” suggests that Lexus cars are built to the highest quality standards with respect to workmanship, handling, comfort, and features.
  • “Melt in your Mouth, Not in your Hand” suggests the unique combination of flavor and convenience provided by M&M candies.

 

 

Rebranding

Anyone remembers how my site was called Mass Media Portal once xD. This is like that.

 

Rebranding is a marketing strategy in which a new name, term, symbol, design, or combination thereof is created for an established brand with the intention of developing a new, differentiated identity in the minds of consumers, investors, competitors, and other stakeholders.

 

Rebranding is the creation of a new look and feel for an established product or company. The usual goal of rebranding is to influence a customer’s perception about a product or service or the company overall by revitalizing the brand and making it seem more modern and relevant to the customer’s needs.

 

Often, this involves radical changes to a brand’s logo, name, legal names, image, marketing strategy, and advertising themes. Such changes typically aim to reposition the brand/company, occasionally to distance itself from negative connotations of the previous branding, or to move the brand upmarket; they may also communicate a new message a new board of directors wishes to communicate.

 

Rebranding can be applied to new products, mature products, or even products still in development. The process can occur intentionally through a deliberate change in strategy or occur unintentionally from unplanned, emergent situations, such as a “Chapter 11 corporate restructuring,” “union busting,” or “bankruptcy.” Rebranding can also refer to a change in a company/ corporate brand that may own several sub-brands for products or companies.

 

I am attaching few examples of ReBranding I found on ScoopWhoop. You can talk about these. Here are some popular brands that reinvented themselves from time to time.

 

1. Hutch-Vodafone

Vodafone was greeted in India with Hutch Is Now Vodafone campaign in 2007 after it acquired Hutchinson. Vodafone went in for an overnight transformation of the brand by targeting all points of purchase. From customer care centres to sim card packets and sales executives, everything was turned into red, overnight! To advertise the same, they tied up with Star India by playing Hutch is now Vodafone ads during every commercial break on Star Plus for 24 hours. This ensured maximum recall among the audience.

 

2. Hero Honda changed to Hero

Honda and Hero separated ways in 2011. Hero Moto Corp decided to go for a complete overhaul in the positioning with a change in their logo and slogan. They also roped in A.R. Rahman to compose the song for the ad, ‘Hum Mein Hai Hero’ which was launched on August 15, 2011. The black color in the new logo stands for solidity and premiumness while the Red gives a feeling of energy, passion, and confidence. The campaign was also followed digitally resulting in it going viral.

 

3. Dabur

Since its inception a couple of decades ago, Dabur has always been associated with the traditional portrayal of a woman. With an intention to break away from these stereotypes and take a stand for the modern woman, Dabur decided to enter the space of the digital world with long-format ad films on a woman’s fight with Cancer in the campaign, Brave and Beautiful. The 4-minute video got 3 million hits on the very first day and was a total hit.

4. Snapdeal

In the six years of its existence, for the first time, Snapdeal went for a change in logo and its corporate identity in 2016 to manage its dropping sales position in the presence of Amazon and Flipkart. They tried to generate brand awareness through the new positioning and only recently, they’ve also come up with a new tagline, Unbox Zindagi. Their package boxes have been changed to red but they have an uncanny resemblance to Vodafone boxes, so we aren’t really sure if the transformation is going to strike the right chord.

5. Apple

Apple decided to go simple while trying to change its existing positioning in 1998. They went for a fresh, clean, grey-coloured logo, moving away from the rainbow-coloured logo. These changes were made by Steve Jobs as soon as he became Apple’s CEO. He made immediate changes to the corporate identity with its Think Different Campaign in 1997. Apple created products and apps consistent to its personality which resulted in higher recognition among consumers.

6. Godrej

Godrej has been around since decades in the country and it only made sense for them to adapt themselves according to the changing times. They went for a change in the appearance of their logo in 2008. The logo, which was so far red in colour, now includes maroon, green and blue to give it a more contemporary look. The brand Godrej has also entered the real estate market now.

 

7. Airtel

Airtel happens to be a brand that has changed its logo quite a number of times. And it also changed its image from being the network that connects people to the brand that has a lot of offers for the smartphone-obsessed youth. Time to time, Airtel has always tried to position itself as the friendly brand and might we say, been pretty successful at it. We all remember the Har Ek Friend Zaroori Hota Hai campaign, don’t we?

Brand Hierarchy

Brand Hierarchy is a means of summarizing the branding strategy by displaying the number and nature of common and distinctive brand elements across the firm’s products, revealing the explicit ordering of brand elements.

 

To explain all the levels with the help of a common example

  • Corporate Brand / Company Brand  [ General Motors / Nestle]
  • Family Brand [ Chevrolet / Nescafe, Nestle Pet Care ]
  • Individual Brand  [ Lumina / Nescafe Xpress, Purina ]
  • Modifier [ Ultra / Nescafe Black Roast, Cafe Vanilla ]

 

Kapferer’s Branding System is developed by one of the Europe’s Leading Branding expert Jean Noel Kapferer.

 

This hierarchy involves moving from top level to the bottom level, introducing more brands at each succeeding level, which may be represented as follows:

 

1. Company Brand / Corporate Brand

Company Branding is the practise of using a company’s name as a product brand name. It is an attempt to use Company Brand Equity to create brand recognition. For legal reasons, the company or corporate brand is almost always present somewhere on the product or package, although it may be the case that the name of a company subsidiary may appear instead of the corporate name.

 

IBM, Heinz, Hershey, Coca-Cola, etc. are few of the examples

 

Some brands highlight their parent company’s name in a subtle manner. P&G owns Vicks, Whisper, Ariel, etc. However it does not use its corporate name in any of its line business.

 

Some other firms combine their corporate brand name with family brands or individuals brands. Reliance – Reliance Communications, Reliance Energy, etc. is a prime example.

 

In few cases, Company’s Name is virtually invisible. Although, being a part of the hierarchy, it receives virtually no attention in the marketing program. We see this happening in the case of Big Cinemas – a division of Reliance Media Works Ltd.

 

2. Family Brand

When a group of products are given the same brand name. i.e. when different products of a company are marketed under one brand name.

 

Examples

Amul

Amul Butter, Amul Milk, Amul Cream, Amul Dahi, Amul Chocolates,   Amuls Dank Mixtape of its OP Song,   etc.

Videocon

TV, Washing Machine, Air Conditioner, etc.

 

Johnson and Johnson

Johnson and Johnson Baby Soap, Johnson and Johnson Hair Oil, Johnson and Johnson Body Lotion, etc.

 

Google

Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Adsense, Google Keep, Google Pixel, Google Camera, Google Business, Google Classroom, etc.

 

At the next lower level, a family brand is defined as brand that is used in more than one product category but it is not necessarily the name of the company or the corporation itself. We can see Kissan Jams, Sauces, Fruit Crushes, etc. under this level.

 

3. Individual Brand

Individual Branding, also known as Individual Product Branding or Multi Branding. It is the marketing strategy of giving each product in a portfolio, its own unique brand name.

 

The Advantage of Individual branding is that each product has an image and identity that is unique.

 

The Disadvantages are difficult, complexity, and expense involved in developing separate marketing programs to build sufficient levels of Brand Equity.

 

Examples

Procter and Gamble – Head and Shoulders, Pantene, Gillette, Herbal Essence, etc.

Hindustan Unilever Limited – Axe, ELLE 18, Pepsodent, Dove, Knorr, Pears, LUX, Rin, Clear, Vaseline, Hamam, Domex, Liril 2000, etc.

 

4. Modifier

It refers to refinements or differences in the brand related to factors such as quality levels, attributes, functions, etc. A modifier is means to designate a specific item or model type or a particular version or configuration of the product.

 

Examples

Lays  – Regular and Baked Chips

Amul  – Pasteurized Unsalted, Regular, and Lite Versions of Butter

 

Different level of the hierarchy may receive different emphasis in developing a branding strategy.

Brand Licensing

The leasing by a brand owner of the use of a brand to another company. Usually, a licensing fee or royalty rate will be agreed for the use of the brand.

 

Licensing is a contractual agreement whereby a company allows another firm to use its brand name, patent, trade secret, or other property for a royalty or a fee. Licensing also assists companies in entering global markets with minimal risk. Essentially, a firm is “renting” another brand to contribute to the brand equity of its own product.

 

Licensing means renting or leasing of an intangible asset. It is a process of creating and managing contracts between the owner of a brand and a company or individual who wants to use the brand in association with a product, for an agreed period of time, within an agreed territory. Licensing is used by brand owners to extend a trademark or character onto products of a completely different nature.

 

A strong brand often has associations that may be desirable in other product categories. To capitalize on this value, a firm may choose to license its name, logo, or other trademark items to another company for use on their products and merchandise

 

Traditionally, licensing has been associated with characters such as Garfield the cat, Barney the dinosaur, and Disney’s Mickey Mouse, or celebrities and designers such as Martha Stewart, Ralph Lauren, and Tommy Hilfiger. Recently, more conventional brands such as Caterpillar Harley Davidson, Coca-Cola, and others have licensed their brands.

 

Licensing can be quite lucrative for the licensor. Licensing has long been an important business strategy for designer apparel and accessories. Designers such as Donna Karan, Calvin Klein, Pierre Cardin, and others command large royalties for the rights to use their name on a variety of merchandise such as clothing, belts, ties, and luggage. Over the course of three decades, Ralph Lauren became the world’s most successful designer, creating a $5 billion dollar business licensing his Ralph Lauren, Double RL, and Polo brands to many different kinds of products

 

Everyone seems to get into the act with licensing. Sports licensing of clothing apparel and other products has grown considerably to become a multi-billion dollar business. Even the Rolling Stones released a line of 80 licensed goods (including T-shirts, ties, and a credit card) that were sold at concerts during their Voodoo Lounge tour, via home shopping shows, on computer networks, and through a 16-page catalogue.

 

Licensing is also seen as a means to enhance the awareness and image of the brand. Linking the trademark to other products may broaden its exposure and potentially increase the strength, favorability, and uniqueness of brand associations Finally, licensing may provide legal protection for trademarks. Licensing the brand for use in certain product categories prevents other firms or potential competitors from legally using the brand name to enter those categories.

 

For example, Coca-Cola entered licensing agreements in a number of product areas, including radios, glassware, toy trucks and clothes, in part as legal protection. As it turns out, their licensing program has been a success they have subsequently introduced a catalogue sent directly to consumers that offers a myriad of products bearing the Coca-Cola name for sale.

 

Despite the potential benefits from licensing related to profitability, image enhancement, or legal protection, there are certainly risks too. A trademark can become over-exposed if marketers adopt a saturation policy. Consumers do not necessarily know the motivation or marketing arrangements behind a product and can become confused or even angry if the brand is licensed to a product, that seemingly bears no relation. Moreover, if the product fails to live up to consumer expectations, the brand name could become tarnished.

 

Another danger in licensing is that manufacturers can get caught up in licensing a brand that might be popular at the moment but is really only a fad and produces short-lived sales. Because of multiple licensing arrangements, licensed entities easily can become over-exposed and wear out quickly.

 

 

User Imagery

User imagery can be based on either typical users (people you see using the brand) or idealized users (as portrayed in advertising and elsewhere). It describes who or what type of person, might use that product/ brand. Somebody may identify himself as a Mercedes owner or Volvo driver.

 

The TVC of Raymond’s, (playing with puppies) focuses on the soft side of man (i.e. caring and loving) and also on subtle aspects of lifestyles of executives. Here the focus is on emotional aspects rather than on functional attributes). It communicates the lifestyles of the user.

 

User imagery results in user-driven image, which is then transferred to the consumer, there is a problem

 

Often brands use endorsers [film stars, sports stars] to convey their typical personality to the brand they endorse. However, this has to be done with great care and responsibility

 

Example, if a Bollywood macho actor like Jay Devgan endorses a fairness cream, t may not go down well with the consumer, whereas if Shahrukh Khan who has been seen in romantic soft images, endorses the same product, it is likely to get accepted.

 

Brand Personality needs to be updated with a change in user imagery and information so that the brand remains contemporary and relevant.

 

User Imagery can be based on either typical users, people you see using the brand, example, Harpic, Vim Bar, Tide, or idealized users as portrayed in advertising. For instance, actors endorsing a brand like Sonam Kapoor for recommending L’oreal hair colour, etc.

Brand Strategies

This is actually a mix of 4 Answers. But I am not gonna do the refer to this and that Page. After this question you will find the answers for each sub point with little more elaboration as well. You can scroll down if you wanna.

 

Multi Product Branding

Multi Product branding strategy is when an organization uses one name for all its products.

This approaches is also referred as blanket or family ₹branding strategy.

 

It is an attempt to leverage corporate brand equity, in an attempt to create product brand recognition eg. Godrej – Godrej storewell, Godrej Navtal, etc. Cadbury makes Cadbury Five Star, Cadbury Dairy Milk, Cadbury Perk etc.

 

This can result in significant economies of scope since one advertising campaign can be used for several products.

 

It also enables acceptance because potential customers are already familiar with the name.

 

A corporate branding strategy should only be used if the company is already well known by the target market and also has a positive image in their minds. If corporate branding is done well, the corporate name becomes synonymous with the product category (eg. Kleenex, Tampax.) Every purchase of Charmin will refer to the product as Kleenex.

 

The main advantages of corporate branding is that the products are not treated as individuals, hence there is not sufficient focus on the product

 

Advantages  

  • Can leverage co-op brand equity in an attempt to create product and recognition
  • Can result  in significant  economies of scope since one advertising campaign can be used for several products
  • Facilitates new product acceptance because potential buyers are already familiar with the same.
  • Makes possible for line extension
  • Sub branding combines a family brand with a new brand.
  • Allows for brand extension; even to enter a completely  different product class

 

Limitation

  • Too many uses for one brand name can dilute the meaning
  • The products are not treated as individuals, hence there is not adequate focus on the product’s unique characteristic

 

Multi Branding Strategy

The depth of branding strategy concerns the number and nature of different brand marketed in the product class sold by a firm.

 

Why might a firm have multiple brands in the same product category?

 

The primary reason relates to market coverage. Although, multiple branding was originally pioneered by General Motors, Procter & Gamble is widely recognized as popularizing the practice.

 

The main reason to adopt multiple brands to pursue multiple brand segments.

These market segments may be based on all types of consideration – different price segments, different channels of distribute, different geographic boundaries and so forth.

 

In many cases, multiple brands have to be introduced by a firm because any one brand is not viewed equally favorably by all the different market segments that the firm would like to target. Some other reason for introducing multiple brands in a category –include the following

  • To increase shelf  presence and retailer dependence in the store
  • To attract consumer seeking variety who may otherwise switch to other brands
  • To increase internal competition within the firm
  • To yield economies of scale in advertising, sales, merchandising and physical distribution.
  • Eg. HUL detergent powder- Surf Excel, Wheel, Rin

 

Advantages

  • The firm can distance products from other offerings in markets
  • The image of one product is not associated  with other products the company markets
  • The products can be specifically targeted

 

Co- Branding

Co-branding is an arrangement that associates a single product or service with more than one brand name, or otherwise associates a product with someone other than the principal producer.

The typical co-branding agreement involves two or more companies acting in cooperation to associate any of various logos, color schemes, or brand identifiers to a specific product that is contractually designated for this purpose.

 

There are two types of co – branding i.e. Ingredient co-branding and Composite co-branding.

 

Examples,

  • Coca Cola with Macdonald’s
  • Sunfeast Farmlite digestive biscuits made from Aashirvaad atta
  • Intel with HP
  • ICICI bank visa card with big bazaar

 

Ingredient co- branding

It’s another form of co-branding. Ingredient co – branding implies using a renowned brand as an element in the production of another renowned brand

 

Examples,

  • Sunfeast Farmlite digestive biscuits made from Aashirvaad atta
  • HP or any computers with Intel Processors
  • Sunsilk with Keratin Micro technology
  • Pantene with Pro V

 

Composite Co-branding

Composite Co- branding strategy involves two existing brands and composite with these two to make or create a composite brand name for a new product.

It refers to the use of two renowned brand names in a way that can collectively offer a distinct product / service that could not have been possible individually

 

Examples,

  • IPhone with Vodafone
  • Coca Cola with McDonalds
  • Exclusive Citibank Platinum VISA credit card for Jet Airways flyers

 

Brand Licensing

Brand Licensing is a contractual agreement whereby a company allow another firm to use the brand name, patent, trade secret or other property for a royalty or a fee.

 

Licensing also assists companies entering global markets with minimal risk.

Licensing can be quite lucrative for the licensor. It has long been an important business strategy for designer apparel and accessories such as Garfield cat, Disney’s Mickey Mouse or celebrities and designers such as Martha Stewart, Tommy Hilfiger

 

Licensing is also seen as a means to enhance the awareness and image of the brand. Linking the trademark to other products may broaden its exposure and potentially increase the strength, favorability and uniqueness of brand associations.

 

Licensing may provide legal protection for trademark.

 

Licensing the brand for use in certain product categories to prevent other firms or potential competitors from legally using the brand name to enter those categories for e.g. Coca Cola entered licensing agreements in a number of product areas, including radios, glassware, toy trucks etc.

 

But there are certain limitations to licensing. A trademark can become over- exposed if marketers adopt a saturation policy. Consumers can become confused or even angry if the brand is licensed to a product that seemingly bears no relation.

 

If the product fails to live up to consumers expectation, the brand name could become tarnished  and the manufacturer can be caught up in licensing a brand that might be popular at the moment but is really only a tad and produces short –lived sales.

 

Brand Product Matrix

The brand product matrix is used to categorize the product and branding strategy of a firm. One useful tool is the brand product matrix a graphical representation of all products sold by the firm.

 

The matrix or Grid has the brands of a firm as rows and the corresponding products as columns. Hindustan Unilever Ltd.

 

  Soaps Facewash Shampoo Detergent Cream
Pears     x x x
Dove       x  
Breeze   X X X x
L’oreal   x   x x
Wheel   X X   x
Domex X X X x x
Fair Lovely X   X X  

 

The rows of the matrix represents brand–product relationships and capture the brand extension strategy of the firm in terms of the number and nature if products sold under the firm’s brands.

 

In other words, what is the level of awareness like to be and what are the expected strength favorability and uniqueness of brand associations of the particular extension product.

 

At the same time how does the introduction of the brand extension affect the prevailing levels of awareness the strength, favorability and uniqueness of brand associations or overall response (judgment and feelings) forward the parent brand as whole?

 

 

Brand Product Relationship

Product Brand Relationship

Brand line consist of all product original as well as line & Category extension sold under a particular brand Product line consists of all brands of a single family brands or individual brand that has been line extended
Brand Mix i.e. set of all brand lines that a particular seller makes available to buyers Product Mix i.e. set of all product lines that a particular seller makes available to buyers
i.e. has to be and extension strategy characterized by breath i.e. has to be and portfolio strategy characterized by depth

 

Brand Hierarchy

A brand hierarchy is a means of summarizing the branding strategy by displaying the number and nature of common and distinctive brand elements across the firm’s products, revealing the explicit ordering of brand elements.

 

There are different ways to define brand elements and levels of the hierarchy. Perhaps the simplest representation of possible brand elements and thus potential levels of a brand hierarchy—from top to bottom—might be as follows

  • Corporate Brand / Company Brand  [ General Motors / Nestle]
  • Family Brand [ Chevrolet / Nescafe, Nestle Pet Care ]
  • Individual Brand  [ Lumina / Nescafe Xpress, Purina ]
  • Modifier [ Ultra / Nescafe Black Roast, Cafe Vanilla ]

 

Corporate Brand

The highest level of the hierarchy technically always involves one brand—the corporate or company brand.

 

For legal reasons, the company or corporate brand is almost always present somewhere on the product or package, although it may be the case that the name of a company subsidiary may appear instead of the corporate name

 

Corporate branding is the practice of using a company’s name as a product brand name.

 

It is an attempt to use corporate brand equity to create product brand recognition. It is a type of family branding or umbrella brand. Disney, for example, includes the word “Disney” in the name of many of its products

 

Range Brand /Family Brand

At the next-lower level, a range / family brand is defined as a brand that is used in more than one product category but is not necessarily the name of the company or corporation itself.

 

Brand spread across a range of product categories for eg. Dove

 

Individual brand

Individual branding, also called individual product branding or multibranding, is the marketing strategy of giving each product in a portfolio its own unique brand name.

 

This contrasts with family branding, corporate branding, and umbrella branding in which the products in a product line are given a single overarching brand name. The advantage of individual branding is that each product has an image and identity that is unique.

 

This facilitates the positioning of each product, by allowing a firm to position its brands differently.

 

Examples of individual product branding include Procter & Gamble, which markets multiple brands such as Pampers, and Unilever, which markets individual brands such as Dove.

 

Modifier Brand

A modifier is a means to designate a specific item or model type or a particular version or configuration of the product for eg. Dove Shampoo Hair fall rescue

 

Generic brand

A product that is named only by its generic class (e.g., drip-grind coffee, barber shop)

Other products have both an individual brand and a generic classification. (Maxwell House drip-grind coffee, Maurice’s barber shop).

 

Generic brand products are often thought to be unbranded, but their producer or reseller name is usually associated with the product, too eg. Food Bazar Rawa, Food Bazar Maida.

 

This approach is usually associated with food and other packaged goods, but many other consumer and industrial products and services are marked as generics eg. Kerosene, Aspirin.

Brand Building Blocks

It is not easy to build brands in today’s environment. The Brand builder who builds brand is like playing golf in strong and rough weather.  Substantial pressures and barriers, both internal and external can slow down the brand building

 

Brand Building Blocks are the challenges faced by the companies while building their brands. These challenges or blocks are explained precisely in the book ‘Aaker on Branding’ by David Aaker.

 

This is little something about Sir David Aaker.

 

Treating brands as assets

The ongoing pressure to deliver short-term financial results coupled with the fragmentation of media will tempt organizations to focus on tactics and measurables and neglect the objective of building assets.

 

Possessing a compelling vision

A brand vision needs to differentiate itself, resonate with customers and inspire employees. It needs to be feasible to implement, work over time in a dynamic marketplace and drive brand-building programs. Visions that work are usually multidimensional and adaptable to different contexts. They employ concepts such as brand personality, organizational values, a higher purpose, and in general they simply move beyond functional benefits.

 

Creating new subcategories

The only way to grow, with rare exceptions, is to develop “must have” innovations that define new subcategories and build barriers to inhibit competitors from gaining relevance. That requires substantial or transformational innovation and a new ability to manage the perceptions of a subcategory so that it wins.

 

Generating breakthrough brand building

Exceptional ideas and executions that break out of the clutter are necessary in order to bring the brand vision to life. These ideas and the execution of them are more critical than the size of your budget. “Good” is just not good enough. That means making sure you get more ideas from more sources, and that you make sure you have the mechanisms in place to recognize brilliance and bring those ideas to market – quickly.

 

Achieving integrated marketing communication (IMC). IMC is more elusive and difficult than ever in light of the various methods you have to choose from such as advertising, sponsorships, digital, mobile, social media and more. These methods tend to compete with each other rather than reinforce because the media scene and options have become so complex, so dynamic, and because product and country silos reflect competition and isolation rather than cooperation and communication.

 

Building a digital strategy

This arena is complex, dynamic and in need of a different mindset. The reality is, the audience is in control here. New capabilities, creative initiatives and new ways to work with other marketing modalities are required. Adjust the digital marketing focus from the offering and the brand to the customer’s sweet spot, which is to say the activities and opinions in which they are interested or even passionate about. Develop programs around that sweet spot in which the brand is an active partner, such as Pampers did with Pampers Village or what Avon did with their Walk for Breast Cancer.

 

Building your brand internally

It is hard to achieve successful integrated marketing communications or breakthrough marketing without employees both knowing the vision and caring about it. The brand vision that lacks a higher purpose will find the inspiration challenge almost impossible.

 

Maintaining brand relevance

Brands face three relevance threats: Fewer customers buying what the brand is offering, emerging reasons not-to-buy, and loss of energy. Detecting and responding to each requires an in-depth knowledge of the market, plus a willingness to invest and change.

 

Creating a brand-portfolio strategy that yields synergy and clarity

Brands need well-defined roles and visions that support those roles. Strategic brands should be identified and resourced, and branded differentiators and energizers should be created and managed.

 

Leveraging brand assets to enable growth

A brand portfolio should foster growth by enabling new offerings, extending the brand vertically or extending the brand into another product class. The goal is to apply the brand to new contexts where the brand both adds value and enhances itself.

 

Those engaged in building and leveraging a brand should examine each of these challenges in turn and determine which are most critical to their success. Then evaluate the extent to which your brand is in deficit in meeting that challenge. The answers to those questions should result in a roadmap to strengthening both your brand and your impact.

Brand Product Matrix. Prepare an illustrative one for any existing company.

To characterize the product and branding strategy of a firm, one useful tool is the brand-product matrix, a graphical representation of all the brands and products sold by the firm. In the brand-product matrix all products offered under different brands are represented by columns. This helps marketers understand the current brand line and explore further opportunity in expanding the product line. In the brand-product matrix all current existing brand are represented in form of rows referred to as brand portfolio. The brand portfolio analysis is essential to design and develop new marketing strategies to target a given product category.

 

The brand product matrix is used to categorize the product and branding strategy of a firm. One useful tool is the brand product matrix a graphical representation of all products sold by the firm.

 

The matrix or Grid has the brands of a firm as rows and the corresponding products as columns. Hindustan Unilever Ltd.

 

  Soaps Facewash Shampoo Detergent Cream
Pears     x x x
Dove       x  
Breeze   X X X x
L’oreal   x   x x
Wheel   X X   x
Domex X X X x x
Fair Lovely X   X X  

 

The rows of the matrix represents brand–product relationships and capture the brand extension strategy of the firm in terms of the number and nature if products sold under the firm’s brands.

 

In other words, what is the level of awareness like to be and what are the expected strength favorability and uniqueness of brand associations of the particular extension product.

 

At the same time how does the introduction of the brand extension affect the prevailing levels of awareness the strength, favorability and uniqueness of brand associations or overall response (judgment and feelings) forward the parent brand as whole?

 

 

Brand Product Relationship

Product Brand Relationship

Brand line consist of all product original as well as line & Category extension sold under a particular brand Product line consists of all brands of a single family brands or individual brand that has been line extended
Brand Mix i.e. set of all brand lines that a particular seller makes available to buyers Product Mix i.e. set of all product lines that a particular seller makes available to buyers
i.e. has to be and extension strategy characterized by breath i.e. has to be and portfolio strategy characterized by depth

The branding strategy for a firm reflects the number and nature of common and distinctive brand elements applied to the different products sold by the firm. In other words, branding strategy involves deciding which brand names, logos, symbols, and so forth should be applied to which products and the nature of new and existing brand elements to be applied to new products. A branding strategy for a firm can be characterized according to its breadth (i.e., in terms of brand-product relationships and brand extension strategy) and its depth (i.e., in terms of product-brand relationships and the brand portfolio or mix). For example, a branding strategy can be seen as both deep and broad if the firm has a large number of brands, many of which have been extended into various product categories.

 

Brand Building Blocks

Brand Building Blocks are the challenges faced by the companies while building their brands. These challenges or blocks are explained precisely in the book ‘Aaker on Branding’ by David Aaker.

 

This is little something about Sir David Aaker.

 

Treating brands as assets

The ongoing pressure to deliver short-term financial results coupled with the fragmentation of media will tempt organizations to focus on tactics and measurables and neglect the objective of building assets.

 

Possessing a compelling vision

A brand vision needs to differentiate itself, resonate with customers and inspire employees. It needs to be feasible to implement, work over time in a dynamic marketplace and drive brand-building programs. Visions that work are usually multidimensional and adaptable to different contexts. They employ concepts such as brand personality, organizational values, a higher purpose, and in general they simply move beyond functional benefits.

 

Creating new subcategories

The only way to grow, with rare exceptions, is to develop “must have” innovations that define new subcategories and build barriers to inhibit competitors from gaining relevance. That requires substantial or transformational innovation and a new ability to manage the perceptions of a subcategory so that it wins.

 

Generating breakthrough brand building

Exceptional ideas and executions that break out of the clutter are necessary in order to bring the brand vision to life. These ideas and the execution of them are more critical than the size of your budget. “Good” is just not good enough. That means making sure you get more ideas from more sources, and that you make sure you have the mechanisms in place to recognize brilliance and bring those ideas to market – quickly.

 

Achieving integrated marketing communication (IMC). IMC is more elusive and difficult than ever in light of the various methods you have to choose from such as advertising, sponsorships, digital, mobile, social media and more. These methods tend to compete with each other rather than reinforce because the media scene and options have become so complex, so dynamic, and because product and country silos reflect competition and isolation rather than cooperation and communication.

 

Building a digital strategy

This arena is complex, dynamic and in need of a different mindset. The reality is, the audience is in control here. New capabilities, creative initiatives and new ways to work with other marketing modalities are required. Adjust the digital marketing focus from the offering and the brand to the customer’s sweet spot, which is to say the activities and opinions in which they are interested or even passionate about. Develop programs around that sweet spot in which the brand is an active partner, such as Pampers did with Pampers Village or what Avon did with their Walk for Breast Cancer.

 

Building your brand internally

It is hard to achieve successful integrated marketing communications or breakthrough marketing without employees both knowing the vision and caring about it. The brand vision that lacks a higher purpose will find the inspiration challenge almost impossible.

 

Maintaining brand relevance

Brands face three relevance threats: Fewer customers buying what the brand is offering, emerging reasons not-to-buy, and loss of energy. Detecting and responding to each requires an in-depth knowledge of the market, plus a willingness to invest and change.

 

Creating a brand-portfolio strategy that yields synergy and clarity

Brands need well-defined roles and visions that support those roles. Strategic brands should be identified and resourced, and branded differentiators and energizers should be created and managed.

 

Leveraging brand assets to enable growth

A brand portfolio should foster growth by enabling new offerings, extending the brand vertically or extending the brand into another product class. The goal is to apply the brand to new contexts where the brand both adds value and enhances itself.

 

Those engaged in building and leveraging a brand should examine each of these challenges in turn and determine which are most critical to their success. Then evaluate the extent to which your brand is in deficit in meeting that challenge. The answers to those questions should result in a roadmap to strengthening both your brand and your impact.

 

 

Relationship Basis Model.

  1. Some people may never aspire to have a certain personality trait but would like to have a relationship with one who has that.
  2. A trustworthy, dependable, conservative personality might be seen boring but sought nevertheless, from banks or financial products.
  3. The concept of a relationship between a brand and a person provides a different perspective on how brand personality might work. To see how this model works, consider personality types of people with whom we have relationships with and the nature of those relationships.
  4. Down-to-earth, family oriented, genuine, old-fashioned (Sincerity).
    This might describe brands like Hallmark, Kodak, and even Coke. The relationship might be similar to one that exists with a well-liked and respected member of the family.
  5. Spirited, young, up-to-date, outgoing (Excitement). In the soft drink category, Pepsi fits this mold more than Coke. Especially on a weekend evening, it might be enjoyable to have a friend who has these personality characteristics.

 

A Bigger Version

Some people may never aspire to have the personality of a competent leader but would like to have a relationship with one, especially if they need a banker or a lawyer. A trustworthy, dependable, conservative personality might be boring but might nonetheless reflect characteristics valued in a financial advisor, a lawn service, or even a car-consider the Volvo brand personality. The concept of a relationship between a brand and a person (analogous to that between two people) provides a different perspective on how brand personality might work.

 

To see how the relationship basis model works, consider the personality types of people with whom you have relationships and the nature of those relationships. Some of the types might be as follows:

  • Down-to-earth, family oriented, genuine, old-fashioned (Sincerity). This might describe brands like Hallmark, Kodak, and even Coke. The relationship might be similar to one that exists with a well- liked and respected member of the family.
  • Spirited, young, up-to-date, outgoing (Excitement). In the soft drink category, Pepsi fits this mold more than Coke. Especially on a weekend evening, it might be enjoyable to have a friend who has these personality characteristics.
  • Accomplished, influential, competent (Competence). Perhaps Hewlett-Packard and the Wall Street Journal might fit this profile. Think of a relationship with a person whom you respect for their accomplishments, such as a teacher, minister or business leader; perhaps that is what a relationship between a business computer and its customer should be like.
  • Pretentious, wealthy, condescending (Sophistication). For some, this would be BMW, Mercedes, or Lexus (with gold trim) as opposed to the Mazda Miata or the VW Golf. The relationship could be similar to one with a powerful boss or a rich relative.
  • Athletic and outdoorsy (Ruggedness). Nike (versus LA Gear), Marlboro (versus Virginia Slims), and Wells Fargo (versus Bank of America) are examples. When planning an outing, a friend with outdoorsy interests would be welcome.

 

Two elements thus affect an individual’s relationship with a brand. First, there is the relationship between the brand-as-person and the customer, which is analogous to the relationship between two people. Second, there is the brand personality-that is, the type of person the brand represents. The brand personality provides depth, feelings and liking to the relationship. Of course, a brand-customer relationship can also be based on a functional benefit, just as two people can have a strictly business relationship.

 

The Brand As A Friend

One important relationship for many brands is a friendship link characterized by trust, dependability, understanding, and caring. A friend is there for you, treats you with respect, is comfortable, is someone you like, and is an enjoyable person with whom to spend time. General Foods, in fact, defines brand equity as a “liking” or a “friendship” relationship between the customer and the brand.

 

WordPerfect, a software company that has always been a leader in customer service, would rate high on the friendship dimension. A friend relationship can involve very different brand personalities. Some friends are fun and irreverent. Others are serious and command respect. Others are reliable and unpretentious. Still others are just comfortable to be around.

 

A focus on the friend relationship rather than the brand personality can allow more scope and flexibility in the implementation of the brand identity.

 

Fred Posner of Ayer Worldwide has observed that people live in a world characterized by stress, alienation, and clutter. Noting that people cope by developing escape mechanisms and meaningful friendships, Posner suggests that brands can provide these roles by being either an “aspirational” or a “trusted” associate.

 

Escape can take the form of aspirational relationships which provide a social lift or trusting relationships which provide some expertise or knowledge of a subject in which a given person is interested. Posner believes that either relationship can be the basis for real differentiation and competitive advantage. He further suggests that the chosen relationship should be the centerpiece of brand strategy and execution.

 

What If The Brand Spoke To You?

When considering brand personality, the natural tendency is to consider the brand to be a passive element in the relationship. The focus is upon consumer perceptions, attitudes, and behavior toward the brand; attitudes and perceptions of the brand itself are hidden behind the closed doors of the organization.

 

Yet your relationship with another person is deeply affected by not only who that person is but also what that person thinks of you. Similarly, a brand-customer relationship will have an active partner at each end, the brand as well as the customer.

 

Max Blackston of Research International has argued that to understand brand-customer relationships, it is necessary to consider what a brand thinks of you. One approach to obtaining this information is to ask what the brand would say to you if it were a person. The result can be illuminating.

 

Blackston illustrates this approach with a doctor-patient example. Consider a doctor who is perceived by all to be professional, caring, capable, and funny–characteristics that most would like in a doctor. But what if the doctor also felt you were a boring hypochondriac? The resulting negative relationship would be impossible to predict based only upon perceptions of the doctor’s personality or external appearance.

 

The Self-Expressive Model

The premise of the self-expression model is that for certain groups of customers, some brands become vehicles to express a part of their self-identity. This self-identity can be their actual identity or an ideal self to which they might aspire. People express their own or idealized identity in a variety of ways, such as job choice, friends, attitudes, opinions, activities, and lifestyles. Brands that people like, admire, discuss, buy, and use also provide a vehicle for self-expression.

 

A brand can be used for expression even if it lacks a strong personality. A person can express frugality by buying a cheap brand, even one with a weak personality. Attaching even a fuzzy personality to a brand, however, usually provides insight into how that brand is being used for self-expression. If the brand has a strong personality, such as Harley-Davidsons, the personality can be hypothesized to play a key role in the self-expression process.

 

William James argues that consumers look for products and brands whose cultural meanings correspond to the person they are or want to become-in other words, that they use these brand meanings to construct and sustain their social self. McCracken also notes that cultural meanings change over time. In a study of beer consumption, he found that for college men, beer drinking is associated with maleness and competition, and brands that provide those meanings are preferred. However, some men who develop new patterns of masculinity after college come to prefer other brands.

 

Apple is perceived as friendly, unpretentious, irreverent and willing to go against the grain. This is because Mac is easy-to-use and also due to its symbol, advertising, user groups etc., The use of Apple expresses a personal identity of being non-corporate and creative

 

Nike as a person is spirited, stylish, determined to excel and into health and fitness. The brand is very aspirational (in the sense that wearing Nike represents what the users aspire to be like rather than their current self-image), with a personality influenced by such endorsers as Michael Jordan, Andre Agassi, and Bo Jackson and by advertising such as the “Just do it” campaign. For some people, wearing the Nike brand can be a personal statement of who they would like to be.

 

Ad Hoc Brand Extension.

When the brand is extended into unrelated categories. e.g. Extension of the Wills brand from cigarettes or extension of Kingfisher brand from beers to airlines

 

This is used as a strategy for response to a short term event and which is not planned to last. Brands made through this way are generally built on internal goal based strategy. They are based on either monetary value or sentimental value that a company gains by introducing a new brand extension for instance Pepsi launched pepsi blue during cricket world cup 2003,pepsi gold during world cup 2007 and pepsi atom during IPL 2

 

 

Brand Assets

I am not aware of this answer, its really hard to find. What I can find is that it includes Brand Loyalty, Awareness, Perceived Quality, Associations, other propreitary assets, but I cant find them.  Help would be appreciated. I am adding whatever I can find. But that even means Brand Equity.

 

Brand Equity Grouped 5 Categories

 

The assets and liabilities on which brand equity is based will differ from context to context. However, they can be usefully grouped into five categories:

  1. Brand loyalty
  2. Brand awareness
  3. Perceived quality
  4. Brand associations in addition to perceived quality
  5. Other proprietary brand assets—patents, trademarks, channel relationships, etc.

 

Providing Value to the Customer

 

Brand-equity assets generally add or subtract value for customers.

 

They can help them interpret, process, and store huge quantities of information about products and brands.

 

They also can affect customers’ confidence in the purchase decision (due to either past-use experience or familiarity with the brand and its characteristics).Potentially more important is the fact that both perceived quality and brand associations can enhance customers’ satisfaction with the use experience.

 

Knowing that a piece of jewellery came from Tanishq can affect the experience of wearing it: The user can actually feel different.

 

Providing Value to the Firm

 

As part of its role in adding value for the customer, brand equity has the potential to add value for the firm by generating marginal cash flow in at least half a dozen ways.

 

First, it can enhance programs to attract new customers or recapture old ones.

 

A promotion, for example, which provides an incentive to try a new flavor or new use will be more effective if the brand is familiar, and if there is no need to combat a consumer skeptical of brand quality eg.  Kurkure puffcorns

 

Second, the last four brand equity dimensions can enhance brand loyalty.

 

The perceived quality, the associations, and the well-known name can provide reasons to buy and can affect use satisfaction

 

Third, brand equity will usually allow higher margins by permitting both premium pricing and reduced reliance upon promotions

 

Fourth, brand equity can provide a platform for growth via brand-extensions Maggi  as we have seen, has been extended into several food products, creating business areas that would have been much more expensive to enter without the Maggi  name

 

Fifth, brand equity can provide leverage in the distribution channel

 

Like customers, the trade has less uncertainty dealing with a proven brand name that has already achieved recognition and associations. A strong brand will have an edge in gaining both shelf facings and cooperation in implementing marketing programs

 

Finally, brand equity assets provide a competitive advantage that often presents a real barrier to competitors.

 

An association e g, Tide is the detergent for tough family laundry jobs may preempt an attribute that is important for a given segment. For example, another brand would find it difficult to compete with Tide for the “tough cleaning job” segment

 

Brand Awareness

 

People will often buy a familiar brand because they are comfortable with the familiar

Or there may be an assumption that a brand that is familiar is probably reliable, in business to stay, and of reasonable quality.

 

A recognized brand will thus often be selected over an unknown brand.

 

Brand awareness is the ability of a potential buyer to recognize or recall that a brand is a member of a certain product category. It refers to the strength of a brand’s presence in the consumer’s mind.

A link between product class and brand is involved.

 

For eg. The use of a large balloon with the word Levi’s on it may make the Levi name more salient, but it will not necessarily help improve name awareness.

However, if the balloon is shaped to resemble a pair of Levi’s 301 jeans, the link to the product is provided, and the balloon’s effectiveness at creating awareness is enhanced

 

Brand Awareness may exist in three levels

 

 

  • Brand  Recognition

 

  • Brand Recall
  • Top of the mind

 

 

 

Brand Awareness Pyramid

 

Brand Recognition

Brand recognition is at the bottom level of the awareness pyramid. When a person is able to confirm the past experience, the brand is said to have been recognized.

 

Brand recognition is particularly important under low involvement buying situations especially when the decision is taken in stores or at the time of purchasing

 

In brand recognition, test the ability of the consumers to identify the brand element like – brand name, packaging, brand symbol.

 

Brand Recall

A more rigorous test of brand awareness is brand recall. Recall related to the ability of the customer or prospect to retrieve the brand from memory.

 

In case of recognition the respondent is exposed to brand elements (Symbol, Name, and LOGO) wither disguised or undisguised. This makes recognition easier

 

Brand Recall may be tested into two forms:

1) Aided Recall

2) Unaided Recall

 

Unaided vs. aided brand awareness survey questions

Brand awareness tells you if people are familiar with your brand, but to really gauge how impressionable your brand is, you will want to test unaided and aided brand awareness in your survey.

 

Aided brand awareness definition:

A measure of the number of people who express knowledge of a brand or product when prompted (brand recognition).

 

Unaided brand awareness definition:

A measure of the number of people who express knowledge of a brand or product without prompting (brand recall).

 

You can measure both aided and unaided brand awareness in the same survey by including a mix of closed-ended and open-ended questions. Here’s how.

 

Writing aided brand awareness questions

To write an aided brand awareness survey question, you’ll prompt people with your brand name to see if they recognize it. As an example, let’s go back to our bottled water survey. An aided brand awareness question might look like this:

 

Which of the following bottled water brands have you heard of? (Select all that apply)

 

  • Nirma
  • Ariel
  • Surf
  • [ i n s e r t  y o u r b r a n d   h e r e ]
  • Wheel
  • Rin

 

In this aided brand awareness question, you are measuring whether people can recognize your brand out of a list of well-known bottled water brands. If people can recognize your brand, then you’ll know that people have paid attention to your campaign or noticed the product on a shelf.

 

Writing unaided brand awareness questions

If people can recognize your brand name out of a list of competing brands, that’s a good start and a solid indication that your marketing efforts are reaching people. However, a stronger indication of your brand strength can be measured through unaided brand awareness.

 

Unaided brand awareness indicates that your brand impression was noteworthy enough that your brand is top of mind for consumers. To measure unaided brand awareness, you would ask an open-ended question, where you don’t mention your brand name specifically. You’re trying to see if people will come up with it on their own, or unaided. It’s a good idea to ask unaided brand awareness questions first–so that you get accurate results.

 

Here’s a sample question:

 

  • What all brands names come to your mind when you think of detergents?

 

  • Mention the detergent brand which in blue color (Product Attributes)

 

  • Mention the brands which are the soak and rinse type (Usage Form)

 

  • Mention the detergent brands which are usually bought in larger quantity (Quantity of Purchase)

 

  • Mention the brands which are given to servants /maids for washing purposes (Usage Situation)
  • Mention the brands which are used for special garments such as silk, woolen, special cotton (application)

 

In this question, you would give your survey respondents a text box to fill in their open-ended answers. If they include your brand in their answers, you will know that your brand has strong unaided brand awareness.

 

Perceived Quality

 

Perceived quality can be defined as the customer’s perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service with respect to its intended purpose, relative to alternatives.

 

Perceived quality is an intangible, overall feeling about a brand. It is, first, a perception by customers. It thus differs from several related concepts, such as actual or objective quality – the extent to which the product or service delivers superior service.

 

Product-based quality – the nature and quantity of ingredients, features, or services included.

Manufacturing quality – conformance to specification, the “zero defect” goal Satisfaction A customer can be satisfied because he or she had low expectations about the performance level. High-perceived quality is not consistent with low expectations.

 

Attitude – A positive attitude could be generated because a product of inferior quality is very inexpensive. Conversely, a person could have a negative attitude toward a high-quality product that is overpriced.

 

Perceived quality is a brand association that is elevated to the status of a brand asset for several reasons.

Among all brand associations, only perceived quality has been shown to drive the financial performance.

 

Perceived quality is often a major (if not the principal) strategic thrust of a business. Perceived quality is linked to and often drives other aspects of how a brand is perceived.

 

Perceived quality is usually at the heart of what customers are buying, and in that sense, it is a bottom-line measure of the impact of a brand identity

 

When perceived quality improves, so generally do other elements of customers’ perception of the brand.

 

Perceived quality will directly influence purchase decisions and brand loyalty, especially when a buyer is not motivated or able to conduct a detailed analysis

 

Brand Association

 

A brand association is anything “linked” in memory to a brand.

 

Thus, McDonald’s could be linked to a character such as Ronald McDonald, a consumer segment such as kids, a feeling such as having fun, a product characteristic such as service, a symbol such as the Golden Arches

 

A brand image is a set of associations, usually organized in some meaningful way.

 

An association and an image both represent perceptions, which may or may not reflect objective reality

 

A well-positioned brand will have a competitively attractive position supported by strong associations.

 

“Cadillac is positioned as an upscale car competitive to Mercedes” could mean that Cadillac is trying to be so perceived, and not necessarily that it has succeeded.

 

These associations might include product attributes, a celebrity spokesperson, or a particular symbol.

 

Brand associations are driven by the brand identity – what the organization wants the brand to stand for in the customer’s mind.

 

A key to building strong brands, then, is to develop and implement a brand identity.

 

Brand Loyalty Pyramid

     

1st The bottom level (Non-Loyal Buyer)

The bottom loyalty level is the non-loyal buyer who is completely indifferent to the brand – each brand is perceived to be adequate and the brand name plays little role in the purchase decision. Whatever is on sale or convenient is preferred. This buyer might be termed a switcher.

 

2nd level (No reason to change)

The second level includes buyers who are satisfied with the product or at least not dissatisfied. These buyers might be termed as habitual buyers.

Such segments can be vulnerable to competitors that can create a visible benefit to switching. However, they can be difficult to reach since there is no reason for them to be on the lookout for alternatives.

 

3rd level – Satisfied buyer with switching cost:

The third level consists of those who are also satisfied and, in addition, have switching costs–costs in time, money, or performance risk associated with switching. To attract these buyers, competitors need to overcome the switching costs by offering an inducement to switch or by offering a benefit large enough to compensate. This group might be called switching-cost loyal.

 

4th level – Likes the brand considers it as a friend  

On the fourth level we find those that truly like the brand. Their preference may be based upon an association such as a symbol, a set of use experiences, or a high perceived quality.

Segments at this fourth level might be termed friends of the brand because there is an emotional feeling attachment.

 

5th level – Committed customers

The top level, are committed customers: They have a pride of discovering and / or being users of a brand. The brand is very important to them either functionally or as an expression of who they are.

Their confidence is such that they will recommend the brand to others.

 

The value of the committed customer is not so much the business he or she generates but, rather, the impact upon others and upon the market itself.

 

These five levels are stylized; they do not always appear in the pure form and others could be conceptualized. For example, there will be customers who will appear to have some combination of these levels i.e. buyers who like the brand and have switching costs. These five levels do, however, provide a feeling for the variety of forms that loyalty can take and how it impacts upon brand equity

 

Brand Repositioning

When a company sees a decrease in sales over time and/or major changes coming down the line, they know it is time to implement changes within the company. Brand repositioning is when a company changes a brand’s status in the marketplace. This typically includes changes to the marketing mix, such as product, place, price and promotion. Repositioning is done to keep up with consumer wants and needs.

 

Brand repositioning is when a company changes a brand’s status in the marketplace. This typically includes changes to the marketing mix, such as product, place, price and promotion. Repositioning is done to keep up with consumer wants and needs.

 

Repositioning is defined as altering the position of a brand or product in the minds of the customer relative to the offerings of the competitive product. It is a very subtle and difficult process as the brand needs to change the target market’s understanding of the product.

 

This view of repositioning as being a change of the established product positioning is reinforced by the following two quotes:

 

Repositioning involves changing the identity of the product, relative to the identity of competing products in the collective minds of the target market.

 

Examples

Airtel, Vodafone, Maggi Noodles, etc.

 

Positioning is the target market’s perception of the products key benefits and features, relative to the offerings of competitive products.

 

Repositioning is the task of implementing a major change in the target markets perception of the products key benefits and features, relative to the offerings of competitive products.

 

E.g. Cadbury Gems repositioned their brand and came with the tagline “Raho Umarless”, to target the adult audience also, as compared to the initial positioning of child oriented branding. Repositioning refers to a major change in positioning for the brand/product.

 

The following reasons may be considered while repositioning a brand

  • When sales are on a decline
  • Your target audience is limited
  • Your Products and Services have evolved over time
  • New competitors have better value proposition
  • Customers think you are outdated instead of established.

 

Ways of Repositioning a Brand

Occasions for Use

Companies reposition their brands to increase sales and one way of increasing sales is to increase the usage/frequency of use of the product. E.g. Colgate endorses the use of toothpaste twice a day in order to increase its usage. Kellogs also shifted its strategy from just being a breakfast cereal to a health conscious meal which can replace a regular high calorie meal.

 

Falling Sales

Brands are compelled to reposition or re invent themselves to the counter the falling sales. Decline in sales may be due to more competitors, outdated, image, etc. Lifebuoy Soap was initially portrayed as low cost and conventional brand. It had a very typical image. But it repositioned itself as a complete skincare and germ protection soap in order to regain the market share captured by more innovative products introduced by the competitors.

 

Marketing the Brand Contemporary

A brand needs to adapt and evolve as per the changing times and marketing conditions, in order to remain in the market. Initially, Dabur Honey positioned itself on the lines of purity, “honey which is pure” but to make the product more relevant to both urban and rural customers, Dabur Honey focused on purity as well as health. Dabur used advertisements which showed how Dabur Honey can be consumed with warm water for fitness.

 

New Customers

Brands reposition themselves to acquire new customers besides maintaining the existing ones. E.g. Amul repositions its brands frequently in order to keep the novelty intact. The positioning changes from healthy to nutritious, to cool and trendy, to delicious, etc. Lifebuoy also repositions itself by shifting its focus from a low budget soap to germ protection soap with further variations such s a skincare, total, lime, nature, etc.

 

Changed Market Conditions

As the market conditions change, brands also need to adapt else they will be outdated and lose demand. E.g. Horlicks was initially positioned as just a flavour enhancer for milk. But as other brands like Complan and Bournvita began offering benefits like a nutrition along with flavour enhancement, Horlicks, also had to switch to the taller, stronger and sharper as their marketing strategy.

 

Differentiating Brand from Competitors

There are two ways of winning a customers heart

  • Do something better than the competitor
  • Do something, even more, better than the competitor

E.g. Apple always strives to stay ahead in terms of technology and features. Thus, giving it an edge over its importance.

 

Reasons for Brand Repositioning

Change in consumer needs   

Over time (say 10-20 years), there are changes in consumer needs and lifestyles (as the next generation moves through), which may result in the key benefits of a product no longer being as relevant to the target market.

 

New/strong competition   

A product may be challenged by a new (perhaps more relevant) or stronger competitor in their positioning space, requiring the task of repositioning to a less competitive arena.

 

Lack of perceived differentiation   

A firm may have found their products with many points-of-parity and few points-of-differentiation, requiring a revised positioning in order to highlight their particular advantages.

 

Under or over positioned   

Under positioned means that the positioning is too vague or weak and over positioned means that the product is too narrowly defined. Either way, they are problems for the firm that can be addressed by a repositioning exercise.

 

Change in the macro environment   

Significant changes in the macro environment may require products to be repositioned. Economic conditions, technological advances, and even legislative change may require the firm to change its product’s positioning.

 

Improved product   

If a firm invests in a substantial product improvement, it is likely that additional benefits (or relative advantages) will be delivered, which means that product repositioning could be warranted.

 

Poor product launch   

Any new product that is launched with disappointing results may be considered for a relaunch with a new positioning (that is, repositioned).

 

New target market   

Sometimes alternate target markets may be more attractive. Therefore, a product may need to be repositioned to more directly appeal to the newly defined target market.

 

A broader/smaller target market   

Some firms, as part of their target market selection process, may decide to broaden (or more tightly define) their target market. This will mean that the firm will probably need to construct a revised positioning for the product.

 

Clear market gap   

A review of a perceptual map may indicate a significant and uncontested market gap, which may be deemed more profitable than the product’s current positioning space. In this case, a repositioning exercise might be considered.

 

Positioning drift

If a product’s positioning is not clearly defined by the firm, has inadequate support, or is carelessly managed by the firm over time; then it is likely that the resultant product positioning will not be in line with positioning goals and repositioning will be required to correct this ‘drift’.

 

Types of Repositioning

 

  • Value Oriented Reposition

 

When a brand offering values is competing against the unorganised sector. When a brand has strongly established a value proposition. For e.g. Big Bazaar offers a value that competes with the local vendors in terms low cost products. Their slogan states “Isse Sasta Aur Accha Kahin Nahin”. It is not just about low cost but about the benefits for a particular price.

2. Segment Oriented Repositioning

This strategy is useful when a brand wants to change the segment to which it is currently catering. E.g. Scooty Pep Plus with its branding strategy, “Why should boys have all the fun?” entered the segment of female rides.

 

3. Celebrity Oriented Repositioning

This strategy is useful when brand uses imagery to strengthen its asspcation and makes an attempt to enter a new segment based on the strength of the imagery. Also, at times a brand may need a celebrity’s association to save its image from a downfall. E.g. The controversy involving Cadbury, i.e. when worms were found in several Dairy Milk Chocolate Bars. Cadburys decided to make Amitabh Bachchan, the face of its new campaign to overcome the controversy and regain consumer faith.

 

4. Symbolism Oriented Repositioning

This strategy is useful when a brand with strongly entrenched functional image wants to expand its market using a symbolic positioning without losing its earlier association. For instance, Baja, a brand in two wheelers has been symbolic with being economical and family oriented. Bajaj repositioned itself with a new mobel “Bravo”, which had a macho and youthful appeal

 

5. Up-Market Oriented Repositioning

This kind of strategy is useful when a down market brand attempts an upward stretch apart from continuing to serve its current customer segments. E.g. Kwality Walls decided to appeal to the high income/high class consumers through their premium ice cream bar. Magnum while continuing with the usual variety.

 

6. Nice-Oriented Repositioning

This strategy is useful when a niche brand is interested in expanding its customer base after it has created brand awareness. Dove was initially positioned as a moisturizer bar and was regarded as premium product and had a market share of less than two percent. After over a decade, Dove repositioned itself as a beauty product that delivered results within a specified period.

 

7. Change of Image Oriented Repositioned

This strategy is useful when a brand wants to change its image because it aims at entering the upper league of brands or overcome competitive pressures or because it wants consumers to perceive it differently after its initial positioning which may have failed to convey the appropriate identity of the brand. E.g. Tata Nano was initially positioned as a low cost car but the idea of owning a car known for its ‘cheap’ pricing did not go down very well with people and hence, Tata Nano was repositioned as a car for the youth the Tata Nano Twist.

Brand Awareness and Brand Awareness Pyramid

Brand awareness is the degree of consumer awareness of a brand and its related products. Creating brand awareness is one of the key steps in promoting and marketing a product. Brand awareness is particularly important when launching new products and services. It allows a company to differentiate itself from competitor-offered products and services.

 

Products and services that maintain a high level of brand awareness are likely to generate more sales. Consider the soft drink industry in which many soft drinks are indistinguishably similar. Companies such as Pepsi and Coca-Cola use their brand to showcase their products and drive sales. Over the years, these companies have employed strategies to increase brand awareness among consumers, which have directly translated into higher sales. This higher rate of brand awareness typically serves as an economic moat that prevents competitors from gaining additional market share.

 

Brand awareness refers to the strength of a brand’s presence in the consumer’s mind”. It is a measure of the percentage of the target market that is aware of a brand name. Marketers can create awareness among their target audience through repetitive advertising and publicity. Brand awareness can provide a host of competitive advantages for the marketer. These include the following (Aaker, 1996):

 

  • Brand awareness renders the brand with a sense of familiarity.
  • Name awareness can be a sign of presence, commitment and substance.
  • The salience of a brand will decide if it is recalled at a key time in the purchasing process.
  • Brand awareness is an asset that can be inordinately durable and thus sustainable.

 

It may be extremely difficult to dislodge a brand that had achieved a dominant awareness level (Aaker, 1996). Brand awareness is vitally important for all brands but high brand awareness without an understanding of what sets one apart from the competition does one virtually no good.

 

Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name”. Brand Awareness has a ranging of five levels from being unaware of the brand to an uncertain feeling that the brand exists; of from brand recall, to a belief that the product is the only one in its product class. This theory is named The Awareness Pyramid, represented as follows:

  1. After being unaware of the brand, brand recognition is the lowest level of brand awareness; it is specifically significant when a consumer chooses a brand at the point of purchase.
  2. Before you can create a favourable impression or motivate customers to buy they have to become aware of your brand and its meaning. Marketing messages delivered through various media are often used to communicate the brand name and important messages tied to its products. Making people aware that you exist help drive traffic to your business and create a buzz in the market. The stage where people need to be constantly made aware of brands is called the aided awareness stage.
  3. The next stage in the awareness pyramid is unaided awareness/brand recall. Brand Recall is notable more challenging task than Brand Recognition as well as associated with a stronger brand position. This refers to how the branding strategies of a company have a strong impact on the mind of customers, such that the company no longer requires the help of promotion to remind people of the brand. At this stage, the target audience may remember the product but it is not yet the first name to come to a customers mind.
  4. When investigating brand awareness, the first brand name mentioned by a customer, is usually the top of mind; a brand ahead of other brands in a consumer’s mind. This is the fourth stage, you can build top of mind awareness through repeated exposure and consistent delivery of a good product or service over time. This is a huge advantage in the market when customers enter a buying situation and your brand immediately comes to mind first. At this stage, a brand may enjoy the status of being the first name to occur to a customers mind but this state does not guarantee that it is the only name coming to the customers’ mind. For e.g. when thinking of Cars, the first name coming to a customers mind may be a BMW, but eventually, he may settle for a lower range car keeping in mind only the cost factor.
  5. The strongest recall position in the Awareness Pyramid is called a dominant brand. Dominant Brand stands for the brand that is the one and only brand that is significantly recalled among the respondents. This refers to the one brand that is narrowed down upon after thinking over different aspects of all other brands. After repeatedly zeroing on this brand name, there will be a stage, where, this name occurs to the customer in the beginning itself (top of the mind) and continues to be the only choice.

 

Creating Brand Awareness Using Social Media

As of 2017, internet users spent approximately 135 minutes (2.25 hours) per day on social media sites. As a result, companies find great value in generating brand awareness on these platforms. Consumers discuss products and services of interest and those that have overwhelmingly satisfied their specific needs and desires.

 

Alternatively, consumers also share unfavourable experiences, and often at a higher rate than satisfactory ones. Therefore, stimulating consumer interest and promoting the brand is a strategic process. As consumers view and interact with social media posts and updates, brand awareness will increase. For brand awareness to be most productive, consumers should be able to connect to the company’s website seamlessly from the social media platform. Also, it is crucial for a company to respond to negative reviews and offer a solution to the customer’s problem.

 

Other Ways to Create Brand Awareness

Although print media is not as prominent as it once was, there are still consumers who read newspapers and magazines. Advertisements placed strategically, such as in targeted locations on the page or in specific publications, can attract viewer’s attention and create brand awareness. For example, a new company who will be trading on the Forex (FX) may advertise in a prominent magazine that focuses on global trade and currencies to create brand awareness with investors.

 

Displaying a product or service advertisement at a physical location can create or enhance brand awareness. Impulse purchase products are well-suited for in-store distribution and advertising. A company marketing a new candy bar may distribute the product at a point-of-sale (POS) location to create brand awareness.

 

Sponsoring public events is another effective way to create brand awareness. Charitable events, sporting events and social awareness fundraisers allow for prominent visibility of a company’s name and logo. For example, a health insurance company may increase brand awareness by distributing complimentary company-branded health packs at a charity marathon. Participants associate the company with acts of goodwill and as a member of the community, which further raises awareness of and promotes the brand.

 

 

Brand Loyalty

David A. Aaker defines brand loyalty as, a measure of the attachment that a customer has to a brand. It reflects how likely a customer will be to switch to another brand, especially when that brand makes a change, either in price or in product features.

 

In his Brand Loyalty pyramid, Aaker identifies five levels of brand loyalty, rang-ing from not loyal to very loyal (the lowest level is depicted at the bottom of the pyramid). He describes the customer behaviour for each level, and pinpoints challenges faced by marketing professionals in their efforts to lift a customer/consumer to a higher level. The greater the number of customers/ consumers in the higher sections of the pyramid, the more effective the pursued branding policy.

 

Aaker’s Brand Loyalty pyramid describes five types of consumer behaviour on

the brand loyalty scale: (1) switchers, (2) satisfied/ habitual buyers, (3) satisfied

buyers with switching costs, (4) brand likers and (5) committed buyers. We will

further go into these five types in the following:

1. Switchers:

These are buyers that are not loyal to the brand in question. This Kind of customer/ consumer does not look at the brand at all in his/her purchase behaviour. They tend to buy a brand in the sale, or that they happen to stumble upon. This type of customer/ consumer has no qualms about switching brands. Marketing will be most effective in targeting these consumers by focusing on raising brand name awareness, as that is a precondition for moving up on the pyramid (a brand will, after all, have to be known to people first, before they can even start considering to buy it).

 

2. Satisfied/ Habitual Buyer:

These are customers/ consumers that buy a brandout of habit. These tend to be reasonably satisfied customers, who basically don’t see any reason to change their purchase behaviour (and are therefore not on the lookout for alternatives). When such a customer has to go to some trouble to get his usual brand, he/she will relatively easily buy another brand (instead of going to another shop to get the brand he/she usually buys). Marketing efforts will here have to raise the thresholds between thebrand and other brands, which will create opportunities to make a customers more loyal to the brand.

 

3. Satisfied Buyer with Switching Costs:

These are satisfied buyers that are reluctant to switch to a competing brand due to existing thresholds (switching costs). Such thresholds can come in the form of: expenses incurred in terms of time (the time it takes to go to another shop to find the usual brand), financial expenses (when switching costs money), and the feeling of making concessions to quality. If marketing efforts look to entice satisfied buyers of another brand into switching to a brand, the brand will have to offer major benefits compensating the switching costs (such as a free iPod when signing up for a credit card). Retaining buyers or attracting new ones at this level of brand loyalty requires a marketing strategy based on increasing perceived quality

.

4. Brand Likers:

These buyers can be typified as true brand enthusiasts. Their brand preference is mostly engendered by an experience of emotional benefits – alongside more rational benefits, such as price, time and quality. Emotional benefits can be pursued by linking certain associations (through TV ads) and/or experiences (such as the shopping experience) to a brand. This Highly positive attitude towards a brand can be seen as a kind of friendship.This is further reflected by the fact that brand likers are generally unable to state why exactly they have such a strong preference for the brand in question (which is normal for people with an emotional bond with a brand).

 

5. Committed Buyer:

These are the proud users of a brand, in whose (daily)lives the brand in question actually plays an important role. Committed buy-ers buy this brand because it closely ties in with their personal values. Examples of committed buyers can be found in the customer bases of brands like Harley-Davidson and Apple. Retention of customers/ consumers at this level of brand loyalty can best be realized by rewarding their loyalty. This Can be done through loyalty cards, reward programs enabling customers to earn points, preferential treatment when issuing limited editions, etc.

 

Brand Association

A brand association is anything “linked” in memory to a brand. Brand equity is supported by associations that consumers make with a brand. Brand associations are driven by the brand identity – what the organization wants the brand to stand for in the customer’s mind. A key to building strong brands, then, is to develop and implement a brand identity.

 

Associations include product attributes, celebrity, spokesperson and symbol.

Association not only exists but has level of strength.

 

A link to a brand will be stronger when it is based on many experiences or exposures to communications, rather than few. It will also be stronger when supported by a network of other links

 

Thus, McDonald’s could be linked to a character such as Ronald McDonald, a consumer segment such as kids, a feeling such as having fun, a product characteristic such as service, a symbol such as the Golden Arches

 

A brand image is a set of associations, usually organized in some meaningful way. An association and an image both represent perceptions, which may or may not reflect objective reality.

 

A well-positioned brand will have a competitively attractive position supported by strong associations.  “Cadillac is positioned as an upscale car competitive to Mercedes” could mean that Cadillac is trying to be so perceived, and not necessarily that it has succeeded.

 

Brand Associations are not benefits, but are images and symbols associated with a brand or a brand benefit. For example- The Nike Swoosh, Nokia sound, Film Stars as with “Lux”, signature tune Ting-ting-ta-ding with Britannia, Blue colour with Pepsi, etc. Associations are not “reasons-to-buy” but provide acquaintance and differentiation that’s not replicable. It is relating perceived qualities of a brand to a known entity. For instance- Hyatt Hotel is associated with luxury and comfort; BMW is associated with sophistication, fun driving, and superior engineering. Most popular brand associations are with the owners of brand, such as – Bill Gates and Microsoft, Reliance and Dhirubhai Ambani.

 

Brand association is anything which is deep seated in customer’s mind about the brand. Brand should be associated with something positive so that the customers relate your brand to being positive. Brand associations are the attributes of brand which come into consumers mind when the brand is talked about. It is related with the implicit and explicit meanings which a consumer relates/associates with a specific brand name. Brand association can also be defined as the degree to which a specific product/service is recognized within it’s product/service class/category. While choosing a brand name, it is essential that the name chosen should reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that forms it’s product positioning. For instance – Power book.

 

Brand associations are formed on the following basis:

  • Customers contact with the organization and it’s employees;
  • Advertisements;
  • Word of mouth publicity;
  • Price at which the brand is sold;
  • Celebrity/big entity association;
  • Quality of the product;
  • Products and schemes offered by competitors;
  • Product class/category to which the brand belongs;
  • POP ( Point of purchase) displays; etc

 

Positive brand associations are developed if the product which the brand depicts is durable, marketable and desirable. The customers must be persuaded that the brand possess the features and attributes satisfying their needs. This will lead to customers having a positive impression about the product. Positive brand association helps an organization to gain goodwill, and obstructs the competitor’s entry into the market.

 

 

YAR / Brand Asset Valuator / BAV

These guys, Young and Rubicam, have a very polished site.

Brand Asset Valuator is a metric applied for the measurement of brand value of an entity. Brand Asset Valuator was developed by an agency called “Young and Rubicam”. BAV measures a brand under the 2 broad heads of

 

  1. Brand Vitality – which refers to the current and future growth potential that a brand holds in it.

 

  1. Brand Stature – which refers to the power of a brand.

 

Both of these heads can be further divided to have the following parameters for judging the brand-

 

(BAV) is a database of consumer perception of brands created and managed by Brand Asset Consulting, a division of Young & Rubicam Brands to provide information to enable firms to improve the marketing decision-making process and to manage brands better. Brand Asset Valuator and BAV also describe the Y&R group managing the database. BAV provides comparative measures of the equity value of thousands of brands across hundreds of different categories, as well as a set of strategic brand management tools for planning brand extensions, joint branding ventures, and other strategies designed to maintain and grow brand value. BAV has now been linked to a unique set of financial analytics, which allows determining a brand’s contribution to a company’s intangible value. There are four key components of brand health in BAV – the four pillars

 

Each pillar is derived from various measures that relate to different aspects of consumers’ brand perceptions and that together trace the progression of a brand’s development. These four components for determining brand value are –

 

1. Differentiation:

Differentiation is the ability for a brand to be distinguished from its competitors. A brand should be as unique as possible. Brand health is built, and maintained by offering a set of differentiating promises to consumers and by delivering those promises to leverage value.

 

2. Relevance:

Relevance is the actual and perceived importance of the brand to enlarge consumer market segment. This gauges the personal appropriateness of a brand to consumers and is strongly tied to household penetration (the percentage of households that purchase the brand).

 

3. Esteem:

Esteem is the perceived quality and consumer perceptions about the growing or declining popularity of a brand. Does the brand keep its promises? The consumer’s response to a marketer’s brand building activity is driven by his perception of two factors: quality and popularity. Both vary by country and culture.

 

4. Knowledge:

Knowledge is the extent of the consumer’s awareness of the brand and understanding its identity. The awareness levels about the brand, and what it means, shows the intimacy that consumers share with the brand.

 

Differentiation and Relevance combine to determine Brand Strength. These two pillars point to the brand’s future value, rather than just reflecting its past. Esteem and Knowledge together create Brand Stature, which is more of a “report card” on past performance.

 

Examining the relationships among these four dimensions—a brand’s “pillar pattern”—reveals much about its current and future status. Brand Strength and Brand Stature can be combined to form a Power Grid that depicts the stages in the cycle of brand development—each with its characteristic pillar patterns—in successive quadrants. New brands, just after they are launched, show low levels on all four pillars. Strong new brands tend to show higher levels of Differentiation than Relevance, while both Esteem and Knowledge are lower still. Leadership brands show high levels on all four pillars. Finally, declining brands show high Knowledge—evidence of past performance—relative to a lower level of Esteem, and even lower Relevance and Differentiation.

 

Mapping a brand’s Life

BAV uses a two-dimensional plot to measure Brand Strength and Brand Stature. The strength is measured on the vertical “y-axis” [Differentiation, Relevance] and stature is measured on the horizontal “x-axis” [Esteem, Knowledge].

 

The Power Grid provides a model for mapping and diagnosing the life of a brand. New brands begin in the lower left quadrant – with low strength, low stature. As the brand develops, it rises to the upper left quadrant – where strength is significantly higher than stature. It is here where niche brands and brands with unrealized potential reside. This is high margin territory. In order to maximize shareholder value, brands should be strategically leveraged to move to the upper right quadrant, where powerful leadership brands reside. When brands get into trouble, the first thing to erode is Differentiation, causing leadership brands to decline. This loss in Differentiation reduces the ability to extend the brand across new consumer and market segments. As a result, there is a huge loss in intangible value.

 

 

Equi Trend

EquiTrend, developed by Total Research, provides a nice contrast to the Y&R Brand Asset Evaluator measures. Much more parsimonious, EquiTrend is based on a small set of simple yet powerful questions. Although limited in scope compared to the Y&R study, EquiTrend has developed data over time that greatly enhance its ability to make judgments about the dynamics of brand equity and its effects. Its annual survey of 2,000 respondents started with 133 U.S. brands, and by 1995 covered over 700 brands in 100 categories.

 

EquiTrend is based on measures of three brand equity assets. The first is salience, the percentage of respondents who have an opinion about the brand. Thus, like the Y&R knowledge measure, it goes beyond the more conventional concepts of awareness, recognition, and recall by demanding that respondents hold an opinion.

 

The second, perceived quality, is at the heart of EquiTrend, in part because it has been found by Total Research to be highly associated with brand liking, trust, pride, and willingness to recommend. It is essentially the average quality rating among those who had an opinion about the brand. Quality is measured using an 11-point scale that ranges from “outstanding” to “unacceptable.”

 

The third, user satisfaction, is the average quality rating a brand receives among consumers who use the brand most often. It provides a look at the strength of brands within their user base: For example, MTV is the 100th-ranked brand in perceived quality (with a rating of 5.2), but is the 2nd-ranked brand among its user group (with a 9.3 rating). Similarly, Toyota is the 62nd-ranked brand in perceived quality (an average rating of 6.7) but fourth in user satisfaction (a rating of 9.19). And Estée Lauder was the fifth brand in user satisfaction (a rating of 9.1) but only the 38th brand in perceived quality (a rating of 7.0). One problem with measuring user satisfaction is that some brands, such as Mercedes, have such a small incidence of usage that a national sample becomes inadequate to estimate user satisfaction.

 

The three measures are combined into an EquiTrend brand equity score.

 

Although it is difficult to generalize, several hypotheses emerge from an examination of the top brands (those listed above, plus such others. as AT&T, IBM, Levi’s, and Lego). First, drawing upon the EquiTrend brand personality data, many of these brands, such as Kodak, Hallmark, Fisher-Price, AT&T, and Lego, seem to be associated with a wholesome, warm, caring personality. Second, most of these brands have clear identities: Levi’s, for example, has a strong identity based upon its heritage as a product worn by miners in nineteenth-century California and its contemporary user imagery. Third, an advanced technology and premium price position has likely benefited firms such as Mercedes, IBM, and AT&T.

 

Logo

Brand logos are the visual identity of your company. Research shows the average person on the average day is exposed to over 5000 brand logos and messages. That’s EVERY DAY! To create a memorable logo is the goal of most businesses.

 

The visual identity of your logo can make or break your brand in the eyes of consumers. Brand logos are often tied directly to the product or service they represent. When you see the “golden arches” your first thought is probably a Big Mac and fries.

 

When you see Google, you immediately think of search. That’s the power of a good logo. It can influence and trigger how you feel about a company and the products or services they provide.

 

A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, symbol or stylized name used to identify a company, organization, product or brand. It may take the form of an abstract or figurative design, or a stylized version of the company’s name, as in a wordmark. A logo may also be used as a substitute for a company’s name, if it has sufficient brand recognition.

 

Logos have become an integral part of a company’s brand identity. A widely recognized logo is a valuable intangible asset, and is trademarked for intellectual property protection.

 

History of the Logo

Logos have been around for thousands of years. The earliest logos were nothing more than a simple distinctive mark, symbol or literal brand to signify the maker of a product, or communicate what a merchant was selling. For example, in 1266, England’s parliament passed legislation requiring that all bakers use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold.

 

The modern logo began its evolution following the introduction of trademark laws in the 19th Century. Jack Daniels’ iconic logo dates back to 1875, shortly after Congress passed the US Trademark Act of 1870 — an attempt to establish a Federal trademark regime which was rejected by the Supreme Court. In 1876, the Bass Brewery’s famous red triangle became the first trademark to be registered in the UK, after the Merchandise Marks Act was passed in 1862.

 

As the Victorian era progressed and the first brands were established, these trademarks became more complex, and evolved into logos as graphic design emerged as an art form. Modern-day logos have shifted from complexity back to simplicity, in order to stand out in a world of visual overload, and make them more easily recognizable across multiple media.

 

Ad Agency

An advertising agency, often referred to as a creative agency, is a business dedicated to creating, planning, and handling advertising and sometimes other forms of promotion and marketing for its clients. An ad agency is generally independent from the client; it may be an internal department or agency that provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client’s products or services, or an outside firm. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies promotions for its clients, which may include sales as well.

 

Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations,non-profit organizations and private agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce television commercials, radio commercials, online advertising, out-of-home advertising, mobile marketing, and AR advertising, as part of an advertising campaign.

 

An advertising agency creates, plans and manages all aspects of a client’s advertising. Advertising agencies can specialize in specific areas, such as interactive advertising, or they can be a full-service agency that creates advertising materials like websites, online and social campaigns, brochures, catalogs, direct mail, print ads, radio and TV commercials, sales letters, and more.

 

Types of Advertising Agencies

You cannot simply paint every ad agency with the same definition. That would be like saying every TV station is the same, or every magazine. Yes, they all have very similar functions, but there are many variations that separate them. For a start, there are three different types:

 

Above The Line (ATL)

These are the big agencies that handle the prime accounts and create the national (and even international) advertising campaigns that take a significant chunk of the client’s budget. Big TV campaigns, outdoor, magazines, newspapers, and non-traditional media (stunts, guerrilla campaigns).

 

Below The Line (BTL)

These agencies don’t have the budgets or recognition of the ATL agencies, but they are still vitally important to the media mix (even more so these days with online being so prevalent). BTL agencies typically handle direct mail, regional ads, text ads, online text and banner ads, and other smaller media placements. However, they will sometimes handle ATL type of accounts too, although it is not their bread and butter.

 

Through The Line (TTL)

Perhaps the most common of the three these days, TTL agencies are a blend of ATL and BTL. They will create campaigns from soup to nuts, from the big stunts, outdoor, TV and radio, right down to microsites and coupons. TTL agencies are so common nowadays due to the rise of social media, and the smart phone. Tactics that were once considered BTL are getting big budgets put behind them, including campaigns on SnapChat, YouTube, Facebook and Twitter.

Aside from those three basic advertising agency groups, there are also specialist agencies that could be ATL, BTL, or TTL. These include:

 

Digital Advertising Agencies

These agencies have a primary focus on all things digital. They develop websites, apps, online campaigns, and anything else considered “digital advertising.” While they can also produce print, radio and even TV, their day-to-day operation is all about digital.

 

Healthcare Advertising Agencies

There is a need for specialists that focus on just healthcare products and services, because these areas can be a legal nightmare to handle. Healthcare ad agencies will handle pharmaceutical accounts, hospitals, medical equipment, and anything else that would be considered too niche for a traditional ad agency.

 

Financial/Tech Advertising Agencies

Just like healthcare, the worlds of finance and technology can be a minefield to negotiate. These agencies have specialist writers and art directors who know the ins and outs of these subjects.

 

In House Advertising Agencies

These agencies are based within a corporation or company, and do work only for that entity. Whether it’s a big brand like Apple or Nike, or something much smaller, they work exclusively on that product or service, and are employed by the company they advertise for. Some people consider this to be “selling out” because you are no longer working on a diverse range of brands, but in house agencies produce some breathtaking work.

 

Ingredient Branding

In marketing, ingredient-branding is creating a brand for an ingredient or component of a product, to project the high quality or performance of the ingredient.

 

Ingredient-branding takes a special position in marketing, as it cannot be clearly allocated to either industrial or consumer goods marketing. On the one hand, the consumer is the end-user of the ingredient, but at the same time is not part of the buying decision for the component, as this is up to the producer of the end product. On the other hand the producer will only decide on the usage of the ingredient – or at least take it into account in the communication policy – if the image of this ingredient will have an effect on the consumer, meaning a positive influence on his or her buying decision.

 

Ingredient Branding is a marketing strategy where a component or an ingredient of a product or service is pulled into the spotlight and given it’s own identity. Everyone is familiar with the now famous “Intel Inside”, and it’s corresponding success. But why does it work?

 

It works because, in general, consumers will pay more for a branded product (name brand vs. generic). Consumers trust established brands. However, in a sea of established brands, the point of differentiation is key. And with growing customer sophistication, specifically in terms of consumer research, an ingredient branding strategy adds a layer of value to a product’s overall proposition. To connect with consumers brands need to create visible value, and by adding a branded ingredient, they can clearly show additional value.

 

In his book Ingredient Branding: Making The Invisible Visible, Philip Kotler praises Intel for championing the ingredient branding concept:

 

Intel owes its corporate success to their “Intel Inside” campaign. In the early 80’s however, when they created the ingredient branding concept, it seemed like a gamble. At the time they had a mere $500 million in sales, and yet they invested $110 million in their ingredient branding campaign over a period of three years and drove their concept and the business forward.

 

Intel Inside

During Intel’s marketing of “Intel Inside” they taught consumers to look for the Intel Inside logo as an assurance of quality. Consumers eventually came to see “Intel Inside” as a standard and began asking the question: “Why doesn’t your product use Intel processors?” This standard became so important that today it is one of the world’s largest co-operative marketing programs,where hundreds of computer companies license the use of the Intel Inside® logos.

 

The ingredient must be highly differentiated in order to add value to the overall brand. This means the ingredient should have a separate name and logo and overall purpose, because the added value comes from the extra identity. First and foremost, brands should not create confusion in the market. The main brand should be well established in the market before employing an ingredient branding strategy because the consumer needs first understand the core brand and then find additional value in the ingredient. An ingredient branding strategy would be a challenge for a start-up company with little name recognition as it would cause confusion as to which brand was an ingredient of which. The ingredient needs to be subservient to the actual brand being promoted, otherwise the message can be lost.

 

Stretching down of Brands

 

Brand Building Imperative

  1. Coordination across media
  2. Coordination across markets

Line of Branding

Under line branding strategy, complementary products combine to form a complete whole with a common concept. For example, Lakme appeals to beauty concept by offering products as complementary which enhance beauty like, lipsticks, body lotion, eye make up, cleansing lotion, nail enamels etc. The brand appeals to a well defined segment of the market who acknowledge its worthiness and like the brand concept. They go hand in hand with the brand concept or application.

 

All related products of the product line are given a common brand name to improve the brand’s market power. For e.g. Classic Milds, Classic Ultra Milds, Classic Menthol or Dettol -Original, Dettol – Cool and Dettol – Skincare

 

Merits of line branding

  1. A well cultivated brand can be extended to include a host of related products under a common concept.

 

  1. It fulfills all complementary needs that surrounded a basic need.

 

  1. Marketing products as a line under a common brand improves the brand’s marketing power rather than selling as individual brands.

 

  1. The firm promotes the main product and its concept. Complementary products do not require additional investment. So, the brand could be extended without much costs.

 

  1. Line brands as a complete team reinforce and strengthen the brand concept among its users.

 

Demerits of line branding

Under line branding, the extension of brands does not cost much. So, the firms may be tempted to launch unwanted products. This may potentially weaken the brand instead of strengthening it.

 

  1. This strategy looks to target the customer rather than market penetration.

 

  1. As the launch of complementary products is easy, marketers may be tempted to launch too many related products. This may ultimately result in over extension of the line.

 

  1. Over extension of the line may potentially weaken the brand instead of strengthening it.

 

Importance of Branding

 

As a result, customers will think of your business first when they think of your product category. For example, whenEpsit’s daughter wants something to eat, she will definitely say KFC. Because she knows KFC has the best Chicken. If she wants Noodles, she will definitely order Schezwan. Because she everything else is basic. The reason behind these strong brand-product associations is that these companies have built rock solid brand identities.

 

“A brand is the one thing that you can own that nobody can take away from you.” Everything else, they can steal. They can steal your trade secrets. Eventually, your patent will expire. Your physical plant will wear out. Technology will change. But your brand can go on and live. It creates a lasting value above and beyond all the other elements of your business.

 

“The value of that brand is huge compared to those actual physical assets. The importance and value of branding becomes apparent when an entrepreneur wants to sell his or her company or take it to Wall Street for a public offering or other infusion of capital. It is often the brand that a business owner has to sell in such cases.

 

BRANDING PROMOTES RECOGNITION.

People tend to do business with companies they are familiar with. If your branding is consistent and easy to recognize, it can help people feel more at ease purchasing your products or services.

 

YOUR BRAND HELPS SET YOU APART FROM THE COMPETITION.

In today’s global market, it is critical to stand apart from the crowd. You are no longer competing on a local stage, your organization now competes in the global economy. How do you stand out from the thousands or millions of similar organizations around the world?

 

YOUR BRAND TELLS PEOPLE ABOUT YOUR BUSINESS DNA.

Your full brand experience, from the visual elements like the logo to the way that your phones are answered, tell your customer about the kind of company that you are. Are all of these points of entry telling the right story?

 

YOUR BRAND PROVIDES MOTIVATION AND DIRECTION FOR YOUR STAFF.

A clear brand strategy provides the clarity that your staff needs to be successful. It tells them how to act, how to win, and how to meet the organization’s goals.

 

A STRONG BRAND GENERATES REFERRALS.

People love to tell others about the brands they like. People wear brands, eat brands, listen to brands, and they’re constantly telling others about the brands they love. On the flip side, you can’t tell someone about a brand you can’t remember.

 

Additionally, a strong brand website strategy, is critical to generating referrals or viral traffic.

 

A STRONG BRAND HELPS CUSTOMERS KNOW WHAT TO EXPECT.

A brand that is consistent and clear puts the customer at ease because they know exactly what to expect each and every time they experience the brand.

 

YOUR BRAND REPRESENTS YOU AND YOUR PROMISE TO YOUR CUSTOMER.

It is important to remember that your brand represents you…you are the brand, your staff is the brand, your marketing materials are the brand. What do they say about you, and what do they say about what you’re going to deliver (promise) to the customer?

 

YOUR BRAND HELPS YOU CREATE CLARITY AND STAY FOCUSED.

It’s very easy to wander around from idea to idea with nothing to guide you…it doesn’t take long to be a long way from your original goals or plans.

 

A clear brand strategy helps you stay focused on your mission and vision as an organization. Your brand can help you be strategic and will guide your marketing efforts saving time and money.

 

YOUR BRAND HELPS YOU CONNECT WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS EMOTIONALLY.

A good brand connects with people at an emotional level, they feel good when they buy the brand. Purchasing is an emotional experience and having a strong brand helps people feel good at an emotional level when they engage with the company.

 

A STRONG BRAND PROVIDES YOUR BUSINESS VALUE.

A strong brand will provide value to your organization well beyond your physical assets.

 

Think about the brands that you purchase from (Coca-Cola, Apple, KFC, Maggi, Patanjali, Trivago)… are these companies really worth their equipment, their products, their warehouses, or factories?

 

No, these companies are worth much more than their physical assets…their brand has created a value that far exceeds their physical value. [got you didnt I Patanjali]

 

BRANDING INCREASES BUSINESS VALUE

Branding is important when trying to generate future business, and a strongly established brand can increase a business’ value by giving the company more leverage in the industry. This makes it a more appealing investment opportunity because of its firmly established place in the marketplace.

 

BRANDING GENERATES NEW CUSTOMERS

A good brand will have no trouble drumming up referral business. Strong branding generally means there is a positive impression of the company amongst consumers, and they are likely to do business with you because of the familiarity and assumed dependability of using a name they can trust. Once a brand has been well-established, word of mouth will be the company’s best and most effective advertising technique.

 

CREATES TRUST WITHIN MARKETPLACE

A professional appearance and well-strategized branding will help the company build trust with consumers, potential clients and customers. People are more likely to do business with a company that has a polished and professional portrayal. Being properly branded gives the impression of being industry experts and makes the public feel as though they can trust your company, the products and services it offers and the way it handles its business.

 

BRANDING SUPPORTS ADVERTISING

Advertising is another component to branding, and advertising strategies will directly reflect the brand and its desired portrayal. Advertising techniques such as the use of promotional products from trusted companies such as Outstanding Branding make it easy to create a cohesive and appealing advertising strategy that plays well into your branding goals.

 

 

Core Identity and Extended Identity

 

Core Identity

Brand identity consists of a core identity and an extended identity. The core identity represents the timeless essence of a brand. It is central to both the meaning and success of the brand. It indicates the reasons why the brand as been brought into existence. It contains the associations that are most likely to remain constant as the brand travels to new markets and products. The elements of the core identity remain more resistant to change than the elements of the extended identity. Thus the core identity is timeless while the brand position or the communication strategies might change. It is generally the first word that people behind the brand may utter when asked what the brand stands for:

 

    • Lux – Beauty bar for young women
    • Dettol – Antiseptic, protection
    • Johnson & Johnson – Trust and quality a baby needs
    • Close up – Gel Form, Freshness, User Performance, Red Color.
    • Nike –Trust, User Performance, Enhancing Lives;
    • Tupperware – Quality and Durable Bottles
    • OnePlus – Flagships in Medium Range
    • Maggi – Instant and Tasty Noodles
    • KFC – Best Chicken
    • Frapps – Offers and Good Internships
    • Colgate – Oral Health, Trusted Toothpaste
    • Bisleri – Most Trusted Mineral Water Brand in India
    • Starbucks – Great Ambience, Premium Coffee
    • Apple –  Quality, Fast, Best Camera, Increases 50k with every model

 

  • Facebook – Steals Data

 

  • Instagram – Doesn’t. [are you guys even real?]
  • Santoor – MUMMMYYYYYYYYYYYY!!! MUMMMYYYY?!?! [FBI OPEN UP]

 

 

  • Dr. Batra – Daddy

 

The core identity, which is central to both the meaning and success of the brand, contains the associations that are most likely to remain constant as the brand travels to new markets and products. For example, when Black Velvet expands to new countries, it is super-premium brand), and it always delivers the “soft and smooth” product and message.

 

The core identity for a strong brand should be more resistant to change than elements of the extended identity. Ivory’s “99/100% pure” and “it floats” slogans reflect an identity that has lasted 1 more than one hundred years. The brand position and thus the communication strategies may change, and so might the extended identity, but the core identity is more timeless.

 

The Inner Core of the Brand Identity is about the spiritual center. It is qualitative and philosophical.

 

Ultimately, the core identity follows from the answers to some tough, introspective questions.

  • What is the soul of the brand?
  • What are the fundamental beliefs and values that drive the brand?
  • What are the competencies of the organization behind the brand?
  • What does the organization behind the brand stand for?

 

Extended Identity

The extended brand identity includes elements that provide texture and completeness. The core identity usually does not possess enough detail to perform all of the functions of a brand identity. In particular, a brand identity should help a company decide which program or communication is effective and which be damaging or off the target. Even a well-thought-out and on-target core identity may ultimately be too ambiguous or incomplete for this task. A brand personality does not often become a part of the core identity. However it can be exactly the right vehicle to add the needed texture and completeness by being a part of the extended identity. It provides the strategist with the opportunity to add full detail to complete the picture.

 

Brand identity consists of twelve dimensions organized around four perspectives:

 

  • Brand as a product
  • Brand as an organization
  • Brand as a person
  • Brand as a symbol

 

The outer core of the brand that completes the picture and provides meaning. It  suggests what the brand stands for tangibly in an easy to grasp manner. An outer core incorporates.

  • Product Scope [what products could be offered]
  • Operations
  • Personality
  • Logo
  • Character [Brand Ambassador / Mascot]
  • Sub-brands
  • Packaging

 

Example

McDonald Restaurant can have these as their Outer Core

  • Product Scope – What all Products are offered by them
  • Operations – Service Efficiency
  • Personality – Family Oriented, Middle Class
  • Logo – Alphabet “M”
  • Character – Ronald McDonald
  • Sub Brands – Happy Meal, Pizza McPuff

 

 

Four Perspectives of Branding

In order to ensure that brand equity has texture and depth a brand should be considered as :

A product

An organization

A person

A symbol

 

Every brand identity need not employ all these perspectives.

1) A Product

This perspective focuses on product related associations such as Product features, quality, etc. The brands scope in terms of its associations with the product class needs to be clarified. For instance, “Cherry Blossom” is strongly associated with boot polish, Visa with cards. Some brands are more user focused. For example, Johnson and Johnson product are associated with babies.

 

A strong link to a product class means the brand will always be recalled when the product class is cued. For instance, OLA/UBER – taxi service.

 

The goal of linking a brand with a product class is not to gain a recall of product class when the brand is mentioned. It is more important to remember to recall the brand when the product class is mentioned.

 

Attributes related to the purchase or use of product can provide functional and emotional benefits. It can create value proposition by offering something extra. The problem arises when attributes become the focus of identity efforts.

 

Association with quality

The quality element is important to consider separately. Value is closely related to quality, it enriches the concept by adding the price dimension.

 

Association with usage occasion  

Some brands successfully attempt to own a particular use or application eg. Nescafe has been trying to establish itself as a morning beverage; “the taste that gets you started.”

 

Association with users

A strong type – position can imply a value proposition and a brand personality.

 

Link to country

This will add value and credibility (VODKA – Russian, Mercedes – German, Swatch watches – Swiss Made, Champagne – France.)

 

2) Brand as an Organization

It focuses on attributes of the organization rather than those of the product or the service such as

  • Innovation
  • Drive for Quality
  • Concern for the Environment
  • Culture
  • Values
  • Programs of the Company
  • Vision
  • Global vs Local

 

Organizational attributes usually apply to set of products not only one product, so that if any competitor competes with one product, it may not be able to compete to the organizational attributes. A brand may directly be associated with its manufacturing company. Especially, when the company has achieved excellence, the brand may benefit from their association with such copanies. Example, an organizations strength may lie in innovation (SONY) or quality (APPLE)

 

3) Brand as a Person

A brand can be perceived as being competent, impressive,  trustworthy, fun, active, humorous, casual, formal, youthful or intellectual. It literally refers to a brand portraying human qualities.

 

Brand Personality can help create self-expressive benefit that the customer can express his/her own personality through this brand. Brand personality can be the basis of a relationship between the customer and the brand

 

It may help communicate a product attribute and contribute to a functional benefit (Michelin man’s strong personality). In this case, the brand is associated with human characteristics.

 

However, at the same time, when Dove decides to show common people in its advertisements, it aims to adopt the human traits like natural beauty.

 

4) Brand as a Symbol

 

Anything that represents the brand can be a symbol, including programs such as the Ronald McDonald House for McDonald’s. Symbols are particularly important to gain recognition and increase recall value. The Symbols involve visual imagery which often turns out to be memorable and powerful.

  • Nike’s “Swoosh”
  • McDonald’s golden Arches
  • Kodak Yellow
  • Coke Classic Can or Bottle

 

Each strong visual image captures much of its respective brand’s identity

Connections between the symbol and the identity elements have been built up over time.

 

A symbol stands for something. It can provide cohesion and structure to an identity and make it easier to gain recognition and recall. Its presence can be a key ingredient of brand development and its absence can be a handicap.

 

A strong symbol can be the cornerstone of a brand strategy.

 

Perceptual Mapping and how to Plot

Perceptual mapping is a graphics technique used by asset marketers that attempts to visually display the perceptions of customers or potential customers. Typically the position of a product, product line, brand, or company is displayed relative to their competition

 

Marketing research technique in which consumers views about a product are traced or plotted (mapped) on a chart. Respondents are asked questions about their experience with the product in terms of its performance, packaging, price, size, etc. Theses qualitative answers are transferred to a chart (called a perceptual map) using a suitable scale (such as the Likert scale), and the results are employed in improving the product or in developing a new one.

 

Perceptual mapping is also called positioning map which helps you to develop a marketing positioning strategy for you product or services.

Perceptual maps or positioning maps as they are sometimes referred to, are often used to help the organization identify a positioning strategy.

 

What perceptual mapping does is to represent consumer perceptions-in (usually) two-dimensional space so that the manager can readily see where his own brand is positioned in the mind of his prospect and in relation to other brands.

 

What perceptual mapping does is to represent consumer perceptions in (usually) two-dimensional space so that the manager can readily see where his own brand is positioned in the mind of his prospect and in relation to other brands. Perceptual mapping help organization identify gaps in the market. Before deciding to fill any gaps in the market, firms need to ensure that there is likely to be a demand for a product positioned in the gap.

 

Plotting of a Perceptual Map

When plotting a perceptual map two dimensions are commonly used. Any more is a challenge to draw and confusing to interpret .Below is a very basic perceptual map

If we plot the chocolate market we can identify those brands which are high price and high quality.  Once completed the perceptual map could help identify where an organization could launch a new brand perhaps at the medium price and quality range. These dimensions help us to understand :

  • Where a company’s product lies in terms of quality and price
  • How to position a product to make it more appealing
  • Whether there is a gap in the market
  • Incase of a gap, the company can take advantage of the gap and try to introduce a product that is currently not being offered by the competitor

 

The brands and products are evaluated in terms of broad dimensions by a consumer as they save time and energy. Consumer refer to and use a smaller number of broad dimensions instead of having to perform much more complex evaluations based on a larger set of narrower individual attributes

 

Thus it is easier to remember and act upon 2 or 3 broader dimensions instead of remembering 20 to 30 attributes. Perceptual Mapping is used to make these dimensions explicit. By doing an analysis of the underlying brand and product attributes, the dimensions of attributed based perceptual mapping is created.

 

Similarly, for cars, the dimensions may be more than  two. For instance, the dimensions may be

  • Conservative /sporty
  • Classy/practical
  • Affordable/luxury

 

Here are few other Perceptual Maps

 

Four Components of Brand Position.

The four major components of a brand position-

 

  • Product Class
  • Customer Segmentation
  • Perceptual Mapping
  • Brand benefits and attributes

 

A. Product Class

Products that fall under one product class are similar to each other and somewhat substitutable for each other. The products have identical characteristics and either perform the same function, or are catered to the same customer segment or have the same marketing communication with the customers.

 

A product class or product market can be defined as the set of products and brands which are perceived as substitutes to satisfy some specific consumer need. A brand manager must be ever aware that he may suddenly find himself face-to-face with an infiltrator from across the historical border.

 

For eg. brands, like Haldiram and Bengali sweets’ comfortable position was suddenly challenged by a brand from another product class altogether. The first appearance of Cadbury “kuch meetha ho jaaye” came as a rude shock being launched against synonymous with traditional mithai.

 

Pond’s Cold Cream comfortable position seems to have been suddenly challenged by a brand from another product class altogether. Lakme Winter Care Lotion ad said “cold cream and moisturizer in one.”

 

Young and Rubicam calls this – the choice of product class – the first ‘positioning’ decision of the advertising strategist.

 

1. Positioning in relation to Attributes

This involves positioning the product on the basis of specific attributes such as performance, durability, quality, reliability,style and design. Eg. Volvo cars are positioned on the basis of their safety features.

 

2. Positioning the product in relation to users/usage

At one time, Horlicks was positioned as a bedtime drink but now it is positioned as a nutritional drink for growing children .

 

3. Positioning in relation to competition

In this case, features which are to some extent directly comparable with those of competitors are emphasized. Eg. Every water purifier stresses only on its purifying qualities rather than any other feature.

 

4. Positioning directly against competitors

This involves presenting the product as having all or more of the important features of a competing product at a comparable or lower price.

Eg. Utensil washing bar, Vim Bar – long lasting, quick removal of oiliness, Exo Bar- long lasting, antibacterial

 

  1. Positioning in relation to different product class

This involves positioning products in relation to competing offerings from a different but related product class.

Eg. Face-wash v/s soap

 

B. Consumer Segmentation

Most of us would be well versed in the theory and significance of consumer segmentation. What is the profile of the consumers whom our brand will serve and what are their needs? One cannot think of ‘positioning’ a product or a brand except in relation to a particular target segment.

 

Segmentation involves finding out what kind of consumers with different needs exist. In the two wheeler market, for example, some consumers demand speed and performance, while others are much more concerned about fuel consumption and safety. There are three approaches to positioning by consumer segmentation-

 

  1. Undifferentiated Strategy – Where all consumers are treated the same, with firms not making any specific effort to satisfy particular groups. Eg. commodities like chilli powder, turmeric powder

 

  1. Concentrated Strategy – Where one organization focuses on one of the several segments that exist while leaving other segments to others. Eg. a low cost airline focuses on price sensitive consumers who are willing to forgo meals for low prices.

 

  1. Differentiated Strategy – When you have various segments in the same product class itself. Eg. shampoos are available in varying quantities and sachets according to consumer needs.

 

C. Perceptual Mapping

Perceptual mapping is a graphics technique used by asset marketers that attempts to visually display the perceptions of customers or potential customers. Typically the position of a product, product line, brand, or company is displayed relative to their competition

 

Marketing research technique in which consumers views about a product are traced or plotted (mapped) on a chart. Respondents are asked questions about their experience with the product in terms of its performance, packaging, price, size, etc. Theses qualitative answers are transferred to a chart (called a perceptual map) using a suitable scale (such as the Likert scale), and the results are employed in improving the product or in developing a new one.

 

Perceptual mapping is also called positioning map which helps you to develop a marketing positioning strategy for you product or services.

 

Perceptual maps or positioning maps as they are sometimes referred to, are often used to help the organization identify a positioning strategy.

 

Plotting of a Perceptual Map

When plotting a perceptual map two dimensions are commonly used. Any more is a challenge to draw and confusing to interpret .Below is a very basic perceptual map

If we plot the chocolate market we can identify those brands which are high price and high quality.  Once completed the perceptual map could help identify where an organization could launch a new brand perhaps at the medium price and quality range. These dimensions help us to understand :

  • Where a company’s product lies in terms of quality and price
  • How to position a product to make it more appealing
  • Whether there is a gap in the market
  • Incase of a gap, the company can take advantage of the gap and try to introduce a product that is currently not being offered by the competitor

 

The brands and products are evaluated in terms of broad dimensions by a consumer as they save time and energy. Consumer refer to and use a smaller number of broad dimensions instead of having to perform much more complex evaluations based on a larger set of narrower individual attributes

 

Thus it is easier to remember and act upon 2 or 3 broader dimensions instead of remembering 20 to 30 attributes. Perceptual Mapping is used to make these dimensions explicit. By doing an analysis of the underlying brand and product attributes, the dimensions of attributed based perceptual mapping is created.

 

Similarly, for cars, the dimensions may be more than  two. For instance, the dimensions may be

  • Conservative /sporty
  • Classy/practical
  • Affordable/luxury

 

Here are few other Perceptual Maps

 

D. Brand Attributes and Benefits

The physical existence of a brand is no assurance that it has a position in the target consumer’s mind. To enter that coveted territory – the consumer’s perceptual space and to secure a ‘position’ there, the brand must satisfy his question:

“What’s in it for me?”

It must offer a benefit which is of importance to him. So, when we talk of brand attributes, we must remember that these are the manufacturer’s views of the brand.

 

Brand Attributes

Also known as core values, brand attributes represents the essence of the brand. Brand attributes are a set of characteristics that identify the physical, character and personality traits of the brand, similar to the attributes that allow us to consistently identify individuals.

 

Brand Benefits

Actual factor (cost effectiveness,  design, performance etc.) or perceived factor (image, popularity, reputation, etc.) that satisfies what a customer needs or wants.

 

Attribute

Brand

Reside in the Product Resides in the customer
May be concrete or abstract Are always Abstract
Refers to the features and uses Refer to what the functions and features mean to the customers
Characteristics by which products are identified and differentiated Product attribute expressed in terms of what the user gets from the product
For Example, Advanced Memory and Data Storage may be considered attributes of an Apple iPhone Providing customers the ability of multitasking can be considered as the benefit offered by the brand.

 

Big Five

The same vocabulary used to describe a person can be used to describe a brand personality.

 

Brand Personality Scale (Sincerity, Competence, Sophistication, Excitement and Ruggedness) is a compact set of traits designed to both measure and structure brand personality. Like a person, thebrand can have a complex personality that ranges across the Brand Personality Scale (Big Five).

 

Each of the Big Five factors has been divided into facets to provide texture and descriptive insight regarding the nature of the brand personality. The fifteen facets are given descriptive names to suggest strategic options and measure the degree of positive and negative attitude towards the brand.

 

Personality variables are significantly related to attitude, with specific relationship varying by the brand. Users will frequently and generally perceive the brand to have a strong personality,unlike non-users. Two brands may be rated as strong on “Ruggedness” with one brand being perceived positively as having a strong personality (for example cigarettes, sports shoes), while the other brand’s personality is perceived negatively as weak and unattractive (for example cosmetics, an insurance company).

 

In each case, the personality objective and implementation strategy would be very different. Brand personality is affected by uses, the users, neighborhood, activities, packaging, marketing and advertising style, executive influence, the representative employees who interact with users,the product attributes of quality and reliability, brand name awareness, brand loyalty and other organizational attributes (Aaker, 1996).

 

Each facet is in turn measured by a set of traits. The trait measures are taken using a five point scale [1=not at all descriptive and 5=extremely descriptive] rating the extent to which each trait describes the specific brand of interest.

 

Brand Extension

This includes each and everything about Brand Extension. Strategies, Examples, Success and Failures and even Advantages and Disadvantages.

 

Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a well-developed image uses the same brand name in a different product category. The new product is called a spin-off. Organizations use this strategy to increase and leverage brand equity (definition: the net worth and long-term sustainability just from the renowned name). An example of a brand extension is Jello-gelatin creating Jello pudding pops. It increases awareness of the brand name and increases profitability from offerings in more than one product category.

 

What is a ‘Brand Extension’

Brand extension, also known as brand stretching, leverages the reputation and popularity of the well-known brand to increase demand for new products. Brand extension is the use of a well-established brand name for a new product or new product category.

 

For the brand extension to be successful, there must be a logical association between the original product and new item. A weak or nonexistent association can result in the opposite effect, brand dilution. Even worse, if a brand extension is unsuccessful, it can harm the parent brand.

 

Brand Extension Examples

Successful brand extensions allow companies to diversify offerings, increase market share, and increase profits.  The existing brand serves as an inexpensive yet practical marketing tool for the new product.

 

There are many ways companies can extend the popularity and reputation of their brand into new territories. Brand extension can be as natural as offering an original product in a new form. As an example, a made-to-order pizza restaurant may offer the sale of frozen take-home pizza or sell its name brand proprietary sauce in retail stores.

 

Another form of brand extension is with the combination of products. For combination extension, two businesses, or branches of a single company, will come together to offer a new twist to their unique existing products. The extension of both brands can be seen in the partnering of a chocolate and pretzel company to provide chocolate-covered pretzels.

 

Moving into a new market segment and capturing a more significant market share of the market are other forms of a brand extension. A car company, known for its engineering prowess, can start a motorcycle division, selling those motorcycles based on their superior engineering history of quality. The creation of complementary products can help to increase market share.  For example, a peanut butter company could offer jellies and jams to leverage its brand and the popular relationship between the products.

 

The risk of failure through brand extension is lower than the risk and the cost of introducing a new product with no associated established brand.  The success of the brand communicates a message of value and serves as an acceptable standard.

 

Advantages of Brand Extension

 

Brand Extension has following advantages:

 

It makes acceptance of new product easy.

  • It increases brand image.
  • The risk perceived by the customers reduces.
  • The likelihood of gaining distribution and trial increases. An established brand name increases consumer interest and willingness to try new product having the established brand name.
  • The efficiency of promotional expenditure increases. Advertising, selling and promotional costs are reduced. There are economies of scale as advertising for core brand and its extension reinforces each other.
  • Cost of developing new brand is saved.
  • Consumers can now seek for a variety.
  • There are packaging and labeling efficiencies.
  • The expense of introductory and follow up marketing programs is reduced.

 

There are feedback benefits to the parent brand and the organization.

  • The image of parent brand is enhanced.
  • It revives the brand.
  • It allows subsequent extension.
  • Brand meaning is clarified.
  • It increases market coverage as it brings new customers into brand franchise.
  • Customers associate original/core brand to new product, hence they also have quality associations.

 

Disadvantages of Brand Extension

  • Brand extension in unrelated markets may lead to loss of reliability if a brand name is extended too far. An organization must research the product categories in which the established brand name will work.
  • There is a risk that the new product may generate implications that damage the image of the core/original brand.
  • There are chances of less awareness and trial because the management may not provide enough investment for the introduction of new product assuming that the spin-off effects from the original brand name will compensate.
  • If the brand extensions have no advantage over competitive brands in the new category, then it will fail.
  • Brand extensions fail when the brand extends to products or product lines so distinctly unrelated that the general perception of the brand is skewed.
  • For example,Colgate, a brand synonymous with dental care products, failed when it extended its brand to food products.  Most people associate minty-flavored toothpaste with Colgate, and that association was a barrier to the successful adoption of Colgate foods.
  • Other brand extension failures include Zippo, known for lighters, and Harley-Davidson, known for motorcycles, expanding into the women’s perfume market.
  • The original brands were associated with lighter fluid and fuel odors, respectively, and just like Colgate, consumers could not disassociate that experience from the brands well enough for the extensions to be successful.

 

Types of brand extension

Brand extension can be categorized into the following:

 

1) Line extension

When the same brand is used to launch a product in a different way it is called line extension. Byline extension, the product will be a slight variation to the existing ones. For example, Amul launched condensed milk which is an extension of milk; head and shoulders launched many shampoos that cater to different hairs. It can also indicate the resizing of the product. For example, Tropicana juice that comes with long and small packs.

 

2) Product Extension

When the company launches an entirely new product it is called as the product extension. For example, Colgate Company which first used to make paste later started launching many products related to oral care, personal care etc. Hence customers who were already using Colgate paste will tend to use the new products as they are already aware of the quality of a product.

 

3) Extension of customer franchise

Based on the customer group, the product range is extended. This type of extension basically targets a specific group of customers. For example, Johnson and Johnson’s company mainly focuses on products that are specific to babies like baby shampoo, powder, soap etc.

 

4) Extension of company expertise

Based on the expertise of the company, the company launches product category that makes use of the same name. For example, Samsung launches many products likes washing machine, mobiles, refrigerator etc.

 

5) Extension of brand distinction

There exist many brands that are unique with respect to the benefits. These brands are mainly highlighted with respect to the benefits that they offer to the customers. For example, Dhatri oil has been imbibed in customers for its herbal nature that reduces hair fall and improves hair growth.

 

Brand extension need not always be a success. It can lead to some failure brand extension. Let us consider some examples.

 

Example where brand extension is success

  • Consider the brand Dove. It was mainly known for soaps. But now it is extended to many products like shampoo, deodorant and body wash. The brand extension of the dove for the new products has been a great success.
  • Consider Adidas.The company started its brand of shoes. Later they launched many products related to footwear, clothing, accessories, and sports.
  • Consider Titan. The company started its brand for watches, later positioned itself into the Titan house of jewelry, watches, eyewear and leather products.

 

Example where brand extension is failure

  • Colgate Kitchen items – This brand extension was a failure as it was not accepted to associate Colgate with meal as it was associated with oral and personal care.
  • Consider new Coke. Coco-cola could not become successful in case of Coke.
  • Rasna Ltd is one of the famous soft drinks. When it tried to change it product to its fizzy drink Oranjolt, it could not succeed.

 

Moving the Brand Down

The answer turned out big.. If there’s a smaller version please let me know.

 

Moving The Brand Down Today’s markets, from tires to clothes to computers, are becoming increasingly value centered. More and more buyers are turning from prestige and luxury to lower-cost brands that deliver acceptable quality and features. To combat this trend (or to take advantage of it, if you prefer), firms are offering lesser versions of their traditional brand product package. What is behind this consumer trend toward value and how can firms adopt a branding strategy that will accommodate downscale versions without weakening the brand?

 

Reasons for moving down the brand are

1. Saturation In The Market –

One force behind the increased sensitivity to value and price is overcapacity created by the combination of new competitors and fairly static markets. Brands are now often competitive in quality. They often introduce parity products without innovative, distinctive value propositions, the new entrants, as well as the struggling third – or fourth place brands, are forced to emphasize price promotions and sales events instead of product. Customers come to believe that the brands are not very different; brand loyalty erodes, and customers focus on features and price. As fewer and fewer customers are willing to pay the historical brand premium, market share starts falling (sometimes dramatically) for those who maintain their price levels.

 

2. Retail Environment –

Second driving force is the retail environment created by new channels that typically have a lower cost structure, engage in aggressive price competition, and freely use private – labeled goods. Direct Marketing is also responsible for all this.

 

3. Technological Change –

Third driving force is technological change. A new market for a product can be introduced because of new technology. Examples: disposable razors and single – use 35mm cameras.

 

The problem is that moving down affects perceptions of the brand perhaps more significantly than any other brand management option. Psychologists have documented the fact that people are influenced much more by unfavorable information than by favorable information. Initial negative information about a person, for example, is very resistant to subsequent positive information, whereas an initial good impression is quite likely to be altered by subsequent negative interactions. The use of negative political ads is an illustration of this principle at work.

 

Similar results have been found in more traditional marketing research contexts. For example, Motley and Reddy presented consumers with repositioning statements for Saks (a prestigious department store) and for Kmart (a discount department store). The statements described the store as either very upscale, very downscale, or in between. Results indicated that the statements did not affect attitudes toward Kmart, even when the store was described as very upscale. In contrast, attitudes toward Saks were influenced by both the downscale depiction and the in-between portrayal. In a related study, Arndt found that negative word of mouth had twice as much impact on purchase intentions as did positive word of mouth

It should not be assumed that a downward entry is always too risky. If the new product can be made distinct from the parent brand through the use of a sub-brand and other devices, the risk can be reduced. Sony’s apparent ability to operate at the high end with some products (such as televisions and the Walkman) and at lower price points with others (such as audio products) suggests that consumers can compartmentalize perceptions. There is further evidence from laboratory studies involving consumer products that people can insulate parent brands from extensions, even when the latter reflect lower quality levels or have quality problems.

 

For example, Keller and Aaker found that the perceived quality of a brand of potato chips was not affected by its extension to cookies or ice cream, even when the extension was described as poorly accepted because of taste and texture. In another study Bhat & Zimmer found that extending Sony and Bic to low price / quality points did not affect attitudes toward the parent brand.

 

The key to reducing the brand risk is to distinguish the new context from the original category. Loken and John found that an extension of shampoo to an inferior tissue product did not affect the perceived quality of the shampoo, but only if respondents were first asked if the extension was representative of the brand. The implication is that customers can separate the brand’s identity into two product classes, but they may need help doing so. If the extension is far afield (such as Coca-Cola to clothes), the risk of transferring negative quality impressions is reduced; of course, though, there is also the risk that the brand will not contribute anything positive in the new context and may even make customers feel uncomfortable.

 

A brand should indeed guard its equity and, in particular, it’s perceived quality. The bottom line, however, is that a brand can take some risks. A strong brand is resilient and can stand some extension difficulties, especially if the extension has some degree of separation. The question then is what is the best amount of separation? What will protect the brand but still work?

 

Although the creation of an entirely new brand will result in the ultimate separation and protection of the core brand, it does not guarantee success. IBM created such a brand, Ambra, with its own separate organization to compete with mail order firms. The brand sourced its products in Asia and was marketed in Europe and the United States. Less than two years after its introduction, though, Ambra was killed. In retrospect, IBM should have found a way to use its own name, one of the strongest brands in the United States and Europe. Creating a new brand at any level with credibility is most difficult, as the Ambra case rather graphically illustrates.

 

Perhaps the most direct approach to moving a brand down is to lower its price. Marlboro, Budweiser, and Pampers are among the brands that have recognized that their equity will not support a large price premium in the face of price-oriented competitors and powerful retailers. Thus they have “value priced” their products to make them competitive. However, although consumers have begun to question higher-priced brands, the reality is that the price point is ‘still a positioning cue. A sharp price reduction can indicate to customers that—as they may have begun to suspect—the brand really is not different from any other brand, and is therefore of average quality.

 

If the brand has lost all credibility in terms of offering a different or better product, dropping the price is a risk-free strategy. When Schlitz, for example, saw its sales fall to less than 1 million barrels from more than 17 million barrels, it had nothing to lose by being associated with a lower price and occupying a solid position in the price brand category.

 

Many brands, however, still retain a very worthwhile market segment at the premium end of the market. Further, they offer premium quality or features that prevent them from obtaining cost parity with their new competitors. If these brands wish to move down, it is therefore important that they retain some quality differentiation. The challenge then is to start competing at a new price point without repositioning the brand as a lower-quality price brand.

 

Consider the move by Marlboro to abruptly drop prices on its flagship brand in the face of falling market share. The move may have been strategically wise, but it was perceived by some retailers and customers (and shareholders) as a panic reaction and thus cast a cloud over the brand’s equity. Of course, the Marlboro brand is so established and strong that it is difficult to damage. The fact that the price cut did reverse the fall in market share is an indicator that the brand is strong but had become overpriced.

 

Sub-brands such as Kodak’s Funtime film have the potential to permit entry in an emerging low end without threatening the parent brand’s equity in the higher ranges of the market. There are two problems, though, with adding sub-brand offerings that use the premium brand name at a lower price point. The first is possible cannibalization, in that buyers will shift to the cheaper version; the second is the risk that extending the brand down will taint the brand name.

 

The job of the sub-brand is to reduce these risks by distinguishing the downscale sub-brand from the parent brand. In one study, Aaker and Markey explored a toilet paper extension from Kleenex and a low-calorie orange juice from Snapple Fruit Drinks. In each case, an inferior extension (a hard, coarse toilet paper and a watery orange juice) affected attitudes toward the parent brands unless a sub-brand is used. The sub-brand served to insulate the parent brand from the inferior performance of the extension.

 

The risk to the brand is much lower when the extension is qualitatively different from the parent. For example, Gillette has historically meant quality, innovative razors for men. Believing that a position in the growing disposable razor market was crucial, Gillette launched the Gillette Good News line. The sub-brand’s younger, lighter personality contrasted with the masculine/macho Gillette persona and played a key role in distinguishing the disposable brand from the rest of the line. The fact that the Gillette Good News disposable was a premium entry in the disposable category also helped to reduce the potential damage to the perceived quality of the Gillette brand.

 

Because of the identity problems that can result when a brand moves down, it may be useful to use the sub-brand’s personality as a way to differentiate the new, lower-priced entry. If it is given a strong personality that is different from that of the original brand, the risks of cannibalization and image tarnishing are reduced.

 

Because family relationships are so familiar to consumers, they offer a clear and rich opportunity for creating distinct but related sub-brand personalities. The sub-brand could be a child (either son or daughter) of the original brand (the father or mother), one who cannot yet afford or appreciate the better version. Or it could be the grandparent of the original, one which appreciates good value more than premium quality.

 

Moving the Brand Up

The answer turned out big.. If there’s a smaller version please let me know.

 

A brand may be a leader in volume and market share, with the enviable advantages of economies of scale and retail clout. It is on the store shelf, in the pantry, and in the customer’s mind. However, retailers and consumers have squeezed its price, especially from below by both price brands and store brands

 

In this context, an attractive growth segment often emerges at the very high end of the market. This segment enjoys much higher margins, and it also provides interest and even newsworthy developments in what might be a somewhat tired category. Microbreweries (such as Anchor Steam), designer coffees, upscale waters, sporty luxury cars, and specialty magazines all represent target niches that are less price sensitive than the larger market center. How can brands “move up” to take advantage of this growth and vitality and get out from under oppressive margin pressures?

 

When the existing brand name is too much of a drag, the only feasible alternative is likely to be the creation of a stand-alone brand. For example, when Black & Decker created a line of tools for construction professionals, there was a feeling that the target segment would not attracted to (and even would be uncomfortable with) Black & Decker equipment because of the latter’s association with the do-it-yourself homeowner. Thus the DeWalt brand was created. The DeWalt equipment is a cut above Black & Decker in terms of performance, is bright yellow (in contrast to the green of the Black & Decker line), and has no mention of the Black & Decker parent brand.

 

However, the option of successfully introducing a new brand is often either too costly or simply not feasible, especially when the task is to become the third or fourth brand in the mind and on the shelf An alternative is to use a sub-brand of an existing brand to create a upscale entry.

 

Using a sub-brand, such as Coors Gold or Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, to penetrate the high end of a market has several advantages. First, it avoids much of the expense of creating visibility and associations for a new brand name. It is potentially easier to associate Holiday Inn with an upscale hotel or Coors with a super-premium beer than to start with a new name. Second, the applicable assets of the brand can help provide a value proposition. Thus customers of Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza know that they can access the Holiday Inn reservation system directly using its 800 number, and Coors Gold customer recognize that their beer is connected to High Priority, the Coors program to fight breast cancer. Third, the sub-brands can provide a perceived quality lift to the core brand names, Holiday Inn and Coors.

 

There are some risks of damaging the core brand when moving up, although much less than when moving down. There is the possibility that the premium version can, by comparison, make the core brand look more ordinary than it was previously perceived to be. For example, Coors is not as appealing when Coors Gold is available—the Coors drinker is less likely to believe that Coors is the best. A much more serious risk, though, is that the core brand will keep the premium brand from achieving its full prestige. For example, the strong image of Holiday Inn as a familiar, unpretentious hotel was a real handicap when the Crowne Plaza sub-brand was trying to compete at the very high end of the market. As a result, the parent company decided to drop the Holiday Inn connection and let Crowne Plaza go on its own.

 

The basic problem with using a sub-brand to move up is that the brand often lacks credibility at the higher end. How can a believable claim be made that a sub-brand under the sponsorship of a middle-

 

 

Brand Personality

Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that are attributed to a brand name. A brand personality is something to which the consumer can relate; an effective brand increases its brand equity by having a consistent set of traits that a specific consumer segment enjoys. This personality is a qualitative value-add that a brand gains in addition to its functional benefits.

 

Brand personality is a framework that helps a company or organization shape the way people feel about its product, service or mission. A company’s brand personality elicits an emotional response in a specific consumer segment, with the intention of inciting positive actions that benefits the firm.

 

There are five main types of brand personalities: excitement, sincerity, ruggedness, competence and sophistication. Customers are more likely to purchase a brand if its personality is similar to their own. Examples of traits for the different types of brand personalities are as follows. Excitement is synonymous with a carefree, spirited and youthful attitude. Sincerity is highlighted by a feeling of kindness, thoughtfulness, and an orientation toward family values. Ruggedness is thought of as rough, tough, outdoorsy and athletic. Competence, in the mind of a consumer, is considered to be successful, accomplished and influential, highlighted by leadership. Finally, sophistication makes a brand seem elegant, prestigious and sometimes even pretentious.

 

Dove, for example, chooses sincerity as its brand personality, allowing the company to attract feminine consumers. Luxury brands, such as Michael Kors and Chanel, lean towards sophistication. Their brand personality focuses on an upper-class, glamorous and trendy lifestyle, which attracts a high-spending consumer base. REI, the outdoor recreation retail store, has a rugged brand personality; they focus on inspiring their audience (who are typically outdoorsy, adventurous people) to be strong and resilient.

 

Brand Personality of Woodland

Woodland got the ruggedness, outdoorsy, and ready for adventure personality through its products (hard boots – meant for adventure) and smart marketing strategies. They also used the color green, which represents nature, to build a personality of being outdoorsy.

 

Brand Personality of Harley Davidson

Harley Davidson has been a rebel from the start. The promotional campaigns (naming motorcycles as mean machines), the logo, and use of bright and dynamic colors has helped them build this personality.

 

Brand Personality of Marlboro

Marlboro got a personality of being tough through its different marketing strategies, which included ‘The Tattooed Man’, ‘Marlboro Cowboy’, and ‘The Marlboro man’.

 

Brand Personality of MTV

MTV tried to position itself to be different from usual music videos channel. The concept of VJ’s followed by cool logos and taglines, like ‘I want my MTV’ & ‘MTV is here’, helped them stand out.

 

Additional Comparison and Elaboration

 

Brand personality must be differentiated from brand image, in sense that, while brand image denote the tangible (physical and functional) benefits and attributes of a brand, brand personality indicates emotional associations of the brand.

 

If brand image is comprehensive brand according to consumers’ opinion, brand personality is that aspect of comprehensive brand which generates it’s emotional character and associations in consumers’ mind.

 

Brand personality develops brand equity. It sets the brand attitude. It is a key input into the look and feel of any communication or marketing activity by the brand. It helps in gaining thorough knowledge of customers feelings about the brand. Brand personality differentiates among brands specifically when they are alike in many attributes. For instance – Sony versus Panasonic. Brand personality is used to make the brand strategy lively, i.e, to implement brand strategy. Brand personality indicates the kind of relationship a customer has with the brand. It is a means by which a customer communicates his own identity.

 

Brand personality and celebrity should supplement each other. Trustworthy celebrity ensures immediate awareness, acceptability and optimism towards the brand. This will influence consumers’ purchase decision and also create brand loyalty. For instance – Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra is brand ambassador for J.Hampstead, international line of premium shirts.

 

Brand personality not only includes the personality features/characteristics, but also the demographic features like age, gender or class and psychographic features. Personality traits are what the brand exists for.

 

Many business leaders struggle to come up with their brand personality traits. Understanding the five key dimensions of brand personality always helps.

 

Brand Personality Trait #1 – Competence

Rolex is a brand that scores high on competence. The brand is known for producing the world’s finest watches.

Brand Personality Trait #2 – Sincerity

Amazon is one of the world’s most trusted brands. It’s very sincere, supported by industry-changing shipping and return policies and exceptional product accessibility. CEO Jeff Bezos is extremely customer-focused, telling the customer exactly what to expect when interacting with Amazon and backing it up. Some Amazon suppliers don’t like it, but he has built Amazon into one of the world’s most trusted and sincere brands. While Amazon continues to break new ground, not all products are successful; Bezos is unafraid of failure, which helps make it more human.

 

Brand Personality Trait #3 – Sophistication

Even though Apple is a technology company, its brand is very sophisticated. Upon Steve Jobs’ return in the late 1990s, the company placed a heavy emphasis on design for its hardware, software and retail stores. Apple products are elegant, as is its packaging, software and marketing.

 

Brand Personality Trait #4 – Excitement

Virgin is an example of an exciting brand. It’s much like its creator, Richard Branson, and it’s differentiated through its unusual name, bold colors, innovating marketing and unique advertising.

 

Brand Personality Trait #5 – Toughness

Carhartt has been protecting the hardworking men and women of the United States since 1889. Their work boots, jackets and pants shield people from extremely cold temperatures, fire and water. The brand has been known for its toughness for over a century.

Do any of these five dimensions of brand personality directly apply to your brand? You may wish to bring your team together and write down all of the adjectives that they might use to describe your brand. If possible, limit each trait to one word: for example, “knowledgeable,” “fun,” “visionary,” “friendly,” or “creative.” Write down everything that is said.

 

 

Brand Consistency in Difficult Overtime

Brand consistency is the pattern of expression that affects what people think about your company. The more consistent your messaging, the more consistent your branding — whether via words, design, offerings or perspective. Your brand should build awareness and develop trust and loyalty with customers.

 

Brand consistency refers to how “on-brand” all of your company’s marketing content is, with respect to your brand identity and brand guidelines.

 

The most brand consistent companies are the ones who make sure that every piece of content they create strictly adheres to their brand identity and brand guidelines.

 

And in today’s frenzy of content creation, there is a lot of marketing material to keep on-brand.

 

What Is Brand Consistency and Why Is It Important?

Central to brand consistency is keeping the core brand intact throughout inevitable company and product changes. Employees come and go; processes and products change; and even logos are altered – but the brand is the mainstay. Maintaining brand consistency a critical component of a comprehensive brand management strategy.

 

Brand consistency enables companies to drive customer perception and engagement from initial contact through the purchasing process. Prospects who understand a brand – including its evolution – are more likely to buy its products. Brand consistency provides the trust that underpins marketing efforts.

 

Why is brand consistency so hard?

The problem that many companies face when it comes to brand consistency is that the personality and character of the individuals who create the marketing material can often outshine the character of the company’s brand.

 

In larger companies, this can lead to an incongruous feel to the portfolio of marketing material, when viewed as a whole.

 

But is this a problem?

Why is it so important to ensure that your marketing team’s body of work, when viewed as a whole, is consistent and “on brand”? Does your audience really mind?

 

Well, this brings us back around to the beginning. Brand consistency is very hard to measure, and therefore the cost of brand inconsistency is very hard to measure too.

 

Many companies have tried to create a metric for how much of an impact brand consistency has on their bottom line. For example, LucidPress states that “the average revenue increase attributed to always presenting your brand consistently is 23%.”

 

Whatever the real figure may be, there is one thing for certain. The current competitive business landscape means that consumers and clients can afford to expect perfection from their service providers.

 

This means companies are having to differentiate themselves, not just in the product they offer, but in the design of their product, in their customer service, and in the portrayal of their brand.

 

And this is why brand consistency is so important. Today’s consumers are picky and unforgiving. They will change to being a client of one of your competitors in a flash if your brand identity does not satisfy their tastes.

 

People brains look for consistency, patterns, regularity. Over time, a consistent brand will generate trust and retain customers. It may even turn customers into followers or brand advocates, if your identity is strong and consistent enough.

 

On the other hand, over time, an inconsistent brand will lose you customers and damage your company.

 

Why is brand consistency crucial to your brand success?

There are many reasons why brand consistency will make or break your brand:

  • Consistency means that perceptions of your brand will not change drastically
  • Consistency gives the appearance that you are professional and stable
  • Consistency gives the impression that you know exactly what you are about
  • Consistency saves you money – no drastic and expensive changes are required
  • Consistency makes everything clear – people know what to expect
  • Consistency implies purpose and quality – you are committed to what you offer

 

So how can your company improve its brand consistency?

  • Put a session in the diary with your marketing team. In this session, pull together a brand identity and brand guidelines document. See my blog You Need To Build Your Brand Identity MVP for more on how to do this.
  • Discuss with your marketing team whether or not you are using your brand guidelines correctly in your marketing content.
  • Put all your brand assets into a Pilcro Artboard. In this way, everyone will have instant access to your brand identity and brand guidelines and they can seamlessly create on-brand marketing content.

 

Enumerate guidelines for building an effective brand

 

1. Brand Identity.

Have an identity for each brand. Consider the perspectives of the brand – as a person, brand as an organization, and brand as a symbol, as well as the brand-as- product. Identity is how you aspire to be perceived

 

2. Value Propositions.

Know the value propositions for each brand that has a driver role. Consider emotional and self- expressive benefits as well as functional benefits.

 

3. Brand Position.

For each brand, have a brand position that will provide clear guidance to those implementing a communication program.

 

4. Execution.

Execute the communication program so that it not only is on target with the identity and position but achieves brilliance and durability.

 

Generate alternatives and consider options beyond media advertising.

 

5. Consistency over time.

Have a goal a consistent identity, position and execution over time.

Maintain symbols, imagery and metaphors that work.

 

6. Brand system.

Make sure the brands in the portfolio are consistent and synergistic.

Know their roles. Have or develop silver bullets to help support brand identities and positions.

 

7. Brand leverage.

Extend brands and develop co- branding programs only if the brand identity will be used and reinforced.

 

Identify range brands and, for each, develop an identity and specify how that identity will be different in disparate product contexts.

 

8. Tracking brand equity.

Track brand equity over time, including awareness, perceived quality, brand loyalty and especially brand associations. Have specific communication objectives.

 

9. Brand responsibility.

Have someone in charge of the brand who will create the identity and position and coordinate the execution over organizational units , media and markets.

 

10. Invest in brands

Continue investing in brands even when the financial goals are not being net.

 

 

Graveyard Model

 

Brand Recognition vs Recall

The recognition reflects familiarity gained from past exposure. Recognition doesn’t necessarily involve remembering where the brand was encountered before, why it differs from other brands, or even what the brand’s product class is. It is simply remembering that there was a past exposure to the brand

 

When consumers see a brand and remember that they have seen it before /perhaps even several times, they realise the company is spending money to support the brand.

 

Since it is generally believed that companies will not spend money on bad products, consumers take their recognition as a signal that the brand is good

 

A brand (e.g. HDFC) is said to have a recall if it comes to consumers minds when its product class ( e.g banking companies ) is mentioned. Whether or not a customer recalls your band can be the deciding factor in getting on a shopping list or receiving a chance to bid on a contract.

 

The graveyard model was developed by Young and Rubicam Europe under the guidance of Jim Williams. In this model, brands in a product class are plotted o recognition vs recall graph.

 

For example, the recall and recognition of each of the brand in the automobile category could be measured and these measurements could be used to position each brand on the graph.

 

One finding a consistent across dozens of product classes that brands tend to follow the curved line shown in the figure. There are two exceptions, each of which reveals the importance of recall.

 

One exception is healthy niche brands, which fall below the line because they are not known to a substantial group of consumers, and therefore have relatively low overall recognition. But because they do have high recall among their respective loyal customer their low recognition is not necessarily an indication of poor performance. And healthy niche players sometimes have the potential to expand recognition and thus the scope of their customer base.

 

The second exception is the graveyard, an area in the upper left-hand corner populated by brands with high recognition but low recall. Being in the graveyard can be deadly. Customers know about the brand, but it will not come to mind when considering a purchase.

 

One point of the graveyard model is that high recognition is not necessarily the mark of a strong brand –it is associated with weak ones as well. A movement towards the graveyard is associated with sliding sales and market share. If however, the brand is moving away from the graveyard, sales and market share can be expected to increase.

 

Thus the graveyard model provides evidence that recall is as important as recognition.

 

A Brand (e.g. Maggi / Metlife) is said to have a recall if it comes to consumers minds when its product class (for example, noodles, instant food / life insurance, companies) is mentioned. Whether or not a customer recalls your brand can be the deciding factor in getting on a shooping list or receiving a chance to bid on a contract. The relative power of recall (versus recognition), which depicts the graveyard model developed by Young and Rubicam Europe under the guidance of Jim Williams. In this Model, brands in a product class are plotted on the recognition versus recall graph. For example, the recall and recognition of each of the twenty automobile brands could be measured and these measurements could be used to position each brand on the graph.

Brand Equity. What is Brand Equity Ten?

‘Brand equity’ is a phrase used in the marketing industry which describes the value of having a well-known brand name, based on the idea that the owner of a well-known brand name can generate more revenue simply from brand recognition; that is from products with that brand name than from products with a less well-known name, as consumers believe that a product with a well-known name is better than products with less well-known names.

 

Brand equity refers to the value of a brand. In the research literature, brand equity has been studied from two different perspectives: cognitive psychology and information economics. According to cognitive psychology, brand equity lies in consumer’s awareness of brand features and associations, which drive attribute perceptions. According to information economics, a strong brand name works as a credible signal of product quality for imperfectly informed buyers and generates price premiums as a form of return to branding investments. It has been empirically demonstrated that brand equity plays an important role in the determination of price structure and, in particular, firms are able to charge price premiums that derive from brand equity after controlling for observed product differentiation.

 

Brand equity is the financial value of a brand which provides capital/value to products and services. Brand equity is related to future returns that customers generate to the product or service. Developed brand assets in the past, enable the brand to leverage her strength and should deliver future value to the brand.

 

Hence brand equity fulfils a bridging role where it connects the past to the future. Kapferer distinguishes three levels; (1) brand assets, (2) brand strength and (3) brand value. The sequence from past to future is a conditional consequence which differs in time due to competitive and environmental changes

 

Brand Equity Ten

Brand Equity is strategically crucial, but also very difficult to quantify. As a result, many experts have developed tools or metrics to analyze this asset, although there is no universally accepted way to measure it. For example, while it can be measured quantitatively using numerical values such as profit margins and market share, this approach fails to capture qualitative elements such as prestige, mental and emotional associations.

 

According to David Aaker, a market professor and brand consultant, there are ten attributes to as Brand Equity Ten.

 

Aaker has set 10 Brand Equity Measurement Variables, based on the first four primary categories of the equity model in the following figure

 

The measures should reflect brand equity and force that drive the market. Next, to that, the measures should be sensitive and it should be applicable across brands, product lines and markets.

 

Differentiation

It is difficult to create differentiation especially involving functional benefits because a competitor will quickly copy or appear to copy or otherwise neutralize the advantage. Unless you brand it. A competitor cannot copy the brand. If the innovation is branded and the brand is established, the competitors’ task of creating and communicating an enhancement will be difficult. When Emirates showed the luxury aspect of flying, they changed the way that many looked at the air travel experience, and the brand differentiator made it difficult for imitators to replicate that.

 

Satisfaction or Loyalty

The extent to which people are  loyal to a brand is expressed in the following factors :

  • Reduced Marketing Costs: hanging on to loyal customers is cheaper than charming potential new customers
  • Trade Leverage: Loyal customer represents a stable source of revenue for the distributive trade.
  • Attracting New Customers: Current customers can help boost name awareness and hence bring in new customers
  • Time to Respond to Competitive Threats: Loyal customers that are not quick to switch brands give a company more time to respond to competitive threats.

 

Perceiving Quality

The extent to which a brand is considered to provide good quality products can be measured on the basis of the following five criteria:

  • The quality offered by the product/brand is the reason to buy it
  • Level of Differentiation/position in relation to competing brands
  • Price, as the product becomes more complex to asses, and status is at play, consumers tend to take price as a quality indicator
  • Availability in different sales channels, consumers have a higher quality perception of brands that are widely available.
  • The number of line/brand extensions, this can tell the consumer that the brand stands for a certain quality guarantee that is applicable on a wide scale

 

Leadership or Popularity

The extent to which the brand is known and prefered by people. This aspect decides whether the brand’s name occurs to a customer before thinking of other brands. For eg, while buying chocolate, the name Cadbury Dairy Milk Silk may immediately occur, owing to the popularity of the brand.

 

Perceived Value

This refers to the ratio of the price of the product versus the benefits (functional, emotional, and psychological) offered by the product. For instance, when one buys an Apple iPhone and pays an exorbitant amount for the same, that person is looking to find value in it through the features, futuristic technology, status symbol, the pride of using it, etc. But this may not seem like a good value proposition for people who believe in the concept of value for money. Hence, value differs based on a consumers perception.

 

Brand Personality

It refers to assigning human personality traits/characteristics to a brand so as to achieve differentiation. These characteristics signify brand behaviour through booth individuals representing the brand, (which is the employees) as well as through advertising, packaging, etc. When a brand image or brand identity is expressed in terms of human traits, it is called as brand personality.

 

Compare BBC to MTV, or Nickelodeon to Discovery channel, and you will sense the brand personality is changing, and you will see that brand personality, it will also help the brand manager in deciding the right media vehicles for the propagation of the brand.

 

Organizational Associations

Associations triggered by a brand can be assured on the basis of five following indicators

  • The extent to which a brand is able to retrieve associations from the consumer’s brain. Such information may be passed on through TV Advertising
  • The extent to which associations contribute to brand differentiation in relation to the competition. These can be abstract associations such as “vitality” or associations with concrete product benefits “such will leave your house cleaner
  • The extent to which brand associations play a role in the buying process. The Greater this extent, the higher the total brand equity.
  • The extent to which brand associations play a role in creating positive attitude/feelings. The greater is this extent, the higher the total brand equity will be.
  • The number of brand extensions in the market, the great is the opportunity to add brand associations.

 

Brand Awareness

The extent to which a brand is known among the public, which can be measured using the following parameters.

  • Anchor to which associations can be attached. Depending on the strength of the brand name, more or fewer associations can be attached to it, which will, in turn eventually influence brand awareness.
  • Familiarity and Liking. Consumers with a positive attitude towards a brand, will talk about it more and spread brand awareness.
  • Commitment to a brand
  • Brand to be considered during the purchasing process. To what extent does the brand form part of the evoked set of brands in a consumer’s mind.

 

Market Share

Market share is a measure of the consumer preference for a product over other similar products. A higher market share usually means greater sales, lesser effort to sell more and a strong barrier to entry for other competitors. A higher market also means that if the market expands, the leader gains more than others. By the same token, a market leader – as defined by its market share – also has to expand the market for its growth.

 

Brand Share is the amount by consumers on a particular brand as compared to the amount spent by consumers on all competitive brands in the same category, figured in terms of percentages, also called market share, the share of the market. Companies set marketing goals to achieve a specific brand share, and plan their strategies to meet those goals.

 

Market Price and Distribution Coverage

The market share aspect can be misleading as it is easily affected by sales promotions, offers and reduced prices. Hence, the relative market price comes handy. Relative Market Price is the price of the commodity divided by the average price at which all the brands in the product class are sold. Similarly, market share or sales data are also extremely sensitive to distribution coverage. Sales may be dramatically affected when a brand gains or losses a major market or expands into another geographic region. A measure of distribution coverage is thus a second logical comparison measure to market share. Distribution coverage could be measured by percentage of stores that carry the brand.

 

Brand Leveraging

 

What is Brand Leveraging?

A brand leveraging strategy uses the power of an existing brand name to support a company’s entry into a new, but related, product category. For example, the manufacturer of Mr. Coffee™ coffee makers used its brand name strength to launch Mr. Coffee™ brand coffee. While coffee machines and coffee beans are in different product categories, there is a strong enough correlation between the two items that the brand name has a powerful impact on consumers of both categories.

 

Brand leveraging communicates valuable product information to consumers about new products. Consumers enter retail outlets equipped with pre-existing knowledge of a brand’s level of quality and consistently relate this knowledge to new products carrying the familiar brand. Generally, consumers maintain a consistent brand perception until disappointed – creating a risky advantage for established brands.

Why is Brand Leveraging Important?

Brand leveraging is an important form of new product introduction because it provides consumers with a sense of familiarity by carrying positive brand characteristics and attitudes into a new product category. Instant recognition of the brand is established, and consumers with a favorable brand opinion likely will try a new product they perceive to have a similar quality level and attributes as their original favorite. Additionally, because the products are in different categories, they will not compete for market share – the crux of a successful branding strategy.

 

For example, Bic™ is a strong brand name with years of experience in marketing low-cost disposable plastic products such as the Bic™ pen. Thus, Bic™ is positioned well to introduce products that capitalize on these same basic strengths – products such as disposable razors and cigarette lighters.

 

To avoid disappointing brand-loyal consumers, the greatest risk involved in brand leveraging, it is important to maintain a consistent level of quality within the brand across category lines. Likewise, it is as important to leverage a brand only into new categories that are related to the original product. Trying to sell too many diverse products will dilute the brand name and yield poor results.

 

For example, the Frito Lay™ name is extended from potato chips into other types of snack foods and dips. However, an introduction of Frito Lay™ lemonade did not succeed because the fruity, sweet drink had little connection to other Frito Lay™ products. Other examples that did not work in the consumer market include Smucker’s™ ketchup, Ben-Gay™ aspirin, and Fruit of the Loom™ laundry detergent. However, M&M™ ice cream, Reese’s™ peanut butter, and Minute Maid™ orange soda experienced success because the brands held direct and logical connections to their new categories.

Additional advantages of brand leveraging include:

  • More products mean greater shelf space for the brand and more opportunities to make a sale.
  • The cost of introducing a brand-leveraged product is less than introducing an independent new product due to a much smaller investment in brand development and advertising designed to gain brand recognition.
  • A full line permits coordination of product offerings, such as bagels and cream cheese, potato chips and ranch dip, peanut butter and jelly, etc.
  • A greater number of products increase efficiency of manufacturing facilities and raw materials.

Brand leveraging does present challenges. To avoid brand dilution, leveraging should be limited to entering only those categories that are directly related to the original product. Potential exists for damaging the reputation of the parent product if new products fail. Also, manufacturing and inventory costs may be higher as a result of product diversification.

Will Brand Leveraging Work for You?

A brand leveraging strategy will not work in every situation. There are important questions that should be considered in order to make the best decision for your brand:

  • Does the new product fit into the established product family?
  • Does the brand have attributes or features that easily and effectively carry into new categories?
  • Is the brand name strengthened or diluted by representing two (or more) differentiated products?
  • Does your company have facilities necessary to manufacture and distribute a new and differentiated product?
  • Will sales of the new product cover the cost of product development and marketing?

A brand leveraging strategy can be extremely successful and profitable if it is correctly implemented and provides new products with the right image.

 

Brand Identity Traps

Brand Identity Traps represent approaches to creating an identity that are excessively limiting or tactical and that can lead to ineffective, and often dysfunctional, brand strategies. After these brand identity traps have been analyzed, a broader identity concept will be developed, its scope and structure discussed, and the value proposition and credibility that flow from it examined.

The Brand Image Trap

Knowledge of the brand image (how customers and others perceive the brand) provides useful and even necessary background information when developing a brand identity. In the brand image trap, however, the patience, resources, or expertise to go beyond the brand image is lacking, and the brand image becomes the brand identity rather than just one input to be considered.

 

The brand image trap does not tend to occur when a brand image is obviously negative or inappropriate. When there are only subtle image inadequacies caused by customers’ past brand experiences or by changes in their needs, however, the use of the brand image as an identity statement often goes unchallenged.

 

While brand image is usually passive and looks to the past, brand identity should be active and look to the future, reflecting the associations that are aspired for the brand. While brand image tends to be tactical, brand identity should be strategic, reflecting a business strategist that will lead to a sustainable advantage. The brand identity should also reflect the brand’s enduring qualities, even if they are not salient in the brand image. Like any identity, it represents the basic characteristics that will persist over time.

A brand identity is to brand strategy what “strategic intent” is to a business strategy. Strategic intent involves an obsession with winning, real innovation, stretching the current strategy, and a forward-looking, dynamic perspective; it is very different from accepting or even refining past strategy. Similarly, a brand identity should not accept existing perceptions, but instead should be willing to consider creating changes.

 

The Brand Position Trap

A brand position is the part of the brand identity and value proposition that is to be actively communicated to the target audience and that demonstrates an advantage over competing brands. Thus the brand position guides the current communication programs and is distinct from the more general brand identity construct. Some elements of brand identity (such as cleanliness for a restaurant) may not be actively communicated and other elements (such as a product class association) will recede in visibility as the brand matures. Thus there is a distinction between three related constructs:

Brand Image
Brand Identity Brand Position
How the brand is now perceived How strategists want the brand to be perceived The part of the brand identity and value proposition to be actively communicated to a target audience

The brand position trap occurs when the search for a brand identity becomes a search for a brand position, stimulated by a practical need to provide objectives to those developing the communication programs. The goal then becomes an advertising tag line rather than a brand identity.

 

This trap inhibits the evolution of a full-fledged brand identity, be- cause strategists continuously weed out those aspects that they feel are not worth communicating. The tendency to focus on product attributes is intensified, and there is often no room to consider brand personality, organizational associations, or brand symbols because they simply do not make the cut when developing a three-word phrase.

 

Further, a compact phrase is unlikely to provide much guidance to brand-building activities. A brand position does not usually have the texture and depth needed to guide the brand-building effort—which event to sponsor, which package is superior, or what store display supports the brand. There is a need for a richer, more complete I understanding of what the brand stands for.

 

The External Perspective Trap

From the perspective of most brand strategists, a brand identity is something that gets customers to buy the product or service because of how they perceive the brand. The orientation is entirely external.

 

The external perspective trap occurs when firms fail to realize the role that a brand identity can play in helping an organization understand its basic values and purpose. Because an effective identity is based in part on a disciplined effort to specify the strengths, values, and vision of the brand, it can provide a vehicle to communicate internally what the brand is about. It is hard to expect employees to make a vision happen if they do not understand and buy into that vision.

 

In most organizations, employees have a difficult time answering the question, “What does your brand stand for?” “Achieving a 10 percent increase in sales” (or profitability)—an all-too-typical response—is hardly inspiring. In firms with strong brands, the response comes faster and with more substance from motivated, even inspired employees.

 

The Product-Attribute Fixation Trap

The most common trap of all is the product-attribute fixation trap, in which the strategic and tactical management of the brand is focused solely on product attributes. Based in part on the erroneous assump­tion that those attributes are the only relevant bases for customer decisions and competitive dynamics, the product-attribute fixation trap usually leads to less than optimal strategies and sometimes to damaging blunders.

 

A brand is more than a product. The failure to distinguish between a product and a brand creates the product-attribute fixation trap. Consider Hobart, which is the premium, dominant brand in industrial-grade food preparation equipment (such as mixers, slicers, dishwashers, and refrigerators). Hobart bases its brand identity and strategy on its product attributes: high quality, durability, reliability, and a premium price. In reality, however, the brand also delivers the feeling of buying and using the best.

 

Website Objectives

Organizational Web site objectives vary, but typically the objectives include one or more of the following:

Make it easier for consumers to do business with us (accessibility).

Reduce our costs of doing business (customer value and business profitability).

  • Enhance our relationship with our customer (creating emotional connection).
  • Build our brand.

 

Regardless of the objective, Effective Websites should accomplish the following

  • Drive site traffic.
  • Reinforce the brand essence and promise.
  • Create an engaging, interactive, interesting, informative and helpful consumer experience.
  • Create a sense of community.
  • Give the consumer reasons to return to the site on a regular basis.
  • Get the consumer to bookmark the site.
  • Unobtrusively capture consumer information to build a database.
  • Integrate content and commerce.
  • Generate incremental sales (online and in the ‘dirt world’).

 

Building a Strong Website

Successful Web development begins with the database and then backs into the design. Questions such as ‘What information will be Collected?’ and where will it be stored for easy retrieval and utilization?’ must be raised early on. The site should be thought of as a two-way communication mechanism rather than a Static Receptacle for information.

 

A well-designed Website attracts and informs, compels transactions (inquiries, subscriptions, and orders), and delivers a High-quality Experience. It is imperative that you think about all communication and information paths, mapped to your database, before writing a single line of code.

A successful Web site must work for a wide variety of platforms, browsers, plugins, operating systems, watches, foldable displays, virtual reality gears, monitor sizes and resolutions, e-Mail programs and so on. Your Website should be developed by Professional Website Developers to ensure that it is platform-independent.

 

[I have made this website very carelessly. And many times, I used to find myself into endless loopholes and bugs. I wanna say thanks to Anirudh Iyer, Raj Kapadia, Sheldon Machado and Arjun Ghimire, who have guided me with my bugs.]

 

Before heading over to designing your organization’s Website, it is very important to identify the different people who will use it, there will be a wide audience which will cover customers, potential customers, industry analysts, financial analysts, reporters and editors, resellers, prospective employees and so on.

Ideally, you will perform anthropological research on each user group to determine how it uses the site (or at least make the site designers put themselves in each user group’s shoes) and designs the content and navigation accordingly. You should also have human factors engineers review the site for user functionality.

 

The following are also important considerations when building a strong Website:

  • The site must download and load quickly. The average person will only wait 10 seconds or less for a page to download.
  • The Home or Splash page must capture the user’s attention and be welcoming deeper into the site.
  • Use your homepage to communicate your purpose, personality and point of difference.
  • Use plenty of white space and minimal copy. Provide clear navigation to copy-dense pages.
  • The site must be rich in useful or interesting content, which must be frequently updated and refreshed to keep people coming back to the site.
  • Keep the user active (he or she wants to click and scroll, not read)(unless you all want good grades in semester exams).
  • In general, the user should be able to reach any page in three clicks or less.
  • Use concise, factual and bulleted copy.
  • Provide a clear, easily accessible sitemap.
  • Provide a site search engine.
  • Architect intuitive site navigation.
  • Ideally, every page should have a home, search and site map buttons.
  • Provide an FAQ (frequently asked questions) section.
  • Provide activities to unobtrusively build a database (games, contests, sweepstakes, surveys, newsletters). (one lucky person who follows my Instagram Account will get Verified. Offer Valid until 3018. Jk you all will be verified because you all have a bright future)
  • Consider personalizing the site to the user’s preferences: Wallpaper, First page viewed, customized content.
  • Create ‘New’, ‘Hot’, or ‘Sale’ sections to alert frequent visitors to new or timely content.
  • Create a feedback loop through e-mail (be sure to staff the e-mail for timely response). An immediate autoresponder message followed up by a personalized response is ideal.
  • Offer customer services (such as a store locator service, checklists and consultative or diagnostic tools).
  • Consider adding a database that is searchable against multiple criteria. This is a very powerful feature.
  • Provide entertainment. [listen up anyone who hates EppyJos [my jokes] ]

 

Creating a Brand Building Site

  • To create a brand-building site, the following considerations are also necessary
  • The domain name (URL) should be the brand name (to provide intuitive site access).  People are increasingly trying to the type the name as the URL. If that does not work, they then use a search engine.
  • Own the URLs for all variations of the brand name, including acronyms, abbreviations, misspellings, etc. Also consider owning the .com, .org, and .net URLs. Redirect people who use those URLs to your site.
  • Protect your domain name through ongoing surveillance and enforcement. (www.Cyveillance.com and www.Cobion.com provide this online service.)  Weave a story about the brand’s history, heritage and character.
  • The site must be true to your brand’s identity and attitude.
  • Your brand should not take on a new persona in cyberspace just to be ‘hip’.
  • Brand-building sites should avail themselves to the full spectrum of brand identity elements; not just name and logo, but also typography, colours, design and graphic elements, brand voice and visual style, theme lines, animation, sound, etc.
  • Consider using a brand sound icon as a mnemonic device.
  • Use good judgment to ensure the sound is pleasing and not distracting or annoying.  A well-branded site will have a consistent look and feel across all of its pages. Ideally, the brand name and logo appear in the upper left corner on each page.  Brand-building sites should establish a sense of community and create an emotional connection with the brand.
  • Consider featuring pictures and video clips of the people behind the brand’ to create an emotional connection with people using your site:
    • corporate officers
    • product designers
    • customer service reps
    • newsletter authors
    • advice columnists
    • other satisfied customers

 

The Impact of the Internet on Brands  

  • An Internet presence has become an essential requirement for brand building.
  • A Web site can create an integrated brand experience that consistently reinforces the brand positioning.
  • The Internet will drive brands without a compelling point of difference (or a strong value proposition) out of business.
  • Brands more than ever will help people break through the over-communication clutter.  The Web site itself is just one element of brand building on the Internet.
  • You can and should integrate commerce and brand building online.
  • A well-known brand name is the most important factor in directing people to your e-commerce site (top-of-mind awareness is the desired end).
  • To be successful, e-commerce sites must deliver superior value to their bricks and mortar competitors.
  • There are four primary ways in which the Internet can add value: information, entertainment, convenience and cost savings.
  • For instance, Amazon.com delivers superior convenience in finding and purchasing books.
  • Brands that integrate bricks and mortar presence with a ‘cyberspace’ presence will be formidable competitors.

 

 

Silver Bullet

We now use the term ‘silver bullet’ to refer to an action which cuts through complexity and provides an immediate solution to a problem. The allusion is to a miraculous fix, otherwise portrayed as ‘waving a magic wand’. This figurative use derives from the use of actual silver bullets and the widespread folk belief that they were the only way of killing werewolves or other supernatural beings.

 

A brand or sub-brand that positively influences the image of another brand. It can be a major factor in changing, creating or maintaining a brand image. HP Laserjet resolution enhancement is a branded feature that instantly reflects on the image of HP being a breakthrough company in printer technology.

 

 

Brand Recall.

Brand recall plays a crucial role in getting more customers to stick with your brand as well as to buy your brand repeatedly. When you as a customer buy a certain product, once the product is finished or deteriorated, instinctively you would like to purchase from the same brand, as the experience it has offered you was pleasant.  Also when a brand is out of the market and then it reappears, if you previously had a nice experience you are most probably going to purchase it again.

 

That is what brand managers call brand recall, a qualitative measure of how well a brand name is connected with a product type or class of products by consumers. Often tested through surveys or interviews, brand recall is tested by asking participants questions such as “name as many car models as possible” or “can you explain what a Scotch Brite is?”

 

How is brand recall categorized?

Generally speaking, brand recall can be divided into two main categories, namely unaided and aided recall. In terms of aided brand recall, researchers measure the extent to which a brand name is remembered when the actual brand name is brought into discussion. For example, one type of question can be “Do you remember BMW brand?”. Thus, in this example, the name of the brand is mentioned, enhancing the memory in the customer’s mind.

 

However, in order to remain competitive in today’s highly challenging business environment, managers are focusing more on unaided brand recall, as it would mean a competitive advantage against their rivals. By this we mean that if the customer can remember the brand without having it previously mentioned, then the brand has a high impact on the customer and he recalls the brand very well.

 

A brand’s value is directly connected to its presence in the memory of consumers. Quite simply, if a customer remembers a brand, he is likely to buy that brand. If he doesn’t remember it, he will buy the one he remembers. Thus, for a brand, it is important to set itself in customers memory.

 

Importance of Brand Recall

To increase their brand exposure, companies want their brand to come under unaided recall in relation to their competitors. The first brand name which is recalled (often known as “top of mind”) has a distinct advantage in brand space over others competitors, as it has the first chance of evaluation for purchase by the consumer. If a company has high brand recall, this would mean there are more chances that while buying the customer will remember it more often and would end up buying more of the brand. If this cycle continues, repeat purchases would be more. Hence Brand Recall is very important for a brand manager.

 

Brand recall vs Brand recognition

There are 2 ways to analyze whether a customer will choose a brand because of recall. These 2 ways include analyzing brand recognition and brand recall.

 

Recognition of brand can happen for example, when watching different movies where product placement has been used. Once you notice the presence of a known product in one of the scenes, you recognize the brand and become aware of the brand immediately. Now when you are in the supermarket, your brain looks at the same brand and immediately takes a decision.

 

Brand recognition is how we we access information in our memory to identify a brand. It could also be negative: you recognize a terrible ice cream brand just by looking at the logo or by not having very good memories about it. Brand recognition highly influences the decision process of the customers, and the factor that helps in brand recognition include identity, packaging and advertising.

 

Brand recall is a a different thing compare to brand recognition, as it does not come from external incentive. Consider that your dog food is over and you need to buy a new one. Different brands are going to pop up in your mind. That would be brand recall. However, without brand recognition, there can be no brand recall.

 

We usually recall brands when we think about some category and these brands come to mind. Therefore, this process is connected with our own memory and not from the environment from around us. The stronger the brand, the easier will be for the customers to recall it.

 

Brand Recall Examples

 

  • When I talk of shoes, you will probably think of Adidas, Reebok or Nike. This is one of the best example of brand recall.
  • When I talk of Premium Automobiles, you might think of Audi, Mercedes or BMW OR THANOS CAR.
  • When I talk Premium Clothing, then I am sure all of you must have a different brand in your mind because each person is different. I was thinking of making some cheap tees with sipe written on em. Want some? It’d fun if like 50 People go for a test wearing the tee. Gee… I am blushing xD 😆😆😆😅😅
  • If I ask you your favorite carbonated beverage, more than 50% will say Pepsi or Coca Cola.
  • If I ask for Noodles, Maggi it is Ladies and Gentlemen
  • If I ask for a Comedy show, then, more than 50% might say F.R.I.E.N.D.S.  Nobody praises Kya Mast hai Life dammit. Also, Two and a Half Men.
  • If I ask do some weird dance on road. Then definitely someone will know Fortnite.
  • If I find more than 2 sitting besides each other, letting the phones suck their ever living soul out of their bodies. Then PUBG it is.
  • If I say cute. Then definitely I will point at you. *winks*

 

The above are brand recall examples of the real world which help us take decisions on a daily basis. Thus, for a company to have high brand recall, is the best blessing in terms of the turnover it can obtain due to this one single factor.

 

Brand Recognition

Brand recognition is extent to which a consumer can correctly identify a particular product or service just by viewing the product or service’s logo, tagline, packaging or advertising campaign.

 

Brand recognition requires the consumer to recall prior knowledge. In order to build brand recognition, an organization must repeatedly provide consumers with a consistent visual or auditory learning experience.

 

Brand recognition can be contrasted with brand awareness, which simply means the consumer knows that a particular brand exists.

 

Brand recognition is the extent to which the general public (or an organization’s target market) is able to identify a brand by its attributes. Brand recognition, also known as “aided brand recall,” is most successful when people can state a brand without being explicitly exposed to the company’s name, but rather through visual or auditory signifiers like logos, slogans, packaging, colors or jingles as seen in advertising. It differs from brand awareness, which is merely the knowledge that a brand exists.

 

BREAKING DOWN ‘Brand Recognition’

Brand recognition is often paired with “brand recall,” which is the ability of customers to think of a brand name from their own memory when told to think of a category of products. Brand recall tends to indicate a stronger connection to a brand than brand recognition. For example, people tend to think of more brand names when prompted by a product than by a category. Brand recall is also called “unaided recall” or “spontaneous recall.”

 

To measure brand recognition and the effectiveness of promotional campaigns, many companies will perform experiments on study groups. Both aided and unaided recall tests may be used. With similar products, brand recognition will result in higher sales, even if both brands are of equal quality.

 

Brand Recognition Tips

Small businesses and big corporations alike can do much to build and maintain their brand recognition, with the goal of being “top of mind” with customers who are ready to buy online or in the store.

 

For one, a company should utilize a unique, touching or heartfelt story that lets customers know why it’s in business. Customers tend to remember brands that reach them on a personal or emotional level. Another way to build and maintain brand recognition is by providing exemplary customer service. Customers are more likely to recommend and buy products from a company they know values their patronage. Businesses should also aim to exceed their customers’ expectations and also seek to educate their customers. Being known as an expert in a certain field or being able to relate to customers and how they use the products and services they buy goes a long way in ensuring consumer loyalty. One way to accomplish this is through email newsletters or blogs that ensure that customers or prospective customers have your company in mind. Small businesses and large companies can also utilize social media to make sure that their names and products or services are in constant circulation. Of course, a company’s logo or visual theme should be used in all communications.

 

Additional : Separating brand awareness from brand recognition

First things first, if you want to make the most of your brand recognition and brand recognition strategies, then you need to understand that they aren’t the same thing. “Brand awareness” and “brand recognition” are terms that are often used interchangeably, but there are key differences between the two and you need to know those differences before you begin building offline, and online presence.

 

Brand recognition is exactly what you might expect. It’s how the members of the public, or your target audience, can “recognise” your brand. Beyond a memorable business name, a good brand recognition strategy involves developing colour schemes, logos, visual elements, and even a tone of voice that your customers can attribute to your brand.

 

When used with care, brand recognition strategies can make your company name synonymous with whatever service or product you might provide. In fact, the connection can be so deep, that some brand names have become a part of our natural language. For instance, you don’t search for a product, you “Google it”. When you want to write a memo, you don’t use a sticky note, you use a “Post-It”.

 

Most of the time, brand recognition strategies are focused on keeping your company in the eyes and minds of your customers at all times. That means creating a consistent visual and verbal strategy, ensuring that you’re on the right social media platforms, and making efforts to improve your marketing reach.

 

Though brand recognition is an obvious element of brand awareness, the definition of brand awareness is much more refined. Brand awareness is about building a connection between your company, and your customer. Rather than just knowing what your brand does, or being able to identify you from your logo, your “brand aware” customers will instantly know that your product is the best solution to their problem.

 

Brand awareness is about pinpointing what makes your company different, and using those differences to show the inherent value of your company. Though “recognition” highlights your unique aspects in terms of voice, strategy, and image, “awareness” focuses on the heart and soul of your company, everything that comes together to convince your customers to choose you over anyone else.

 

Brand Building Imperatives.

Reaching consumers via supermarket retailers remains a tough game, one in which the supermarkets  set all the rules, own the referee, and choose who can play with them. In other words, they are holding all the cards, so to remain in the game, you have to be smart, focused and innovative.

 

Building a brand is not something that happens overnight, rather it happens over an extended time, and requires vision, patience, and investment. However, the fantastic opportunities for small businesses to play with the big league opened up by digital technology has bent the rules a little. While the pace of change in marketing has accelerated over the past decade, the fundamentals of building a brand have not.

 

Building brands involves strategic and tactical imperatives that create significant organizational challenges. Yesterday’s organizational charts will need to be modified or changed; the successful brand-building companies in the coming decade will find new structures and systems

 

The strategic imperative: Creative brand identity

A basic imperative is to have a brand identity in place to guide the development and coordination of the tactical programs. This identity should have a well-defined core and generate a value proposition and/or a basis for a brand relationship.

Too often there is little effort to specify a brand identity, in part because no one is charged with that  task . One goal of the brand-building organization is to make sure that in charge and that an identity gets created.

The brand identity needs to be sufficiently rich and defined to help distinguish between on target, supportive communications and those that are inconsistent and non supportive. If the identity is fuzzy or incomplete, it will not provide real guidance—virtually any communication program will appear to be consistent.

Also needed is a vision of the brand’s future identity and roles (for example, endorser, descriptor, or driver). Unfortunately, most organizations are product driven rather than brand driven. This means that the brand’s future is dictated by the past actions of product developers. At Nestle, for example, the R&D area may produce a new product that takes advantage of novel food-processing techniques. After the product is developed, a brand name is needed; the immediate temptation is to apply an established Nestle’s name (such as Maggi, Milkmaid or Everyday or Nescafe). If there is no brand vision to guide this type of decision, an identity will drift over time, pushed into uncharted waters by incremental decisions.

The result can be a brand that is diffused and meaningless, or one that has drifted away from its core business.

 

Coordination across the Organization

In many companies, a corporate brand is shared by several businesses.

For Example: Tata brand is shared by different businesses, each with its own strategy, customer set and objectives.

 

Brand identity needs to be consistent in such cases, an organizational imperative is to create a mechanism for implementing a common, coordinated brand strategy across all business

 

If no such mechanism is in place, the brand identity is likely to be inconsistently implemented. It is imperative to have a brand guide outlining the do’s and don’ts of brand communication.

 

Coordination Across Media

Another imperative is to create mechanism to coordinate brand building activities across diverse media options which include events, sponsorship, clubs and loyalty programs, direct response marketing, public relations, publicity, promotions, events stores, packaging and design. All communication about the brand has to be consistent with the brand guidelines

 

Coordination Across Markets

When a brand is active in multiple markets, a final imperative is to coordinate  strategy and tactics across those markets in order to build synergy and economies of scales while remaining flexible enough to adjust to each market’s unique characteristics . The task is usually complicated by the many functional areas that influence brand building such as advertising, sales and market research among others

 

 

Brand Equity Manager.

The Answer for this was taken from a Job Description…..

 

The Brand Equity Manager is responsible for building and stewarding the resort s brand as well as directing all efforts involved in the content and creative aspects of making the brand come to life.

 

This person will essentially be the voice of the brand, and will direct and contract agencies, vendors and other partners (internal and external) to ensure the brand s voice, guidelines and all aspects of the brand ladder back up to clearly defined brand guidelines.

 

Responsibilities include, but are not limited to:

  • Develop brand strategy and evolution of the resort brand, as well as seasonal campaigns
  • Oversee development of an annual Creative and Content production plan
  • Direct schedule, track KPIs, direct creative fulfillment from vendors and optimize to performance.
  • Direct fulfillment of all needs for creative and content marketing assets, including, but not limited to: digital banner ads, landing pages, blog posts, social media, CRM campaigns, printed collateral, signage, and more.
  • Direct and negotiate all creative agency relationships, as well as establish a resource network of content / creative vendors and contractors.
  • Communicate performance metrics with stakeholders on analytics of creative performance
  • Direct evolution of brand guidelines and communicate to stakeholders to ensure on-brand executions
  • Provide day to day oversight of Sr. Specialist and Content Specialist
  • Partner with the marketing team on various other elements of fulfilling on overall marketing strategy and execution

 

Qualifications:

 

Four-year college degree required. Emphasis in marketing, business and/or communications preferred.

 

  • Brand marketing experience is a must.
  • Supervisory experience
  • Strong Word, Excel, and Creative / Content design skill sets for various applications
  • Excellent English language and writing / storytelling skills.
  • Excellent eye for creative design
  • High degree of organization, attention to details and level of professional conduct.
  • Self-starter, ambitious and multi-tasker.

 

 

Global Brand Manager.

I did not find exact Answer for this. But I tried my best.

 

Working in a variety of industries, global marketing managers often specialize in product development or market research and communicate with international partners. Read the job description, duties, education requirements, salary and employment outlook to decide if this is the right spot for you.

 

Global marketing managers are responsible for maximizing their firms’ international market share and profits. Global marketing requires being aware of global market trends and developing products that meet international demands. Global marketing managers also work to establish competitive and profitable pricing strategies.

 

Required Education

Most global marketing managers have bachelor’s or master’s degrees in business administration. Coursework typically focuses on marketing and includes classes in economics, management, finance, and international business law. Many successful global marketing managers serve as interns at firms during their last years of college; global marketing managers typically arrive at their positions through gradual promotion from more junior roles.

 

Skills Required

Global marketing managers are creative idea-generators. They are often competitive and decisive by nature. Since they frequently communicate with businessmen and women from other countries, global marketing managers who are fluent in more than one language have an advantage in gaining foreign clients, according to the Business Marketing Association, www.bma.org.

 

Brand Revitalization.

The marketing strategy employed when a brand has reached maturity and profits begin to decline. Approaches to revitalisation may include one or all of market expansion, product modification or brand repositioning.

 

A brand revitalisation programme involves approaches to reclaim lost avenues of brand equity. It also seeks to identify and establish new sources of brand equity. Examining changes in the marketing environment, competitors’ strategies, consumer behaviour, evolutions of cultures and many other factors can help determine brand erosion and aid brand development.

 

The Brand Revitalization is the marketing strategy adopted when the product reaches the maturity stage of product life cycle, and profits have fallen drastically. It is an attempt to bring the product back in the market and secure the sources of equity i.e. customers.

 

Example: Mountain Dew, A Pepsi product, was launched in 1969 with the tagline “Yahoo Mountain Dew” that flourished in the market till 1990. After that the sales of mountain dew declined due to which it was re-positioned, its packaging was changed, and the tagline was changed to “Do the Dew”. It targeted the young males showing their audacity in performing the adventurous sports. This led the Mountain Dew to the fifth position in the beverage industry.

 

Despite a good reinforcement strategy, a product has to be revitalized because of some uncontrollable factors such as competition, the invention of new technology, change in tastes and preferences of customers, legal requirements, etc.

The brand has to be revitalized because of the following reasons:

Increased Competition

Increased Competition in the market is one of the major reasons for the product to go under the brand revitalization. In order to meet with the offerings and technology of competitor, the company has to design its brand accordingly so as to sustain in the market.

 

Brand Relevance

The Brand Relevance plays a major role in capturing the market. The brand should be modified in accordance with the changes in tastes and preferences of customers i.e. it should cater the need of target market.

 

Globalization

Nowadays Globalization has become an integral part of any business. In order to meet the different needs of different customers residing in different countries the brand has to be revitalized accordingly.

 

Mergers and Acquisitions

Sometimes Mergers and Acquisitions demand the brand revitalization. When two or more companies combine, they want the product to be designed from the scratch in a way that it appeals to both and benefits each simultaneously.

 

Technology

Technology is something that is changing rapidly. In order to meet with the latest trend, the companies have to adopt the new technology due to which the product can go under complete revitalization.

 

Legal Issues

Some Legal Issues may force a brand to go under brand revitalization such as copyrights, bankruptcy, etc. In such situations, the brand has to be designed accordingly, and the branding is to be done in line with the legal requirements.

In order to overcome the problems mentioned above following are some ways through which Brand Revitalization can be done:

 

To Overcome the Problems

Following are some ways through which Brand Revitalization can be done:

 

Increased Product Use

The Usage of a product can be increased by continuously reminding about the brand to customers through advertisements. The benefits of the frequent use of a product can be communicated to increase the consumption, e.g., the usage of Head & Shoulders on every alternate day can reduce dandruff.

 

Finding New Users

The untapped market can be occupied by understanding the needs of the new market segment. The brand revitalization can be done to cater to the needs of new customers, e.g.; Johnson n Johnson is a baby product company but due to its mild product line the same can be used by ladies to have a soft skin and hair.

 

Enter New Market

The brand can be revitalized by entering into an entirely New Market. The best example for this is Wipro, who has entered into a baby product line.

 

RePositioning

Another way of getting the brand revitalized is through the Re-positioning. It means changing any of the 4 P’s of marketing mix viz. Product, price, place and promotion.The best example of repositioning is Tata Nano. On its launch, it was tagged as the “cheapest Car” that hurt the sentiments of customers, and the sales fell drastically. To revive the sales, the new campaign was launched “Celebrate Awesomeness” that re-positioned its image in the minds of the customer.

 

Augmenting Product and Services

A brand can be revitalized by Augmenting the Product and Services. The company should try to give something extra along with the product that is not expected by the customer. Some additional benefits can revive the brand in the market e.g. A plastic container comes with a surf excel 1 Kg pack that can be used for any other purpose.

 

Customer Involvement

The brand can be modified through the Involvement of Customers The feedback about the product and services can be taken from ultimate consumer and changes can be made accordingly. Customer involvement is best seen in service sector wherein feedback forms are filled in at the time of availing the services such as hotels, restaurants, clubs, flights, trains, etc.

 

This shows that brand revitalization is an essential to the success of any product. The firm takes all the necessary steps to keep its product very much alive in the market.

 

Mixed Branding

Mixed branding — to clarify — is a strategy of producing the same good but marketing it to different segments under different names. The segmentation does not have to be price-related. The great example is Toyota and Lexus. Toyota in the U.S. was perceived as a “value” brand and Lexus targeted the more expensive market.

 

When shoppers visit any retail outlet, they are confronted by a multitude of brands for the same product. Some of these brands carry prestigious and well-recognized corporate names, as well as a higher price tag, while others have words like “Save” or “Value” in the name, with a corresponding price. Customers are often unaware that many manufacturers produce both the corporate-brand product and its value-brand counterpart.

 

Sub-Branding

Companies often create sub-brands to appeal to a specific segment of their target market. A manufacturer may market one brand as for its middle-income customers and use another to target high-income prospects, even though the products have little to no inherent difference. For instance, Toyota makes all types of vehicles under its own name and markets them as reliable, inexpensive cars and trucks. However, the company also markets the cars produced under its Lexus brand as luxury vehicles.

 

Store Branding

One method that manufacturers use to develop relationships with retailers is to develop store brands. The product comes from the manufacturer, but the branding carries the store’s name. For example, Michelin manufactures and sells tires under its own name, but it also allows retail giant Sears to place its name on Michelin tires. The “Sears-brand” tires that customers purchase at a Sears Auto Center are actually Michelin tires carrying the Sears name.

 

Co-Branding

Companies that have complementary products will often work together to raise awareness of their specific brands. This “co-branding” approach allows customers who are loyal to one brand or the other to see for themselves how the products work together. A major example of co-branding occurred when Post began including brand-name fruits in its cereals, such as Ocean Spray cranberries in its Cranberry Almond Crunch and Sun-Maid raisins in its Raisin Bran.

 

Private Label Branding

Another method of mixed branding develops when manufacturers create brands that are sold exclusively in specific retail outlets but do not carry the retailer’s name. This “private label” branding allows manufacturers to place many different products under the same brand. The Archer Farms brand of ice cream, coffee and snacks is available exclusively at Target department stores, just as the 365 Everyday Value product line is only available at Whole Foods Markets.

 

Other examples include:

  • Microsoft and Xbox – Microsoft was considered a “serious corporate” brand, Xbox was new and crazy.
  • Skin Simple is a product by Elizabeth Arden, but it’s designed for a specific channel, namely Walmart.

 

There are three main variants of this strategy:

  • Sub-branding – (Gillette for Women, which later became Venus, a completely separate brand).
  • Store-branding – (Elizabeth Arden cosmetics are sold in Walmart under Skin Simple brand).
  • Co-branding – (Dish washing powder that smells of Lenor washing liquid, it’s a Co-Branding within P&G portfolio of brands).

 

Interbrand

Interbrand’s Top Brands Interbrand, a UK-based branding consulting company, used a very different approach to identify the strongest brands in the world. Its a set of criteria, chosen subjectively, included the business prospects of the brand and the brand’s market environment, as well as consumer perceptions. Five hundred brands were evaluated based on seven criteria

 

  1. Leadership –

A brand that leads its market sector is more stable and powerful than the second, third, and fourth place brands. This criterion reflects economies of scale for the first-place brand in communication and distribution, as well as the problems that also-rans have in maintaining distribution and avoiding price erosion.

 

  1. Stability –

Long-lived brands with identities that have become part of the fabric of the market-and even the culture-are particularly powerful and valuable.

 

  1. Market –

Brand Brands are more valuable when they are in markets with growing or stable sales levels and a price structure in which successful firms can be profitable. Some markets, such as frozen dinner and some areas of consumer electronics, are so rife with debilitating price competition that the prospects of any brand being profitable are dim.

 

  1. International –

Brands that are international are more valuable than nation or regional brands, in part because of economies of scale. More generally, the broader the market scope of a brand, the more valuable it is; a national brand is worth more than a regional brand.

 

  1. Trend –

The overall long-term trend of the brand in terms of sales can be expected to reflect future prospects. A healthy, growing brand indicates that it remains contemporary and relevant to consumers.

 

  1. Support –

Brands that have received consistent investment and focused support are regarded as stronger than those that have not. However, the quality of support should be considered along with the level of support.

 

  1. Protection –

The strength and breadth of a brand’s legal trademark protection is critical to the brand’s strength.

 

Based upon these criteria, Interbrand determined that the top ten brands in the world in 1990 were as follows

  1. Coca-Cola
  2. Kellogg’s
  3. McDonald’s
  4. Kodak
  5. Marlboro
  6. IBM
  7. American Express
  8. Sony
  9. Mercedes-Benz
  10. Nescafe

 

The business-oriented (versus consumer-oriented) view of the Interbrand criteria is useful in part because it is a step closer to putting a financial value on the brand-in fact, Interbrand uses its brand ratings to determine a multiplier to apply to earnings. The subjectivity of both the criteria and the assessment of the brands, however, make the dimensions difficult to defend and affects the reliability of the resulting measures.

 

It is easy to challenge the assumptions reflected in the dimensions. Small niche brands, for instance, may be more profitable than so called leadership brands. Older brands may lose their brand strength. The ability of a market to create or protect margins is difficult to project. A local brand can have advantages in connecting with customers, and thus it may be more profitable than an international brand that must deal with substantial coordination problems. Growth in brand sales, especially if obtained by sacrificing margins, is not necessarily healthy. Further, the Interbrand system does not consider the potential of the brand to support extensions into other product classes. Brand support may be ineffective; spending money on advertising does necessarily indicate effective brand building. Trademark protection, although necessary, does not of itself create brand value.

The Brand Manager

Brand Managers  have traditionally had  strategic and tactical responsibility for their brand , including having responsibility for the brand identity and position , maintaining that identity by securing needed investments and make sure that all media efforts are consistent with the identity .

 

The brand manager’s role was first developed by Procter & Gamble in the mid- 1930s for brands representing distinct business of manageable size, is now being applied in more complex organization

 

One problem is that the brand manager is charged with tactical programs that require day-to-day firefighting.

 

It is difficult to focus on strategy issues when there is always a crisis to be dealt with. Further, the brand manager is inevitably rewarded on the basis of short-term measures such as sales and profits.

 

He or she thus lacks the motivation to engage in programs that build brands, or to stop programs that risk brand equity.

 

Successful managers are often rewarded with a promotion that takes them away from the brand a practice that also reduces the incentive to do long-term brand building.

 

To make sure that strategic, long-term brand building takes place, strategic objectives and a clear brand identity need to supplement the short-term sales and profit goals.

 

Strategic brand objectives should include brand equity dimensions such as loyalty, brand image, and brand awareness, and they should be sufficiently operational so that they can truly guide programs and tactics and be used as a basis for performance appraisal and compensation.

 

Brand Equity manager

Some firms have separated brand strategy from the implementation of the marketing program. A brand equity manager (sometimes labeled as a brand manager) is in charge of creating and maintaining the brand identity and coordinating it over products and markets

 

Implementation brand strategy is then conducted by tactically-focused managers or (in the case of some large organizations such as Marriott, General Motors, and Hallmark) functional organizational units.

 

The brand equity manager monitors, reviews, and perhaps approves the tactics from a brand strategy perspective

 

Range Brand Manager

Firms with range brands are naturally organized by products. As a result, the brand is usually managed by different people in different contexts and with different objectives. A solution is the range brand manager–one person who looks after the strategic interests of the brand across the different businesses.

 

The range brand manager supports the brand by making sure that there’ is an overall brand strategy accepted by everyone and that managers are sensitive to both the need to support the brand identity and the need to avoid inconsistencies.

 

This task involves developing communication vehicles that maximize brand identity synergies across the organization.

Global Brand Manager

IDV, the spirits business of Grand Metropolitan, has extended the brand equity manager concept to a global operation

 

Each country has a complement of national brand managers, each of whom is charged with marketing his or her respective.

 

However, the major IDV brands also have a global brand manager (in the case of Smirnoff, this person is president of the Pierre Smirnoff Company) who is charged with developing a brand identity worldwide, ensuring that the companies in each country are faithful to the brand strategy, communicating and facilitating best practices, and encouraging consistency and synergy across countries.

 

This concept has been extended to Grand Met Pillsbury operations for brands such as Green Giant and Haagen-Dazs.

 

The fact that the global brand manager and the national operations that have different perspectives and objectives creates a tension that Grand Met considers to be healthy. For many decisions (for example, of an ad agency for a country), the two organizations must reach consensus.

 

For other decisions, the country management is given some leeway but within clear guidelines. Thus the Smirnoff “Pure Thrill” advertising campaign featuring scenes as seen through a Smirnoff bottle (as discussed in Chapter 7) plays all over the world, but it is adapted to each individual country by using locally meaningful scenes or characters.

 

The CEO

In some firms the CEO is in charge of the brand, and all decisions that put the brand at risk need to be approved at the top. The CEO, of course, has the authority to cross business units to prevent risky programs or to provide resources when and where they are needed.

 

Further, at least theoretically, he or she should have a long-term perspective. Unfortunately, the CEO also has a host of objectives involving operational measures (such as sales, costs, profits, and new products), many of which conflict with brand building. Moreover, the CEO must answer to a variety of constituencies (including shareholders, employees, customers, and retailers) while running a complex business. These multiple responsibilities make it difficult for a CEO to have single-minded concentration on building and protecting the brand.

 

The Brand Champion

In practice, brand stewardship is often housed at the highest level of the organization in some variant of the “CEO in charge” model. Typically the brand manager will put forth proposals and programs, and a senior management team will review them.

 

This team is usually the de facto guardian of the brand, resisting efforts that may risk the brand franchise and encouraging programs that will enhance it. Despite their strategic perspective, though, such teams usually are spread thin over many brands and thus lack in-depth understanding of the current brand context. As a result, their oversight can be somewhat ad hoc.

 

One solution, used by Nestle, is to create brand champions senior executives who look after a single brand. Their responsibilities are similar to those of brand equity managers, except the brand champion is at the highest level of the organization. Further, because a top executive is involved, it is natural and appropriate for the scope of oversight to include all of the brand’s business areas in all of the countries where the brand is active.

 

The Category Manager

The category manager role was created in response to the need for parries to think more broadly about efficiencies in distribution and logistics. When a brand identity is lied to a category (such as oral hygiene products), the category manager is in a good position to manage the brand strategically by developing strategies and programs among sub brands and across products within the category. Coordinating with one or two other category managers will be simpler than working with a dozen brand managers.

 

Even when a category manager is responsible for multiple brands, his or her overview perspective can still be useful in coordinating adjacent and related brands. Gillette toiletries, for example, include Right Guard, a Gillette Series (for men), White Rain, Dry Idea, and Gillette Foamy; Procter & Gamble has seven soaps and several detergents. Individual brand managers, without a category-level perspective, may not necessarily manage their brands optimally in relation to others in the category. The result may be cannibalization problems among too-similar brands.

 

The problem is that the category manager is often under even more pressure (from retailers and others) than managers of individual products to deliver efficiency and low prices. Brand building will not automatically be a priority.

SmithKline Beecham the maker of Turns antacid, Contac cold medication and oral care products such as Aqua fresh has established a global category management structure. Each category management team has research, brand, and market groups that report to a category management director at the vice-presidential level. The category management team is charged with developing ways to expand existing brands and offering new concepts for brand groups around the world.

 

The Brand Committee

Coordination across businesses can be addressed by a committee that spans the organization. Hewlett-Packard, for example, has a brand equity committee of communication executives representing the divisions that use the HP name. The role of these executives is to develop an identity position for HP, to make sure it is communicated, and to facilitate coordination and synergy in the brand-building activities.

 

The Communications Coordinator

To reduce the coordination problem and to increase opportunities for synergy, a firm can centralize the various communications functions under a single manager. Clorox, Coca-Cola, General Foods, and others have taken this route, placing a senior manager over such functional areas as advertising, media, consumer promotions, marketing research, marketing information services, and consumer response/ promotion services. The problem with this approach is that line management is not involved, and staff functions often lack clout, especially when overall budgets are squeezed.

 

Another problem is that centralized efforts often run counter to the current management imperative to flatten the organization. Torn Peters, in Liberation Management, is one of many current gurus who preach that the modern organization must remove bureaucracy and flatten the organization dramatically by putting managers on the front lines, removing layers of management, decentralizing, and empowering. Such an approach is appealing because it promises to improve productivity, responsiveness, and energy; however, it can make coordination of brand strategies more difficult. In that context, a brand equity manager or brand champion might be needed.

 

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