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Advertising in Contemporary Society – Answer Bank

eppy

@kalingad_dynasty

Case Study #1

Social Marketing Campaign Case Study using Internet, Cause

In Paper we are asked to create a Social Marketing Strategy, and also asked its Importance and definition. There are various subjects of Social Marketing. And we will be asked to make on selective few.

What is Social Marketing

There are many approaches to obtaining a societal change through effective social cause marketing, but the central tenant always remains the same: the social good is always the primary focus. Whether it’s trying to convince the public to stop smoking or encouraging men in developing countries to use condoms, the focus is always on the public good first.

 

The health communications field has been rapidly changing over the past two decades. It has evolved from a one-dimensional reliance on public service announcements to a more sophisticated approach which draws from successful techniques used by commercial marketers, termed “social marketing.” Rather than dictating the way that information is to be conveyed from the top-down, public health professionals are learning to listen to the needs and desires of the target audience themselves, and building the program from there. This focus on the “consumer” involves in-depth research and constant re-evaluation of every aspect of the program. In fact, research and evaluation together form the very cornerstone of the social marketing process.

 


This is a Pre-solved Social Marketing Case Study. And there will be explanation of each point right below this.

 


Social Marketing Case Study Format and Examples

Social marketing was “born” as a discipline in the 1970s, when Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman realized that the same marketing principles that were being used to sell products to consumers could be used to “sell” ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Kotler and Andreasen define social marketing as “differing from other areas of marketing only with respect to the objectives of the marketer and his or her organization. Social marketing seeks to influence social behaviors not to benefit the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.” This technique has been used extensively in international health programs, especially for contraceptives and oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and is being used with more frequency in the United States for such diverse topics as drug abuse, heart disease and organ donation.

 

Like commercial marketing, the primary focus is on the consumer–on learning what people want and need rather than trying to persuade them to buy what we happen to be producing. Marketing talks to the consumer, not about the product. The planning process takes this consumer focus into account by addressing the elements of the “marketing mix.” This refers to decisions about 1) the conception of a Product, 2) Price, 3) distribution (Place), and 4) Promotion. These are often called the “Four Ps” of marketing. Social marketing also adds a few more “P’s.” At the end is an example of the marketing mix.

 

Product

The social marketing “product” is not necessarily a physical offering. A continuum of products exists, ranging from tangible, physical products (e.g., condoms), to services (e.g., medical exams), practices (e.g., breastfeeding, ORT or eating a heart-healthy diet) and finally, more intangible ideas (e.g., environmental protection). In order to have a viable product, people must first perceive that they have a genuine problem, and that the product offering is a good solution for that problem. The role of research here is to discover the consumers’ perceptions of the problem and the product, and to determine how important they feel it is to take action against the problem.

 

Price

“Price” refers to what the consumer must do in order to obtain the social marketing product. This cost may be monetary, or it may instead require the consumer to give up intangibles, such as time or effort, or to risk embarrassment and disapproval. If the costs outweigh the benefits for an individual, the perceived value of the offering will be low and it will be unlikely to be adopted. However, if the benefits are perceived as greater than their costs, chances of trial and adoption of the product is much greater.

 

In setting the price, particularly for a physical product, such as contraceptives, there are many issues to consider. If the product is priced too low, or provided free of charge, the consumer may perceive it as being low in quality. On the other hand, if the price is too high, some will not be able to afford it. Social marketers must balance these considerations, and often end up charging at least a nominal fee to increase perceptions of quality and to confer a sense of “dignity” to the transaction. These perceptions of costs and benefits can be determined through research, and used in positioning the product.

 

Place

“Place” describes the way that the product reaches the consumer. For a tangible product, this refers to the distribution system–including the warehouse, trucks, sales force, retail outlets where it is sold, or places where it is given out for free. For an intangible product, place is less clear-cut, but refers to decisions about the channels through which consumers are reached with information or training. This may include doctors’ offices, shopping malls, mass media vehicles or in-home demonstrations. Another element of place is deciding how to ensure accessibility of the offering and quality of the service delivery. By determining the activities and habits of the target audience, as well as their experience and satisfaction with the existing delivery system, researchers can pinpoint the most ideal means of distribution for the offering.

 

Promotion

Finally, the last “P” is promotion. Because of its visibility, this element is often mistakenly thought of as comprising the whole of social marketing. However, as can be seen by the previous discussion, it is only one piece. Promotion consists of the integrated use of advertising, public relations, promotions, media advocacy, personal selling and entertainment vehicles. The focus is on creating and sustaining demand for the product. Public service announcements or paid ads are one way, but there are other methods such as coupons, media events, editorials, “Tupperware”-style parties or in-store displays. Research is crucial to determine the most effective and efficient vehicles to reach the target audience and increase demand. The primary research findings themselves can also be used to gain publicity for the program at media events and in news stories.

 

Additional Social Marketing “P’s”
Publics

Social marketers often have many different audiences that their program has to address in order to be successful. “Publics” refers to both the external and internal groups involved in the program. External publics include the target audience, secondary audiences, policymakers, and gatekeepers, while the internal publics are those who are involved in some way with either approval or implementation of the program.

 

Partnership

Social and health issues are often so complex that one agency can’t make a dent by itself. You need to team up with other organizations in the community to really be effective. You need to figure out which organizations have similar goals to yours–not necessarily the same goals–and identify ways you can work together.

 

Policy

Social marketing programs can do well in motivating individual behavior change, but that is difficult to sustain unless the environment they’re in supports that change for the long run. Often, policy change is needed, and media advocacy programs can be an effective complement to a social marketing program.

Purse Strings

Most organizations that develop social marketing programs operate through funds provided by sources such as foundations, governmental grants or donations. This adds another dimension to the strategy development-namely, where will you get the money to create your program?

 

Example of a Marketing Mix Strategy

  • As an example, the marketing mix strategy for a breast cancer screening campaign for older women might include the following elements:
  • The product could be any of these three behaviors: getting an annual mammogram, seeing a physician each year for a breast exam and performing monthly breast self-exams.
  • The price of engaging in these behaviors includes the monetary costs of the mammogram and exam, potential discomfort and/or embarrassment, time and even the possibility of actually finding a lump.
  • The place that these medical and educational services are offered might be a mobile van, local hospitals, clinics and worksites, depending upon the needs of the target audience.
  • Promotion could be done through public service announcements, billboards, mass mailings, media events and community outreach.
  • The “public” you might need to address include your target audience (let’s say low-income women age 40 to 65), the people who influence their decisions like their husbands or physicians, policymakers, public service directors at local radio stations, as well as your board of directors and office staff.
  • Partnerships could be cultivated with local or national women’s groups, corporate sponsors, medical organizations, service clubs or media outlets.
  • The policy aspects of the campaign might focus on increasing access to mammograms through lower costs, requiring insurance and Medicaid coverage of mammograms or increasing federal funding for breast cancer research.
  • The purse strings, or where the funding will come from, maybe governmental grants, such as from the National Cancer Institute or the local health department, foundation grants or an organization like the American Cancer Society.

 

Each element of the marketing mix should be taken into consideration as the program is developed, for they are the core of the marketing effort. Research is used to elucidate and shape the final product, price, place, promotion and related decisions.

Child labour is the practice of having children engage in economic activity, on part- or full-time basis. The practice deprives children of their childhood, and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty, lack of good schools and growth of informal economy are considered as the important causes of child labour in India.

 

Product:

India is home  to close to 13 million children child labourers under 14. Our  campaign, “Little Hands in Sorrow” is an initiative to make child labour socially and culturally unacceptable.

Currently we are working across 200 villages in  Bihar & UP to remove children from exploitative working conditions and rehabilitate them and support their education.

 

We will now be taking this initiative forward  to Maharashtra State. The campaign would be launched on 06th June at Oval maidan Mumbai  and would be followed by activities and workshops for children conducted at most public and private schools and colleges.  We shall be celebrating “World Day Against Child Labour” on the 12th of June .

 

Price:

As there are tangible and intangible costs , we shall be bifurcating them properly . Cost of Rs 75  lakhs for three months , will be towards free stationery, one time meal for children, merchandise such as tee shirts , wrist bands etc and marketing collaterals such as flyers , banners, etc. A small remuneration & food will be paid to the volunteers who will be participating in the initiative  The workshops and activities would be done for free of cost

 

Place:  

Entire Maharashtra would be covered within three months . We shall also be targeting smaller cities like Raigad, Sangli, Amravati ,Satara, Palghar, Dhule, Jalgaon, Parbhani, Beed, etc as well as  Urban areas .such Pune, Nagpur , Nasik, Aurangabad , Solapur

 

There shall be various awareness programs and activities at different places . In cities it will be held  in different places such as malls, outside railway stations, colleges , schools, slums etc. while in rural areas it will be held  at places such as outside gram panchayat office ,railway station etc.

 

Promotion:

Write about which medium you will be choosing and how you will be utilizing it.

  • Print
  • Television
  • Billboard
  • Radio
  • Internet
  • Transit advertising
  • Banners
  • Leaflets
  • Street play

 

Additional Social Marketing “ P’s “

Policies

We work with state authorities & civil society organisations to free children engaged in labour and working to withdraw 50,000 child domestic workers from domestic help. We shall  instrumental in the creation of a national child protection system.

 

We will be  working across 200 villages in  Maharashtra to remove children from exploitative working conditions and rehabilitate them and support their education. Along with our action to remove children from exploitative working situations, we mobilize public opinion and demand policy and legislative action to abolish child labour in all its forms.

 

Partnerships:

Our initiative “Little Hands in Sorrow” is ably partnered by Aditya Birla group, Reliance, Times Group and Doordarshan

 

The Campaign is in tie up with the “International Labour Organisations (ILO)” “The Children Protection Department Of Maharashtra” .

 

Politics

The Government School’s are involved in the campaign to visit public schools and enlightening about the right to children education protection. The Chief Minister of the State, Shri Devendra Fadnavis, along with the Hon’ble Minister, Smt. Maneka Sanjay Gandhi of “Ministry of Women & Child Development” would be supporting the campaign and would be launching it on the 6th of June along with the actor “Deepika PadUK one”

 

Purse Strings:

Funds will be provided by the Maharashtra Government and grants to the “Little Hands in Sorrow” Campaign. Would be generating funds by donations given for the cause ” and at “Education Workshops”.

 

Publics:

Publics refer to both the external and internal groups involved in the program such as Rural and Urban public, policy makers, gatekeepers , implementers of the campaign etc.

 

Your agency has been appointed to prepare the Advertising strategy. What are the environmental & global factors that would be a challenge to the Advertising in any of the two foreign countries chosen from the different groups? (Both the countries cannot be from same group).

Can also be asked, Outline Socio Cultural Factors

 

________________

 

GROUP I

U.S.A, U.K, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, SPAIN, DENMARK, SWEDEN , AUSTRIA

____

GROUP II

CHINA, JAPAN, BRAZIL, RUSSIA. SOUTH KOREA

____

GROUP III

SAUDI ARABIA, BAHRAIN , QATAR, KUWAIT

____

 

1) Write about the product that you have selected and explain about it. List out its pros, cons, and how it is unique. Be the Wolf of the Wall Street come on!!! Make Assumptions about the product, after which you can determine your target audience

2) Describe your target audience. You cannot determine the advertising strategy if you do not know your target audience.

3) Write the basic elements of International Advertising challenges .

  • Demographic Environment

  • Economic level

  • Natural Environment

  • Technological Environment

  • Education

  • Language

  • Legal

  • Political Environment

  • Social Environment

  • Beliefs

  • Cultural ( values, behaviour,likes, dislikes, media choice, etc.)

  • Cultural Dimensions (PDI : IC: MF: RI) Write about the five dimensions

    • PDI Power Index

    • MFI Masculinity-Femininity Index

    • CI Individualist-Communalist Index

    • RTI Risk Taking Index

  • Media Limitations

  • Colours and Numbers

4) Write about one country that you have selected and explain each of the dimensions mentioned above.

5) Write your USP and the ad strategy based on the analysis of the dimensions you have mentioned

6) Mention the Media you will use, and why you thought it was efficient


 

 
I have written few Points and a Description about each Country. Please look into it. I have not seen a good descriptive version, anywhere, at all, which is why I have done it. I have made use of Wikipedia for the same. I might have missed few points, forgive me for the same. If there is anything else which is required, please reach out to me. You are only supposed to write about the Points mentioned above. I have written extra for the sake of understanding, and a more elaborate idea.
 

 

Data for Case Study #2

USA

Developed Nation, 50 States. A nation of immigrants. It is culturally diverse. American friendliness and informality is legendary. They are direct in the ways they communicate. They value logic and linear thinking and expect people to speak clearly and in a straightforward manner. Time is money in USA. so people get to the point immediately. Handshake is a common greeting. In most situations you can begin calling people by their first names. It is an individualistic society and the power distance is narrow. They are risk takers and not male or female dominated society

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

Religion

The Nation has more than 70% Christians, 20% Catholics, 1% Hinduism, 0.9% Islamism, etc.

 

Family Structure

As of 2007, 58% of Americans age 18 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 25% had never been married. Women now work mostly outside the home and receive a majority of bachelor’s degrees. The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is 26.5 per 1,000 women.

Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western countries).

 

Same-sex marriage is legal nationwide and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U.S.

 

Health

The United States has a life expectancy of 79.8 years at birth, up from 75.2 years in 1990.The infant mortality rate of 6.17 per thousand places the United States 56th-lowest out of 224 countries.

 

Legal

The United States is the world’s oldest surviving federation. It is a representative democracy, “in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law”.

 

Foreign Relations

The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. However, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the Republic of China (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States (although the U.S. still maintains relations with Taiwan and supplies it with military equipment).

 

Crime

Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff’s departments, with state police providing broader services. The New York City Police Department (NYPD) is the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts’ rulings and federal laws.

 

Science and Technology

The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th century.

 

Economy

The United States has a Capitalist Mixed Economy, the U.S. GDP OF 16.8 trillion, Currency is Dollar

 

Language

Languages spoken are English and the Second Language is Spanish. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language. Advertising will be done in one or more of these languages based on areas where the respective languages are spoken.

 

Power Distribution Index [PDI]

PDI is low .This shows that the power distribution is pretty equal and does not have differences in wealth and power. So, the ads can be standard for all groups.  The power index is narrow.

 

Individualist-Communalist

USA is a very individualist culture. Even a child makes up his/her own mind as to the brand they want.

 

Masculinity Vs Femininity

Both male and females have almost the same power. So our product will not only target only the females but also  for males

 

Low Context Culture.

USA is a low context culture and need verbal communication and details specified. Ads have to be informative. They value logic and linear thinking. You have to tell them how it is. They do not believe in subtle communication. One has to get to the point quickly.

 

Individualistic or collectivist Culture

USA is a very individualist culture. Even a child makes up his/her own mind as to the brand they want.

 

Risk Taking Index

They try new product without hesitation

 

Masculine/Feminine Index

Both male and females have almost the same power

 

Power Index

The power index is narrow.

 

Long Vs Short

Long Term approach

 

Media

The press has its own individual identity. Online advertising is mostly used for promotions


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. Island , Developed, Made Up Of England , Scotland, Wales & Northern Ireland.

 

Climate

The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round.

 

Political

Constitutional Monarchy, Head Queen, Commonwealth Country. The United Kingdom is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is the monarch and head of state of the UK, as well as fifteen other independent countries. These sixteen countries are sometimes referred to as “Commonwealth realms”.

 

Economy

Pound Sterling, 5th Largest Economy, 3rd Largest Currency Reserve, 9th Largest Economy by Purchasing Power. So, it will be Easy To Launch the product. The UK has a partially regulated market economy.[229] Based on market exchange rates, the UK is today the fifth-largest economy in the world and the second-largest in Europe after Germany.

 

Language

Mono Linguistic, English. Advertising can Be Done in One or More of These Languages Based on Areas where Respective Languages Are Spoken.

 

Foreign Relations

The UK is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of NATO, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G7 finance ministers, the G7 forum, the G20, the OECD, the WTO, the Council of Europe, the OSCE. It is also a member state of the European Union in the process of withdrawal. The UK is said to have a “Special Relationship” with the United States and a close partnership with France—the “Entente cordiale”—and shares nuclear weapons technology with both countries

 

Technology

High, Powerful, Advanced In Digital Platform

 

Power Distribution Index [PDI]

PDI Is Low. This Shows That The Power Distribution Is Pretty Equal And Does Not Have Differences In Wealth And Power. So, The Ads Can Be Standard For All Groups.

 

Individualist-Communalist

The Individualism of UK Is Very High. The People Here Are Highly Individualist And Private People. These People From Birth Are Taught To Think About Themselves And Their Personal Fulfillment. UK Follows More Of “Me” Culture. Thus our Product will Give them an Identity and Use Our Product With Pride.

 

Masculinity Vs Femininity

UK Is More of a Male Dominated Society. Highly Success Oriented. People In UK live in Order To Work and Have A Clear Performance Ambition. So our Product Will Not Only Target Only The Females But Also  For Males

 

Uncertainty Avoidance Index UAI

Uncertainty Avoidance Index is Low. Here People Are More Happy To ‘Make It Up As They Go Along’ Changing Plans As New Information Comes To Light. So we are Planning To Launch Our Brand Here In UK . As It Is A Great Platform For Us To Extend Our Business.

 

Long Vs Short

UK Has A Long-term Orientation. Here People Take A More Pragmatic Approach. So If We Launch Our Product Here They Will Probably Try It As They Don’t Believe In Linking Their Norms Towards Anything And Think More Of What Is Of Use In Future

 

Media

Biggest & Oldest Network BBC, Highest Internet Users Radio, Television, Internet,

 

Legal

Can’t Use Gender Discrimination / Religious Discrimination / Slang

 

Conclusion

To draw up an advertising strategy based on the above parameters, it wouldn’t be a problem as the audience is more open in its outlook and the language, media aspects are well-defined


China

China, officially the People’s Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world’s most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. It is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area.

 

Climate

China’s climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist. The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country’s highly complex topography.

 

Media

More than 2,701 websites are or were blocked in mainland China under the country’s policy of Internet censorship,

 

Newspapers – Global Times, China Youth Daily

 

Chinese consumers tend to rely more on word-of-mouth communications. The concept of the family is important to the Chinese and is thus played up in ads.

 

The content of ads within a society mirrors that of the society. In countries high in  collectivism, as in China, more group-oriented situations are shown in ads.

 

In China Ads have to be truthful; companies must provide proof to back up what if advertised

 

The content of ads within a society mirrors that of the society; and more group oriented situations in China which is a collective society. Motivation and psychological appeal is used.

 

Economy

Second Largest economy by nominal GDP, Fastest Growing Consumer Market and second largest importer of goods. Currency Renminbi, Yuan.

 

Language

“In China the languages spoken are Chinese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Hakka.

Advertising will be done in one or more of these languages based on areas where respective languages are spoken.”

 

PDI

China has a high power index which indicates high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. There are people living in extreme poverty and there are riches in cities having cars and huge houses. Our ads will show that we have a wide range of products  for all class of people.

 

Individual vs Collectivist

China has a collectivist culture. They believe in more of ‘we’, they believe in harmony and loyalty. Our ads will show family/groups coming together and buying our product.

 

Masculinity vs Femininity

China has more masculine culture. Men are expected to be more moderate, tender and concerned with the quality of life. Our product has a wide variety for men. We will also be showcasing our products for women too.

 

UAI

Chinese have a lower need for uncertainty avoidance and rather avoid too many rules and formalities. So they will easily accept our innovative designs Our ads will show trendy stuff

 

Long Term vs Short Term

High long-term orientation in China indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. Our ads would show how trustworthy our product is and through continuous advertising we would assure our brands true quality

 

Conclusion

To draw up an advertising strategy based on the above parameters, it wouldn’t be a problem as the audience is more open in its outlook and the language and media aspects are well-defined.

Facts

  • To a Chinese, the gift of a clock symbolizes ”time is up” i.e. death.
  • A nod is not a sign of agreement. Very often than not, it signifies that the person is simply listening.
  • Chinese are peaceful, hardworking, and easily contented. They respect elders and believe in harmony and never look for confrontation.
  • Do not be surprised when asked personal questions
  • Accepting praise is considered poor etiquette.
  • The Chinese comfort zone is a bit too close for westerners.
  • Lining up tends to be less systematic in China
  • Do not point the index finger or use the index finger to call someone; use the hand with finger motioning downward as in waving.
  • Don’t snap or whistle to get someone’s attention
  • Don’t show the soles of shoes
  • Belching or spitting down the street is common so is talking while eating.
  • Guest should sample all of the dishes and leave something on the plate at the end of the meal. A clean plate indicates you are still hungry.
  • An important way of getting around is the bicycle. .

 

China has a high literacy rate. Rural consumers are poor and have limited purchasing power. Its urban consumers fall into 4 categories; working poor and salaried class account for 80% . the little rich account for 15% and the “yuppies’ represent 5%

 

Collectivism vs Individualism

In general the Chinese are a collective society with  a need for group affiliation, whether to their family. School, work group or country. They are willing to subjugate their own feelings for the good of the group. This is often observed by the use of silence in very structured meetings. If someone disagrees with what another person says, rather than disagree publicly, the person will remain quiet. This gives face to the other person while speaking up would make both parties lose face

 

This collectivist culture view other companies with less collectivistic philosophy as cold and not supportive. Collectivist society think more in terms of “we” Harmony and loyalty is very important and should always be maintained and confrontation should be avoided.

Masculinity /Femininity

In China men have an edge over women.

 

Risk Taking

They do not normally take risks and prefer to play safe. Group members sometimes take risks after discussing issues,

 

High Context Culture

Non-verbal Communication

 

Since the Chinese strive for harmony and are group dependent, they rely on facial expression, tone of voice and posture to tell them what someone feels. Frowning is interpreted as a sign of disagreement. Therefore the Chinese maintain an impassive expression when speaking.

 

It is disrespectful to stare into another person’s eyes. The Chinese avoid eye contacts to give themselves privacy

 

Environmental Issues

In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution. While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development. Urban air pollution is a severe health issue in the country

And China is the country with the highest death toll because of air pollution.

 

Politics

China’s constitution states that The People’s Republic of China “is a socialist state under the people’s democratic dictatorship

 

Emerging Superpower Status

China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower, with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century

 

Economy Additional   

China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. As of 2017, China has the world’s second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$12.014 trillion according to the International Monetary Fund.

 

Culture

Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies. For much of the country’s dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty. The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today.


SAUDI ARABIA

Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. Located in the middle east, bordered by Yemen, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait and Jordan.

Political

Monarchy, no recognised political parties, council of ministers appointed by the king. Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. However, according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with Sharia (Islamic law) and the Quran, while the Quran and the Sunnah (the traditions of Muhammad) are declared to be the country’s constitution. The primary source of law is the Islamic Sharia derived from the teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah (the traditions of the Prophet).

Economy

World’s largest oil reserve, largest oil exporter, one of the few fast growing countries

Language

Official language is Arabic, Other languages include Hijazi Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Najdi Arabic. Advertising will be done in one or more of these languages based on areas where the respective languages are spoken.

 

Technology

One of the forefront countries in modernisation, Technology is growing very fast

 

Socio Cultural Para ( Connect Each Parameter To Ad Strategy )

 

Power Distribution Index [PDI]

Saudi  has a high power index which indicates high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. There are people living in extreme poverty and there are riches in cities having cars and huge houses. Our ads will show that we have a wide range of products for all class of people.

 

Individualist-Communistic

saudi  has a collectivist culture. They believe in more of ‘we’, they believe in harmony and loyalty. Our ads will show family/groups coming together and buying our product.

 

Masculinity Vs Femininity

Saudi  has more masculine culture. Men are expected to be more moderate, tender and concerned with the quality of life. Our product has a wide variety for men. We will also be showcasing our products for women too.

 

Women

A hijab is a traditional Islamic norm whereby women are required “to draw their outer garments around them (when they go out or are among men)” and dress in a modest manner. Saudi Arabia is different from many Islamic societies in the extent of the covering that it considers Islamically correct hijab (everything except the hands and eyes) and the fact that covering is enforced by Mutaween or religious police.

 

Uncertainty Avoidance Index UAI

UAI is high. Here people are averse to changes. So we are will be launching and advertising as per their requirements

 

Long Vs Short

long term

 

Geography

Saudi Arabia is home to the largest mass of sand on earth, known as the Rub-al Khali desert (Rub-al Khali means “empty quarter”). The temperature is very hot. There are almost no rivers or lakes in the country. There are many wadis.

 

Media

Arabic is the Fastest growing in microblogging sites, Al Jazeera is one of the largest pay-tv players in term of subscriptions, Major market for pan arab satellite and pay tv, newspapers are privately owned.

 

Legal

Criticism of the government and royal family, questioning islamic tenets are not tolerated

 

Conclusion

To draw up an advertising strategy based on the above parameters, it wouldn’t be a problem as the audience is more open in its outlook and the language and media aspects are well-defined.


Russia

The Russian family is dependent upon all its members. Most live in small apartments, families are small. They take pride in their cultural heritage and expect the rest of the world to admire it. The affinity for the group and the collective spirit remains today. The typical greeting is a bone-crushing handshake.

When female friends meet they kiss on the cheek three times, starting with the left and then alternating. Guest are expected to bring flowers. Yellow flowers are taboo. A gift for a baby is not given till the baby is born. Shoes have to be removed outdoors.

Do not begin to eat until the host invites you to start. Leaving a small amount of food on the plate means the host has provided ample hospitality. Do not leave the table until you are told. Russian locals are very forgiving and are accustomed to western visitors.

Russia is a collectivism society

It is a Masculine culture and in ads men are shown taller and larger than women. The male is depicted in exclusive roles and as more functional. Men are shown as more aggressive and in control.

The Russian Federation Act details the laws regarding advertising.( the production, circulation, allocation of ads. The objective is to prevent unfair and misleading and improper advertising

Interruption of ads in the showing of films not allowed except between parts I

Interruption in educational broadcasts cannot be done more than once in 15 minutes and that too not more than 45 seconds.

Ads not allowed if it shows:

Discrediting the authority of parents and educators or undermining of minors trust in them

Directly induce minors to convince parents or other persons to purchase the advertised goods. Suggesting to minors that possession of various goods gives them any advantage over other minors or the absence of such goods has the opposite effect

Shows minors in hazardous places or situations.

Translations are a problem in Russia. Words are generally longer. Many words can only be translated only by using two lines or so. Even a phrase like “simply the best” will be a problem in Russia. Foreign names of products mean nothing to Russians eg Deep Cleanser, Head and Shoulders, Handy Stitch, etc. Nobody can translate “ Just do it” in Russia.

Media

International advertisers need to study culture , translation problems and the legal aspects of the country in which the ads are to be released.

Bacardi hoarding in Moscow showed a bat. The bat in Calabria the home of the Bacardi family is the symbol of wisdom but in Russia it is an ugly bird. I also did not show that the rum cannot be taken straight. In Russia vodka is taken straight. In Press advertising, ads will not be more than 40% of the volume of one issue of a printed periodical. Public service ads must make no mention of commercial organizations.

JAPAN

  • Japanese advertising is designed to appeal to emotion to produce good feelings and create a happy atmosphere.
  • Japanese ads are visually attractive and eye-catching, featuring bright colours and designs.
  • The Japanese often use symbols and strong gestures in TV ads. Japanese ads may be humourous and appeal to the consumer,s intelligence but they do not convey much product information. The majority of the ads are ‘mood commercials’ to make a consumer feel good about a product.; it is sometimes hard to know what the product is from viewing the ad.
  • Japanese advertising is emotional, suggestive and indirect while Western ads have a more verbal. direct message and is logical
  • In Japan, differentiation among products consists not of explaining with words the points of differences among competing products, but bringing out the nuances and overall differences in tone. This is done by dramatizing those differences in the people appearing in the commercial, the way they talk, the music and the scenery rather than                                     emphasizing the unique features and dissimilarities of the product. Non verbal predominates.
  • The key is to communicate far beyond what is actually said or written
  • A Japanese from birth learns to actively complete ideographs, to complete sentences and to fill in missing words in conversations.
  • Thus commercials are short (10 -15 sec)and can be left ‘incomplete’ that is ,without the final “successful application” shots that all American commercials messages have.
  • The Japanese are extraordinarily sensitive to how a slogan or pitch is written. If the language is not exactly “right” the consumer will be rebuffed rather than attracted.
  • Direct comparison with competition is never used. The industry norm is to avoid slandering, defaming and attacking competitors
  • The average Japanese consumer is an avid tv watcher and newspaper reader. The fold in ads for newspapers is widely used
  • Transit ads, such as railway cars and buses are common in Japan.
  • In Japan over 200 new magazines are started annually. Magazine ads are more informative in nature.
  • Japan is a high context culture in which the external environment, situation and non-verbal behaviour are crucial in creating and interpreting communication. They depend on covert clues given within the context of as message which is delivered. Subtlety is valued and much meaning is conveyed by inference
  • In Japan pointing to one’s own chest with a forefinger indicates that the person wants a bath
  • Camay soap ad featured men complimenting women on their  appearance. This ad was seen as too direct and not well received
  • Another ad showed a woman in the room where his wife was bathing The ad was found distasteful as the situation showed as an invasion of  privacy.
  • In Japan, the self assertive communication style, the direct style, the hard sell ad is often seen as arrogant, insensitive, egocentric, disruptive, disrespectful, discourteous, impolite and potentially embarrassing to a firm.
  • Indirect ad is non confrontational and better. It is better to offer a modest reward than an incredible promise.
  • Japanese ads are more likely to develop a story, describe the expression
  • Of the people and poetically enhance the mood of the product, emphasizing the affective than the cognitive
  • The Japanese tend to put cars in front of a wall whereas the westerners are apt to use nature as a backdrop. In Japan’s tight streets, cars are most often viewed close up. Thus the Japanese like those visual elements attractive to the eye when viewing the car in segments. The Japanese read personality and expression into the “face” of a car
  • The Japanese have little concept of public relations. They are modest and self-effacing and cannot understand self-promotion.
  • A gift should be given with both hands.
  • Japan is primarily urban and has a large middle class with substantial buying power.s

GERMANY

  • The national colours are officially black, red and gold.
  • Lucky numbers may vary. 3 and 7 are considered is lucky. 13 is definitely regarded as unlucky more so if it is Friday 13th
  • Germans are passionate about lifestyle. When it comes to advertising they do not blindly take the in formation
  • The advertising regulations of the country have to be studied before planning any ad campaign.
  • Broadcasters have to observe special rules on advertising and sponsoring. The rules for broadcasting are a word-by-word incorporation of European requirements. Apart from these restrictions the Interstate Treaty allows split-screen ads and virtual advertising as long as virtual ads replace real existing ones, eg in football stadiums.
  • There are specific rules for teleshopping.
  • Ads must be shown in groups together. Ads must be inserted between programmes. They must be clearly separated from the programmes. Ads must be seen as ads
  • Children’s programmes or religious services may not be interrupted by advertising.
  • There are different regulations for the public and private broadcasters. TV programmes transmitted by public broadcasters which are longer than 45 minutes may contain one interruption for advertising.
  • the interval between two successive interruptions within one programme must be at least 20 minutes.
  • Films must be interrupted once every 45 minutes.
  • Tele-shopping and Radio shopping is allowed only on private channels
  • Alcohol ads general permitted but the ad should not permit excessive consumption. Young people, competitive sports persons or drivers must not be depicted drinking alcohol or that its consumption contributes to success
  • Ads directed at children or young people is generally permitted but it must not directly encourage children to buy a product and must not exploit their inexperienced and credulity
  • Political and religious ads are not permitted. Social ads are an exception and ads during elections. Programmes for children and religious services may not be interrupted by ads or teleshopping..
  • No ads may be transmitted after 8 pm or on Sundays or public holidays. On the 3rd channel of the public broadcasters, there is no advertising
  • The total amount of ads will not exceed 90 minutes on workdays.
  • Teleshopping may not exceed one hour per day.
  • Ads should not harm the interests of consumers or make use of their inexperience.
  • Ads which ask children to get their parents or third parties to buy the advertised goods will not be allowed. It should not show children in dangerous situations or show them as sexual objects.
  • Comparative ads with brand names should relate to the goods and services intended for the purpose advertised. It should not create confusion in the market peace between the advertiser and a competitor. It should not harm or affect the trademark etc of the competitor or discredit the goods or services of a competitor
  • Germans believe that maintaining clear lines of demarcation between people, places and things is the surest way to lead a structured and ordered life
  • Work and personal lives are rigidly divided.
  • There is a proper time for every activity
  •  
  • Yellow roses or tea roses are always welcome
  • Red roses are not to be given as they symbolize romantic intentions
  • Do not give carnations as they symbolize mourning and lilies or chrysanthemums are used at funerals

 

 

A Solved Case Study

For the launch of a product/service- the following factors/challenges need to be kept in mind:

Socio-Cultural environment: Culture, Social Class, tradition, customs, beliefs, values & lifestyles.

Socio-Cultural environment has two main parts:

  • Social Class
  • Culture

Social Class-

Any society is composed of different social classes. A social class is determined by income, occupation, location of residence etc of its members.

Each class has its own standards with respect to lifestyle, behavior etc. These are known as class values or class norms. These values/norms have a strong bearing on the consumption pattern and buying behavior of the members of the class. Shifts in class values do take place over time owing to several factors- more awareness, growing consumerism, more purchasing power, influences by other lifestyles such as westernization/ Americanization in India, dependence on technology, rapid pace of life etc.

Culture-

Culture is the combined result of several factors like demography, language, religion, education, upbringing, customs & traditions, and Cultural Indices such as Power Distance Index, Masculinity vs Feminity, Individualism vs Collectivism, Uncertainity Avoidance, & Long-term Orientation vs Short-term Orientation. Cultural values are deep-rooted- core values – cannot be changed easily. Secondary cultural values may be moulded and are more amenable to change

Legal-

Laws to do with advertising in the respective country.

Media Usage-

The popular media and its relation to the target audience., also may relate to Technological advances or application of technology to media

Social Class-

While writing about the social environment of the country of your choice, relate it to the social classes you are considering and thus relate the advertising appeal, message strategy (Information strategy, Lecture format etc). Also consider the shifts in their lifestyles and values and hence the way in which they influence the consumption pattern & buying behavior.

Social Class in China is a huge middle class population with high purchasing power and so they can be targeted to buy products through advertisements.

CULTURE: EMERGING MARKETS/ASIAN MARKETS- CHINA

The Cultural Indices:

1) Individualism vs Collectivism:

The Chinese rank lower than any other Asian country in the Individualism (IDV) ranking, at 20 compared to an average of 24. This may be attributed, in part, to the high level of emphasis on a Collectivist society by the Communist rule, as compared to one of Individualism.

The low Individualism ranking is manifest in a close and committed member ‘group’, be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.

China has a Collectivist culture.

They place more importance on groups and think more in terms of “WE”. They consider cultures that are not collectivist as cold and unsupportive.

Harmony and loyalty is very important to them and confrontation is to be avoided since they will never disagree in public. Ads can show groups/families together in harmony with respect to the product- showing a beaming family together. Expressions or phrases are to be used which describe a disagreement or negative statement instead of directly saying no. Saying no would mean to destroy the harmony in the group. Ads may show Trust, Harmony and a deep understanding of Moral Values. An interesting collectivist value in most of Asia, is that of” filial piety.” This value relates to the obedience to, respect for, and financial support of parents, and the honoring of ancestors as a collectivist value system.

All advertising appeals must focus on the collectivist approach. So even a globalised product must understand to localize the appeal . Motivational appeal works well in Collectivist cultures.

Chinese customers rely more on word-of-mouth communications. The concept of the family is played up in Chinese advertisements.

2) Masculinity vs Femininity:

Masculinity (MAS) focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination. A Low Masculinity ranking indicates the country has a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society.

Masculinity refers to the society that has completely different social gender roles .

Men are expected to be more moderate , tender and concerned with the quality of life.

Whereas , femininity refers to the society where gender roles extend beyond this perception and where both men and women are expected to be moderate , tender and concerned with the quality of life. Masculinity and femininity stands for gender roles not for physical characteristics.  Hofstede ‘s views on masculinity and femininity show his traditional outlook. As according to him masculine nature fits in assertiveness, toughness and competition and the feminine role fits in home and children , people and tenderness . He also accepts that in different cultures different kinds of professions are controlled by different genders.

In CHINA- More on the High or strong on the masculinity culture. China has a higher masculinity since males are valued more than females. China’s masculinity index is 66.

3) POWER DISTANCE INDEX:

China also has a high power distance index (higher than the average in Asian countries, in fact.  Of note is China’s significantly higher Power Distance ranking of 80 compared to the other Far East Asian countries’ average of 60, and the world average of 55. This is indicative of a high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. This condition is not necessarily forced upon the population, but rather accepted by the society as their cultural heritage In China; you can see how this is reflected in real life: there are people living in extreme poverty, and then there are the rich in the cities that drive cars and have large houses.

4) UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE:

Cultures with a low degree of uncertainty avoidance are open for new things and changes. They don’t have feelings of uncertainty about future.

Chinese have a lower need for uncertainty avoidance and rather avoid too many rules and formalities. They are more likely to stimulate innovations and emphasize new ideas. They are more flexible and more acting than reacting on changes occurring inside and outside of business.

5) LONG TERM ORIENTATION vs SHORT TERM ORIENTATION:

The long-term orientation axis we have:

  • Persistence (Perseverance)
  • Ordering Relationships By Status
  • Thrift
  • Having A Sense Of Shame

On the opposite short-term orientation axis:

  • Personal Steadiness And Stability
  • Protecting Your Face
  • Respect For Tradition
  • Reciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts

All the values are taken straight from the teachings of Confucius, however, the values on the first axis are orientated towards the future and are more dynamic, while the values on the second axis are orientated towards the past and present, thus are more static. Note that one orientation is not good and the other way is not bad — they are simply orientations towards life.

The short-term orientation is also identified with Truth, while the long-term orientation is identified with Virtue. Confucius dealt with Virtue but left the question of Truth open. Our interpretation of the Truth is how we in the West view religion, science, and management.)

High Long-Term Orientation ranking in China indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today’s hard work. However, business may take longer to develop in this society, particularly for an “outsider”

And for quite some time that has been China’s philosophy — taking the long-term outlook. However, to go beyond manufacturing and on to innovation, information, and knowledge is something that their oriental philosophy is designed for, yet their socialistic view abhors. Socialism rules by controlling information. Innovation rules by allowing the greatness of it to come through.

All advertising appeals must depict Virtue since in China, virtue is of importance.

LANGUAGE:

In China, the languages spoken are Chinese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Hakka. Advertising should be done in one or more of these languages based on areas where the respective languages are spoken.

RELIGION:

The predominant religions in China are Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. Minority religion is Christianity, and others. Advertising must not show negative aspects of their religion. It can use it in a positive sense. Also consider the various FESTIVALS which are a part of the customs and traditions. And can be good occasions to advertise.

The literacy rate is also good since age 15 upwards can read and write. So advertisements can address an educated audience.

Media & Media technology is booming in China. Outdoor advertising is very big in China- so this can be used to advantage to promote the product. It is estimated that there are around 50,000 outdoor advertising companies in China, with operations highly scattered. Most of them are local enterprises. Through a series of acquisitions and expansion, four outdoor advertisers have grown to be nationwide operators, namely, Clear Media, Media Nation, Media Partners International and Tom.com. They are all joint ventures and listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

In the mainland, medicine and healthcare products have taken four spots out of the five top brands that spent most in advertising last year, while in Hong Kong retail and entertainment business, and in Taiwan telecom service and cell phone products have respectively accounted for most of the five top advertised brands. Experts noted that advertising on entertainment, vehicle and banks has not accounted for a considerable amount in the mainland market, which is different from the situation in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Inthe mainland, cosmetics/bath products, food, medicine, retail and real estate are the top five categories that have put most into advertising. But in Hong Kong and Taiwan, real estate took the lead.

The research also showed three large cities in the mainland – Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou – have different advertising patterns. Entertainment businesses listed in top five advertised commodity categories in Shanghai but were missing from the list in both Guangzhou and Beijing. The research showed entertainment businesses are more prosperous in Shanghai than in the other two.

On the contrary, telecom took third place among the top five industries that invest most in advertising in Beijing and Guangzhou. According to the research, telecom providers and products manufactures have more severe competition in the industry in these two cities.”

Print is also a popular medium to advertise and radio is also gaining popularity. Internet is popular with students.

Children’s perception on TV Advertising

In most of china’s urban areas an entire generation of families have just one child. Popularly called little emperors. These ‘only children’ are spending a considerable amount of money as well as exerting tremendous influence on their families spending. Consequently they are the targets of an increasing amount of advertising. Children’s use wise variety of information to learn about new products including parents, retail outlets and mass media, and they consider television to be the most important source. Research conclude that a new generation of young Chinese consumers is emerging that is more exposed to and more open to commercial source, rather than interpersonal sources, for information about products and services.

LEGAL:

Control on TV Advertising

Television advertisements for products such as medicine for beriberi or hemorrhoids, and female hygiene products can not be shown during meal time in China, according to the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television. The administration has issued a series of “Interim Regulations on Television Advertising” with a view to tighter control of TV advertising.

In terms of the content of advertisement, the regulations that television stations cannot broadcast advertisements that are vulgar or may mislead consumers. The total allowed for advertisements on each channel should be no longer than 20 percent of the whole day’s broadcast duration, and this proportion is reduced to 15 percent during the period between 07:00 p.m. and 09:00 p.m. The regulations also cut the frequency for the broadcast of advertisements during drama serials, ruling that advertisements can be shown only once in each episode and can only last two minutes and 30 seconds.

The Advertising Law came into effect in 1995.

Regulation was focused on deceitful advertisements. Comparative advertising is banned.

So are tobacco ads. But, with the exception of medicine, the law is not considered cumbersome for most product categories. More important were rules governing the entry of transnational agencies in the mid 1980s, whose presence—328 companies at the end of 2000—has had a beneficial impact on local talent training. Increasingly, however, as local agencies became more seasoned practitioners, a discursive contestation between local and transnational practice developed. The year 2001 marked the height of the controversy over the American model of the 4A (Association of Accredited Advertising Agency) and the publication of other critical literature challenging Western marketing concepts. But the industry’s craving for foreign models and methodologies has also given birth to several trade magazines that are instrumental to the shaping of the guild consciousness of Chinese ad men and women—Chinese Advertising (1981), International Advertising (1985) and Modern Advertising (1994).

By early 2000, China had more than 64,800 advertising units with a total billing expected to rise up to US$ 11 billion. The top five categories of highest advertising business volume are household appliances, food and beverages, medicines, cosmetics and real estate.

  • Demographic factors- Literacy, Religions, Young population/Old population
  • Technological factors- Use of advanced technological media & products
  • Political factors- Parties in governance/ opposition/pressure groups
  • Economic factors- Capitalist economy/Communist economy, growth of markets-high/low, purchasing parity/disposable income.

ASIA- PACIFIC COUNTRY/ DEVELOPED MARKET- JAPAN

Japan has a population of approximately 125 million people packed tightly into a rather small geographic area. The official language in Japan is Japanese. Japanese is spoken only in Japan. The literacy rate in Japan is very close to 100 percent and 95 percent of the Japanese population has a high school education.

Japan’s form of government is parliamentary democracy under the rule of a constitutional monarch. The Prime Minister is the chief government officer. The dominant religion is Shinto, which is exclusive to Japan. However, the Japanese have no official religion.

Culturally, the Japanese tend to be somewhat introverted in their ways. They generally are not receptive to outsiders. When conducting business in Japan, relationships and loyalty to the group is critical for success.

Japanese culture is rich and tradition based. Advertisers also need to keep in mind the small and petite size of the Japanese. The gifting tradition is very important and stylish packaging also considered important. Ads could use this feature. Also a high context culture where facial expressions are very important. Advertising can make use of this.

1) POWER DISTANCE INDEX:  

Japan has a relatively low Power Distance Index. This shows that the Power Distance is pretty equal and does not have differences in wealth and power. So advertising could be standardized for all groups.

2) MASCULINITY vs FEMININITY:

In Japan Masculinity is the highest characteristic with a rank of 95. It shows differences in gender roles. “Masculine” values involve competition and “conquering” nature. Traditional masculine work aims for recognition, earnings, challenge and  advancement. So this factor could be used in appeals.

3) INDIVIDUALISM VS COLLECTIVISM:

Japan is a more collectivist culture that avoids risks and shows little value for personal freedom. Collectivistic cultures have a great emphasize on groups and think more in terms of “we”. Harmony and loyalty within a company is very important and should always be maintained and confrontation should be avoided.  Expressions or phrases are used which describe a disagreement or negative statement instead of saying no. Saying no would mean to destroy the harmony in the group. Show conformity in cohesive groups etc in advertising appeals.

4) UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE:

Uncertainty avoidance involves the extent to which a “structured” situation with clear rules is preferred to a more ambiguous one; in general, countries with lower uncertainty avoidance tend to be more tolerant of risk.  Japan ranks very high. Japanese are not to keen on uncertainty, by planning everything carefully they try to avoid the uncertainty. In Japan there is a society that relies on rules, laws and regulations. Japan wants to reduce its risks to the minimum and proceed with changes step by step. So, in Japan they are averse to taking risks and this should be kept in mind while creating an advertising message.

5) LONG TERM ORIENTATION vs SHORT TERM ORIENTATION:

Japan is high on LTO and tends to take the long term view. Long term orientation is identified by Virtue. Japan will take what works best from everywhere, discard what doesn’t, and they will adapt what they take to their own culture and resources. Customs: In Japan it is very common for men and women to take steam baths together. Advertising can make use of this custom.

6) LEGAL:

Comparative advertising is not permitted in Japan. No deceptive and offensive advertising allowed. Media is highly evolved and technology is at its best. Japan has a very high number of magazines. Literacy is high and so is the standard of living. Make use of every evolved form of media. There are many global advertising agencies in Japan.

ISLAMIC MARKET – Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is a monarchy in southwestern Asia, and occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is bordered on the north by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait; on the east by the Persian Gulf and Qatar; on the southeast by the United Arab Emirates and Oman on the south by the Republic of Yemen; and on the west by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. The southeast and southern boundaries are not precisely defined.

Large Power Distance (PDI) (80) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) (68)

are predominant Hofstede Dimension characteristics for the countries in this region. These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. They are also highly rule-oriented with laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty, while inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society.

When these two Dimensions are combined, it creates a situation where leaders have virtually ultimate power and authority, and the rules, laws and regulations developed by those in power reinforce their own leadership and control. It is not unusual for new leadership to arise from armed insurrection – the ultimate power, rather than from diplomatic or democratic change.

The high Power Distance (PDI) ranking is indicative of a high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. These populations have an expectation and acceptance that leaders will separate themselves from the group and this condition is not necessarily subverted upon the population, but rather accepted by the society as their cultural heritage.

The high Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) ranking of 68, indicates the society’s low level of tolerance for uncertainty. In an effort to minimize or reduce this level of uncertainty, strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations are adopted and implemented. The ultimate goal of these populations is to control everything in order to eliminate or avoid the unexpected. As a result of this high Uncertainty Avoidance characteristic, the society does not readily accept change and is very risk adverse.

The Masculinity index (MAS), the third highest Hofstede Dimension is 52, only slightly higher than the 50.2 average for all the countries included in the Hofstede MAS Dimension. This would indicate that while women in the Arab World are limited in their rights, it may be due more to Muslim religion rather than a cultural paradigm.

The lowest Hofstede Dimension for the Arab World is the Individualism (IDV) ranking at 38, compared to a world average ranking of 64. This translates into a Collectivist society as compared to Individualist culture and is manifested in a close long-term commitment to the member ‘group’, that being a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules.

Ads will essay these factors while advertising.

Religion is Muslim or Islam- hence very rigid. Advertising should not offend the religion.

LEGAL :

Laws are strict. No skin show, no nudity. Men should wear long pants and a shirt, preferably long-sleeved, buttoned up to the collar. Men should also avoid wearing visible jewelry, particularly around the neck. Women cannot expose their body. No religious symbols to be used. It is a high context culture. No alcohol, tobacco,pork consumption so ads should steer clear of all these.

It is common to remove your shoes before entering a building. Follow the lead of your host.

Alcohol and pork are illegal. In the Muslim world, Friday is the day of rest.

There are several styles of greetings used; it is best to wait for your counterpart to initiate the greeting. Men shake hands with other men. Some men will shake hands with a woman; it is advisable for a businesswoman to wait for a man to offer his hand. A more traditional greeting between men involves grasping each other’s right hand, placing the left hand on the other’s right shoulder and exchanging kisses on each cheek.

The left hand is considered unclean and reserved for hygiene avoid gestures with the right hand. Do not point at another person and do not eat with the left hand.

Men walking hand in hand is a sign a friendship.

Try not to cross your legs when sitting. Never show the bottom of your feet.

The “thumbs up” gesture is offensive.

Gifts are not necessary, but appreciated. Avoid admiring an item too much, you host may feel obligated to give it to you. When offered a gift, it is impolite to refuse. Within the Muslim tradition, the dog is considered a “dirty” animal, so portraying it as “man’s best friend” in an advertisement is counter-productive.

While advertising  avoid doing any of the above.

ADVERTISING MEDIA:

Saudi Arabia is the largest advertising market in the region, accounting for 40 percent of all advertising expenditures. The Saudis, with their relatively high per-capita income and market-oriented economy, have become the prime target of producers of consumer goods and thus, the prime targets of the best international advertising firms.

Saudi Arabia is going through a vulnerable phase in the field of advertising. Jeddah and Riyadh- the two major cities in Saudia Arabia are competing for the title of the Kingdom’s Advertising Capital. Of the two Jeddah is the bustling commercial capital, and Riyadh is traditionally more conservative seat of the government.

Until the late 1990s, Saudi ad spend was mostly limited to local media. Since the media were local, companies saw little need for ad agencies: they knew the market, and so created their own in-house creative departments to sell their products and services to local customers in local media. Cheap and seemingly efficient, this was the status quo for decades. Hence due to the above mentioned reasons, although advertising was not given it’s due recognition in the past, now it has gradually gained importance.

Regional Advertising:

The country is divided into three regions – the east, centered on Damam; the west, revolving around Jeddah; and the central area, focused on Riyadh. The smart advertising executive knows that each region has its own particular culture, its likes and dislikes, and really effective ads would take advantage of this. It’s not just a question of thinking regional, though. The ineluctable shift towards Riyadh has more to do with the evolution of outside forces: until the late 1990s, the Saudi ad market was essentially closed and, where it was open, served by local branches of international agencies that handled almost exclusively multinational accounts, like Ford or McDonald’s. These agencies were all based in Jeddah. Regional advertising expenditure stood at $1.7 billion in 2002. With a population of 24 million, the average age of which is 18, the biggest spender, Saudi Arabia, is now clearly a highly attractive market for the multinational advertising agencies. And despite the blip caused by the outbreak and the conflict in Iraq, its growth shows no sign of slackening. Hence the geographical factors have also affected the advertising in this country on a regional level.

The change in the trend of advertising in the contemporary Saudi Arabia:

Agencies also realize that consumers are demanding ever more sophisticated advertising messages. The basic content of the ads has not changed, but production values have improved beyond all recognition.

The audience will no longer put up with anything old-fashioned or cheap. The other aspect Saudi Arabia shares with other countries in the region is that foreigners largely manage its advertising industry, 95 percent of managers here are foreign, whether they are Lebanese, Anglo-Saxon or Asian. Although Saudis are responsive to advertising, and regard it as part of popular culture, they have only very recently began considering it as a career option.

In the past, when creative work was totally dominated by foreigners, cultural differences create barriers between advertisers and consumers. Today,’ he says, ‘most of the agencies are trying to use more local expertise. The best way to deliver an effective campaign is to understand the target audience.

This is an Islamic culture, and it is important to bear that in mind. Even though people from many countries live here, our target market is predominantly Arab and we respect certain traditions. Advertising in Saudi Arabia is still too Western in tone.

As more Arab people enter the industry, the ads are evolving – more jokes are making it in, they seem less forced. There has also been a change in the way the ads are made. Previously the entire crew would be foreign, and the ad may have even been shot in Europe.

Although we still can’t shoot in the kingdom, due to the red tape involved, there are good production facilities in Dubai and Beirut, and we have access to local talent. This has made our work more convincing.

Satellite Television and State- run Broadcast:

The rise of satellite television has made advertising more liberal, and yet at the same time more fragmented. The strongest channel remains Saudi-owned MBC, but stations like Orbit and Showtime from Lebanon are also popular, and they show unrestricted, uncensored, Western-style programming. In fact, the average viewer has access to between 30-50 channels from all over the world. This has made it harder to target the Saudi viewer efficiently. While the agencies buy slots on unrestricted foreign channels, this has not tempted to break unwritten cultural rules. Whatever programs the channels are showing, the target audience is still predominantly Muslim and we should respect that. The state-run Broadcasting Service of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (BSKSA) is responsible for all broadcasting. It operates four TV networks, including news channel al-Ikhbariya. The minister of culture and information chairs the body which oversees radio and TV operations. Private radio and TV stations cannot operate from Saudi soil, but the country is a key market for pan-Arab satellite and pay-TV broadcasters. Saudi investors are behind some of these networks, including Dubai-based MBC and Bahrain-based Orbit. Viewers in the east can pick up TV stations from more liberal Gulf neighbours.

Print Advertising:

Print media assumes the bulk of advertising expenditures in the Kingdom, with newspapers accounting for 61 percent of the pie, magazines 23 percent and television just 16 percent. Television was not legalized until 1963 and faced stiff opposition from conservative Islamic forces who termed the medium a “device of the devil.” Saudi newspapers are created by royal decree. There are more than a dozen dailies and many magazines. Pan-Arab papers, subject to censorship, are available. Newspapers tend to follow the lead of the state-run news agency on whether or not to publish stories on sensitive subjects.

  • Al-Watan – Abha-based daily
  • Al-Riyadh – Riyadh-based daily
  • Okaz – Jeddah-based daily
  • Al-Jazirah – Riyadh-based daily
  • Al-Sharq al-Awsat – Riyadh-based daily, English-language web pages
  • Arab News – Jeddah-based English-language daily
  • Saudi Gazette – Jeddah-based English-language daily.

 

“Go Global, Act Local” “Think Global, Act Local”

It was actually a popular phrase for Marketing.

The phrase “Think globally, act locally” or “Think global, act local” has been used in various contexts, including planning, environment, education, mathematics, and business.

The term is also used in business strategy, where multinational corporations are encouraged to build local roots. This is sometimes expressed by converging the words “global” and “local” into the single word “glocal,” a term used by several companies (notably Sony Corporation and other major Japanese multinationals) in their advertising and branding strategies in the 1980s and 1990s.

Currently more and more corporations are finding it extremely important to analyze the environmental damage of their company. The pressure they receive from government officials and local communities regarding environmental issues is vital to their company’s image. Glocalization is an emerging concept throughout the business world. It was first developed by the Japanese, however, it has now emerged throughout Western society. Glocalization refers to the practice of conducting business according to both local and global considerations

  • “Think global, act local” means you have to tailor your marketing to each geographic audience, while maintaining a global brand.
  • In this ever increasing global market the trend to earn success in business is through think globally and act locally.
  • Well every businessmen has to think globally due to globalisation of the world around him and act locally in his local market watching the things around him as like economy, politics, environment, international laws, poverty, development, etc.
  • This way you can learn from others mistakes or see the advantages of other countries and implement them in your local market, so you can grow in the market you are in.
  • Local markets have their different tastes and centered to their own local markets and not aware of things going around the world. This can be the problem of the local markets.
  • But for the international brands to enter the local markets they need to study the local markets and modify the products and establish the brand in the local market.
  • Beyond that, new market need to tailor strategies, modify products, adjust pricing models, adapt sales and distribution approaches and rethink marketing programs. The international companies should have a local approach to target the local market which is the main principle of this thinking.
  • Suppose a car company launched a specific model in European market, the features of same model launched for Indian market need not be same. They may have cut cost and features for the Indian market.

Examples

  • McDonald is a Popular Example. McDonald’s is the largest chain of fast food restaurants in the world. It has more than 35,000 outlets worldwide. The majority of McDonald’s outlets outside of the United States are franchises.
  • McDonald’s offers the value of cheap-priced, fast served tasty food that can be conveniently consumed globally, however, local differences in each county are reflected on the menu of restaurants serving there. Adam’s (2007) mentions Maharaja Mac in India, McDonald’s beer in Germany, McLobster in Canada, shrimp burgers in Japan, McLaks (fish) in Japan, avocado burger in Chile, and many other variations of burgers and other meals in different parts of the world.
  • Many of the Burgers which you find in other countries, will not be available in India. Few McDonalds have Noodles, and Tempura, and Variety of Fish Burgers, but the Indian Market  does not have it. We have Burgers made specifically for our tastebuds [not me ronald]
  • We will find Aloo Tikki, Maharaja Mac, Seekh Kebab and Many More! While they may have Burgers with Schezwan Sauce and many more varieties
  • e.g.- Like Audi cars in India need to have a greater ground clearance as compared to German model of same car. This is due to difference in conditions of driving and road and market in both countries.
  • There is no need to have a big company to succeed offshore. The starting point is to become more aware of what’s happening offshore, what skills, services and expertise are in demand globally, and then you can modify your home product to the standard required for the offshore market.
  • A globally popular coffee chain Starbucks has adopted a rather different strategy of adapting to local differences. Specifically, instead of changing its menu the coffee chain has opted to design its coffee shops according to key elements of the local culture. As a result, Starbucks coffee shops in two different countries may be totally different in terms of design, but the coffee would taste the same, which is the global promise of the chain.
  • Although technology industry may seem distant from such issues, nevertheless some global manufacturers take into account local differences and respond accordingly. For instance, Nokia, a mobile telecommunications technology manufacturer had offered a range of mobile phones with dust-resistant keypad for a range of Arab countries where excessive amount of dust due to ecological reasons have presented problems before. Moreover, there are anti-slip grip phones available for customers in cold in rainy areas, as well as mobile phones with inbuilt flash specifically designed for truck drivers in rural India.
  • The above mentioned examples are mainly the cases of considerable commitments made by companies in order to adapt to local differences. However, there are many other cases where changes are undertaken only in terms of marketing communications in order to adapt to local differences. For instance, displaying human flesh and various parts of body referring to sex appeal is considered to be one of the most efficient advertising tools in Western countries. However, in some of the Eastern countries such an advertisement might be classified as offensive due to cultural differences, and therefore might result in negative creation of associations wit the product or service being advertised.
  • Thus each company should follow the rule of putting on customers shoes in each local market and thus to achieve the success in international market.
  • International marketing and export development are significant challenges for companies of any size. Just like your domestic market however, the focus should be on developing a close understanding of your customers in each international market. If you do this, the probability is that you will respect local cultures, develop a relevant promotional strategy and ultimately make the right decisions on what elements of your strategy need to be adapted.

Political Advertising

Political advertising can be defined as the communication either supporting or opposing a candidate for the nomination to an office or a political party. Political advertising is usually done through pamphlets, word of mouth, speech, filers, print media, billboards, transit media, broadcast media. The latest innovation i.e. internet has now become a powerful tool for political advertising. It is done to promote individuals. Political advertising can be positive or negative. Political parties use both aggressively. positive advertising to promote their achievements and negative advertising to defame the opposition.

The main focus of political advertising is to connect with the masses. Every political party has a mission and a vision. Keeping this in mind the objective keeps on changing during elections. It is aggressively done for a period of time and aims at targeting the whole country, especially during Lok Sabha elections. The objective is designed with the economical and social scenario prevalent at that time. The ads and the speeches are designed using patriotic and emotional appeal.

Politicians are great at advertising. They know how to market themselves and work on the emotions of the voters. The use various kinds of appeals, especially the emotional appeal have worked very well for the politician.

Political advertising using advertising agencies is comparatively new phenomena. But keeping the vibrant and forever nature of advertising, it has been very useful in the field of politics. The last decade has seen major changes in the way politicians try to convince the voters. The last elections have shown and proved that good, persuasive and convincing advertising can turn the result unbelievably.

These days political advertising has become a very specialized field with agencies like Creativizt specializing in it. They are professionals in political strategists, slogan writing, writing of political campaigns, social media experts and have a vast network. The success of Narendra Modi in 2014 Lok Sabha elections can be credited to a number of advertising agencies and professionals like Piyush Pandey, Prasoon Joshi, Sam Balsara, the Soho Square Team, and a team of selected BJP and RSS Leaders.

The case studies of Narendra Modi and Arvind Kejriwal has shown that political advertising is way to influence people’s decision making. It helps in building up the confidence of the people to accept the views and ideologies of a particular political party. It is the promotion of an individual and party. Political advertising is done aggressively for a short duration. The voters are bombarded with messages in a short time span. Slogans like “Garibi Hatao” by Mrs. Indira Gandhi and “Achche Din Aane Wale Hain” by Narendra Modi are remembered by the people because of the strong impact they have had. This BJP campaign had used every advertising strategy known to work. The best part about the campaign was the “brand positioning” with BJP as the brand and Narendra Modi as the product.

The internet has now become the most important element of a political campaign. It gives a wider reach to the political parties to entice the voter. The best part is the message reaches the young voter who does not listen to their speeches or are not interested in their rallies and events. Optimum use of social media, messages via mobile phones and holograms helped tap every probable voter

 

The License Raj or Permit Raj  is the elaborate system of license, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990.

The License Raj was a result of the Nehru government’s decision to have a planned economy where all aspects of the economy are controlled by the state and licenses are given to a select few. Up to 80 government agencies had to be satisfied before private companies could produce something and, if granted, the government would regulate production.

Reforms since the mid-1980s have significantly reduced regulation, but Indian labour laws still prevent manufacturers from reducing their workforce without prohibitive burdens.

The term plays off “British Raj”, the period of British rule in India. It was coined by Indian freedom fighter and statesman Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari, who firmly opposed it for its potential for political corruption and economic stagnation and founded the Swatantra Party to oppose these practices.

Current status

The Licence Raj system was in place for four decades. The government of India initiated a liberalisation policy under P. V. Narasimha Rao. Narasimha Rao also had the responsibility of industries minister; he is directly responsible for dismantling the Licence Raj.

Liberalisation resulted in substantial growth in the Indian economy, which continues today. The Licence Raj is considered to have been significantly reduced in 1991 when India had only two weeks of foreign reserves left. In return for an IMF bailout, Gold bullion was transferred to London as collateral, the Rupee devalued and economic reforms were forced upon India. The federal government, with Manmohan Singh as finance minister, reduced licensing regulations; lowered tariffs, duties and taxes; and opened up to international trade and investment.

The reform policies introduced after 1991 removed many economic restrictions. Industrial licensing was abolished for almost all product categories, except for alcohol, tobacco, hazardous chemicals, industrial explosives, electronics, aerospace and pharmaceuticals.

On 6 August 2014 the Indian Parliament raised the limit on foreign direct investment in the defence sector to 49% and removed the limit for certain classes of infrastructure projects: high speed railways, including construction, operation and maintenance of high-speed train projects; suburban corridor projects through PPP; dedicated freight lines; rolling stock including train sets; locomotives manufacturing and maintenance facilities; railway electrification and signalling systems; freight terminals and passenger terminals; infrastructure in industrial park pertaining to railway line, and mass rapid transport systems.

 

Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities. Liberalization occurs when something which used to be banned is no longer banned, or when government regulations are relaxed.

Liberalization is defined as making economies free to enter the market and establish their venture in the country. Privatization is defined as when the control of economic is shifted from public to a private hand. Globalization is described as the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of communication, transportation, and trade.

Liberalisation refers to the slackening of government regulations. The economic liberalisation in India denotes the continuing financial reforms which began since July 24, 1991.

Liberalization (or liberalisation) is any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities. Liberalization occurs when something which used to be banned is no longer banned, or when government regulations are relaxed.

The term “liberalization” is most often used in discussing economic liberalization, which refers to the reduction of state involvement in the economy, but it can be used in other contexts as well.

The economic liberalisation in India refers to the changes and reforms, initiated in 1991, of the country’s economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market- and service-oriented, and expanding the role of private and foreign investment. Most of these changes were made as part of the conditions laid out by the World Bank and the IMF as a condition for a $500 million bail out to the Indian government in December 1991. Specific changes include a reduction in import tariffs, deregulation of markets, reduction of taxes, and greater foreign investment. Liberalisation has been credited by its proponents for the high economic growth recorded by the country in the 1990s and 2000s. Its opponents have blamed it for increased inequality and economic degradation. The overall direction of liberalisation has since remained the same, irrespective of the ruling party, although no party has yet solved a variety of politically difficult issues, such as liberalising labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies. There exists a lively debate in India as to whether the economic reforms were sustainable and beneficial to the people of India as a whole.

Indian government coalitions have been advised by the IMF and World Bank to continue liberalisation. Before 2015, India grew at a slower pace than China, which had been liberalising its economy since 1978. In 2015, India’s GDP growth outpaced that of China. The McKinsey Quarterly stated that removing major obstacles “would free India’s economy to grow as fast as China’s, at 10% a year”.

There has been significant debate, however, around liberalisation as an inclusive economic growth strategy. Income inequality has deepened in India since 1992, with consumption among the poorest staying stable while the wealthiest generate consumption growth. India’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate in 2012–13 was the lowest for a decade, at just 5.1%, at which time more criticism of India’s economic reforms surfaced; it apparently failed to address employment growth, nutritional values in terms of food intake in calories, and also export growth—and thereby was leading to a worsening current account deficit compared to the period prior to reform. The country continues to perform poorly in all developmental aspects, with high unemployment among the youth, poor women’s security, rampant corruption, the highest number of malnourished children and poor sanitation

 

  • The low annual growth rate of the economy of India before 1980, which stagnated around 3.5% from the 1950s to 1980s, while per capita income averaged 1.3%. At the same time, Pakistan grew by 5%, Indonesia by 9%, Thailand by 9%, South Korea by 10% and in Taiwan by 12%.
  • Only four or five licenses would be given for steel, power, and communications. License owners built up substantial powerful empires
  • A substantial public sector emerged. State-owned enterprises made significant losses.
  • Infrastructure investment was weak because of the public sector monopoly.
  • License Raj established the “irresponsible, self-perpetuating bureaucracy that still exists throughout much of the country” and corruption flourished under this system

After liberalization, India became the second world of development and became the 7th largest economies. It contributed 1.3 trillion in the world’s GDP. Dr. Manmohan Singh, the former finance minister, opened the way for a free economy in the country which led to the significant development of the country.

____

The government allowed several concessions under the novel economic liberalisation policies in India and some of them include the following:

  • The government added a number of nine industries on which a seventy-four percent automatic approval regulation was initiated.
  • In cases pertaining to mining, generation of electricity, distribution and diffusion of manufacturing activities, ports, refining of oil and so on, a hundred percent of foreign equity was being permitted in all the marked Special Economic Zones in the country.
  • Telecom industry was also included in this list and activities of it were now privatized.
  • Under this policy, the FDI was now free to establish their zones replete with infrastructural facilities they require by virtue of the new scheme of Free Trade and Warehousing zones.
  • The government took care to allow maximum rates of foreign equity permission for priority industries that generated a lot of resourceful and financial development.

 

-The protection enjoyed by existing company disappears. New companies could enter any given industry and get a market share. The existing companies had to compete for their share.
-The concept of minimum economic size was shaken. Many existing companies became uneconomic. Companies earlier had to conform to the licence given and the size had to be as per the licence. Licence for larger capacity was normally not given. Now ‘going big’ became the order of the
day.

Economic size now meant international size. Companies that could not become ‘big’ either sold to the bigger firms or merged with others. HLL took over Tomco and many other mergers, acquisitions took place.
-The industry structure also changed with the entry of multinationals. With their high investment capacity and technology clout, the multinationals are altering the structure in almost all the industries they are entering. E.g. in the refrigerator industry there were only four players.

Today we have Whirlpool, Samsung, Daewoo LG Siemens-Bosch and many more. The new entrants altered the structure of the industry, market size, market shares, differentiation, brand positions and the nature of competition.

-The entry of multinationals also resulted in brand war in which the multinationals are squeezing out the ‘desi’ brands. It means a grossly unequal battle for Indian brands.

The MNCs brought in superior technologies and more modern products. They brought in their global brands to the Indian market along with their full marketing and management might.

The opening up of exports also became available through the parent company’s expertise and connections.

The power structure in Jointstock Ventures are in favour of the multinational due to their majority stake.

The Indian company has to surrender and also forego their managerial autonomy.

The MNC brands have affected the Indian brands in several ways

  • Loss of volumes and market share
  • Squeeze on profit margin
  • Need to allocate more funds beyond the capacity of the Indian firm
  • Losing the race finally to the foreign brand

It is overall an unequal battle between players of unequal strength as Indian firms are weak in four areas namely:

  • Lack of technology clout
  • Capital inadequacy
  • Lack of economy of scale
  • Lack of product clout and brand policy

 

The economy of India had undergone significant policy shifts in the beginning of the 1990s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the LPG or Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation model. The primary objective of this model was to make the economy of India the fastest developing economy in the globe with capabilities that help it match up with the biggest economies of the world.

The chain of reforms that took place with regards to business, manufacturing, and financial services industries targeted at lifting the economy of the country to a more proficient level. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner.

Liberalisation ( उदारीकरण )

Liberalisation refers to the slackening of government regulations. The economic liberalisation in India denotes the continuing financial reforms which began since July 24, 1991.

Privatisation and Globalisation (खाजगीकरण आणि जागतिकीकरण)

Privatisation refers to the participation of private entities in businesses and services and transfer of ownership from the public sector (or government) to the private sector as well. Globalisation stands for the consolidation of the various economies of the world.

LPG and the Economic Reform Policy of India

Following its freedom on August 15, 1947, the Republic of India stuck to socialistic economic strategies. In the 1980s, Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, started a number of economic restructuring measures. In 1991, the country experienced a balance of payments dilemma following the Gulf War and the downfall of the erstwhile Soviet Union. The country had to make a deposit of 47 tons of gold to the Bank of England and 20 tons to the Union Bank of Switzerland. This was necessary under a recovery pact with the IMF or International Monetary Fund. Furthermore, the International Monetary Fund necessitated India to assume a sequence of systematic economic reorganisations. Consequently, the then Prime Minister of the country, P V Narasimha Rao initiated groundbreaking economic reforms. However, the Committee formed by Narasimha Rao did not put into operation a number of reforms which the International Monetary Fund looked for.

Dr Manmohan Singh, the present Prime Minister of India, was then the Finance Minister of the Government of India. He assisted. Narasimha Rao and played a key role in implementing these reform policies.

Narasimha Rao Committee’s Recommendations

The recommendations of the Narasimha Rao Committee were as follows:

    • Bringing in the Security Regulations (Modified) and the SEBI Act of 1992 which rendered the legitimate power to the Securities Exchange Board of India to record and control all the mediators in the capital market.
    • Doing away with the Controller of Capital matters in 1992 that determined the rates and number of stocks that companies were supposed to issue in the market.
    • Launching of the National Stock Exchange in 1994 in the form of a computerised share buying and selling system which acted as a tool to influence the restructuring of the other stock exchanges in the country. By the year 1996, the National Stock Exchange surfaced as the biggest stock exchange in India.
    • In 1992, the equity markets of the country were made available for investment through overseas corporate investors. The companies were allowed to raise funds from overseas markets through issuance of GDRs or Global Depository Receipts.
    • Promoting FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) by means of raising the highest cap on the contribution of international capital in business ventures or partnerships to 51 per cent from 40 per cent. In high priority industries, 100 per cent international equity was allowed.
    • Cutting down duties from a mean level of 85 per cent to 25 per cent, and withdrawing quantitative regulations. The rupee or the official Indian currency was turned into an exchangeable currency on trading account.
  • Reorganisation of the methods for sanction of FDI in 35 sectors. The boundaries for international investment and involvement were demarcated.

The outcome of these reorganisations can be estimated by the fact that the overall amount of overseas investment (comprising portfolio investment, FDI, and investment collected from overseas equity capital markets ) rose to $5.3 billion in 1995-1996 in the country) from a microscopic US $132 million in 1991-1992. Narasimha Rao started industrial guideline changes with the production zones. He did away with the License Raj, leaving just 18 sectors which required licensing. Control on industries was moderated.

Highlights of the LPG Policy

Given below are the salient highlights of the Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation Policy in India:

  • Foreign Technology Agreements
  • Foreign Investment
  • MRTP Act, 1969 (Amended)
  • Industrial Licensing
  • Deregulation
  • Beginning of privatisation
  • Opportunities for overseas trade
  • Steps to regulate inflation
  • Tax reforms
  • Abolition of License -Permit Raj

 

A demographic is a specific portion of the population and is based on particular common features, beliefs, practices, or ideologies.

These can be separated according to age groups, gender, religious beliefs, income ranges, education, profession, and a number of other specifically target-able aspects of modern life.

Consumer advertising often seeks to find ways to relate to either the entire population or more commonly a specific demographic and appeal to people’s sense of consumer desire.

Advertising is, generally, the practice of creating print, audio, and video messages intended to reveal or display a product or service and to show features meant to entice a customer into purchasing that product or service.

Consumer advertising is a specific field of advertising, which focuses on the needs and desires of households rather than businesses. These types of advertisements are often focused even more narrowly on a specific demographic or target audience to increase effectiveness and message penetration among that audience.

Consumer advertising is advertising that is directed and intended for domestic markets such as individuals and families. This is in contrast to industrial advertising, which is specifically directed and marketed toward businesses.

The goal of consumer advertising is to introduce, or sometimes re-introduce, products and services to families and private individuals for daily use and consumption. These can be automobiles for family use, household appliances, home electronic devices, clothes, books, movies, and just about anything else commonly found in an individuals or family household.

The basic purpose of Consumer Advertising is to introduce the product or service at the time of the launch to the consumer, give information about the product and at times help in re-launching the product or service. This advertising is for daily products and services like household appliances, electronics, accessories, apparels or any other product or service used by the consumer.

Consumer Advertising makes use of Mass Media to inform and persuade a large audience. The advertiser uses traditional as well as new media to communicate with the consumer.

While persuading the consumer, the advertiser has to keep in mind about the kind of product or service which they are offering to the consumers. Understanding basic advertising categories will help you make the right choice for your business.

Consumer Advertising can be done with these Mediums :

Marketing includes advertising, public relations, promotions and other means of promoting your product or service. Buying a radio spot is advertising, while getting an article on your company or product in a newspaper is public relations. Purchasing a banner on a website is advertising, while sponsoring a sporting event is promotion. Advertising gives you the most control over how your message is delivered.

Print Advertising

Print is one of the oldest and most traditional forms of advertising. Print advertising includes display or classified ads in newspapers, magazines, newsletters, phone books, directories or other forms of printed communications. Print advertising lets you target your customers by advertising in venues sent to specific audiences.

Broadcast Advertising

(Hello there victims of my messages *smug anime face)

Until recently, broadcast advertising referred to radio and TV spots. Today, broadcast ads might include spots on satellite networks beamed to car owners, programs streamed on the Internet and podcasts.

Direct Mail Advertising

Another traditional form of consumer advertising is direct mail. This type of advertising allows you to send longer, more detailed messages directly into the homes of your potential customers at a lower cost than other forms of print or broadcast. The more detailed a mailing list you can purchase, the more effective a direct mail campaign will be.

Outdoor  Advertising

 

Billboards, posters, neon signs and other forms of advertising consumers see while commuting or traveling can be effective based on the placements of your ads. If you place an ad on a commuter route, many people will see your ad day after day. If you place your ad near a sales point, you will alert potential customers that you are nearby.

Web Advertising

 

The Internet offers many ways for advertisers to advertise, including banners, pay-per-click lead generation, video commercials, links and downloadable coupons or brochures. To maximize your website advertising budget, examine traffic reports for specific websites using such research tools as Alexa and Quantcast and ask for click-through information from website owners.

Social Media Advertising

 

Social media is the latest category in consumer advertising and includes methods of personal interaction among people who see your product and service, then recommend it to their friends, family and peers. Creating a Facebook page or Twitter account and/or advertising on those sites helps you get the public to become a sales force for you as they pass the message about you onto their social networks.

 

Retail Advertising is creating awareness amongst the consumers about the variety of products available at the retail store (for e.g. shopping malls.)

It is a tool to persuade the consumers with various techniques and strategies to make them visit the store or the mall again, and again. In order to reach maximum consumers, or to have the highest impact, a number of marketing mix techniques are used.

In India, retailers have to be very careful with the placement of the store and the community they are addressing or catering to, in regards to Geography. During Occasions like Holi, Eid, Diwali, Christmas, New Year, all retail stores are full with customers going for shopping not only for themselves but their friends, families, relatives as well.

This is also the time for Aggressive Advertising  for the stores, with various sales and discount options for the consumers. It is all about targeting the right community at the right time. The store has to position itself as the most accessible store with the best options available.

In case of the nationally advertised brands, the brand awareness and preference is already build. The purpose of these retailers is to advertise the product brand, and to let the prospective market know about the availability and special promotional offers. Newspaper is a very good media in terms of cost and elaborate space. Quality of advertisement doesn’t matter here as the brand image has already been built up. Moreover the local advertisers get attractive rates from the newspaper.

On the other hand there are many retailers who are original advertisers because they are advertising their own brands. These include banks, departmental stores, specialty store, small stores, etc who sell their own products.

The local retailers like supermarkets, department stores etc. have a wide range of products that they wish to expose to their prospective target market.

Now audio visual being a very effective media for advertising the local retailers prefer it for their product assortments. But they prefer the local channels for the cost factor. The advertising options and media choice of these retailers finally depend on the fact as to whether they are re-advertising the national brands or originally advertising the local brands.

In India, retailing has caught up in a big way. Today one finds the presence of huge retail stores like Central,Crossroads, Shoppers Stop, and Big Bazaar etc. who are doing well. It has a bright future and looks all set to grow. Currently it is an urban phenomenon present in the metropolises like Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore etc. However this trend is moving into the smaller towns and these present the market of the future.

Retailing occupies a key role in the world of economy. Retailing involves all the activities incidental to selling to ultimate consumers for their personal, family, and household use. It does this by organizing their availability on a relatively large scale and supplying them to the customers on a relatively small scale.

A retailer is any person/organization instrumental in reaching the goods, or merchandise, or ser­vices to the end users. A retailer is a must and cannot be eliminated. Retail marketing comprises the activities related to selling products to the consumers through chan­nels such as stores, malls, kiosks, vending machines, or other fixed locations. In contrast, direct market­ing to consumers attempts to complete a sale through phone, mail, or web site sales.

 

Financial Advertising is conducted solely for financial services provided by the financial organizations.

It is such a category of advertising, which more or less does not have any limits on what it can contain under its name, but broadly speaking financial advertising includes a wide range from banks to financial institutions, to insurance, investments, savings, mortgages, and investments, etc.

These Agencies provide different kinds of financial services like housing loan, personal loan, insurance policies of different kinds, buying and selling of shares, investments, etc.

In addition to advertising addressed to customers or clients, it can also include company reports, prospectuses for new share issues, records of investments in securities, and other financial announcements.

Some, like building society and National Savings advertisements, may be addressed to the general public while others will appear in the financial and business press only, e.g. the Economic Times of India, Business Standard or The Hindu Business Line. It is also interesting that while trade and technical magazines are not so much high in number in India, the business or financial dailies mostly distinguished by pink paper for which the British Financial Times is famous are quite large in circulation. So the vacuum in technical journals is somewhat filled up by these dailies by offering special pages or features regularly.

The objective of financial advertising may be to borrow or lend money, conduct all kinds of insurance, sell shares, unit trusts, bonds and pension funds or report financial results.

The main categories in this field are as follows:

(a) Banks advertise their services, which along with traditional bank accounts include deposits, loans, insurance, house purchase, wills and executor-ship and advice on investment portfolios. Some banks specialise in certain areas of banking, and others concentrate on certain kinds of business. For instance, one may finance business loans or underwrite new share issues, while another may seek to attract university students for educational loans or specialise in servicing the rural population. A number are associated with credit or debit cards as well.

(b) Building societies both borrow money from savers and lend money to house-buyers. Most of their advertising is directed at not only raising funds but keeping funds so that they have sufficient money to meet loan applications. Competitive interest rates are important sales points, and today in Britain there is rivalry between building societies, banks and insurance companies for the same kind of business. Some supermarket chains have also now entered this arena.

(c) Insurance companies exist to insure against almost any risk from big commitments like ships and aircraft worth millions, to covering the risk that rain may stop play. Some insurance not only covers risks but also provides benefits to savers or pensions in old age or to cover funeral expenses. In the cases of fire and theft, insurance companies are also selling peace of mind should damage or loss be suffered. There are many insurance companies like LIC, ICICI Prudential, and HDFC Standard Life Insurance etc which cover human lives exclusively.

(d) Local authorities may borrow money from the public, usually on short-term loans, which could be advertised.

(e) Investments are offered, not only in share issues but in unit trusts and other investments in which smaller investors can share in the proceeds of a managed portfolio of shares.

(f) Savings and banking facilities are offered through post offices, which sell National Savings certificates, Kishan Vikash Patras and various other bonds.

Financial Advertising is a unique type of advertising. The way their Content is portrayed and designed is different from rest of the Ads. Advertisers are still experimenting with the types of appeals which can be used for Financial Advertising. Usually, Financial Ads are seen with emotional appeals.

 

A child runs in from the outside, clothes stained with mud or blue ink or ketchup, and stares gingerly up at the only adult in the room. The adult examines the soiled shirt with a smile, walks over to a washing-machine, and we cut to the jingle.

Feels familiar? Of course it does, you’ve seen it a hundred times. And even though the above description left out any mention of gender, chances are you filled that in yourself.

You can always count on mother to be hanging around with instant noodles, detergent, or cough syrup. Cooking, cleaning and care-work – the trifecta of women’s unpaid domestic labour – have been exalted in advertisements for as long as we’ve had TVs in our homes. And men? Well they drive and buy insurance and cause explosions and stuff.

Usually in Indian Advertisements, men are shown as strong, independent, and women are often playing the role of soft, empathetic, emotional role. Many Ads portray women as nothing but sex objects. And in the next advertisement,  we may see women are either cooking, placing herself before everyone else in the house, emotional, childlike, lacks basic knowledge, physically weak to perform actions, is attracted towards anything a man does. This was done at an even larger pace few decades ago.

Advertisements and Movies have set a standard of how men and women should behave and live in a society. And consumption of such media has instilled values among men and women. Even today, many people feel that many of the gender biased Advertisements shown on Television have are without any fault.

Advertisements have set up a standard for women. Women need to be beautiful. Women need to have a certain weight, height, emotions and caring behaviour. Advertisers also use nudity in their advertisement to promote products. Which is considered to be unethical. Such advertisements have played a crucial role in shaping and nurturing women.

  • Many women wear or have changed their way of dressing because an advertisement portrays that a woman would be accepted if she dresses in a certain way.
  • The same can be said about the weight and diet plan of women. Many Women try to reduce their weight just to be accepted by the society.
  • We have seen women playing the role of a housewife in advertisements for ages. A women plays the role of being the person who is supposed to wash the clothes, who is supposed to be in the house, who is supposed to cook the food, etc.

Advertisements also set a criteria for Men. A Man is supposed to be stronger, should maintain a physique, should be smarter, should be the earning one in the family, one who goes to see a girl for wedding, one with abs and chest, one who can dominate women. This has made many men, or boys to feel inferior, just because they lack few things, or maybe if they are not able to dominate or act tough. This makes many men hit the gym, buy fairness product, grow a beard, etc.

It imbibes a feeling of inferiority among many women, and men feel that they are the dominant and superior race.

In recent times, many companies have tried to change this portrayal of women and men in Advertising. Dove is doing a really good job at making women love themselves, no matter, fat, dark, old, etc.

Few More Examples for Gender Bias Tendencies in Advertisements can be seen

in the Ad Campaign of Men will be Men by Imperial Blue

The Advertisement portrays how Men behave around Women. It speaks about how they feel they need to act, how to hide their insecurities, just for the sake of looking good in the eyes of a Woman.


The Gillete Guard Ad shows that Men need to look good around few women


The Advertisement by Axe was very popular for a long time. The Advertisement instructs men to follow certain things, and doing these will give them the Women they want.

All these lines are said by a Women, who has a fairer tone, a thinner shape, and a peculiar accent, which also sets standards for the word “Beauty”, among women.


The above Advertisement by Wildstone was for a simple product like Talcum Powder. However, the 60 Second Advertisement talks about how women should have a particular smell, cry, reaction, looks, and dressing sense. And how a man should not have any of these. This plays a crucial role in shaping the audience and their minds. At the end of the Ad, the man is seen using the Talcum Powder, and the Women immediately attracts to the Man once again which portrays a Women as something as mere and simple as a toy which is attracted towards a man having something as simple as a talcum powder.


 I also wanted to include few ads which break the stereotype.


Biba has a beautiful Ad which breaks the stereotype The Women in the Ad, didn’t want to spend the rest of her life with a stranger. She didn’t want to adhere to what was expected of her. She was pleasantly surprised by what was to follow.


The Advertisement shows the Women being scared of the norms set by the soceity. The women is unwilling and is scared because she knows that she cannot do any of the things. That is when the Creative Team brings a twist and promotes the message of Unity. That the Women does not need to do everything on her own. A man is equally responsible. A Women cannot single-handedly do everything.  But when the both of them come together, they can run a house, a family, with a smile.

Its really good Ad. Dont miss it

 

Advertising depends heavily on Stereotyping. You can find generalized or stereotyped advertisements about children, youth, women, men, and even senior citizens. Senior Citizens  are often portrayed as a group of people who aren’t aware, or don’t know about something, people who are very weak, or people overflowing with love and compassion.

The stereotyping about Old People is very strong. In most of the advertisements, old people are portrayed in a negative light, or in a manner which will in/directly mock them. They are either very sick, or don’t know about something.

The only time when Old People are portrayed positively is when they are shown to be loving and caring. And most of the times, this leads the advertisement with an Emotional Appeal. It is often used to portray a unity among a family, a loving character for the children, or a emotional support of the family [मायेचा हाथ फिरवणारे आज्जी आणि आजोबा ]

Media is heavily responsible for shaping and nurturing the society ,in regards, to the values about Old People.

There are often stereotypes created by the Media for the Older People. Old People are seen to use Newspaper, Books many a times, and they don’t usually know how to use Mobile Phones. And many a times, Old People lack common sense and are dumb. We are very well aware of the gender bias created by the media, and the stereotype is reducing at a very small pace, due to many advertisers and influencers.

Media portrays the older generation as victims of crime, and many a times they are shown as not capable of taking care or needing help. Older Generation are heavily portrayed as people who are old, feeble, lonely, dejected, defenseless, weak, incapable, but there are rarely any solutions given to these problems by the media. There can be many positive messages which can be portrayed by media which can put an end to many of these problems. There are few ads which try to give a solution or break the stereotype like Cadbury Ads, or Google’s Ad where a granddaughter brings together her grandfather and his friend from Pakistan.

 

I realised this answer does not quite explain a lot. SO I hav added few points at the beginning

  • Advertising is a business, an art, an institution, and a cultural phenomenon.
  • Advertising helps consumers see the possibilities and meanings in the things that they buy. Advertising also liberates meanings that lie below the surface.
  • Advertising is part of our every day culture as it is omnipresent. On an average, we see close to 1,500 ads per day. Therefore their influence on the cultural consciousness and behavior of the public can’t be denied.
  • BMM STUDENTS ESPECIALLY WATCH ADS BECAUSE IDK. EVER SINCE TAKING THIS DEGREE.. ADS DONT BORE ME. SOMETIMES I FEEL “LETS WATCH THIS ABSOLUTELY SKIPPABLE AD! MAYBE I CAN USE IN MY PROJECT! WOW”
  • In Indian scenario advertising has a very large influence in the mass media market place as it pays most of the bills and thus plays a major role in shaping the content and operation of the mass media in India.
  • Advertising also plays an important role in the popular Indian culture because it shapes and reflects our life styles. It is usually the first to reflect social trends. Example: The print advertisement of Amul.
  • Advertising promotes a higher quality of goods through the ability of the consumer to identify a particular manufacturer and thus creating a need for that manufacturer to maintain quality.
  • Advertising also gives business the ability to roll-out new products fast enough to offset the costs of creating such products.
  • Advertising protects industry from government and special control as it democratizes information to consumers as to what products are available.
  • Advertising plays following broad roles in the economic landscape of a country:

Economic Role of Advertising

  • Advertising performs an economic function for an advertiser, affect economic decision of the audience and is an integral part of the whole economic system.
  • r.
  • Advertising plays a crucial part in telling the consumer that they need to buy a product, or they need to stop using something. Even if the Consumer is satisfied with their product, because of Advertising, they feel the need of buying a new one. Advertising helps to create a need
  • It even tells the society where can the product be bought from, where is it available, when can you buy it, etc.
  • Advertising stimulates demand, educate consumer about new product, policies, programmes services and organizations, increase competition and improve standard of life-style by helping to bring new product to the consume
  • Advertising boosts the economy by helping to introduce new products faster and more effectively to consumer by supporting to achieve the economies of scale faster and by helping to remove the monopoly of the product.

More of the people, from the rich to the poor, will participate in the world’s wealth through global trading.

The emerging global economy will bring us into worldwide competition with significant advantages for both marketers and consumers. With satellite communications and global companies, consumers are demanding an ever-expanding variety of goods.

Indian economy had been constrained and shaped by policies of import substitution and an aversion to free trader. The industry was only meant for those with a proper license because only they would count for a specific share of the market.Real competition was eliminated through import ban and prohibitive tariffs an foreign competition.

Now, however, times have changed and India has embarked on a transformation

The Indian economy grew dramatically and is among the Big Emerging Markets. It has a large middle class about more than 300 million (the size of USA). Among them are college graduates, 40% with a degree in science and engineering. India has a diverse industrial base and is developing as a centre for computer software. These advantages give India’s reform programmes enormous potential.

India has a weak infrastructure but the Indian government plans to address these deficiencies.

The private sector has been allowed entry into power generation, oil and gas exploration, telecommunication and civil aviation.

An estimated 100 to 300 million Indian possess sufficient disposable income to form an expanding consumer class

As India is developing, incomes change, expectations for a better life adjust to higher standards and social capital investments are made, market behaviour changes and eventually groups of consumers with common tastes and needs arise

With the rise of incomes, new demand is generated at all income levels for everything from soap to automobiles. The poorest slums in Kolkata are home to 1,00,000 TVs and video facilities. More household money goes for food in emerging markets than in developed markets then the next category of expenditure is for appliances and other durables.

 

There are significant changes in lifestyles and buying habits of Indian consumers. Convenience and ready-to-eat type of food products are now popular. Modern gadgets have gained entry into most homes. Teenagers are also becoming influencers of change in their family’s buying patterns. The average Indian is now spending money more liberally than before.

The middle class constitutes the largest segment of consumers for manufactured goods in the country. A virtual explosion has been taking place in the Indian middle class. It is now placed at around 300 million people. It is now emerging as the ‘consumption community’ of the country. They are better educated and exposed to global lifestyles, and their aspirations are constantly growing and their spending is steadily on the increase.

This change is not confined to the metros and other big cities. There is now product penetration even in smaller towns. Even in rural areas penetration is reasonably good;  The top end of the middle class is now aspiring for a second car, a second TV and a second refrigerator.

Consumer credit is gaining ground. On the whole the Indian consumer is in the grip of big change. The well-off segments are becoming more cosmopolitan in work-culture, food habits, entertainment and lifestyle in general. A fusion of the east and west seems to be taking place. The internationalization of the upper middle class society is on.

The Indian middle class has long been a security seeking class. This class has been moving towards more material comforts.

The change in the dress habits is a new trend. There is a shift from the tailor-stitched garments to readymades and especially the branded ones.

Travel is now becoming very popular. People are now traveling to see places and for relaxation and not just to see relatives.

The middle class has become status conscious or prestige conscious. The changing fashion of college going children are on the rise.

The middle class woman is no longer confined to the four walls of the kitchen. She is now educated and also employed, she is the image builder. The new found purchasing power has fueled the demand for cosmetics, toiletries, packaged foods and beverages.

Consumers are now quality conscious as well as cost conscious. The middle class also seeks leisure. Time saving devices are popular. Sense of grooming is a strong motive force behind several purchases. The younger generation is fast becoming more international in style. They are more modern and adventurous than their elders and are quick in adapting to fashions.

  • The new middle class is now, confident, full of energy and drive and is making things happen.
  • Middle has grown to become the centre of the socio-economic upheaval.
  • It is now the fastest growing segment in the Indian society
  • It is now street smart, pragmatic, non-ideological, and result oriented
  • It proves that there is a way up from the bottom to the top
  • Seizes key slots in the global information and media industries
  • Open to a lot of opportunities

 

The present day economic policies changed from a regime of quantitative restriction to a more open price based market force determined system.

The three pillars of the economic policy are;

  • Liberalisation
  • Privatisation
  • Globalisation

The entry of multinationals have come with new technology and market practices that lay more emphasis on advertising as an important tool

Competition

As entrants increase, products and competition also increase and thus demand for advertising increased. After the entry of cable television, India has seen a blast of channels. The numbers of newspapers and magazines have also increased. Now there are new ways of reaching the consumer. Due to the media explosion, there is access to foreign channels. Through these, viewers are exposed to a ‘materialistic western culture’. New products and features are noticed in these programmes and that creates awareness and need to buy the product.

Dressing habits have changed, new trends are set in everyday life.

All these small cultural changes are also the result of advertising. Advertising creates brands, association and draws aspirers into the western culture of material culture of material possessions

Privatization has also affected the world of advertising.

Government organizations survive  only because they are government owned. There is no profit motive and urge to sell. With privatization, there is a radical shift in the management system. It is moving towards modern managerial techniques and advertising. The volume of advertising and its creating capabilities, have increased.

Globalization

With the opening up of the economy and integrating the economy with the world economy  there was a vast impact on advertising industry. Restrictions on foreign entry, scrapping  of FERA, massive import restrictions and reducing tariffs, etc. brought the world closer. Advertisers had to ‘think global and act local’.  Indian agencies came of age. Now a days, Ads for global causes are also being made in India. Through the global ventures, the advertising agencies collect social and cultural inputs and even story boards sometimes are made in India.

Internet has become a great marketing tool. Advertising experience is on the increase with the increase in ad expenditure.

At present, the Indian economy is experiencing the pressure of several economic issues such as unemployment, poverty, illiteracy, inflation.

 

Advertising moves the people to buy thing they cannot afford, Certainly it is true because advertising persuades the people to buy through slogan. Advertising appeals primarily to our emotions, rather than to our intellect. Since all of us are motivated by emotional drives, it is only natural that advertisers should make such appeals. But it is up to each of us to exercise self-control and sound judgement in our purchases. Again a cautious buyer will avoid obvious appeals to the emotions.

Despite many benefits drawn from advertising, it suffers from a severe criticism advanced by different segments of society.Advertising plays a key role in your company’s marketing plan. To effectively attract customers, you must engage in advertising that promotes your services and products. Prepare to face criticism, however from those who believe advertising is deceptive. Much criticism of advertising centers around the false claims made in promoting products, and that they too often urges consumers to make purchases they don’t need.

Unethical

The ethics of advertising campaigns often comes into question, particularly when consumers are urged to make unneeded purchases, or are given false and misleading information. Example, According to the Communications Council, placing a price on an ad that really belongs on an inferior product is both unethical and illegal.

Relying on racial or gender stereotypes is another unethical practice the council tries to avoid. Tiny, illegible print can’t overcome patently false claims made in the larger advertising print, such as in the case of the Humira ad run by Abbott Labs in 2009. In that case, the unethical advertising resulted in a $70 million fine for the drug manufacturer, according to CBS News.

Exaggerated

Advertising that exaggerates the differences between your product and your competitors’ products often is criticized as false and misleading. It sometimes disparages competition unfairly in an effort to woo consumers. Customers sometimes  become disenchanted with negative ads, which then can backfire on the originator of the exaggerated claims.

Offensive

Advertising critics often point to the use of sex and sexual themes as offensive and unnecessary. Some advertising campaigns draw protests from area churches, women groups or parenting associations, such as the Calvin Klein commercials in the 1970s that featured, a teenage, Brooke Shields. Critics called the ads pornographic and exploitative. Boycotts and legal actions may follow offensive advertising that ultimately can lead to even more exposure for your brand. For example, the clothing retailer Benetton received extensive coverage and criticism of its so-called “unhate” campaign in 2011 when it featured President Obama kissing Hugo Chavez, a Venezuela leader.

See the source image

Materialistic

Another strong criticism of advertising is that it corrupts society by promoting materialism. Proponents of social responsibility accuse advertisers of taking advantage of the free enterprise system to exploit various populations with unethical, misleading and offensive advertising. The result, they say, is a less informed and less caring population of consumers. According to the American Educational Foundation, critics claim that ads play on people’s’ emotions with promises of social acceptance and sex appeal, causing them to make purchases they can’t really afford and don’t need. Advertisers can’t force consumers to buy something they don’t need, but enough & effective advertising can increase and influence consumer wants and desires.

Increased Price of The Product:

Advertising increases the cost of the product as the expenses on it form the part of the total cost of the product. The increased prices are borne by the consumers. But it cannot be denied that advertising leads to large scale production which considerably reduces the total and per unit cost of production. The consumer may pay less rather than higher.

Multiplication of Needs:

Advertising creates artificial demand for the product and induces people to buy those products which are not needed by them. On account of its repetition, it allures and creates a desire in the minds of the people to possess an article not required by them.

Deceptive:

Sometimes advertising is used as an instrument of cheating. In order to, impress upon the people, false statements are given, with regard to different virtues of a product. Fraudulent means and deceptive practices are resorted to by various traders in order to sell their products. All these things adversely affect the public confidence in the advertising.

It Leads to Monopoly:

Advertising sometimes leads to monopoly in a particular brand of a product. By investing large sums in advertising of his brand, a big producer eliminates small producers of the same product from the market and creates brand monopoly. This leads to exploitation of consumers.

But in reality this argument does not hold good. The monopoly powers are temporarily acquired by the manufacturers as they face strong competition by the rival producers of the same product.

In the words of Marry Hepner “advertising stimulates competition. It often enables the small businessmen to compete with large concerns as well as to start new business”.

Harmful For the Society:

Sometimes advertisements are unethical and objectionable. Most often, these carry indecent language and virtually nude photographs in order to attract the customers. This adversely affects the social values.

Wastage of Precious National Resources:

A serious drawback levied against the advertisement is that it destroys the utility of certain products before their normal life. The latest and improved model of a product leads to the elimination of old ones. For instance, in the U.S.A., people like to possess the latest models of cars and discarding the old ones which are still in useable conditions. This leads to wastage of national resources.

Advertising is biased

This too, is natural; all persons put their best foot forward in whatever they say or do. Being aware of this bias, we can discount some of the superlatives used in advertising.

Advertising is irrelevant

Most of advertising shows irrelevant things instead of concentrating on the real point. For example, there is an advertising of “Polka Ice Cream” which concentrates more on cricket game and less on showing the Polka; so this is irrelevant.

Advertising is unduly repetitious

This is because the public is essentially like a passing parade, not a mass gathering; there are always new users whom the appeal has never reached.

Use of objectionable appeal

The main motive of advertising is to attract the attention of the people towards the product. Therefore, often advertisements are made vulgar, obtrusive and irritating. Actually some advertisers employ poor taste in their appeals; their cheapness damages the higher standards of many other advertisers. The very nature of radio and television, whose commercials cannot easily be turned off, accounts for much irritation; this complaint is seldom voiced in relation to printed advertising.

Advertising Confuses the people

There are advertisements of various companies about a product of the same nature. All the advertisers describe the high quality of their product. Such a situation makes the people confused in selection of the best product of their own choice.

Advertising misleads the people

In this connection it is well said that advertising is the art of telling whole lie out of the half truth. Advertising demonstrates the quality of the product so highly that people blindly make a buying decision.

People have to pay for the advertising

In this regard, it is well said that advertising is a gift behind the price. It means that whenever a consumer wants to buy a product, for that he will have to pay for the real cost of the product as well as cost of labour, manufacturing, distribution and advertising. This also ultimately leads to increase in the price of the product.

Waste of money and time

This is also one of the allegations against advertising that when a product has become popular in the society and people are buying it everywhere, then there is no need for further publicity as it would be a wastage of time and money.

Advertising posters monopoly

Almost all advertisements are designed to carry their message along with trademark. When people uphold a certain trademark, the advertisement of a product bearing such trade mark will make a single choice for the people to make a buying decision.

Advertising is too much intrusive

It is said that advertising is too much intrusive. For example, there is a running commentary on TV about a cricket match. Suddenly we see an advertising at the time when the bowler is appealing for L.B.W; so this is intrusion.

Use of objectionable technique

Use of Sexual Themes, controversies, advantage of some recent event, repetition of the main idea and use of loudness are objectionable techniques, etc. Many have made use of Peoples Sentiments towards certain things in advertisements.  Few Companies like PayTM and Jio have used the Face of Narendra Modi for their campaigning, however, this was followed by a controversy because it is against the law.

'Is this even legal?': Why is Narendra Modi in a Reliance Jio ad, ask Twitter users

Advertising by its very nature receives wide exposure

It presumably has an effect on what people buy and thus on their activities. The wide exposure and advertiser’s persuasive vehicle, it is argued, has its impact on the values and lifestyles of society and that this impact has its negative as well as positive side.

It is argued that appeals to mass markets tend to promote conformity, appeals to status promote envy, pride and social competitiveness, appeals to fear promote anxiety, appeals to youth promote reduced family authority and appeals to sexuality promote promiscuity.

Materialism

Materialism is defined as the tendency to give undue importance to material interests and presumably there is a corresponding lessening of importance to non-material interests such as love, freedom and intellectual pursuits. In the world of television commercial all of life’s problems and difficulties, all of our individual yearnings, hopes and fears can yield instantly to a material solution and one which can work instantly without any effort skill or trouble on our part.

It is true that advertising and the products advertised are a part of our culture and thus contribute to it in some way. It is also true that advertising does not have the power to dominate other forces (family, religion, literature etc) that contributes to the values of society. There is little support the view that advertising is a pervasive force in altering consumer spending and savings habits. In a free society people can choose the degree to which they indulge their desires, needs and fantasies

Promoting Stereotypes

The accusation that advertising has contributed to the role stereotyping of women and ethnic minorities has been supported by several studies. The ads reflected that women do not do important things, are dependent on men, are regarded by men as primarily as sex objects and should be at home. Minorities were in low status roles

Promoting harmful products

After many debates advertising of cigarettes and alcohol are now banned. Ofcourse arguments have been put forward that ads do not promote consumption, it is only geared toward brand choice. It is also argued that countries that have banned advertising of alcohol and cigarettes have lowered the consumption of these products. It is felt, therefore that banning such products may not be the most effective way of handling the problem

Green Marketing

Green Marketing has brought up a new issues about advertising and its effect on values and lifestyles. Advertising has been a part of the Environmental Protection Agency. These ads have had many ecologically positive behaviour. However may corporations have begun using environment appeals in marketing regular products to just sell their products and services.

This so called green marketing has been challenged on a number of grounds. Authorities have attempted to establish voluntary guidelines on the use of the terms such as ‘recycled’ and ‘recyclable’. Many products with environmental claims such as shaving creams that ‘contain no CFCs’, laundry detergents that are ‘biodegradable’ and disposable diapers that are ‘degradable’ require special scrutiny because they are especially likely to confuse consumers.

Advertising makes people buy things they do not need

Critics claim advertising merely increased demand for unnecessary products that are not really needed by consumers. The counter argument to this is who is to determine the need of a consumer? Advertisers try to convince people that their brand will make them sexier, healthier or more successful but they cant make them buy. If it is so easy to convince people to buy why do more products fail than succeed? Advertising’s  power has been greatly exaggerated.

Another aspect of the manipulation argument is that advertising creates artificial needs. Consumers control the marketplace by the choices they make with their discretionary income.

Advertising debases our language

Critics claim that advertising copy is too breezy, too informal and too casual and therefore improper. They believe that advertising has destroyed the dignity of the language. Research however has shown that people respond better to down-to-earth conversational language than to the dignified , formal copy. Good copywriters develop a style that is descriptive, colourful and picturesque as well as warm, human and personal. They use simple words that are lively, full of personality and reflects the language usage and patterns of their target audience

Advertising is in bad taste

Taste is highly subjective. What is bad taste to some is perfectly acceptable to others. Also taste changes. What is offensive today may not be so tomorrow. People were first outraged when the first deodorant ad for underarms appeared. Today no one questions such ads. Today grooming and personal hygiene products often use near nudity in their ads. In international markets nudity in commercial is commonplace. Ultimately the market has the veto power- it can simply ignore material it considers offensive or in a bad taste

Advertising is Deceptive

Critics define deceptiveness not only as false and misleading statements but also as false impressions conveyed, whether intentional or not. For advertising to be effective, consumers must have confidence in it. So continued deception is self-defeating. Even puffery claiming to be ‘best’, or ‘greatest’ or ‘premier’ is sometimes believes and therefore deceptive.

Numerous regulations determine what advertisers can and cannot do but they also allow a significant amount of leeway. Thats where ethics and social responsibility come into play. An advertiser can act unethically or socially irresponsibly and not break any laws.

Lets end the Answer with this..

 

Popular culture is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time. Popular culture also encompasses the activities and feelings produced as a result of interaction with these dominant objects.

We are living in the Age of Media. Everything is connected. Everything and Everyone needs to be known, and needs to have a presence. And many a times people take help of Advertising. It is used for products, services, ideas, or even the person him/herself.  Film Stars portray themselves as a Substantial Brand. Their Image becomes a face for the Mass to be an inspiration and an influence.

Popular culture refers to beliefs and practices and the objects through which they are organized, presented and are widely shared amongst a population. It is the expressive content, that is produced and consumed.

Advertising on the other hand refers to the paid messages that attempts to transfer these beliefs and symbols into commodities, to increase the possibilities of its purchase. Although Advertising comes in many forms like, mediums like television, radio and magazines are normally focused more.

Advertising aims at changing behaviour while popular culture aims to give pleasure and not to change viewers

Advertising is almost always briefer than instances of popular culture (30 sec of a commercial against 30 minutes of popular culture). India produces the most number of movies in the world at between 1,500 to 2,000 every year in over 20 languages, according to a 2016 report by Deloitte.

According to IBEF[India Brand Equity Foundation], By 2017, Indian advertising industry is estimated to be Rs 63,000 crore (US$ 10 billion) with both print and TV having a share of 38-40% each.

Films are seen once or twice while ad films are seen over and over. Yet the advertising for many of these iconic brands doesn’t seem to drive social change in behaviour and values as strongly as some of the heroes and heroines do through their portrayals in films and serials.

Advertising and popular culture share much in common. Both are products of culture industries. Both are to be understood as artistic products. Both pay great attention to style. Both share the use of same mass media method.

Popular culture is more welcome than advertising

Popular Culture offers Lavish Store to Advertisers who try to create attractive messages for consumers. Advertisers will appropriate popular culture material like celebrities, music, comedy styles and anything else that can be used as accepted and enhanced symbol for their products.

Popular culture is everything from common, to folk, to even mass culture. Instances of popular culture are Television Serials, Films, Comic Books, Music, etc. Advertising and Popular Culture have come to occupy central positions with a global economic growth.

To communicate with consumers, advertisers have a fertile and ample mixture of symbolic material to draw upon. The lore of popular culture that advertisers find usable are movies, comedies, music and celebrities. Music has the ability to stimulate extraordinary emotional feelings. Adult Consumers derive emotional benefit from popular music. It is this appeal that advertisers try to exploit to stimulate consumer’s interest in their products.

An advertiser’s choice of leading entertainers as spokespeople, as opposed to lesser known individuals, carries with it valuable contextual inferences when the transfer of meanings from the endorser to the product and from the performance to the ad works well, it becomes a success.

The utility of music is acknowledged within the advertising industry. Background music can set up a mood with targeted consumers and lend an emotional dimension to a brand.Although much of the music in advertising is original, an increasing proportion of it consists of reused popular cultural hits.

We can see many instances of Advertisements using Popular Culture.

The utility of music is acknowledged within the advertising industry. Background music can set up a mood with targeted consumers and lend an emotional dimension to a brand. Although much of the music in advertising is original an increasing proportion of it consists of reused popular cultural hits.

Sometimes advertisers use Black and White Colours or lookalikes of few characters to appeal the the previous generations or add an element of humour.

Sometimes, Advertisers have used Transgenders in their Ads, in a particular period to create an appeal.

We have even seen many advertisements directly using songs from Popular Movies to appeal to a Wider Audience. Advertisements from Amazon Alexa make use of Music.

Advertising always tries to incorporate or recreate a new popular culture. We have seen many instances like these. When you see Pakistan vs India matches, there are many advertisements portraying the Unification of Bonds and Love between few Indians and Pakistanis, or you see some advertisers trying to promote India and its Nationality.

Many Advertisements try to use upon the way a character from a movie has dressed. We can see few kids wearing or looking like characters from DC or Marvel Movies to appeal to a Younger Audience

Samsung has used the features, drawbacks and upgrades made by Apple on their iPhones and used them in Ads, to promote their new phones.

A Popular Culture can be based upon any topic, and can last for a long or a very small time. We have seen Jio using the trend of Pokemon Go to promote its Services. We have also seen many companies using Demonetisation to promote their brands, like Uber and its new Card Service, PayTM, Freecharge, PhonPe with a rise, we have also seen Jio and PayTM using Sri. Narendra Modi’s Face to promote their Brands.

Advertisers make use of current affairs and news to promote their brands. Or sometimes a trending or popular celebrity. Lenovo Phones have made use of JackFilms, Irrfan Khan has made use of AIB to promote Hindi Medium, Samsung Galaxy has used Ninja a Fortnite YouTuber  to promote their phones, and there are many more celebrities who are used to promote because of their upcoming or recent movies in the Market.

Movies and Serials also play a huge role in shaping the culture. The Haircut of Shah Rukh Khan, the names of Movie Characters like Rahul used for children. The Movie Sultan and Billu Barbar shows what influence an Actor plays, and how they are put into Advertisements right after they become Popular.

However, many advertisements use popular culture to promote their brands or unethical products. Much of mass media advertising is aimed at consumption rather than consumers’ lives. Mass media advertising is still believed to be about salesmanship and not about influencing change.

In short, mass media advertising needs to see its audience as “people” they are influencing rather than “consumers” they are selling to. That will make brands and advertising more powerful and have greater influence on culture.

Advertising has become an integral part of our culture, even becoming an art in recent times. It has had a huge impact on the people and their mindset, having great potential and being an ever-growing industry.

Advertising is not depleting or obliterating popular culture. The interpenetration of advertising and popular culture is recognised. Highlights from one adds lustre to the other. The target audience are always on the lookout for symbols and meanings which reverberate back and forth between the two domains. Popular culture can even aid in the creation of new norms.

To communicate with consumers, advertisers have an ample stock of purchasable symbolic material to draw upon. Advertisers turn to popular culture that if pleasurable, emotional and non-coercive.

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792691/ for more details

The Answer is Big. I will write few points at beginning which you can elaborate on in the paper. A quick read

  • Exposure to Murder, Fights, and Killing makes many kids go violent. Kids in the US have even gone to the extent of killing.
  • Movies Exposure makes kids act like their favourite actor, stars or characters.
  • Being Nurtured by the content in the Advertisements
  • Learning Respect, Love and overcoming fears via Advertisements as well.
  • The portrayal of sexual themes makes kids think that these behaviours are normal and risk-free
  • Children are too young to understand that an advertisement is made to sell a product.
  • Childhood Obesity is on the rise due to their portrayal in advertisements
  • Excessive demands by children
  • Overexposure to television
  • Violent or disturbing behaviour

Consumption of Media

Television has the potential to generate positive as well as negative effects on its audience with the help of its Audio and Visual Means. There have been many studies on the impact of television on society, senior citizens, women, and particularly on children.

Any content which we find on television or its ads plays an important role in the mind of children. The messages, themes, violence, tones, portrayed on television plays an important role. Not all televisions, films, and ads portray promote negative themes.

However, the use of slangs, rhythm, language used, exposure to violence, inappropriate/unnecessary sexuality, is all a matter of concern, since all of these are heavily consumed by children when they are in front of their television, and not every time is the content which the children watch is regulated.

The Amount of Violence and Sexual Themes on the television, films and ads is on the rise. The number of hours and the amount a child is consuming any of this media is beyond count.

It is reported that children between the ages of two and eleven spend about 25 hours per week watching television and see approx 20,000 ads per year and 7,000 of these ads are for sugared products.

The newer generation of youngsters is an avid consumer of mass media, especially advertisements. They are increasingly vocal and influential when it comes to ‘brand choice’ and ‘brand purchase. The influence spreads to categories which may not be directly used by kids (refrigerators, mobile phones, salt ads, spices ). Advertisers are making their pitches more and more to younger audiences. ‘Catch them young’ seem to be the motto of the day.


The Effects of Advertisements

Children learn how an item fits the lifestyle from cartoons, soap operas and serials. Children develop an unrealistic idea of how people live through ads. Children are getting older beyond their years. Today’s generation is more computer literate and advertising literate. Children are the new generation.

Children respond more positively to messages communicated visually, rather than a voice message. A visual action is closer to their own play experience where actions speak louder than words.

Studies have shown that television is an important source of information for children about products. Critics argue that children are especially vulnerable to advertising because they lack the experience and knowledge to understand and evaluate critically the purpose of persuasive advertising appeals. They also feel that pre-school children cannot differentiate between commercials and programmes and cannot distinguish between reality and fantasy. Critics charge that advertising to children is inherently unfair and deceptive and should be banned.

Nurturing Boys and Girls

A child is nurtured by all of these Ads. They play a role in teaching a child, aggression, sexual themes, etc. Boys are heavily influenced by the Ads, Films and Television Content. Many of the boys become aggressive and assert dominance as well as express rage in their households, neighbourhoods, and schools. Girls are nurtured from early phases of their lives to become a weaker part of society.

Some feel that parents should be involved in helping children interpret advertising and can refuse to purchase products they believe are undesirable for their children.

Ads made for Children

The issues of advertising directed to children have been receiving greater attention recently. There is also a growing concern over how advertisers are using the internet to communicate with and sell to children.

Realising that children are imaginative and that make-believe play constitutes an important part of the growing-up process, advertisers should exercise care not to exploit the imaginative quality of children. The unreasonable expectation of product quality or performance should not be stimulated either directly or indirectly by advertising.

Ads made for Children often use Fantasy and a lot of Colours. Sunfeast, Kinder Joy, Gems are a prime example of these Ads. These ads are fixated in the minds of children. This makes them want to watch the ads, and consume the product. Which makes the Product popular among the kids. Children become aggressive and start crying, fighting and nagging for these products. And many times parents buy the products because of the constant annoyance of the children. This leads to children believing that crying might get them the thing they want. And many times, this leads to Obesity in Children. [If Anyone thought about ShinChan, Thank you. I made an entire presentation on this]

Recognising that advertising may play an important part in educating the child, information should be communicated in a truthful and accurate manner with full recognition by the advertiser that the child may learn practices from advertising that can affect his or her health and well-being

The controversy on ads aimed at children has generated an ongoing stream of research on the effects of children’s advertising.

Many advertisements, movies/serials which contain smoking or drinking are also consumed by children. The Depiction of such activities is shown is a very appealing or cool stance. There might be plentiful warnings and parental guidance for such actions, however, a child may not see the warnings, and if not properly explained by a parent. The child may grow curious and try these things at an earlier age.

Many Parents either change the channel when their child see things like this on the television [#MeToo]. This grows curiosity among children. This is done for many topics like smoking, drinking, discussions about rape or sex, murder, loss, etc. Children are often unaware of what they saw or are stopped from seeing. And Parents don’t like to talk about these topics as well. This leads to children being left unanswered, makes them feel like trying a few of these or attempt to watch them on their own, and further ruins the fragility of childhood. Many parents, however, take a good stand and explain their kids, sometimes, often telling them that these things are done by an adult, when you will reach a certain age we will talk or you will get your freedom, which sometimes does not make the children think about it too much.

The effect of advertising can be both positive as well as negative.

Positive Influence

All toothpaste ads like Colgate, Pepsodent etc inculcate a good habit of brushing the teeth in the morning and at night. They create awareness among the children regarding the ill effects of germs, weak gums etc.

The Raymond ads show depressed school student wishing goodbye to their principal. Out of respect and love for their principle, they buy him a Raymond suit piece. It influences the kids to give the teacher the respect they deserve and love them for the knowledge they bestow on them.

Negative Influence

The Thumbs up and had a man standing at a cliff and performing; bungee jumping. A kid after watching this ad attempted a similar feat and jumped from the fifth floor of a building only to fall to his death.

Several parents complained Clinic Shampoo ad featured a girl child who is embarrassed because of her extremely lifeless hair. Is this the age when a kid should be worried about her looks and hair? Such ads make children grow older beyond their years and thus induce wrong attitudes and beliefs in them.

The LG television ad showed a kid not going back home from school and standing outside a TV showroom just to watch TV because at home his mother does not allow him to do the same. The ad said that kids could watch TV for unlimited hours without spoiling their eyesight. This influenced the child in a negative way.

Although many influences affect a child’s personal and social development, it remains the prime responsibility of the parent to provide guidance for children. Advertisers should contribute to this parent-child relationship in a constructive manner.

Advertisements which promote Food Items promote them in a positive light, which might also see an increase in Obesity towards children

 

You can take few points from Gender Bias, and Children Answer as well

Youth is seen as the most global segment as it felt they show amazing similarities in taste, interest, language and attitude, music, fashion, film, video games, technology for global culture. The Youth in USA, Latin America, Europe, Asia, Australia are surfing the net, talking on their cell phones, playing their video games, watching MTV, drinking Coke and Pepsi

Young consumers around the world are spending a substantial amount of money Youth and they are exposed to many images and commercials for various Products and Services each day. This excessive amount of media in our day to day lives cannot be sidelined and impacts all those surrounded by it. It is an expression of the society of which we are a part, and is a mirror-image for all practical purposes and has a tremendous influence on the social, cultural and moral values of the youth. The last two decades on account of globalization have seen an unparalleled change, which has expressed itself in the form of diminishing community values & building change in the lifestyle of youth. Youth today, spend more time on the Internet and Television than in the classrooms.

It becomes imperative that these youth get influenced by these aspects to a great extent and try to ape these acts in their personal lives too.

Advertisements are placed on Internet, television apart from the conventional media like the newspapers, magazines, and on billboards. An average Youth sees over 1,500 advertisements a day

Advertising alone cannot propel a customer to buy. It triggers to the mindset of the customers and exists as the Top of mind recall. It attracts the customer, provides information and makes him walk up to the shelf where the Product is located.

Before the Product gets launched in the market, the tasks of test marketing are usually adopted by the person. Advertisements should ensure that the content shown is purely informational, and not beyond this. But practically, this rarely happens. The content many times is persuasive. Advertisements start with persuading the customer due to the new benefits that the Product promises to deliver to the customer.

They want that customers to be willing to spend the money on the Products and Services that are introduced newly in the market.

The positivity of advertisements further accelerates down the path of creating consciousness and also makes a person aware about the social evils of the society. Killing the girl child or getting a girl married at a tender age of below 18 years are some of the examples of social evils present in our society.

Certain advertisements create awareness about the negative impact of such actions as well as some help in promoting education and individuality. These advertisements have been in very successful as they are a good attempt at fostering the awareness quotient. They also help in developing consciousness in society. However, how we implement the messages conveyed in these advertisements in our lives is entirely our perspective and choice.

Advertisements tend to create a negative impact as well on the mindset of Youth. For instance, the commercial of Thumbs-up “ Taste the thunder, the celebrity, Akshay Kumar goes on top of a lighthouse by the beach, sways to call the rains, uses the Thumbs up a bottle as a lightning conductor and converts lightening to a cold drink.

Other soft drinks advertisements showing a hero jumping from the terrace of a building in search of his favourite drink. This is surely entertaining and glamorous but there is a danger of imitation by youth to impress others. Commercials on like Pan Masala, Bagpiper, and Foursquare Cigarettes etc. stimulates and attracts addiction to alcohol abuse among Youth, as they want to strike a fashion statement. Advertisements of bikes like Pulsar, CBZ, and mobile phones, smartphones compels the Youth to fall prey to such commercials and make them determinant of being associated with those Products or Services.

Advertisements also instil upon the minds of youth that things in life are risk-free. Advertisements of Tobacco, Alcohol, Cigarettes, promote that these things are cool. Whereas many advertisements set a standard for behaviour among men and women as well.

Many youth around the globe have a strong interest in US culture and lifestyle and their hunger for the American Culture is being fed by their access to satellite TV and the net. Music, movie and sports are universal language for young people. Celebrates with global appeal appear in ads targeting youth. Pepsi (Britney Spears), Tiger Woods, Micheal Jordan (Nike)

The most important characteristic of young consumers globally is the sense of collectivist values
have been the norm. Although there are similarities of global youth, cultural differences still exist from one country to another.

Role of advertising in bringing about changes in culture, customs and traditions

Impact of advertising on attitudes, behaviour, societal norms, perceptions, needs life styles.

A characteristics of human culture is that change occurs. If you read a 20 year old magazine, you can see that people’s habits, tastes, styles, behaviour and values are not constant but are continuously changing. However, this gradual cultural growth does not occur without some resistance.

New ideas, methods and products are held to be suspect before they are accepted even if they are right. The degree of resistance to the new pattern varied. In some cases new ideas are accepted completely and rapidly and in others, resistance is so strong that the acceptance if never forthcoming.

Concern is often expressed over the impact of advertising on society, particularly on values and lifestyles. While a number of factors influence the cultural values, lifestyles and behavior of society, the overwhelming amount of advertising and its prevalence in the mass media lead many critics to argue that advertising plays a major role in influencing and transmitting social values.

Rapid industrialization has change many long honoured attitudes regarding time and the position of women.

Today instant food is preferred on a large scale.

Although a variety of innovations have been accepted there are many that face resistance. India has been engaged in intensive population control programmes for many years but the progress has been limited.

Most attribute this to the low level of education and beliefs.

The high birth rate is due to early marriage.

Religion’s emphasis of bearing a son, the dependence on children for security in old age.

All these are important cultural values are in variance with the concept of birth control. The introductions of the iPills and the 72 hour pill to stop pregnancy are gaining popularity.

The institutions of family, religion and education have grown noticeably weaker with each passing generation. Many feel that traditional authority is lessening and advertising has become a kind of social guide. It provides ideas about style, morality and behaviour.

Ads establish what is cool in society, Ads are bold, Ads are not afraid to show anything about gender, Ads even show Lesbian, Gays, Transexual, Ads show whites, blacks and kids from different social strata, dancing together.

Ads on pizzas McDonalds fast foods, jeans etc have definitely has influenced our food habits, dress and our life but this has taken place only at the superficial level and mostly in the metros andbigger town and cities.

Recent years have seen a lot of changes in our cultural base. This has been the result of the opening up of the channels of communications and exposures of other cultures. The educated class has grown and some transformation was achieved without any change inthe entrenched social cultural structure.

The life styles of many have changed. Expensisve cars, gadgets, designer clothes and 5 Star living were adopted due to the ad bombardment. The economic liberalization has altered the lives of the middle class too. They have become more international in their outlook, aspiration, and more sophisticated and liberal in the lifestyle and attitude and certainly more adventurous and demanding of holiday and leisure activity

Now almost every consumer durable can be had on installment and loans. The credit card industry has risen to more than a Rs 2000 crore business. Consumer Giant companies spend more than Rs 600 crores in advertising. The explosion of satellite TV brought home the consumer message with more than 100 channels.

The impact of such exposure in terms of a desired life style cannot be overestimated

The core cultural values in India has still the cultural values of ethics and the social sensitivity of the olden days in spite of the vast changes that have taken place in the behavioural patterns of the Indian people. The pressure of modernity is not strong enough to force a qualitative change in our cultural values.

 

The central issues of advertising and society can be divided into few categories. The first is nature and content of the advertising to which people are exposed.

  • Is advertising inherently unethical?
  • Are appeals used to manipulate consumers against their will?
  • Is advertising too repetitious?
  • Is it too preoccupied with sex?

There is also the questions about the fairness of advertising to children

The second category represents the aggregate effects on society as a whole. It refers to the secondary consequences or effects.

What is the effect on society’s values and lifestyles?

Some believe that advertising competes with or dominates such other socialization agents as literature, plays, music, the home and the school. That it fosters materialism at the expense of other basic values. That it may serve to reinforce racial discrimination or that it promotes harmful products.

The third category is the effect advertising has on society’s economic well-being and the efficiency of the operation of the economic system. Can the power of advertising lead to the control of the market by a few firms, which will weaken competition and raise consumer prices?

Is alcohol and cigarette advertising ethical. These Advertisements are now banned in India but surrogate advertisements still exist. A much wider range of ethical issues and concerns are now being addressed as packaging, professional services ads by physicians, attorneys, accountants and emerging social issues about environmental or green marketing.

There is considerable overlap between what many consider to be ethical issues and the issues of manipulation, taste and advertising’s effects on values and lifestyles

Does advertising manipulate?

The essence of a free marketplace and a free society is the freedom to make decisions to select or not select a particular brand. Some feel this freedom is overpowered by advertising which can manipulate a buyer into making a decision against his or her will. When advertising utilizes appeals that go beyond a basic communication the charge of manipulation via emotional appeals is raised. The implication is that with emotional appeals the consumers will make less than optimal decisions. A typical theme running through these commercials is to hold the brand out as the pathway to success and happiness and the antidote to what is otherwise a drab, boring or lonely life. Dishwashing liquids are advertised as sweeping away the dullness of life. Bath soaps have rejuvenating capacity and so on. These observations are related to issues of deception.

There is also a general claim that advertisers have the raw power to manipulate consumers by their capacity to generate large numbers of ad exposures and highly sophisticated scientific techniques to make ads effective. However the fact remains that consumer choice behaviour is determined by many factors in addition to advertising- the advice of friends, decisions and lifestyles of family members news stories, prices and so on. Advertising is but one of many variables and it has a limited role.

Some feel that advertising is objectionable because the4 creative effort behind is not in good taste. Some feel that television advertising is often like a visitor who has overstayed his welcome

Advertising to children has been a major focus and concern for many years. It is said that children between 2 to 11 spend about 25 hours a week watching television and see approx 20,000 ads per year/

Ads presumably have and effect on what people buy and  on their activities. It has an impact on the values and lifestyles of society and that this impact has its negative as well as positive side.

It is stated that

  • Appeals To Mass Markets Tend To Promote Conformity
  • Appeals To Status Promote Envy, Pride And Social Competitiveness
  • Appeals To Fears Promote Anxiety
  • Appeals To Newness Promote Disrespect For Tradition, Durability, Experience,
  • Appeals To Youth Promote Reduced Family Authority And
  • Appeals To Sexuality Promote Promiscuity

The key issues are which values and lifestyles are to be encouraged as healthy, which are to be avoided and what relative impact or influence ads have on them

The  environmental movement has thrown up a number of new issues about advertising and its effects on values and lifestyles. Advertising has played a valuable role to encourage recycling, energy conservation and many ecologically positive behaviours. It was informative and educative

However advertisers have seized on environmental advertising claims as an effective way to sell their products and services by using terms such as ‘recycled’ and ‘recyclable’

 

Digital marketing is the marketing of products or services using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet, but also including mobile phones, display advertising, and any other digital medium.

Digital marketing’s development since the 1990s and 2000s has changed the way brands and businesses use technology for marketing. As digital platforms are increasingly incorporated into marketing plans and everyday life, and as people use digital devices instead of visiting physical shops,  digital marketing campaigns are becoming more prevalent and efficient.

Digital marketing methods such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing, e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, email direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, and optical disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology. In fact, digital marketing now extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (SMS and MMS), callback, and on-hold mobile ringtones. In essence, this extension to non-Internet channels helps to differentiate digital marketing from online marketing, another catch-all term for the marketing methods mentioned above, which strictly occur online.

Paid Search

Paid search, or pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, typically refers to the “sponsored result” on the top or side of a search engine results page (SERP). You only pay when your ad is clicked. You can tailor your PPC ads to appear when specific search terms are entered, creating ads that are targeted to a particular audience.

PPC ads are flexible, visible, and most importantly, effective for many different types of organizations. They are also contextual advertisements—ads that appear when a person is searching for a particular keyword or term.

Search Engine Optimization

Simply put, search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of optimizing the content, technical set-up, and reach of your website so that your pages appear at the top of a search engine result for a specific set of keyword terms. Ultimately, the goal is to attract visitors to your website when they search for products, services, or information related to your business.

SEO can almost be viewed as a set of best practices for good digital marketing. It enforces the need for a well-constructed and easy-to-use website, valuable and engaging content, and the credibility for other websites and individuals to recommend you by linking to your site or mentioning it in social media posts.

This is the process of optimizing your website to “rank” higher in search engine results pages, thereby increasing the amount of organic (or free) traffic your website receives. The channels that benefit from SEO include:

  • Websites.
  • Blogs.
  • Infographics.

Content Marketing

Have you heard the expression, “Content is king?” If not, you have now. Great content is the fuel that drives your digital marketing activities:

  • It is a key pillar of modern SEO
  • It helps you get noticed on social media
  • It gives you something of value to offer customers in emails and paid search ads

Creating clever content that is not promotional in nature, but instead educates and inspires, is tough but well worth the effort. Offering content that is relevant to your audience helps them see you as a valuable source of information. On top of that, resourceful content makes it less likely that they will tune you out.

Social Media Marketing

People aren’t just watching cat videos and posting selfies on social media these days. Many rely on social networks to discover, research, and educate themselves about a brand before engaging with that organization. For marketers, it’s not enough to just post on your Facebook and Twitter accounts. You must also weave social elements into every aspect of your marketing and create more peer-to-peer sharing opportunities. The more your audience wants to engage with your content, the more likely it is that they will want to share it. This ultimately leads to them becoming a customer. And as an added bonus, they will hopefully influence their friends to become customers, too.

This practice promotes your brand and your content on social media channels to increase brand awareness, drive traffic, and generate leads for your business. The channels you can use in social media marketing include:

  • Facebook.
  • Twitter.
  • LinkedIn.
  • Instagram.
  • Snapchat.
  • Pinterest.
  • Google+.

Email Marketing

Email has been around for more than two decades, and it’s not going anywhere anytime soon. It’s still the quickest and most direct way to reach customers with critical information. The reason is simple: Consumers are very attached to their emails. Just ask yourself how many times you have checked your email in the past hour…See what we mean?

But great marketers know that not just any email will do. Successful email campaigns must be engaging, relevant, informative, and entertaining. To succeed, your marketing emails should satisfy these five core attributes:

  • Trustworthy
  • Relevant
  • Conversational
  • Be coordinated across channels
  • Strategic

Mobile Marketing

As mobile devices become an increasingly integral part of our lives, it’s vital that marketers understand how to effectively communicate on this unique and extremely personal channel. Mobile devices are kept in our pockets, sit next to our beds, and are checked constantly throughout the day. This makes marketing on mobile incredibly important but also very nuanced.

From SMS and MMS to in-app marketing, there are many ways to market on mobile devices, so finding the right method for your particular business is key. Beyond the mechanisms to deliver your message, you also need to think about coordination of your marketing across digital channels and make sure mobile is a part of that mix.

Marketing Automation

Marketing automation is an integral platform that ties all of your digital marketing together. Without it, your campaigns will look like an unfinished puzzle with a crucial missing piece. Marketing automation software streamlines and automates marketing tasks and workflows. Most importantly, it measures the results and ROI of your digital campaigns, helping you to grow revenue faster.

When used effectively, marketing automation will help you gain much-needed insight into which programs are working and which aren’t. It will give you the metrics needed to speak confidently about digital marketing’s impact on the bottom line.

Content Marketing

This term denotes the creation and promotion of content assets for the purpose of generating brand awareness, traffic growth, lead generation, and customers. The channels that can play a part in your content marketing strategy include:

  • Blog posts.
  • Ebooks and whitepapers.
  • Infographics.
  • Online brochures and lookbooks.

Pay-Per-Click (PPC)

PPC is a method of driving traffic to your website by paying a publisher every time your ad is clicked. One of the most common types of PPC is Google AdWords, which allows you to pay for top slots on Google’s search engine results pages at a price “per click” of the links you place. Other channels where you can use PPC include:

  • Paid ads on Facebook.
  • Promoted Tweets on Twitter.
  • Sponsored Messages on LinkedIn.

Affiliate Marketing

This is a type of performance-based advertising where you receive commission for promoting someone else’s products or services on your website. Affiliate marketing channels include:

  • Hosting video ads through the YouTube Partner Program.
  • Posting affiliate links from your social media accounts.

Native Advertising

Native advertising refers to advertisements that are primarily content-led and featured on a platform alongside other, non-paid content. BuzzFeed-sponsored posts are a good example, but many people also consider social media advertising to be “native” — Facebook advertising and Instagram advertising, for example.

Marketing Automation

Marketing automation refers to the software that serves to automate your basic marketing operations. Many marketing departments can automate repetitive tasks they would otherwise do manually, such as:

  • Email newsletters.
  • Social media post scheduling.
  • Contact list updating.
  • Lead-nurturing workflows.
  • Campaign tracking and reporting.

Email Marketing

Companies use email marketing as a way of communicating with their audiences. Email is often used to promote content, discounts and events, as well as to direct people toward the business’s website. The types of emails you might send in an email marketing campaign include:

  • Blog subscription newsletters.
  • Follow-up emails to website visitors who downloaded something.
  • Customer welcome emails.
  • Holiday promotions to loyalty program members.
  • Tips or similar series emails for customer nurturing.

Online PR

Online PR is the practice of securing earned online coverage with digital publications, blogs, and other content-based websites. It’s much like traditional PR, but in the online space. The channels you can use to maximize your PR efforts include:

  • Reporter outreach via social media.
  • Engaging online reviews of your company.
  • Engaging comments on your personal website or blog.

Inbound Marketing

Inbound marketing refers to the “full-funnel” approach to attracting, engaging, and delighting customers using online content. You can use every digital marketing tactic listed above throughout an inbound marketing strategy.

 

There are so many reasons for you to choose digital marketing. Digital marketing has opened up a new era in the marketplace. So, before you are investigating on the digital marketing, you should clearly know about its facilities. Here are some advantages of digital marketing;

1. Direct Advertising:

Direct adverting helps an advertiser to create awareness about a product or brand. Recently every company can easily show their advertisements for products or services on different digital channels. If you can take a good marketing strategy, then you can perform well in the competitive marketing. Direct advertising is a good option for a marketing strategy. It can attract a large mass and develop your business.

2. Easy Consumer Reach:

The main advantage of digital marketing is – it can reach a wide range of audience as early as possible. Nowadays people spend a large portion of their time in searching the web. Using internet channels, a marketer can easily and quickly approach to target a number of consumers. There are so many social media platforms for advertising. They are Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, Blogs, Instagram, Google+, YouTube, Pinterest, LinkedIn etc. Using these social medias, a marketer can easily reach its targeted customers.

3. Easy Brand Promotion:

As the technology and internet have developed a lot, the brand’s may take a great advantage of customer’s reach and co-operate it’s clients successfully. Development of a company depends on the existence of the internet. It can develop your company from any regional market to nationwide and worldwide marketplaces at the same time.

4. Reduced cost:

Digital marketing allows the marketers to save cash. Because digital marketing does not demand a great amount of financial commitment. It costs comparatively low than the so-called traditional marketing channels like television, newspapers, radio, banners, magazine etc. Some websites and business profiles generate huge traffic for absolutely free. It is a great option for marketers to spread their business throughout the world without any high cost.

5. Helping Marketers Career:

It is a great opportunity for an individual who is making digital strategies and helping companies to expand their business. These strategy makers help to grow the business of a company and himself/herself makes their own career also. Digital marketing has spread huge career options for digital marketers.

6. Available 24/7

The World Wide Web never rests for any time. So, your advertisement will work for 24 hours. Using the electronic industry, your advertisement will physically present for 24 hours a day and 7 days a week and 365 days in a year. So, your advertisement will always be in front of your targeted customers. This is one of the main important features of digital marketing that we cannot avoid while talking about advantages and disadvantages of digital marketing.

7.  Consumer’s Convenience to Shop Online:

Online shopping is a growing trend. For the popularity and capabilities of digital marketing, customers are more interested in online shopping. A customer can buy a thing whether it is in his/her country or in abroad. Today distance is not a matter to a customer. Also, a customer can get the opportunity of choosing his/her material from so many options. A large portion of people now likes online shopping for its so many benefits. So, digital marketing opens up a new opportunity for both the company and the customer. Now a retailer and a customer can connect with each other very easily.

8. Global Advertisement:

This is one of the most important features of digital marketing. It enables the companies to advertise worldwide and there is no barrier, having so many geographical differences. So, a company can easily expand its business without any extra effort. Sitting in a remote place, a company can spread its business throughout the world. This will lead the company to show off it features to the rest of the world. This global advertisement will spread your company’s reputation worldwide.

9. Bulk Emails And Messages:

The Internet allows you to send so many emails and messages at a time. So, within a short span of time, you can connect with your customers. This paves a way to reach more customers. If you want to send any information to your customers or any employees these messages will help you to a greater extent.

10. Perpetually Displaying Ads:

Due to digital marketing, it is now approachable to the target customers at any time of the day. There are no limitations in the place and time. These perpetually displaying ads attract the customers very much. But we have to manage these ads efficiently to see on the web page.

11. Simple To Measure:

The online calculation is not a difficult task for the companies. Marketers easily can know if their marketing strategies are working or not. If their marketing strategies are not working, then they can change their marketing strategies without any hesitation. They can also know which customers or organizations like their products. So, a company can easily target those customers or organizations. This measurement may save you from loss.

 

Though digital marketing opens up a new vista for the marketing world, but there are some limitations. Before you start working on the digital marketing area, you should know about its limitations also. Otherwise, you may regret afterward. So, before you work on digital marketing, you should well aware of its limitations also. The limitations are:

1. Limitations of Internet Access:

The digital marketing mostly depends on the internet. In this modern world, there are still some areas where the facility of the internet is not available or the internet connection is very poor. So, in those remote areas, digital marketing has no function. It is very difficult to target those customers who live in those places. Because without internet, digital marketing is nothing but a puppet. This is a major problem of digital marketing. There is no way of escaping from it.

2. High Competition of Brands:

Talking about advantages and disadvantages of digital marketing, this is a great fault of digital marketing. A customer and consumer must know about the high competition of brands. When a customer searches for a specific goods or products, then the services having the same marketing strategies, appear on the customer’s home page. So, this confuses the customer and offers a better and cheaper quality product of a different company. For this reasons, some customers lack their trust on so many advertisements and take them as frauds. If the cost of same quality product varies, anyone can be prey of its tricks.

3. Promotion Strategy Can Be Copied:

One of the main drawbacks of digital marketing is piracy. It is often seen that any company copies your products and sell them as their products. Copying of an image is not difficult. Not only this, even they can create an adverse effect on your products that will harm your online reputation. There are so many hackers to track or copy the valuable marketing strategies. So, to keep your marketing strategy is must. But, very often it does not safe from the piracy makers. Piracy makers are always there to copy your business strategy.

4. Limited Consumer Link And Conversation:

We all know that digital marketing is excessively dependent on internet. So, the marketers may found it very much difficult to access more consumers which they want. They can not start a conversation with their desired customers about the company products or brand image. But, the people who do not use internet, are unable to know about your product.

5. Advertisement For Limited Products:

While we are discussing about advantages and disadvantages of digital marketing, there is a practical drawback of digital marketing. It is only profitable for consumer goods. We can not sell the industrial goods or pharmaceutical products through digital channels. So, if you wish to marketize any industrial or pharmaceutical products, it is impossible to sell through digital marketing. So, there is no scope to sell all the products.

6.  Less Interest On the Internet:

There are some customers who are less interested in internet. They simply avoid Internet advertisement. Even they do not trust the internet advertisement. This creates a loss of valuable traffic. Because digital marketing wholly depends on internet. Without internet, it does not work.

7. Cash On Delivery:

Cash on delivery is one of the disadvantages of digital marketing. Because it does not ensure you for 100% cash back. This may create a hazard in front of you.

8. Negative Feedback:

In respect of social media, a single post, tweet or comment or any claim or any negative feedback about your services or products can destroy your online reputation for a long time. To make reputation, it takes much time, but to break it does not take much time. Even some negative feedback may destroy the chance of growth of your business.

9. Requires More Initial Investment:

For digital marketing, you have to make your website very much handy and also you have to planning an effective technique. Therefore, it is necessary for you to pay for marketing like AdWords, Social Media Marketing, Search Engines, Search Engines Ads. These are very costly for those persons who are involved in small-scale business. In many cases, small-scale business persons avoid digital marketing. Many small-scale business persons have not the ability to invest a huge amount of initial investment.

10. Anti-Brand Activities(Doppelganger):

Speaking about advantages and disadvantages of digital marketing, this is an another drawback of digital marketing. In this case, a man or a group of men can effect the image of a reputed brand through Doppelganger. This is a very well known word in digital marketing. Various opinion leaders, anti-brand activity, bloggers make the term ‘Doppelganger’ very familiar to cancel the image of a brand.

11.  Security Issue:

Internet marketing has its own disadvantages that we can not notice. When a customer queries for any online product or service, there is a caution that the company does not give all the private information about the product or service. Later, any unidentified person may use it against the customer.

These are the basic issues of advantages and disadvantages of digital marketing.

 

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade its viewers, readers or listeners to take some action. It usually includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service would benefit the consumer, to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume that particular brand. Advertising, a collective term for public announcements is designed to promote the sale of specific products or services. Advertising is a form of mass selling employed when the use of direct, person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. Everyday, everywhere we are surrounded by ads, whether we know it or not, they are always there.

By the means of television, radio, magazines and even clothing, we are encouraged to buy products. It is unimportant weather or not we really need the product, but rather the importance lies in the ads making us think we need the product in which they are endorsing. The economy is greatly dependent on people today for their buying power. As our country has started to consume much more than it produces, advertisements have started to reflect this by increasing their volume.

1. Informed Society

Through advertisements, the society is informed of various products, their uses, best bargains, safe handling of dangerous goods, effective use of scarce resources like petroleum and electricity, technological advances, etc. But for advertising, the society would have remained a less informed one.

2. Health and Hygiene Awareness

The advertisements on health drinks, toiletry products, sanitary ware and their installation, etc., make the people become aware of health and hygiene. Also advertisements on protected drinking water, effluent treatment, etc., help people live better.

3. Rights of Consumers

The rights of consumers are made aware through advertisements only. The spread of consumerism and awareness of consumer rights are also due to advertisements.

4. Preventive course for dreaded diseases

Dreaded diseases like AIDS are informed to the people as to their cause, spread and preventive measures against them.

5. New ideas

Generally, people are traditional. They should be informed of the development of latest technology. Creative advertisements render an effective service here.

For example, the sex of the newborn baby is determined by father’s chromosome and not of the mother’s. An effective advertisement would certainly help in dispelling the myth that it is the female who is responsible in sex determination of a newborn.

6. Advertisements contribute to creativity of people

Look at certain advertisements. Your bathroom can be a glamour-room is presented by the Parry’s sanitary ware. Perhaps, next to nature, the art of advertising is more creative is anybody’s knowledge.

7. Environmental protection

Environmental protection is the need of the hour. The brutal onslaught on nature by indiscriminate felling of trees, letting off untreated industrial effluents into the open, growing urbanization and consequent burgeoning urban slums, etc., are brought to the knowledge of people and an awareness is created against environmental degradation.

For example, the Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board has launched an effective campaign highlighting against the indiscriminate use and burning of plastics. Such messages are brought to the notice of people through advertising.

8. Social changes

Social changes like accepting women as equals, empowerment of women, concern for the girl child and curbs on female infanticide, developing public opinion against child labor, etc., are created through advertisements only.

9. Quality consciousness

Concern for quality of a product, process, or even life, work, education and, investment etc., is promoted through advertisements.

10. Promotion of national interest

National interest ls promoted through advertisements as well. Complying with tax laws, complimenting export achievement, promotion of tourism, protection of monuments, creating political awareness of citizens, etc., are pursued through advertisements.

11. Educates and Initiates Change

When marketing and advertising principles are applied to promote health and social issues and bringing about positive behaviour change, it can be called as Social Advertising. It’s what nonprofits and organizations like the Center for Disease Control have been engaging in for years. NGOs like CRY, CARE, ets are generally a part of this. Social Advertising represents ad formats that engage the social context of the user viewing the ad. Whereas in traditional, non-social, advertising the ad is targeted based on what it knows about the individual person or the individual page, in social advertising the ad is targeted based on what it knows about the individual user’s social network. Social Advertising is the first form of advertising that systematically leverages historically “offline” dynamics, such as peer-pressure, friend recommendations, and other forms of social influence.

The fact that advertisers are looking to reach out to many social networks at once means that they often look to Ad Networks to deliver ads across these networks through custom applications. The key factor that enables Social Ads are independent applications within social networks – now when open known as open social networks or open social platforms.

 

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A portion of the consumers’ exposure to different cultures tend to come about through consumers’ own initiatives, their travel, working in foreign countries, immigration to a different country, movies, theatre, art and exposure to unfamiliar and different products.

The other major category of cultural exposure is often undertaken by marketers and advertisers seeking To expand their markets by in a different country possessing a different cultural view.

In this context advertisers in foreign provide a form of ‘cultural transfer’ Cross- cultural advertising is a responsible effort to borrow those cultural ways seen as helpful for the better solutions to a society’s particular problem. It is important for an advertiser to learn about the different cultures world wide if a brand has to be sold in a foreign country.

There are two types of knowledge, factual knowledge about culture which is obvious and must be learnt. Different meanings of colour, different tastes and other traits indigenous to a culture are facts that an advertiser can anticipate, study and absorb.

The other is interpretative knowledge,  the ability to understand and fully appreciate the meanings of different cultural traits and patterns eg the meaning of time, attitudes towards other people and certain objects, the understanding of one’s role in the society can differ considerably from one culture to another and require more than factual knowledge.

Factual knowledge as a fact about culture assumes additional significance and has to be interpreted within the context of the culture eg Mexico is 98% Roman Catholic. However it is equally important to remember that in Spain or Italy or any other country Catholicism is practiced in a slightly different manner. Another conflict arises if one possesses factual knowledge but little interpretative knowledge. Taiwanese emphasise the collective while the westerners emphasise the individual. Emphasis on the collective results in a close-knit, supportive teams and creates a mind set which does not work with the western client.

The problem is that when the local staff acts humble and cautious the westerner perceives the humility as ignorance or lack of knowledge. An example of a good cross cultural advertising is the ‘Idea’ ad which has a Sumo wrestler buying vegetables. That was a fantastic way of advertising a foreign product in a country. ‘Idea’ wanted to go local in India. For that they showed a sumo wrestler buying vegetables in a typically Indian vegetable market. He is talking to the grocer and finding out the rates, which a very typical Indian way of buying vegetables and how the rates are brought down.

Social and cultural factors are important to consider while creating and implementing a marketing strategy of a company. These often-linked but somewhat different factors have diverse effects on the decisions of consumers and buyers. Sociocultural factors are customs, lifestyles and values that characterize a society. More specifically, cultural aspects include aesthetics, education, language, law and politics, religion, social organizations, technology and material culture, values and attitudes. Social factors include reference groups, family, role and status in the society. Small-business owners should be aware of and understand these factors’ connection with buying habits.

Education and Language

The average level of education in a society affects the interests and sophistication of consumers. For example, in a community in which a high percentage of potential customers have some form of post-secondary education, small-business owners might use more details and explanations while advertising and promoting products.

The spoken language of the community is a decisive factor on the labeling and advertising of the products. Consider the foreign language skills in the society while advertising. For example, in Washington, D.C., different transportation companies use English and Spanish on their brochures.

Social Organization

As part of the culture, social organization is the way a society organizes itself, how it considers kinship, status system, social institutions and interest groups. For example, the role of women in a society, whether they are the decision-makers in shopping, for example, is a decisive factor in marketing. A major interest group in the area — such as oil companies in Texas — can also influence society. The marketing of a small business can be successful by building its advertising strategy on women or moms, a specific interest group or a leader that has the biggest influence in the community.

Reference Group and Family

Because people are social beings, each person has people around him who influence his decisions in some way. Reference groups comprise people with whom individuals compare themselves. Family members, relatives, neighbors, friends, co-workers and seniors at workplace can form reference groups. Well-known and respected idols in society serve as examples in lifestyle, values and buying habits.

Family is a specific reference group and can play the most important role in influencing the buying decisions of the individuals. Spouses, children or grandparents have different needs and necessities. Being aware of and finding the major reference groups, persons or family structures in a community and building marketing on them can help small businesses achieve success.

Role and Status in Society

A person’s role in society and social status affects her buying decisions. Each person plays a dual role in society depending on the group to which she belongs. An individual working as president at a reputed firm is also someone’s wife and mother at home. The social status is also a relevant factor; an individual from an upper-middle class would spend on luxurious goods, while an individual from a lower income group would buy items required for basic needs. Knowing the income information of the potential customers gives the small-business owner an edge, allowing her to have more information about customer habits and implement a successful marketing strategy.

 

The packaging component includes style, features, labelling, trademarks, brand name, quality, price and all aspects of a products package.

Packaging components frequently require both discretionary and mandatory changes. Some countries require labels to be printed in more than one language while others forbid the use of any foreign language. Elements in the packaging component may incorporate symbols, which convey an unintended meaning and thus must be changed

One company’s red circle trademark was popular in some countries but was rejected in parts of Asia where it brought up images of the Japanese flag. Yellow flowers used in another company trademark were rejected in Mexico where a yellow flower symbolizes death or disrespect.

Package size and price have an important relationship in poor countries. Companies find they have to put the product in small packs to bring the price within the spending norms. Unilever makes its Sunsilk brand shampoo affordable in India by packaging in sachet packs

Care must be taken to ensure that corporate trademarks and other parts of packaging component do not have unacceptable symbolic meaning. Particular attention must be given to translations of brand names and colours used in the packaging. When Ford tried to sell its Pinto automobile in Brazil, it quickly found that the cars name translated to ‘tiny male genitals’. White is the colour of purity in western countries but in the eastern world it is the colour of mourning. In China P&G packaged diapers in a pink wrapper. The Chinese shunned the pink package. The Chinese do want anyone to think they have a girl; they prefer the male child.

There are countless reasons why a company may have to adapt its packaging. In some countries law stipulates specific packaging and measuring units. Words like ‘jumbo pack’, ‘giant pack’ may be illegal. High humidity and the need for long shelf life (because of long extended distribution system) may need extra heavy packaging for some products. The Japanese attitude about quality includes the packaging of a product. A poor packaged product conveys an impression of poor quality to a Japanese

Again in Japan, Lever sells Lux soap in stylish boxes because in Japan more than half of all soap cakes are purchased during the two gift giving seasons. Soft drinks are sold in smaller size to accommodate the smaller Japanese hand.

Labelling laws vary from country to country. In Saudi Arabia product names must be specific. ‘Hot Chilli’ will not do; it must be ‘spiced hot chilli’. Coca Cola had problems in Brazil with its Diet Coke. Brazilian law interprets ‘diet’ to have medicinal qualities and under the law producers must give daily recommended consumption on the label of all medicine. Coke had to get special approval to get around this restriction. The expensive labelling to meet Chinese market entry cost prohibitive.

Marketing managers must examine each element of the packaging component be certain that the packaging of the product convey the appropriate meaning and value to a new market. Otherwise they may find themselves the USA soft drink company which had six-pointed stars as decoration in its package labels. Weak sales revealed that Arabs interpreted the stars as pro-Israel sentiments

Special packaging and marketing requirements must be considered for shipment destined to be transported over water. Packaging for domestic markets often falls short for goods subject to extreme climates or unprotected outdoor storage. Protection against rough handling, moisture and pilferage may require heavy crating which increases total  packaging costs as well as freight rates. All countries regulate the marking of goods and containers on on imports and non-compliance can result in severe penalties

From the consumer side it is seen that consumers see far more than a container of label. They are buying a personality, an attitude perhaps even a set of beliefs. A majority of consumers transferred the sensation from the container to its content. The look of the packaging has an enormous impact on how product quality will be.

Colour is one of the most potent tool in packaging. Studies of eye movement have shown that colours trigger the fastest response of any element of a package. lt is felt that yellow is the most noticeable hue but for some products yellow had negative connotation.

Feminine forms, circles and ovals suggest completeness, receptiveness and enclosure and provides the underlying theme for many packages because these have the most positive associations. But to work well it must be inflicted with some other symbol.

The success or failure of packaging abroad depends on an awareness of the fundamental differences in cultures. Understanding of cultural values of colour, shapes, symbols of the various countries is necessary. Thus

  • Packaging Is A Silent Seller
  • It Attracts Consumers
  • It Should Ensure Good Sealing
  • Should Maintain Quality For Long Time Shelf Life
  • Keep Transportation In Mind
  • Should Be Cost Effective
  • Should Be Environmentally Friendly And Biodegradable
  • Colours Should Be Carefully Chosen
  • Information On Packaging Should Be As Prescribed By The Legal Authorities
  • Should Be Tamperproof
  • Should Be Of International Standards.

Meanings and significance of colours across various countries.

 

                                                                          West

                                                                            Japan

                                                                              China

                                                                              Brazil

                                                                              Nigeria

                                                                              Korea

                                                                              Middle East

Red          DangerDangerJoyAngerDangerDangerDanger
 AngerAngerFestivityHateEvilAngerEvil
Yellow    CowardiceHappinessHonourMoneySunshineWealthHappiness
 CautionNobilityRoyaltyWealthBrightness Prosperity
Green       SexFutureYouthHopeWealthNatureFertility
 GreedEnergyGrowthWealth PeaceStrength
 SafetyYouth   Freshness 
White      PurityDeathMourningPurityPurityInnocencePurity
 VirtueMourningHumilityPeace PurityMourning
Blue     MachismoVillainyStrengthHappinessCalmCoolProtection
 MasculinityColdPower PeaceFreshness 
Black     DeathEvilEvilDeathEvilEvilEvil
      DarknessMystery

                            

 

Sales promotion consists of those promotional activities other than advertising, personal selling and publicity. As such, any promotional activities that do not fall under advertising, personal selling and publicity of the promotional mix are considered sales promotion

In markets where the consumer is hard to reach because of media limitations, the percentage of the promotional budget are increased. In some less developed countries sales promotions constitute the major portion of the promotional effort in rural and less accessible parts of the market.

In parts of Latin America, a part of the advertising-sales budget for both Pepsi and Coca-cola is spent on carnival trucks, which make frequent trips to outlying villages to promote the brand. When the carnival van makes a stop in a village, it may show a movie or provide some other kind of entertainment, the price of admission is an unopened bottle of the brand purchased from the local retailer. The unopened bottle is to be exchanged for a cold bottle plus a coupon for another bottles. This promotional effort tends to stimulate sales and encourages local retailers, who are given prior notice of the carnival truck’s arrival, to stock the product.

An effective promotional tool when the product concept is new or has a small market share is product sampling. Nestle Baby Foods faced such a problem in France in its attempt to gain share from Gerber, the brand leader. The company combined sampling with a novel sales promotion programme to gain brand recognition and to build goodwill. Most French take off for long vacation in summer, with the whole family piled up in the car and staying at well-maintained campgrounds, nestle provided rest-stops structures along the highway where parents would feed and change their babies. Sixty four hostesses at these rest stops welcome 1.20,000 babies visits and dispense 6,00,000 samples of baby food each year. There are free diapers , a changing table and high chairs for the babies to sit in while dining.

When Kellogs expanded its business abroad, it had to enlighten consumers in South and Central America, Middle East and Asia about dry cereal and cold breakfast. To instil this new eating habit, Kellogs used samples and demonstrations in conjunction with a heavy advertising campaign

A success of a promotion may depend on local adaptation. Responses to promotions can vary across promotional types and cultures. Major constraints are imposed by local laws, which may not permit premiums or free gifts to be given. Some countries’ laws control the amount of discount given at retail outlets and others require permits for all sales promotions. In one country no competitor is permitted to spend more on sales promotion than any other company selling the product.

Sales promotion is not restricted to the stimulation of demand at the consumer level. It may be used to gain middlemen’s support as well. It is also not limited to consumer products. Pfizer attracts drug wholesalers by sponsoring trips and other events. Gifts are given to doctors and their wives are taken on shopping sprees

Sales promotion is effective when a product is first introduced to a market. A Japanese firm created a great deal of excitement in Thailand by including game cards in its detergent boxes and consumers could not stop buying more and more in search of the winning cards.

Premiums and Gifts

European countries have a larger number of restrictions than USA  for sales promotion. The legal requirements are so diverse that standardization of promotion regulations in Europe may be difficult. Belgium requires a government tax on window signs.  Most countries in Europe have a limit on the value of the premium given. Colgate was sued by a local blade manufacturer in Greece for giving away razor blades with shaving cream,.

Austria considered premiums to be a form of discriminatory treatment towards buyers.

In France, it is illegal to offer premiums that are conditional on the purchase of another product.

In Finland, premiums are allowed as long as the word free is not used with them.

When Radio Shack duplicated its US strategy by giving away flashlights the firm found itself in violation of Germany’s sales law regarding premiums and gifts.

Germany and Scandinavia have strict laws concerning promotions to protect their consumers from being distracted from the true value of the brand. Argentina, Austria, Norway and Venezuela virtually ban the use of merchandise premiums

Price Reductions, Discounts and Sales

Austria prohibits cash reductions that give preferential treatment to different groups of customers. In Scandinavia, discounts are prohibited. In Germany, authorities have to be notified in advance when a sale is planned. It is allowed when a firm is going out of business or is giving up its product line; or end of winter or end of summer and a twenty-fifth anniversary

Samples

  • In Russia tobacco firms freely distribute samples.
  • In USA alcoholic beer cannot be offered as a free sample
  • Germany restricts door-to-door free samples that limit population coverage as well as the size of the sample pack

Sweepstakes, Games and Contests

In France the entry form must be separate from the order form, for a sweepstake to be valid.

Germany permits sweepstakes as long as they do not create psychological pressure on customers; it should not be misleading and should not offer a prize of substantial value.

Lotteries are illegal in many countries eg France, England, USA. A sweepstakes, game or a contest to be valid must have only two of the following elements, chance, consideration or price.

Purchasing power is directed towards certain goods and services and away from other according to people’s tastes and preferences. Society shapes the beliefs, values and norms that largely define these tastes and preferences

High Persistence of Cultural Values

  • The people living in a particular society hold many core belief and values that tend to persist. Core beliefs and values are passed on from parents to children and are reinforced by major social institutions – schools, temples, business and governments. Secondary beliefs and values are more open to change. Thus marketers shall have some chance of changing secondary values but a little chance of changing core values.
  • Cultural variables marketers must consider include language, customs, exhibits cultural traits that influence not just the needs and wants of consumers but how they go about satisfying them. Marketers must be sensitive not only in determining what products and services they can sell foreign cultures but also in communicating with them. Advertising is often the most effective way to communicate with potential buyers and create markets in other countries. But it can also be one of the most difficult aspects of the international marketing program because of problems in developing messages that will be understood in various countries.
  • International advertisers often have problems with language. The advertiser must know not only the native tongue of the country but also its nuances, idioms, and subtleties. International marketers must be aware of the connotations of words and symbols used in their messages and understand how advertising copy and slogans are translated. Marketers often encounter problems in translating their advertising messages and brand names into various languages.
  • Advertisers can encounter problems with the connotative meaning of signs and symbols used in their messages. For example, Pepsodent toothpaste was unsuccessful in Southeast Asia because it promised white teeth to a culture where black and yellow teeth are symbols of prestige. An American ad campaign using various shades of green was a disaster in Malaysia, where the colour symbolizes death and disease.
  • Problems arising from language diversity and differences in signs and symbols can usually be best solved with the help of local expertise. Marketers should consult local employees or use an ad agency knowledgeable in the local language that can help verify that the advertiser is saying what it wants to say. Many companies turn to agencies that specialize in translating advertising slogans and copy into foreign languages.
  • Tastes, traditions, and customs are also an important part of cultural considerations. The customs of a society affect what products and services it will buy and how they must be marketed. In France, cosmetics are used heavily by men as well as women, and advertising to the male market is common. There are also cultural differences in grooming and hygiene habits of consumers in various countries. For example, though many U.S. consumers use products like deodorant and shampoo daily, consumers in many other Western countries are not as fanatical about personal hygiene, so consumption of products such as deodorants and mouthwash is much lower than in the United States.
  • Another aspect of culture that is very important for international marketers to understand values. Cultural values are beliefs and goals shared by members of a society regarding ideal end states of life and modes of conduct. Society shapes consumers’ basic values, which affect their behaviour and determine how they respond to various situations. For example, cultural values in the United States place a major emphasis on individual activity and initiative, while many Asian societies stress cooperation and conformity to the group. Values and beliefs of a society can also affect its members’ attitudes and receptivity toward foreign products and services. Values such as ethnocentrism, which refers to the tendency for individuals to view their own group or society as the centre of the universe, or nationalism often affect the way consumers in various countries respond to foreign brands or even advertising messages. For many years, consumers in many European countries were reluctant to buy American brands and there was even a backlash against American imagery. In fact, many U.S. companies doing business in Europe were careful not to flaunt their American roots.
  • One European country, in particular, where American-made products were not well received for many years in France. The French have always been very protective of their culture; for example, they have quotas for French-language shows on TV and music on the radio. As historian Richard Pells notes: “France, like the U.S., has traditionally seen itself as a country with a mission and a country whose culture and civilization is worthy of being exported around the world.” However, in recent years many American brands have become popular in France, particularly among younger consumers.
  • In recent years, U.S. brands have become popular in many other European countries as well as in Asia. Marketers attribute the rising popularity of many U.S.-made products to the worldwide distribution of American music, films, and TV shows; the growth of the Internet; and the increase in travel to the United States. These factors have made consumers in foreign countries more familiar with American culture, values, and lifestyle. Japan is one of the more difficult markets for many American advertisers to understand because of its unique values and customs. For example, the Japanese have a very strong commitment to the group; social interdependence and collectivism are as important to them as individualism is to most Americans. Ads stressing individuality and nonconformity have traditionally not done well in Japan, but westernized values have become more prevalent in Japanese advertising in recent years. However, the Japanese dislike ads that confront or disparage the competition and tend to prefer soft rather than hard sells. A recent study found that Japanese and American magazine ads tend to portray teenage girls in different ways and that the differences correspond to each country’s central concepts of self and society. In many American ads, teens are associated with images of independence, rebelliousness, determination, and even defiance that are consistent with the American value of individuality. In contrast, Japanese ads tend to portray a happy, playful, childlike, girlish image that is consistent with the Japanese culture’s sense of self, which is more dependent on others.
  • Another recent study examined gender-role portrayals in Japanese magazine advertising and found that some of the previously used hard-line stereotyping of both men and women have softened considerably since the 1980s. Men are not associated as much with stereotypical male traits, while women are shown in more positive ways. The researchers suggest that this may reflect the westernization of the depictions of men and women in Japan.
  • As advertisers turn their attention to China, more consideration is also being given to understanding the cultural system and values of the world’s most populous country. Chinese values are centred around Confucianism, which stresses loyalty and interpersonal relationships. Chinese culture also emphasizes passive acceptance of fate by and seeking harmony with nature; inner experiences of meaning and feeling; stability harmony; close family ties; and tradition. A recent study of advertising appeals used in China found that advertising reflects these traditional Chinese cultural values. Chinese advertisers tend to base their advertising strategies on creating liking for a product through image and emotional appeals rather than information-laden ads. However, the study also found subtle changes in appeals to cultural values used by advertisers, particularly for ads targeting younger consumers. Youth and modernity appeals were found to be prevalent, reflecting the westernization, as well as the modernization trend in China. Marketing is just beginning to emerge in China, and advertising is a relatively new social phenomenon, so it will be important for marketers to develop a better understanding of Chinese cultural values and their implication for a communications strategy.
  • Religion is another aspect of culture that affects norms, values, and behaviours. For example, in many Arab countries, advertisers must be aware of various taboos resulting from conservative applications of the Islamic religion. Alcohol and pork cannot be advertised. Human nudity is forbidden, as are pictures of anything sacred, such as images of a cross or photographs of Mecca. The faces of women may not be shown in photos, so cosmetics use drawings of women’s faces in ads. In conservative Islamic countries, many religious authorities are opposed to advertising on the grounds that it promotes Western icons and culture and the associated non-Islamic consumerism.
  • Procter & Gamble recently took on the tradition in Egypt by underwriting a new groundbreaking TV talk show on feminine hygiene called “Frankly Speaking” that tackles some of the most sensitive issues facing women in an Islamic country. The program has the support of the Egyptian government, which has launched its own health education drive. P&G does not promote its products during the show, but the program does contain numerous commercials for its Always brand, which has 85 percent of the disposable sanitary pad market in the country.

Existence of Subcultures  

  • Each society contains subcultures, groups with shared values emerging from their special life experience or circumstances. Members of subcultures share common beliefs, preferences and behaviours. To the extent that subcultural groups exhibit different wants and consumption behaviour, marketers can choose particular subculture as target markets.
  • Marketers sometimes reap unexpected rewards in targeting subcultures. They have always loved teenagers because they are society’s trendsetters in fashion, music, entertainment etc. Marketers also know that if they attract someone as a teen there is always a good chance they will keep the person as a customer later in life. E.g. Pepsi, Lays etc.

Shifts of secondary cultural values through time  

  • Although core values are fairly persistent, cultural swings do take place. In the 1960’s hippies, the Beatles, Elvis Presley and other cultural phenomena had a major impact on young people’s hairstyles, clothing and life goals. Today’s young people are influenced by newer heroes and activities.

Culture is pervasive in all marketing activities-pricing, promotion, distribution  packaging and styling. Culture is the human made part of human environment. When designing a product, the style, uses and other related marketing activities must be made culturally acceptable..

The manner in which people consume ,  the priority of needs and wants, are function of their culture.

  • Example
  • There was a drop in Japanese birth rate in the year of the fire horse  because if girl child was born in that year she would be very unhappy and would even murder their husband.
  • In Chinese culture, being born in the year of the dragon is considered good.
  • Britishers love their chocolates; the Spaniards love fish but they do not  even come close to the Japanese in their love for fish. Pasta was actually invented in China but was brought to Italy by Marco Polo

 

Power Distance Index (PDI) that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society’s level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that ‘all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others

Power Distance refers to the manner in which interpersonal relationships are formed when differences in power are perceived. In some cultures a vertical relationship is typical whereas in others relationships are based on equality and informality. In USA   individuals address each other on a first name basis regardless of rank. Top managers illustrate their solidarity with the lower ranks by engaging in work activities going to the plant floor or eating with the lower staff. In other countries it is a mistake to address a superior informally or for a superior to mingle with the underlings. It is important in such cultures to address senior management first before addressing other individuals

 

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man’s search for Truth. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, different from usual.

Uncertainty avoidance cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; ‘there can only be one Truth and we have it’. People in uncertainty avoidance countries are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy. The opposite type, uncertainty accepting cultures, are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to; they try to have as few rules as possible, and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative, and not expected by their environment to express emotions.

Uncertainty Avoidance refers to the extent to which individuals feel threatened by uncertainty, risk and ambiguous situations and thus adopt beliefs, behavior and institutions that help them to avoid the uncertainty. The feeling is that what is different is dangerous. Consumers are resistant to change and focused on risk avoidance. However it is interesting to see the changes taking place in the transition Economies

 

Masculinity (MAS) versus its opposite, femininity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women’s values differ less among societies than men’s values; (b) men’s values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women’s values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women’s values on the other. The assertive pole has been called ‘masculine’ and the modest, caring pole ‘feminine’. The women in feminine countries have the same modest, caring values as the men; in the masculine countries they are somewhat assertive and competitive, but not as much as the men, so that these countries show a gap between men’s values and women’s values.

Masculinity is the degree to which a national culture is characterized by assertiveness, rather than nurturing. Femininity is the degree to which a national culture is characterized by nurturing, rather than by assertiveness. Masculine societies emphasize values such as wealth, material success ambition and achievement; whereas in feminine societies, benevolence, equality, caring for the weak and preserving the environment are emphasized. In masculine societies such as Australia, Canada, UK, USA successful marketing strategies focus on consumers’ achievement motivation. They stress personal accomplished and have ego appeal. In feminine societies, such as Asian cultures, marketing strategies should steer away from a materialist, acquisitive focus and instead appeal to consumers’ sense of good will

 

Individualism (IDV) on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (with uncles, aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. The word ‘collectivism’ in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group, not to the state. Again, the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one, regarding all societies in the world.

Individualism versus Collectivism refers to the degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals In their self-interest rather than as members of a group, which is a characteristic of collectivist societies. Individualistic cultures are ones that tend not to follow social norms but rather make decisions and initiate behaviors independently (UK< USA<Australia) Such cultures stress the individual’s’ ability to achieve personal goals, make their way on their own and in the process seek self-fulfillment and excitement. Collectivist societies (Latin America, Asia and Middle East) stress subordination to the collectivity (group, business family) and require acting in the interest of the group rather than in one’s self interest. As countries become more industrialized cultures move from collectivist to individualisms

 

Long-Term Orientation (LTO) versus short-term orientation: this fifth dimension was found in a study among students in 23 countries around the world, using a questionnaire designed by Chinese scholars It can be said to deal with Virtue regardless of Truth. Values associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one’s ‘face’. Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the teachings of Confucius, the most influential Chinese philosopher who lived around 500 B.C.; however, the dimension also applies to countries without a Confucian heritage.

The Internet has become a powerful marketing tool for present day marketers to make their presence on the global marketing scenario.

The rapidly changing technological environment that has led to the creation of the internet and the world wide web (www) is now used to pursue international markets aggressively. Almost 80% companies/businesses use the Internet to grow their business and keep in touch with their customers.

The Internet medium’s potential as both a communication and transaction vehicle has been realized by all the companies or businesses that operate globally and internationally. The use of the internet for telephone communications and facsimile transmissions is growing at an alarming rate that large telecommunication companies are providing services for internet telephony. Almost all companies have set up their commercial web sites and have set their place firmly in cyberspace.

The Internet is a worldwide means of exchanging information and communicating through a series of interconnected computers. It was started as a U.S. Defence Department project, but is now accessible to anyone with a computer and a modem. The most popular component of the Internet is the World Wide Web (www).The Web has developed as a communication & sales tool.

Role played by World Wide Web:

  1. It facilitates the marketer to concentrate on the target audience.
  2. It enables the marketer to tailor the message in the most appropriate manner to connect with the audience.
  3. World Wide Web enjoys maximum speed in communication & it overcomes the geographical barriers. Compared to other media, it enjoys tremendous cost advantage since it achieves global reach with minimum expenditure.
  4. The World Wide Web provides the marketer scientific mechanism to measure the viewership of the marketer’s advertisements.
  5. Updating & upgrading the campaign are very easy in www.
  6. Interactive techniques can be best employed in the web.
  7. Modern youth indulge in multi-tasting & the www facilitates such operations.
  8. WWW creates virtual markets as well as real markets for the marketer.
  9. The latest mechanism of m-commerce (mobile  commerce) is based on e-commerce techniques.
  10. Customer service operations like helplines can be easily managed through the www.
  11. The web can be used to crystallize the brand image in the minds of the viewers.
  12. It is a very effective mechanism to obtain feedback.

Problems of Internet:

  1. These advertisements are exposed to the risk of computer viruses which are deliberately planted by hackers.
  2. Web snarls may occur. This is when very often the users of the web may  have to spend much time in uploading & downloading.
  3. Web clutter – This is due to too many advertisements appearing on the screen. Thus the impact is lost.
  4. Deception – Cyber crimes are very common and this spoils the brand equity of the product/service.
  5. Wasteful expenditure – Since the viewers can block such advertisements it could be a wasteful expenditure for the marketers if advertisements are blocked by the viewers.
  6. Inadequate infrastructure – The less developed countries lack adequate infrastructure & thus connectivity using this mechanism cannot be adopted to these countries.

I found the content below from old articles. I will try to improve, but exam is arriving soon.. I will try…

Banner advertisements –

The most common form of advertising on the Web is banner ads. Banner ads may be used for creating awareness or recognition or for direct-marketing objectives. Banner ads may take on a variety of forms, as well as a number of names such as side panels, skyscrapers, or verticals. Initially banner ads constituted the vast majority of advertising on the Net, but studies indicating their questionable effectiveness have led to a decline in usage. Reports on click-through rates vary, but most studies indicate a less than 1 percent response rate. A few studies have shown an increase in response rates in recent years. These findings may lead to increased use of this method of advertising in the future.

Sponsorships –

Another common form of advertising is sponsorships. There are two types of sponsorships. Regular sponsorships occur when a company pays to sponsor a section of a site, for example, BMW’s sponsorship of a page on AutoWorld.com and TATA equity fund sponsorship of a page on FT.com’s financial section. A more involved agreement is the content sponsorship, in which the sponsor not only provides money in return for name association but participates in providing the content itself. In some cases, the site is responsible for providing content and having it approved by the sponsor; in other instances, the sponsor may contribute all or part of the content. Due in part to the lack of effectiveness of banner ads, sponsorships have been increasing in popularity.

Pop-Ups –

When you access the Internet, have you ever seen small windows appear such as Cursor Mania, Bharat matrimonial etc? Such windows are known as pop-ups, and they often appear when you access a certain site. Pop-ups are usually larger than a banner ad but smaller than a full screen.

Pop-unders are ads that appear underneath the web page and become visible only when the user leaves the site. While some companies believe that pop-ups and pop-unders are effective forms of advertising, others disagree. Consumer complaints have led Google.com, to no longer accept these advertising forms. (According to iVillage, its research indicates that as many as 90 percent of its users dislike such ads.) Nevertheless, indications are that despite the annoying qualities of pop-ups and pop-unders, more and more websites are offering this type of advertising.

Interstitials –

Interstitials are ads that appear on your screen while you are waiting for a site’s content to download. Although some advertisers believe that interstitials are irritating and more of a nuisance than a benefit, a study conducted by Grey Advertising found that only 15 percent of those surveyed felt that the ads were irritating (versus 9 percent for banner ads) and that 47 percent liked the ads (versus 38 percent for banners). Perhaps more importantly, while ad recall of banner ads was approximately 51 percent, recall of interstitials was much higher, at 76 percent. For example Zapak.com’s website features such type of ad; when the game is being loaded on to your browser.

Push Technologies –

Push technologies, or webcasting technologies, allow companies to “push” a message to consumers rather than waiting for them to find it. Push technologies dispatch web pages and news updates and may have sound and video geared to specific audiences and even individuals. Companies provide screen savers that automatically “hook” the viewer to their sites for sports, news, weather reports, and/or other information that the viewer has specified. Users can use personalization—that is, they can personalize their sites to request the kinds of specific information they are most interested in viewing. For example, if you are into college sports, you can have updates sent to you through sites providing college sports information. The service is paid for by advertisers who flash their messages on the screen.

Links –

While considered by some as not a type of advertising, links serve many of the same purposes as are served by the types discussed above. For example, a visitor to one site may click on a link that provides additional information and/or related materials at another site. At the bottom of the homepage at women.com are a number of links to magazines, including Cosmopolitan and Good Housekeeping among others. Clicking on one of these takes you to the magazine’s site and usually a pop-up for a subscription to the magazine appears. Other forms of advertising, such as ads placed in chat rooms, are also available. Given the limited use of many of these alternatives, we suggest the reader consult additional resources for more information.

Button

An advertisement smaller than a traditional banner ad. Buttons are usually square in shape and located down the left or right side of the site; sometimes referred to as “tiles.”

Rich mail/media – Advanced technology used in Internet ads, such as streaming video, which allows interaction and special effects such as music, animation graphics, audio etc to be included in the e-mail message. When you open up a rich e-mail, your email client automatically calls up your Internet connection & launches an html page in your browser. Email clients that are offline will invite you to click on the link when you have your Internet connection open again.

Adver Game Videos –

These are used to project advertisements through games. They enable the users to play games with celebrities in the virtual world. E.g. Thums up, Reebok Hexride games.

Contests   –

Online contest are announced as an advertising tool. E.g. Roadies Battle ground.

Search Engine Marketing –

Used in search engines such as Yahoo!, a meta ad is an advertisement displayed on the results page of a search, specific to the searched term. Meta ads are also referred to as keyword advertising. This method enables an advertiser to target a specific audience. Advertisers pay search engines to display their banners only when relevant keywords are searched for by a user.

Classified Ads –

These are similar to the classified ads in newspaper. There are several classified ad websites and many offer free classified advertising opportunities since they are supported by ad banners of other websites. You can search for homes, cars, jobs, furniture, business opportunities etc and the search can be narrowed to your city or expanded nationwide.

 

This is one of the fastest growing forms of Internet advertising. Marketers have also known that direct mail advertising is the most effective medium for generating inquiries & leads and for closing a sale. It is also one of the most expensive medium on a cost-per-exposure basis. Now, thanks to the Internet, the power of direct mail has increased even more, and the cost has reduced dramatically.

It is however very important to differentiate responsible email advertising from spam which is really just electronic junk mail.

Spam generally refers to unsolicited, mass email advertising for a product or service that is sent by an unknown entity to a purchased mailing list or newsgroup. Spammers face the wrath of frustrated customers, tired of having their inboxes filled with unwanted emails.

In contrast, responsible e-mail advertising is personalized, targeted, graphically sophisticated, and sent from established companies/brands with the recipient’s permission. Many marketers focus the bulk of their email efforts on customer retention and relationship management (CRM) rather than on prospecting.

One of the most popular trends on the Internet today is actually an application of e-mail- Viral Marketing ( successful examples are Amazon.com, eBay, Napster, Hotmail).

 

 

Viral marketing is the Internet version of word-of-mouth advertising via email. The term was coined in 1977 by Steve Jurvetson and his partners at the venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson. They were describing free email provider Hotmail incredible growth to 12 million users in just 18 months through the use of a little message at the bottom of

every email. The message invited recipients to sign up for their own free Hotmail account.

Since that time, many other marketers have come up with ways to induce their satisfied customers to recommend their product or service to friends & family members. One of the keys to the success of viral marketing is to present an offer with real perceived value- one that people will want to share with one another; this may happen by using a referral program and in this manner members are rewarded each time when someone they refer to the site signs up and becomes a member.

Monitoring the advertisement

The projection of the ads must be constantly monitored to identify any snag in its projection

Measuring the impact

The number of clicks (hits) experienced by a specific web page indicates the number of times an ad might have been viewed.

Upgrading and updating the content

The marketer should ensure the constant updating of information and upgrading the quality of the advertisements.

Impact of advertising on attitudes, behaviour, societal norms, perceptions, needs life styles.

A characteristics of human culture is that change occurs. Reading a 20 year old magazine can see that people’s habits, tastes, styles, behaviour and values are not constant but continuously changing. However, this gradual cultural growth does not occur without some resistance. New ideas, methods and products are held to be suspect before they are accepted even if they are right.

The degree of resistance to the new pattern varied. In some cases new ideas are accepted completely and rapidly and in others, resistance is so strong that the acceptance if never forthcoming.

Concern is often expressed over the impact of advertising on society, particularly on values and lifestyles. While a number of factors influence the cultural values, lifestyles and behaviour  of a society, the overwhelming amount of advertising and its prevalence in the mass media lead many critics to argue that advertising plays a major role in influencing and transmitting social values.

Rapid industrialisation has change many long honoured attitudes regarding time and the position of women. Today instant food other time saving devices all support a changing attitude. Although a variety of innovations have been accepted there are many that face resistance.

India has been engaged in intensive population control programmes for many years but the progress has been limited. Most attribute this to the low level of education and beliefs. The high birth rate is due to early marriage. Religion’s emphasis of bearing a son, the dependence on children for security in old age. All these are important cultural values are in variance with the concept of birth control.

The introductions of the I pill and the 72 hour pill to stop pregnancy are gaining popularity.

The institutions of family, religion and education have grown noticeably weaker over each generation. Many feel traditional authority is lessening and advertising has become a kind of social social guide. It provides ideas about style, morality and behaviour. Ads establish what is cool in society, ads show whites, blacks and kids from different social strata, dancing together. Ads show gays.

Ads on pizzas McDonalds fast foods, jeans etc have definitely has influenced our food habits, dress and our life but this has taken place only at the superficial level and mostly in the metros and bigger town and cities. Recent years have seen a lot of changes in our cultural base. This has been the result of the opening up of the channels of communications and exposures of other cultures.

The educated class has grown and some transformation was achieved without any change in the entrenched social cultural structure.

The lifestyles of many have changed. Expensive cars, gadgets, designer clothes and five star living were adopted due to the ad bombardment. The economic liberalization has altered the lives of the middle class too. They have become more international in their outlook and aspiration, more sophisticated and liberal in the lifestyle and attitude and certainly more adventurous and demanding of holiday and leisure activity

Now almost every consumer durable can be had on instalment and loans.

The credit card industry has mushroomed to more than a Rs 2000 crore business. Consumer giant companies spend more than Rs 600 crores in advertising.

The explosion of satellite tv brought home the consumer message with more than 100 channels. The impact if such exposure in terms of a desired lifestyle cannot be overestimated

The core cultural values in India has still the cultural values of ethics and the social sensitivity of the olden days in spite of the vast changes that have taken place in the behavioural patterns of the Indian people.

The pressure of modernity is not strong enough to force a qualitative change in our cultural values.

 

Political Advertising can be defined as the communication either supporting or opposing a candidate for the nomination to an office or a political party. Political Advertising is usually done through pamphlets, word of mouth, speeches, fliers, print media, billboards, transit, media, broadcast media.

Ever since Internet has entered the picture, Political Advertising has seen a significant change. Internet is used tremendously to promote individuals. Political Advertising can many a times be positive, but negative as well. Political Parties use both of these very aggressively. Positive Advertising is used to promote their achievements, and the negative advertising is used to defame their opposition

Internet is the most important element for a political campaign. It gives a wider reach to Political Parties. A Political Party can preach in one place but can be heard in an entire country, or even the entire World. The best part about Internet is that it reaches to younger voters who are not interested and do not listen to speeches, rallies, events, etc.  Optimum and Efficient use of the Technologies of the Modern world like Internet and its Social Media, Messages, Holograms, etc. helped political parties get as many votes as possible.

The main focus of political advertising is to connect with the masses. Every political party has a mission and a vision. Keeping this in mind, the objective keeps on changing during election. It is aggressively done for a period of time and aims at taretting the whole country especially during the Lok Sabha Elections. The objective of Political Advertising is designed with economical and social scenario prevalent at that time. The ads and the speeches are properly written and designed using Patriotic and Emotional Appeal.

Politicians are Great at Advertising. They have a foresight, a vision, of what they are supposed to do. They know how to market themselves, and emotionally work on the votes. They use various kinds of appeals, especially, the emotional appeal, Which has been used many times, and worked very well for Politicians.

Politicians are now slowly inclining towards Advertising Agencies. Making use of the Vibrant Nature of Advertising, it has been very useful in the field of Politics. The last few decades have seen major changes in the way Politicians try to convince the votes. The last elections have shown and proved that good, persuasive and convincing advertising can turn the result beyond expectations and be a major gamechanger .

Political Advertising used to have few variations and tweaks. Some Politicians used to do charitable work, conduct speeches, meet people in distress and send help. But things like these have become even more active now. With mediums like Internet, People and Politicians have a wider reach. Politicians can find out about, send help, preach very fast.

There are many Advertising Agencies Specializing in the field of Political Advertising. Agencies like Creativizt are professionals and specialized in writing and designing of slogans, political campaigns, social media campaigns for Politicians and they have a vast Network.

These Agencies know how to make use of each and every medium, properly. Narendra Modi’s success can be credited to a number of advertising agencies and professionals like Piyush Pandey, Prasoon Joshi, Sam Balsara, the Soho Square Team and a team of selected BJP and RSS Leaders.

Politicians even make use of the new technologies. Sri.Narendra Modi has been known to use Holograms to address to many states at the same time. It is believed to be the first time hologram technology has been used in a general election campaign – its most popular use to date has been for a posthumous performance by the rapper Tupac Shakur at Coachella in 2012. It has also been known that Sri. Narendra Modi has made use of Hashtags, and Social Marketing for his Political Campaign.

The Case Study of Narendra Modi and Arvind Kejriwal has shown that political advertising is a way to influence people’s decision making. It helps in building up the confidence of the people to accept the views and ideologies of a particular political party. It is the promotion of an individual and a party. Political Advertising is done aggresively for a short duration. The voters are bombarded with essages in a short time span. Slogans like “Garibi Hatao”  by  Indira Gandhi, and Acche Din Aane Wale Hain  by Narendra Modi are remembered by the people because of the intricate designing of the campaign and the strong impact they have made. The BJP Campagin of Narendra Modi has used many Advertising Strategies known to the field. The Campaign of Narendra Modi has promoted the Political Party with  brand positioning  with BJP as their Brand and Narendra Modi as their Product.

 

Viral marketing is the Internet version of word-of-mouth advertising via email. The term was coined in 1977 by Steve Jurvetson and his partners at the venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson. They were describing free email provider Hotmail’s incredible growth to 12 million users in just 18 months through the use of a little message at the bottom of every email. The message invited recipients to sign up for their own free Hotmail account.

Since that time, many other marketers have come up with ways to induce their satisfied customers to recommend their product or service to friends & family members. One of the keys to the success of viral marketing is to present an offer with real perceived value- one that people will want to share with one another; this may happen by using a referral program and in this manner members are rewarded each time when someone they refer to the site signs up and becomes a member.

  • Monitoring the advertisement

The projection of the ads must be constantly monitored to identify any snag in its projection

  • Measuring the impact

The number of clicks (hits) experienced by a specific web page indicates the number of times an ad might have been viewed.

  • Upgrading and updating the content

The marketer should ensure the constant updating of information and upgrading the quality of the advertisements.

 

Many sources have confirmed that this Answer should be kept like this. Also I really want to quit BMM. This Answer has nothing to do with Internet. Its about our four pp’s with additional pp’s.

Reason for this Answer Being Big, is because it shows up in many papers

The health communications field has been rapidly changing over the past two decades. It has evolved from a one-dimensional reliance on public service announcements to a more sophisticated approach which draws from successful techniques used by commercial marketers, termed “social marketing.” Rather than dictating the way that information is to be conveyed from the top-down, public health professionals are learning to listen to the needs and desires of the target audience themselves, and building the program from there. This focus on the “consumer” involves in-depth research and constant re-evaluation of every aspect of the program. In fact, research and evaluation together form the very cornerstone of the social marketing process.

Social marketing was “born” as a discipline in the 1970s, when Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman realized that the same marketing principles that were being used to sell products to consumers could be used to “sell” ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Kotler and Andreasen define social marketing as “differing from other areas of marketing only with respect to the objectives of the marketer and his or her organization.

Social marketing seeks to influence social behaviors not to benefit the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.” This technique has been used extensively in international health programs, especially for contraceptives and oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and is being used with more frequency in the United States for such diverse topics as drug abuse, heart disease and organ donation.

Like commercial marketing, the primary focus is on the consumer–on learning what people want and need rather than trying to persuade them to buy what we happen to be producing. Marketing talks to the consumer, not about the product.

The planning process takes this consumer focus into account by addressing the elements of the “marketing mix.” This refers to decisions about
1) Product
2) Price
3) Distribution (Place)
4) Promotion.

These are often called the “Four Ps” of Marketing. Social marketing also adds a few more “P’s.” At the end is an example of the marketing mix.

Product

The social marketing “product” is not necessarily a physical offering. A continuum of products exists, ranging from tangible, physical products (e.g., condoms), to services (e.g., medical exams), practices (e.g., breastfeeding, ORT or eating a heart-healthy diet) and finally, more intangible ideas (e.g., environmental protection). In order to have a viable product, people must first perceive that they have a genuine problem, and that the product offering is a good solution for that problem. The role of research here is to discover the consumers’ perceptions of the problem and the product, and to determine how important they feel it is to take action against the problem.

Price

“Price” refers to what the consumer must do in order to obtain the social marketing product. This cost may be monetary, or it may instead require the consumer to give up intangibles, such as time or effort, or to risk embarrassment and disapproval. If the costs outweigh the benefits for an individual, the perceived value of the offering will be low and it will be unlikely to be adopted. However, if the benefits are perceived as greater than their costs, chances of trial and adoption of the product is much greater.

In setting the price, particularly for a physical product, such as contraceptives, there are many issues to consider. If the product is priced too low, or provided free of charge, the consumer may perceive it as being low in quality. On the other hand, if the price is too high, some will not be able to afford it. Social marketers must balance these considerations, and often end up charging at least a nominal fee to increase perceptions of quality and to confer a sense of “dignity” to the transaction. These perceptions of costs and benefits can be determined through research, and used in positioning the product.

Place

“Place” describes the way that the product reaches the consumer. For a tangible product, this refers to the distribution system–including the warehouse, trucks, sales force, retail outlets where it is sold, or places where it is given out for free. For an intangible product, place is less clear-cut, but refers to decisions about the channels through which consumers are reached with information or training. This may include doctors’ offices, shopping malls, mass media vehicles or in-home demonstrations. Another element of place is deciding how to ensure accessibility of the offering and quality of the service delivery. By determining the activities and habits of the target audience, as well as their experience and satisfaction with the existing delivery system, researchers can pinpoint the most ideal means of distribution for the offering.

Promotion

Finally, the last “P” is promotion. Because of its visibility, this element is often mistakenly thought of as comprising the whole of social marketing. However, as can be seen by the previous discussion, it is only one piece. Promotion consists of the integrated use of advertising, public relations, promotions, media advocacy, personal selling and entertainment vehicles. The focus is on creating and sustaining demand for the product. Public service announcements or paid ads are one way, but there are other methods such as coupons, media events, editorials, “Tupperware”-style parties or in-store displays. Research is crucial to determine the most effective and efficient vehicles to reach the target audience and increase demand. The primary research findings themselves can also be used to gain publicity for the program at media events and in news stories.

Additional Social Marketing “P’s”

Publics

Social marketers often have many different audiences that their program has to address in order to be successful. “Publics” refers to both the external and internal groups involved in the program. External publics include the target audience, secondary audiences, policymakers, and gatekeepers, while the internal publics are those who are involved in some way with either approval or implementation of the program.

Partnership

Social and health issues are often so complex that one agency can’t make a dent by itself. You need to team up with other organizations in the community to really be effective. You need to figure out which organizations have similar goals to yours–not necessarily the same goals–and identify ways you can work together.

Policy

Social marketing programs can do well in motivating individual behavior change, but that is difficult to sustain unless the environment they’re in supports that change for the long run. Often, policy change is needed, and media advocacy programs can be an effective complement to a social marketing program.

Purse Strings

Most organizations that develop social marketing programs operate through funds provided by sources such as foundations, governmental grants or donations. This adds another dimension to the strategy development-namely, where will you get the money to create your program?

Example of a Marketing Mix Strategy

  • As an example, the marketing mix strategy for a breast cancer screening campaign for older women might include the following elements:
  • The product could be any of these three behaviors: getting an annual mammogram, seeing a physician each year for a breast exam and performing monthly breast self-exams.
  • The price of engaging in these behaviors includes the monetary costs of the mammogram and exam, potential discomfort and/or embarrassment, time and even the possibility of actually finding a lump.
  • The place that these medical and educational services are offered might be a mobile van, local hospitals, clinics and worksites, depending upon the needs of the target audience.
  • Promotion could be done through public service announcements, billboards, mass mailings, media events and community outreach.
  • The “public” you might need to address include your target audience (let’s say low-income women age 40 to 65), the people who influence their decisions like their husbands or physicians, policymakers, public service directors at local radio stations, as well as your board of directors and office staff.
  • Partnerships could be cultivated with local or national women’s groups, corporate sponsors, medical organizations, service clubs or media outlets.
  • The policy aspects of the campaign might focus on increasing access to mammograms through lower costs, requiring insurance and Medicaid coverage of mammograms or increasing federal funding for breast cancer research.
  • The purse strings, or where the funding will come from, maybe governmental grants, such as from the National Cancer Institute or the local health department, foundation grants or an organization like the American Cancer Society.
  • Each element of the marketing mix should be taken into consideration as the program is developed, for they are the core of the marketing effort. Research is used to elucidate and shape the final product, price, place, promotion and related decisions.

Additional Things from Internet

Objectives of Societal Marketing Concept

  • To maintain a long-term relationship with customers.
  • To create a better image in the society for the company than it’s competitors.
  • To carry out its social responsibilities.
  • Developing community awareness towards its brands.
  • To carry out its social responsibilities.
  • To increase the consumer base and market share.
  • Societal Marketing Concept Advantages and Benefits
  • It helps to build a better image for the company.
  • Gives a competitive advantage over the competitors.
  • Useful in customer retention and long-term relationships.
  • Increases the sales and market share.
  • Facilitate expansion and growth in the long term.
  • Products and company policy should prioritize the social welfare and society in general.
  • Economic resources are properly used.
  • Societal marketing raises the living standard of the people in society.
  • It ensures the economic planning more significant and more fruitful to society.

 

Societal Marketing is very important to society, environment, and businesses. This concept was developed in order to tackle the consumerism and profit only the motive of business.

The societal marketing concept helps to maximize profits for the organization and creates a long-term relationship with customers.

It encourages developing products that benefit society in long run and satisfies consumers.

Examples of Societal Marketing

Most recent examples of societal marketing are the super bowl 2017 ads of several companies.

Most ads took on issues like environment and immigration. These come after president Donald Trump implemented executive orders that raised controversies.

  • Kia’s the “Hero’s Journey” commercial starring Melissa Mccarthy is the prime example of societal marketing.
  • Coca Cola release an ad that shows people of different ethnicity and singing “America is Beautiful”  in different languages.
  • Airbnb’s #WeAccept super bowl 2017 ad.
  • Budweiser ad showing how a company founded by its immigrant founder.

The societal marketing does not stop there.

Societal marketing policies are what making companies actively trying to change social policy, taking part in social activities, investing time and money in corporate social responsibility.

Societal marketing concept questions whether the pure marketing concept overlooks possible conflicts between consumer short-run wants and consumer long-run welfare.

The societal marketing concept holds “marketing strategy should deliver value to customers in a way that maintains or improves both the consumer’s and society’s well-being”.

Instruments of Societal Marketing

Philip Kotler identified four categories of products based on long-term benefits and immediate satisfaction:

  • Deficient products bring neither long-run or short-term benefits.
  • Pleasing products bring a high level of immediate satisfaction but cause long-term harm long in society.
  • Salutary products bring low short-term satisfaction, Nut Benefit society in the long run.
  • Desirable products bring both long-run benefit and immediate satisfaction.
  • Based on the societal marketing, Kotler suggested deficient products must be eliminated from the market.

The pleasing and salutary products need modification so that they can bring both long-run benefits to society and immediate satisfaction to the consumer.

Meaning that these products should be launched on the market without turning them into desirable products.

This way, rather than focusing on selling products, the focus is on consumer and society well-being.

“Advertising industry is a Sexist Industry”
Do you agree with this statement? Why? also Advertising and Women

Reference from these article

Are sexist advertisements an effective marketing tool? There are many forms of advertisement nowadays such as commercials, magazines and billboards. In order for these ads to be effective they must catch the consumer’s attention, keep their interest, produce a desire, and generate an action . An effective marketing tool that catches consumers attention is sex. Advertisers have been using sexualized ads for decades to sell their products to consumers because it works.

The cover of a half-dressed women  on a magazine outdid the picture of a male star because sex attracts more attention since people innately notice sexually relevant content.

The concept of sex sells is stereotyping women as objects of desire and sex symbols which degrades the general perception of women. Every time an advertisement comes out with a scantily clad woman as the focus it not only reflects but reinforces these gender stereotypes in our society. The use of objectified women to sell products contributes to the reason of why sexism is a widespread problem. These stereotypes of women have become so ingrained in today’s society that whether consciously or unconsciously we have internalized these messages embedded in the images and videos of these types of advertisements and now they almost appear to be acceptable and normal.

Since the introduction of advertising many centuries ago, women have been objectified, and in some instances, insulted or degraded. Despite the efforts of many women (and men), it’s apparent that we’re still seeing the same patterns of objectification and the mindless use of semi naked women in advertising campaigns.

In many respects, the problem has escalated. An image of a semi-naked woman in the seventies and eighties isn’t even close to images of semi naked women today. Today, with the proliferation of Photoshop and the prevalence of retouching, women are not just flawless, they are portrayed as anatomically impossible. This is harmful on many levels, to women and girls alike.

Social media was stormed by a mural picture discouraging female foeticide. While the intent was commendable, there was a serious problem with the slogan used. It goes like, “How will you eat rotis prepared by them, if you won’t let your daughters be born”. Subtly implying, daughters’ place essentially is in the kitchen.

It is not just ads for daughters. The famous MTR advertisement shows a daughter in law cooking variety of dishes for members of her joint family. As soon as she starts cooking, her hands multiply, replicates Goddess Durga and finishes the cooking without any help in no time much to her husband’s surprise.

Many such advertisements actively exist on the Television. Advertisements for food, household have many a times put a women in the kitchen, and symbolize that is their rightful place.

In an advertisement for Jack and Jones, Ranveer Singh was seen carrying, by what it seems a female co-worker saying “Don’t hold back, take your work home” , in the process trivializes sexual harassment at workplace .

These are few classic examples of reeking sexism often found in advertisements and campaigns carried out by both government and commercial agencies which often go unnoticed.

As said, some very progressive brands are amalgamating their brand identity and ideological belief to break stereotypes in the country. Ariel’s “share the load” campaign asking- Is laundry only a woman’s job?, Nirma featuring Hrithik Roshan as their brand ambassador, and Tanishq’s ad normalizing concept of remarriage of a woman with children in India are few of the torch bearer in the advertising sector today.

What Men and Women Are Taught to Desire

At a very early age, men are programmed to desire the Barbie Doll woman. This is the woman featured in ads for perfumes and lingerie. She is the centerfold in Playboy. She is the standard to set your life by. Women, from the same early age, are told they must look like this woman. They should aim to have those long legs, that perfect skin, beautiful hair, and incredible body.

Here’s the problem; that woman does not exist, anywhere. She is the product of hours in the makeup chair and days of photo retouching, even if she’s a supermodel. Her waist is not that skinny because no woman with a 23″ waist wears a D-cup bra without the aid of implants. Every woman has imperfections in her skin because every woman is human.

What Advertising Is Really Selling

Advertising’s main function is to create a need so that a company can provide a product or service to meet that need. For example, men drink certain brands of beer because they associate them with advertising’s impossibly perfect  women. “If I drink that beer, I’ll get that woman.” On the other hand, women and girls buy certain clothes, foods, and makeup products in a vain attempt to resemble the beer-drinking girl on TV.

Several brands, like Dove, have tried to move away from typical images of perfection. They claim to be “Photoshop-free,” and celebrate real, diverse women. However, there are still many instances where attractive women are used in their campaigns, because many people are superficial to a degree.

Many brands are moving away from seminaked models.

Currently, advertising industry is in new phase, and so are consumers. A decade ago, filtering advertisements through gender lens was not even in the picture. Commercial breaks on television was once a time for bathroom breaks. But there is a segment of population, in the present day, who are rightly questioning hitherto used narrative in these advertisements based on more social and psychological inclusive parameters.

The role of the women in our society has changed. The traditional role cannot be accepted now. Women are playing a diversified role in the socio-economic context in our society. Women are emerging as a powerful influence group.

The portrayal of women in advertising is an issue that has received a great deal of attention through the years. Advertising has been criticised for stereotyping women and failing to recognize the changing role of women in our society. Many Critics have argued that advertising women as decorative objects or sexually provocative figures. Gender stereotyping has varied little over time.

Women have been shown as lacking intelligence and credibility. They are shown as dependent on men and do make decision on their own Advertising’s portrayal of gender roles was a representation of the long-existing unequal relationship of dominance and subservience between the two sexes. The axe ad shows that a body spray can make the sexual availability of women easy. Gender stereotyping is also prevalent in ads aimed at children. Boys are shown as being more knowledgeable, active, aggressive and instrumental than girls.

Dominance and control are associated more with boys than girls Feminist argue that advertising that portrays women as sex objects contributes to violence against women. Some feel that image of the educated woman is type cast as arrogant, insensitive, self-centered, Wily or the economically independent woman shown as domineering, hard, ruthless and the cause of all the suffering around her.

While sexism and stereotyping still exist, advertising’s portrayal of women is improving in many areas. Many advertisers have begun to recognize the importance of portraying women realistically. He increase in the number of working women has resulted not only in women having more influence in family decision making but also in more single-female households, which mean more independent purchasers Women have now crossed the boundary from the domestic sphere to the professional arena, expectations and representations of women have changed as well. Many ads are now depicting women in a diversity of roles that reflect their changing place in society. In many ads, the stereotyping traits attributed to women have shifted from weak and dependent to strong and autonomous.

The advent of woman reporters and the presence of some senior women journalists in positions of responsibility have made a significant difference to the coverage of women’s issues in the press . While sports and athletics sported more men than women in the past. However, real achievers like Sania Mirza have changed all that. You see a cricketer like Mahendra Dhoni almost as often as you see Mirza..

With more and more people, mostly the millennials handling social media accounts and existence of multiple online media platforms, it takes just few hours to receive support or backlash on an advertisement based on its content. It hampers brand image and effects sale too.

Stereotype Smashers of Women in Advertising

1. The sweaty sports-lover

Find her on a sports field, on a bike getting muddy, in a gym getting sweaty, in a pool, on roller-skates, in a team. Not having an existential crisis about the possibility of her hair getting wet.

2. The woman having a bloody period

Not found wearing skin-tight white jeans, inexplicably roller-skating or pouring an unknown blue liquid into a sanitary pad just for kicks. This woman is having a period and it is bloody and at times bloody painful, emotionally complex.

3. Sharing the load

Happy to share the domestic load with a partner who is happy to do the same. Finds no joy in being a domestic obsessive.

4. Biba

5. Usha

6. Patanjali Ad made by me for Project xDD

 

Political Advertising can be defined as the communication either supporting or opposing a candidate for the nomination to an office or a political party. Political Advertising is usually done through pamphlets, word of mouth, speeches, fliers, print media, billboards, transit, media, broadcast media.

Ever since Internet has entered the picture, Political Advertising has seen a significant change. Internet is used tremendously to promote individuals. Political Advertising can many a times be positive, but negative as well.

Internet is the most important element for a political campaign. It gives a wider reach to Political Parties. A Political Party can preach in one place but can be heard in an entire country, or even the entire World.

Political Advertising used to have few variations and tweaks. Some Politicians used to do charitable work, conduct speeches, meet people in distress and send help. But things like these have become even more active now. With mediums like Internet, People and Politicians have a wider reach. Politicians can find out about, send help, preach very fast.

There are many Advertising Agencies Specializing in the field of Political Advertising. These Agencies know how to make use of each and every medium, properly. Narendra Modi’s success can be credited to a number of advertising agencies and professionals like Piyush Pandey, Prasoon Joshi, Sam Balsara, the Soho Square Team and a team of selected BJP and RSS Leaders.

Politicians even make use of the new technologies. Sri.Narendra Modi has been known to use Holograms to address to many states at the same time. It is believed to be the first time hologram technology has been used in a general election campaign – its most popular use to date has been for a posthumous performance by the rapper Tupac Shakur at Coachella in 2012. It has also been known that Sri. Narendra Modi has made use of Hashtags, and Social Marketing for his Political Campaign.

The Case Study of Narendra Modi and Arvind Kejriwal has shown that political advertising is a way to influence people’s decision making. It helps in building up the confidence of the people to accept the views and ideologies of a particular political party. It is the promotion of an individual and a party.

 

The Federation of European Risk Management Associations (FERMA) represents the risk management profession at European level

We bring together 22 risk management associations in 21 European countries, representing nearly 4800 risk managers active in a wide range of business sectors from major industrial and commercial companies to financial institutions and local government bodies. We provide the means of coordinating risk management and optimising the impact of these associations at a European level.

FERMA promote communication among our members and within International Federation of Risk and Insurance Management Associations (IFRIMA) of which FERMA is a member:

In today’s competitive business environment, Risk Management – which is defined as “managing the threats and opportunities to our businesses within acceptable risk tolerances” – plays a vital role in the success of all businesses.

Risk Managers bring their professional expertise to this discipline and to corporate governance. Increasingly throughout Europe, organisations employ Risk Managers, whose function embraces risk identification and mapping, risk control and

risk financing, including insurance.

Historically in financial institutions, risk functions such as legal, compliance, audit, credit risk and market risk were managed in separate organisational silos. Operational risk was generally the responsibility of business units as part of their daily activities. Risk management was focused primarily on financial, predictable and quantifiable risks related to loss prevention. Since the 1980s, risk management has evolved to include corporate governance, alignment to strategic objectives, capital adequacy and stakeholder value. Additionally, regular discussions on risk management started appearing on corporate board agendas.

In 2003 FERMA has adopted the Risk Management Standard to establish a uniform pan-European approach to risk management procedures sets out a strategic process, starting with an organisation’s overall objectives and aspirations, through to the identification, evaluation and mitigation of risk, and finally the transfer of some of that risk to an insurer.

What do Risk Managers do?

The risk manager supports the company to achieve its objectives.  He or she identifies and assesses risks that could threaten the realization of these objectives or prevent the business from taking advantage of opportunities. The risk manager works with his or her colleagues to keep the company’s exposure to risk within the agreed risk appetite. He or she acts as a coordinator, educator and communicator. The risk manager’s profile is largely determined by the structure to which his actions will apply. Experienced based, this position must allow adaptation to a multitude of professional cultures (financial, legal, technical, commercial,…) and be combined with an attitude to communicate and convince.

 

The (Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999) (FEMA) is an Act of the Parliament of India “to consolidate and amend the law relating to foreign exchange with the objective of facilitating external trade and payments and for promoting the orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India”.  It was passed in the winter session of Parliament in 1999, replacing the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). This act makes offences related to foreign exchange civil offenses. It extends to the whole of India., replacing FERA, which had become incompatible with the pro- liberalization policies of the Government of India. It enabled a new foreign exchange management regime consistent with the emerging framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). It also paved the way for the introduction of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002, which came into effect from 1 July 2005.

Unlike other laws where everything is permitted unless specifically prohibited, under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) of 1973 (predecessor to FEMA) everything was prohibited unless specifically permitted. Hence the tenor and tone of the Act was very drastic. It required imprisonment even for minor offences. Under FERA, a person was presumed guilty unless he proved himself innocent, whereas under other laws a person is presumed innocent unless he is proven guilty.

FEMA is a regulatory mechanism that enables the Reserve Bank of India to pass regulations and the Central Government to pass rules relating to foreign exchange in tune with the Foreign Trade policy of India.

Switch from FERA

FERA did not succeed in restricting activities such as the expansion of Multinational Corporations. The concessions made to FERA in 1991-1993 showed that FERA was on the verge of becoming redundant. After the amendment of FERA in 1993, it was decided that the act would become the FEMA. This was done in order to relax the controls on foreign exchange in India.

FERA was repealed in 1998 by the government of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and replaced by the Foreign Exchange Management Act, which liberalised foreign exchange controls and restrictions on foreign investment.

The buying and selling of foreign currency and other debt instruments by businesses, individuals and governments happens in the foreign exchange market. Apart from being very competitive, this market is also the largest and most liquid market in the world as well as in India.It constantly undergoes changes and innovations, which can either be beneficial to a country or expose them to greater risks. The management of foreign exchange market becomes necessary in order to mitigate and avoid the risks. Central banks would work towards an orderly functioning of the transactions which can also develop their foreign exchange market. Foreign Exchange Market Whether under FERA or FEMA’s control, the need for the management of foreign exchange is important. It is necessary to keep adequate amount of foreign exchange from Import Substitution to Export Promotion.

FEMA served to make transactions for external trade and easier – transactions involving current account for external trade no longer required RBI’s permission. The deals in Foreign Exchange were to be ‘managed’ instead of ‘regulated’. The switch to FEMA shows the change on the part of the government in terms of for the capital.

 

 

International marketing is not as easy as domestic marketing. International marketing environment poses a number of uncertainties and problems. As against, national markets, international markets are more dynamics, uncertain, and challenging. Especially, cultural diversities and political realities in several nations create a plenty of barriers that need special attention. In the same way, geographical constraints cannot be totally undermined. Widespread terrorism has created a new threat to international trade.

Though the world is advancing in terms of information technology, innovative and superior methods of organizing marketing efforts (like horizontal organisation, network organisation, virtual organisation), global efforts for smooth international trades, and so forth, yet international marketing is not that much easy to pursue, it has become a challenge to accept.

1. Tariff Barriers

Tariff barriers indicate taxes and duties imposed on imports. Marketers of guest countries find it difficult to earn adequate profits while selling products in the host countries. Sometimes, to prevent foreign products and/or promote domestic products, strategically tariff policies are formulated that restricts international marketing activities. Frequent change in tariff rates and variable tariff rates for various categories of products create uncertainty for traders to trade internationally. Antidumping duties levied on imports and defensive strategies create difficulty for exporters.

2. Administrative Policies:

Bureaucratic rules or administrative procedures – both in guest countries and host countries – make international (export and/or import) marketing harder. Some countries have too lengthy formalities that exporters and importers have to clear. Unjust dealings to get the formalities/ matters cleared create many problems to some international players. International marketers have to accustom with legal formalities of several courtiers where they wants to operate.

3. Considerable Diversities:

Different countries have their own unique civilization and culture. They pose special problems for international marketers. Global customers exhibit considerable cultural and social diversities in term of needs, preferences, habits, languages, expectations, buying capacities, buying and consumption patterns, and so forth. Social and personal characteristics of customers of different nationalities are real challenges to understand and incorporate. Compared to local and domestic markets, it is more difficult to understand behaviour of customers of other countries.

In the same way, as against domestic markets, to design and modify marketing mix over time for international markets seem more difficult. Market segmentation, product design, pricing, and distribution need more information and efforts. Promoting products in international markets is a formidable task. Message preparation and execution in suitable media in international markets is not easy game to play.

Language and religious diversities are the real challenge for international business players. There are 6000 languages in the world. China (20%) is the largest in term of native speakers, followed by English (6%), and followed by Hindi (5%). Yet English is recognized as global business language.

English speaking countries can contribute the largest share (40%) in global business. Religious diversities seem difficult to cope with as they determine needs and wants of people. At present Christianity is the largest in the world (1.7 billion), followed by Islam (1.0 billion), followed by Hinduism (750 millions), and followed by Buddhism (350 millions).

4. Political Instability or Environment:

Different political systems (democracy or dictatorship), different economics systems (market economy, command economy, and mixed economy), and political instability are some of real challenges that international marketers have to face. Political atmosphere in different courtiers offer opportunities or pose challenges to international marketers.

Governments in different nations have their priorities, philosophies, and approaches to the international trades. They may adopt restrictive (protectionist) or liberal approach to international business operations. Especially, political approaches of dominant nations have more influence in international marketing activities.

Long-term trend of global political environment is unpredictable and uncertain. Economic policies of different nations (industrial policies, fiscal policies, agricultural policies, export-import policies, etc.,) do have direct impact on international trade. Drastic change in these policies creates endless difficulties to international traders. While dealing with international markets, international political and legal environment needs a special attention.

5. Place Constraints (Diverse Geography):

Trade in foreign countries of far distance itself practically difficult. In case of perishable products, it is a real challenge. Exporting and importing products via sea route and making arrangements for effective selling involves more time as well risks. Segmenting and selecting international markets require the marketers to be more careful.

6. Variations in Exchange Rates:

Every nation has its currency that is to be exchanged with currencies of other nations. Currencies are traded every day and rates are subject to change. Indian Rupee, European Dollar, US Dollar, Japanese Yen, etc., are appreciated or discounted at national and international markets against other currencies. In case of extraordinary and unexpected moves (ups and downs) in currency/exchange rates between two courtiers create serious settlement problems.

7. Norms and Ethics Challenges:

Ethics refers to moral principles, standards, and norms of conduct governing individual and firm’s behaviour. They are deeply reflected in formal laws and regulations. In different parts of the world, different codes of conduct are specified that every international business player has to observe. However, globalization process has emphasized some common ethics worldwide. Corruption is another issue relating to business ethics.

8. Terrorism and Racism:

Terrorism is a global issue, a worldwide problem. People of the world are living under constant fear of terrorists attracts anywhere in the world. To trade internationally is not economically risky, but there is the threat to life. Racism also restricts international trade activities.

9. Other Difficulties:

Besides these problems, there are many obstacles in international markets, such as:

  1. Changing ecological environment and global warming
  2. Difference in weathers and natural climates
  3. Inappropriate or inadequate role of international agencies supporting and regulating international trades
  4. Natural and man-made calamities
  5. Difference in currencies, weights, standards, measures, and marketing methods
  6. Protectionist approach of some countries
  7. Economic crisis across the globe.

Online Advertising:

The government has invested heavily in security systems to block access to websites it deems offensive, said to range in subject matter from religion to swimwear. There were 6.2 million internet users by March 2008 (ITU). Many surfers are said to be women, possibly a result of restrictions on their movements. There are said to be as many as 5,000 Saudi blogs. The restriction of government on internet in turn has affected the advertising in this country. Online advertising to this region represents great potential for organisations to connect and sell to prospects eager for new products.

Advertising in the Contemporary India

Almost all people from the richest to the poorest participate in the World’s Wealth through the immersive global trade. The emerging global economy brings us into a worldwide competition with significant advantages for both marketers and the consumers. Due to satellite communications, global companies and the advancements in technology, consumers are demanding an ever expanding variety of goods.

Indian economy had been constrained and shaped by policies of import substitution and an aversion to free trader. Real competition was eliminated through import ban and prohibited tariffs on foreign companies. Industry was so completely restricted that only those with proper license would count on the specific share of the market.

Advertising helps to sell to customers and to arouse their buying desire in advance. It is most efficiently used with personal selling or point of purchase display. Many Non business enterprises have profitably used advertising. e.g. family planning, recruitment in army, water preservation, pollution control and physical fitness.

With passing time, advertising in india has seen a tremendous change. Advertising pays for entertainment and educational aspects of Contemporary Life as well as reduced product cost.

The Indian advertising industry has evolved from being a small-scaled business to a full-fledged industry. The advertising industry is projected to be the second fastest growing advertising market in Asia after China. It is estimated that by 2018, the share of ad spend in India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will be around 0.45 per cent.

The Indian government has given tremendous support to the advertising and marketing industry. Advertising expenditure is likely to increase in the financial sector, driven by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) policies which could result in a more favourable business environment. Also, proposed licences for new banks and better market sentiments render the advertising and marketing industry in India a fertile space.

The Role of Advertising in India :

All round growth of media

In the past fifty years, advertising in india has grown a multifold. The number of Ad Agencies, in today’s date, working in India have also multiplied. The opening of indian market and the emergence of middle class consumers have greatly helped the fast development of advertising industry.

[I am not aware to whaat extent are these figures accurate. But I found it somewhere.This might definitely be old]

Eg Total circulation of Language Newspaper is approximately 13 Lac 30 Thousand, more than 17 housand weeklies and 20 thousand biweeklies, Television taking approx 46% of the total industry and the rise of numerous media industries like Lintas, Ogilvy, etc.

Growth and popularity of internet

The Internet is the new baby of advertisers. It is a low-cost alternative to traditional advertising with a wide reach. It skyrocketed in the 1990s. Online Advertising serves three purposes, it provides brand reminder message, it delivers the persuasive message, and it entices the people to visit the advertisers’ site. By simply clicking on a banner or a button on a website.

The Internet has become a standard communication tool in both business and personal use. It is particularly good at reaching the youth and teens, who spend more time online than any other age group. However, we have also seen a rise in the older generation. Many users have easy access to the Internet with help of WiFi, Mobile Network, and Broadband Facilities [LiFi, Illuminati chips soon] thus, simplifying the online connectivity. We can say the role of Internet Advertising has a promising future in India.

Quality matters

It is an known to many that the product will be sold on their quality rather than effective advertising. Good quality ensures repeat purchase. With well known international brands freely available in India, the manufacturers are now compelled to concentrate on the quality aspects. Many ad campaign promote and are supportive of good quality.

Changed format of an advertisement

In Print and TV media, Ads used to be presented predominantly in the English language, however we now see the copies liberally using the Hindi language. This is because of Hindi being the link of India. We can see heavy use of Hinglish. The use of Hinglish has become a way of life in the world of advertising.

Eg: ‘Youngistan Meri Jaan’, ‘Ye Dil maange more’, ‘Khushiyo ki home delivery’

The rise of surrogate advertising

A surrogate ad is a smart marketing tactic, where a company uses their brand image of one product in order to promote their other product. The main product is advertised indirectly by advertising a product that is quite distinct from the main product, but they share a brand in common. The advertisements are smartly made which makes the consumer can read between the lines. In the surrogate ad, the product that you actually watch is innocent whereas, one which is been advertised is in the banned list. Eg: ‘502 Pataka chai’ a popular bidi brand, ‘Kya lenge Aap Haywards 5000-Soda’ but Hayward is known as a brand of liquor.

Invasion of branded products

More than 10,000 branded products are advertised in India with a varietymedia mix. The range of products advertised covers ‘pin to a plane’.

The Growth of Media business

The Media, the Advertisers and the Ad Agencies have equally contributed to the fast growth of Indian advertising. Overall economic prosperity has helped the business of ad agencies. In terms of professional skills and techniques ad agencies in India are well equipped and world class.

The Rise of animation era

The trends in advertising have changed rapidly. Today we are living in an animation era. For eg: a machine jumps up like a frog and devours mosquitoes ( All out ) is thus promoted to be ‘Macharon ka Yamraj’. A penguin declares Kelvinator Refrigerator to be the coolest one. Vicks ki Goli fights ‘Khich Khich’ to clear the throat. The Kitkat Ads, and the outros of many advertisements made with 3D Simulated Graphics [Arjun Ghimire does it as well, check him on Insta. Great guy.] We even see Advertisements with Visual Effects and Unreal Graphics

Increase of advertisers

As our country witnessed an increase in industrial goods and consumer goods sector along with an increase in the service sector. There was a greater need to communicate with the consumers. Every manufacturer had to become an advertiser and to take advantage of their expanding business. This resulted in the use of advertising in a big way.

Dominance of television

Invasion of satellite television has motivated people to remain glued to their TV sets with a large variety of programs. The multiplicity of channels with set-top box has resulted in viewership fragmentation. TV is ruling and will rule the business of advertising because the messages are flashed in the drawing rooms of the viewers.

The Market for designer luxury brands

India is emerging as an industrial economy. The country has recorded fast agro-industrial expansions. It has witnessed an increase in national income, per capita income and per capita consumption. It has raised their standard of living. Well, known global brands are now openly available in India such as Mont Blanc, BMW, Gucci, etc. these brands are regularly advertised and there’s a vast scope to advertise them in the future. The westernised ideas are fast catching up in India through demonstration effect brought to us through media mix.

Changes in lifestyle

Lifestyle refers to the pattern of living that reflects how people allocate their time, energy and money. Lifestyle is based on individual preferences. In the years ahead lifestyle marketing will catch up in a big way. Creativity and energy are tremendous assets in the introduction of new products, service or ideas to the local communities.

Rapid changes in information and technology

The Indian IT and Electronic industry recorded multifold increase. Today all the famous global brands have technical and financial collaboration. In order to ensure that consumers are well served throughout the length and breadth of the country, advertising plays the role of paramount importance.

Advertising linked with sports and tourism

These are the days of mega sports events in cricket, hockey, football, etc. Large industrial houses are always willing to sponsor sports events because they get an opportunity to advertise their products and services in India. Tourism is a fast expanding business in India. Nowadays, there are weekly films on tourist spots in India shown on TV providing relevant information.

Importance of tween power

Children age between 8 and 12 are said to represent the tween market. every year children between 8 and 12 years spend a whopping 20,000 crore on everything from clothes to food to recreation. No wonder marketers are going all out to win them over.

In short, the role of advertising in India can broadly be said to be distribution, employment, lifestyle enhancement, consumer choice provider, consumer welfare and reduce in price due to economies of scale. Sent from BlackBerry® on Airtel

 

Our world is ever changing. In today’s day and age, on of the most important ways of communication and one of the most important elements of the mass media are Web pages. It is a new and innovative way to get in touch with the world outside. It is a step forward in the direction of complete globalization. It basically is a symbol of increased global unity. The web brings every continent closer together Regarding the increased global unity, it is true that many different kinds of information are now available on the web and for those who wish to know other societies, their cultures and people, it becomes easier. When one travels to a foreign country or a remote town, some information about the place can be found.

The web is available to individuals outside mass media. In order to ‘publish’ a web page, one does not have to go through a publisher or other media institution and potential readers could be found in all corners of the globe.

The WWW can be a great place to accomplish research on many topics. But putting documents or pages on the web is easy, cheap or free, unregulated and unmonitored. The great wealth that the net has brought to so much of society is the ability for people to express themselves, find one another, exchange ideas, discover possible peers worldwide they never would have otherwise met and through hypertext links in web pages, suggest so many other people’s ideas and personalities to anyone who comes and clicks.

Most pages found in general search engines for the web are self-published or published by business small and large with motives to get you to buy something or believe in a point of view. The web is about making information available. Making web pages accessible is actually pretty easy once one is aware of the common elements that affect how they are displayed.

A Web Page is a ‘page’ of the www is a Hypertext System that operates over the Internet.

Types of web pages

  1. Informative Pages
  2. Personal Web Pages
  3. Political/Interest Group Web Pages
  4. Marketing Oriented Web Pages
  5. Entertainment Pages

There are various types of web pages and all of these cater to the different needs of different audiences and consumers. Web pages are need specific. They offer something for everyone.

Web pages which are marketing oriented or which are product specific are now a new wave in the media business. These web pages are not just read. They are used. Websites fuel the imagination

  • people interact with the information
  • visitors interact with the brand

Communication is two way- from brand to visitor and vice versa it is not a monologue. There is actual conversation with the visitor. Web pages help the user familiarize the visitor with the brand. It is the only media where you can actually buy through advertising

Example, you can book tickets, purchase products, go into details, etc.

There is increased opportunity to individuals  and it is certainly observable in the countless personal pages as well as other groups such as families, small shops, which are not aiming those who publish materials. The emergence of free web hosting services are perhaps an important factor in bringing this possibility into reality. The alternative media expanded into the web as well.

Web pages are used as a tool for democracy. But this is misused. The web has uncensored material or content in it which could be viewed by children or adults and this leads to corruption of the power  of freedom vested in the individuals using the net and giving out information on the net.

Web pages for premium brands are also extremely helpful. They make the consumers appreciate the uniqueness of the product. They help the users be up to date. This helps the product make their brand image and their prices clear. Most individuals visit a web site with some specific goal in mind;

  • Most requested information will be found
  • Recent updates will be available
  • The web has dynamic elements that change with time
  • There is some sort of structured navigation
  • Web pages have a sort of clarity and simplicity to them.

s of racism.

 

  • It is the only form of media wherein other media are also available. Local newspapers, government publications and other materials are available on the net and therefore easier to access and so a variety of information obtainable with the same effort.
  • Web pages are a revolution in the thought process of the media. It is here that any type of information can be published. Web pages are not checked for accuracy. Some sites and pages may be used to express the personal opinion of certain individual on some issues which  may not necessarily be facts. We find both supporting and countering arguments to web pages.
  • by using search engines the users can locate specific web pages in accordance to their needs
  • the net is a great tool for research, but finding quality web material and using it to your advantage is a challenge.
  • web pages are completely interactive sources of information in the media. It is a two way communication. Information is not just given out but the user can question and give in his own inputs as and when he pleases
  • web pages have a hierarchical structure, it is very different from the structures that newspapers or magazines may follow. The information in this case is divided into chapters, sections and subsections making it easier for the consumers to find exactly what they are looking for.

 

Internet is a worldwide system of computer network so that one person can access information available within seconds from all over the world on his computer screen. The nit also makes it possible for one computer to communicate with anyone in the world.

World wide web www as this is commonly referred to is almost synonymous with the net. It is actually the most widely used part of the net and is an interlinked connection of hypertext documents over the net, known as homepages.

Communication rings is a sort of network that helps one person communicate or chat with another using two different PCs. This sends messages directly between individuals

Bundling this is a pricing tactic that is both common and powerful. It is the combination of products into larger packages. It is simple in concept, it can have larger effects on competition and consumers. Online suppliers are aggressive users of bundling.

Content trees are indirect, they use central gathering point, such as still respond to each other, but flow of information happens at the central point.

Internet marketing is the practice of selling or promoting goods and services through the use of the Internet. Basically, Internet marketing is more so business in nature, though it can also be used for non-profit purposes as well. If you intend to grow your business, Internet marketing should play a large part in your solution. Here are some of the reasons why Internet marketing is very important for your business success.

1. Increase product awareness

Consumers will only buy products they know about. Products that are unknown and unpopular can easily be snubbed. Internet marketing can increase product awareness, and through Internet marketing the public can be introduced to the existence of your company, who you are, and what you can offer.

2. Reach out to a wider and bigger audience

There is no doubt that print ads, television, and the radio are still the best means to reach out to people, but with the constant technological advancements more and more people are gaining Internet access. In fact, almost one-third of the world’s population has access to the Internet. Through Internet marketing, you can reach more people, both local and international.

3. Cost effectiveness

Internet marketing is one of the most cost-effective means of advertising. With just a small amount of money, you can tap into a tremendously large market. Of course, you still have the choice to invest higher amounts of money to be even more effective in Internet marketing. Since the World Wide Web is getting fiercer in terms of competition, you need to be more aggressive with your Internet marketing strategy.

4. Consumer preference

During the past few years, the number of online shoppers has increased consistently. Most people are now turning to the Internet and researching their needs before making a purchase. Since Internet shopping is more convenient and cost-effective on the part of consumers, more and more people are now shopping online. Thus, if you want to increase your sales, you must be present online to catch these customers.

5. Increase traffic

If you already have a website, you cannot expect it to gather more visitors just by itself. You need to actively exert effort in increasing its traffic, and this can be done through Internet marketing and graphic design Gloucester by Blumango. When you have a bigger website audience, you can easily disseminate information about your company, foster good client relationships, increase profit and gains, improve product image, enhance product awareness, and many other positive points.

6. Accessible to consumers

Your website is open 24/7, unlike your physical store. This means that you can still tend to your customer’s needs even when you are sleeping.

7. Increase sales

With all the benefits mentioned above, there is no doubt that you will have a higher return of investment. Not only that, but Internet marketing can put forward a positive compound effect on your website. This means that the effort your exerted last month will still have its effects for years to come.

These are just some of the reasons why you need to employ Internet marketing. If done correctly, Internet marketing can be the greatest tool to achieve success and growth for your business.

The use of “www” as a marketing tool

  1.  To establish a Presence. There are more than 900 million people worldwide who have access to the web, They cannot be ignored.
  2. To network. To make connections with other people, with millions of potential clients and partners telling. The company makes it possible to build a 24 connection with their audience with the help of Internet.
  3.   To Make Business Information Available
  4.   To Serve The Customer
  5.   To Heighten Public Interest
  6.   To Release Time Sensitive Material
  7.   To Sell Things
  8.   To Make Pictures, Sound And Film Files Available
  9.   To Reach A Highly Desirable Demographic Market
  10. To Answer Frequently Asked Questions
  11. To Stay In Contact With Salesperson
  12.  To Open International Market
  13.  To Create A 24 Hours Service
  14.  To Make Changing Information Available Quickly
  15.  To Allow Feedback From Customers
  16.  To Test Market New Services And Products
  17.  To Reach Media
  18.  To Reach The Education And Youth Market
  19. To Reach The Specialized Market
  20.  To Serve The Local Market

Online marketing strategy

Step one: Create your Overall Theme to your Online Business

You cannot develop a business around a single product. Even if you are promoting a single Product upfront, it is not the product that people want. They want benefits they receive out of the product. When designing the site, think about an ‘ultimate benefit’ to build your site

Ultimate benefits are what your prospects are really seeking. So do not base your business just on products but on benefits. This will be the theme that binds everything else to the site and make people return to the site over and over again.

Step Two : USP

Develop a unique aspect, the USP, something that brings a uniqueness to the brand. An Unique selling proposition will make the brand stand out from the crowd online. Everyone is Selling books online but Amazon.com has become the most well known. They developed the  Usp ‘world’s largest bookstore’ which is what they are

Step Three: Build relationship with the prospects.

Credibility online is a major issue because there are many fly by night, get rich operators on the net. Develop credibility by an overall strategy to include such tools as message boards, schats, conference calls, dealer programmes

Step Four: Traffic Generation  

Traffic Generation is probably the most important aspect of running an online business. No matter how well designed the website is, how great and powerful the sales letter is, people cannot buy if they do not know of the existence of the site.

People can visit the site if they are made to click on the ads that are created on the net. They. Can be made to come back to the site by the creation of more banners and placing them on. Sites that are used most by the target audience

 

Consumers and business markets in North America, Western Europe and Japan have begun to show signs of slower growth and companies realized the need to look to other markets for the growth.

Consumers in the rapidly developing markets in Asia and other emerging markets are showing a voracious appetite for branded goods reflecting changing social aspirations.

This has led to the need to create global brands .

The growth of global media has led both to the increasing homogenization of consumer tastes across the world and to the use of standardized or global advertising campaign which can be seen simultaneously in many different countries. With the growth of satellite and cable TV channels across the world, global brands such as Nike and Cannon have begun to strengthen their global brands through the use of standardized global campaigns.

The advantage enjoyed by companies that operate with a global strategy is that they can enjoy operating economies of scale. This means having larger volumes of the same product manufactured and sold over a larger market, this companies can market them at a lower cost per unit

Counteracting the policy of global advertising is the reality that consumers in every country are still different from each other , with different habits, tastes and preferences, so a product that works in one country may not work in another. Americans like to drink orange juice for breakfast, French consumers do not. Middle Easterners prefer toothpaste that tastes spicy, this taste may not work in other markets. McDonalds has to vary its menu in different countries serving beer in Germany, wine in France and milkshakes flavoured with local fruits in Singapore

Stories of disastrous mistakes made by advertisers who failed to understand local consumer differences can be found in numerous books on advertising such as  Pepsodent trying to use a teeth-whitening appeals in parts of Asia where dark-stained teeth were considered prestigious.

A multinational advertiser must understand the cultural nuances of a local market in order to be successful because it may differ substantially from the culture of the home market. Consumers have different expectations concerning colours used in packaging ( purple is a death colour in Brazil, whereas white is the colour for funerals in Hong Kong) . Brands may need different positioning strategies across many markets. Cultures differ in the ways in which they construe and communicate meaning of the ad. A strategy of localizing the ad message but is necessary.

It is true that the world is moving toward greater cultural convergence and it is also true that with political and customs barriers crumbling, with television channels like MTV and CNN and STAR TV being bounced off satellites into homes across the globe, with more people travelling and vacationing in other countries and with fast food franchises appearing at street corners from Beijing to Buenos Aries it often appears that we are indeed all moving toward one homogenized global community. Teenagers, the world over, are more exposed than most to cultural influences from other countries through fashions, music, clothing, food, personal appearance and sports. Teenagers are less likely to be parochial and nationalistic and more likely to identify with  pan-national organisations.

Women the world over are seeking more actively to participate in workplace success and identify less closely than before with the traditional female roles of mother/nurturer/wife and homemaker.

It may seem paradoxical that as consumer preferences are supposedly becoming homogenized, consumers are also supposedly becoming more differentiated in their wants and needs

Advertisers need to reconcile these divergent trends.

(give points from making messages culture specific to show how cultural differences exists)

( give the example of how Nescafe dealt with the advertising of coffee internationally)

Advertising thus has to both standardise and to localise given the many differences that exist across countries, cultures and markets. Ad campaigns for food and beverage products are often the hardest to standardise and it is easier to standardise campaigns across western markets than across western and eastern markets. It is easier to standardize on the core positioning platform for the brand while allowing for local variations in other brand elements. Thus Oil of Olay uses the same positioning- a moisturizing cream for mature women-even though the name, packaging, formulation can vary slightly across markets

The solution is to modify products juist enough in local markets to make them strong in those local markets, but of maintain whatever uniformity is possible across multiple markets. This is often called glocalization or “planning globally but acting locally”

There are many who see global advertising  as impossible, given the many differences that exist across countries, cultures and markets. The issue is not one of whether an ad campaign can be completely globalized, but rather of the extent or degree to which a global brand campaign can be standardized across the world.

 

Cross-cultural anthropologists talk about cross-cultural cohorts, groups of people who belong to different cultures or nationalities but nevertheless share common sets of needs, values and attitudes. No matter where they live, consumer groups such as new mothers, computer users, international business travellers, audiophiles, high-end photographers and so on represent groups with similar needs and wants, Because babies bottoms are the same everywhere, diapers such as Pampers can use the same marketing and advertising strategies worldwide.

Global segments can be identified using psychographic research. Studies in Germany, UK and France reveal similarities and differences. All the three countries had four types, or segments of women labelled “traditional homemaker” “contemporary homemaker” “appearance-conscious” and “spontaneous” While the traditional homemaker accounted for 1/3rd the proportion of the other two varied dramatically. While a common ad strategy may be possible for these countries, the dramatic variations across countries it would be advisable to accommodate country-specific differences.

Agencies have attempted to find common “Euro-Consumer” segments and found four lifestyle groups common across western Europe- “successful Idealists,” “affluent materialists,” “comfortable belongers” and “ disaffected strivers”

Other researchers put 95% of the population into one of the five global segments.

  1. Strivers 26% in US, France and Spain; young, success-seeking, leading time-pressured lives. Materialistic, pleasure-oriented, seek instant gratification and convenience.
  1.  Achievers 22% in US and high in Spain. Slightly older, already successful, affluent. Opinion-leaders, status conscious. Seek to buy quality.
  1.  Pressured 13% US mostly women facing financial or familial pressure. Highly stressed
  1.  Adapters 18% US, higher in Germany. Older, with somewhat traditional values but open-minded, Living comfortably in their golden years
  1.  Traditionals. 16% US, conservative, prefer to stick to the familiar and established in their personal

Lives and their consumption patterns.

There are many other very interesting differences and patterns both within and across countries.

In Japan, for instance, there appear to be major differences in value-orientation between men and women, and between the older and the younger consumers. Men believe more in traditional family roles than women and the younger are more materialistic and consumption-oriented.

Many Japanese and American women work outside of the home (which enhances the need for many convenience and time saving products) Japanese women have been slower to embrace the liberated attitudes of their counterpart in the US One has to treat Japanese and American women differently.

We also have the VALS psychographic segmentation where the population is grouped into 8 sections;

Fulfilleds , Believers, Actualizers, Achievers, Strivers, Strugglers, experiencers and Makers. But humans are both deeply the same and obviously different. Underlying the similarities that exist between people, the external influences  serve to differentiate them into distinct market segments

Cultural differences are of great importance to advertisers. Values in people’s need to be uncovered to understand the motivations that drive both attitudes and behaviour.

Many of the global psychological segmentation schemes are between five to seven or eight groupings of consumers, varying chiefly on the dimensions of income, desire for material success and social acceptance and personal or social idealism. Each country has its rich, middle-class and poor those who live their lives ‘keeping up with the Joneses and those who are dreamers and rebels.

Since human nature are essentially the same no matter where one lives.

The challenge facing a global advertiser is in not only knowing the global psychological segment to which the target consumer belongs but also the local differences that make that same consumer different in one country than in another;

There is a need to focus on both simultaneously. An understanding of the similarities and differences that exists between nations is critical the foreign advertisers, who have to devise appropriate strategies to reach specific foreign markets. The greater the similarities between nations, the more feasible it is to use relatively similar strategies in each nation.

Controversial Advertising? Explain with examples

The controversy about many ads shows how our traditional conservative society is still trying to decide how much sexuality to allow in advertising. India’s growing economy and rapid internationalization are adding to the issue as they challenge India’s home-grown mores in new ways.

The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting refers all complaints of ads that are controversial to the ASCI, Advertising Standards Council of India, which is the industry’s self-regulatory body. Once the ad-industry council has issued its opinion, the ministry has the final say.

The ASCI has taken action on ads that it thought went too far.

Dark Temptation ad showed a woman taking bites out of a man who is coated in chocolate after using the chocolate flavoured deodorant. the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting stopped the from being broadcast after receiving a complaint from a viewer who found it offensive the shot of a woman biting the chocolate off a the man’s bottom.The ASCI banned the ad and now the ad is shown without the woman biting off the chocolate

Wild Stone, a deodorant ad shows a woman tricking her way into her brother-in-law’s arms because of the effect his deodorant has on her. The brands tag line says ‘barely legal’. Another deo ad called Fuel for Men launched by Elder Health Care Ltd in alliance with VLCC Healthcare Ltd, shows a woman so attracted to a man using the product that she starts unbuttoning her blouse.

The ASCI , after receiving a complaint contact the respective advertisers for their explanation before taking a decision to pull these ads off-air. These companies, however say they have not stepped out of line with the above commercials. They feel that there are certain category truths that are known to sell products like toothpaste results in clean teeth and shampoo in clean hair. Similarly, fragrances are associated with attraction and the above ads are based on that premise.

The ad agency that created these ads also defended it. They argued that behavioural scientist have established that males groom themselves for the female species and that is exactly what the ad is reflecting. However, it may be that males groom themselves for the female species , the objection is the reaction of the female in the ads that is offensive. It is demeaning to women

There are several ads on deodorants that have raised objections such as Fa Men’s Xtreme and Zatak  are also airing ads with sexual overtones. These ads gained ground after the campaign for the Axe deo ad. The Axe ad has been the only body spray to face scrutiny from the government even though competitors have run racy ads of their own.

The Amul Macho underwear ad was another very controversial ad which was found very offensive. It showed a young woman comes to a river to wash her husband’s clothes. She pulls pair of men’ bovver shorts from the laundry pile and begins to wash it, giving sultry looks to the camera and throwing her head back in a suggestive manner. The ad ends with a breathy female voice saying ‘Amul Macho’ crafted for fantasies’

Pepsi ad was banned after human rights groups said it promoted child labour. It depicted a young Indian boy bringing drinks to the Indian national cricket team. The ad was withdrawn. India is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and is committed to putting an end to child labour in any form

A cancer vaccine commercial seen  on Indian television urge parents to get their young girls inoculated the vaccine Gardasil to protect against cervical cancer, the second most major cancer in women.

What the ad hides is that it is mired in a controversy in the USA. It was launched in India in October 2008 with television ads. Advertising prescription on television is unethical enough, but using fear to sell them is worse. Gardasil is an efficient vaccine but the safety and risk information about it has not been available to parents.

Anchor and Havells were involved in a ‘hair raising controversy. Anchor electricals accused Havell of copying a concept for its hair raising television commercial and demanded that Havells take the campaign off the air.

The Havell ad showed a boy whose everyday life is disrupted when his hair stands on end because he used a faulty switch at home. Anchor claimed the concept was taken from a previous television ad created for Anchor switches.

Anchor wrote a letter to Havell to stop airing the ad. Havell said they had not received the letter.

An insurance ad showing a father in a hospital carrying a new born baby girl saying ‘hai to pyari magar boge hai bhari’. The authorities in Delhi had the ad scrapped.

.

The makers of Complan moved the Mumbai High Court to stop the Horlicks from airing their Horlicks ad which said it had all the required 23 nutrients but was still Priced at Rs 128 against Rs 174 the price of Complan. The Mumbai High Court refused to grant any relief to the makers of Complan.

Good Examples on this Site as well

https://photogallery.navbharattimes.indiatimes.com/celebs/celeb-themes/most-controversial-ads/articleshow/47015300.cms

 

Racial stereotyping in advertising is not always negative, but is considered harmful in that the repetition of a stereotype naturalizes it and makes it appear “normal”.

It is said that advertisers often utilize already existing deep-seated ideologies in society and base their commercials on them. Stereotypes have been used in advertisement as long as they have been around, and different ads over time have been thought by some to be more racist than others.

Racial stereotypes are used frequently in advertising. They are mental ideologies that the viewer assigns meaning to based on their membership in a social category in order to process information “as such, stereotyping does not by definition carry negative or positive values”. Because of this, we see many different outcomes; racial stereotyping can be positive for the advertiser as well as the viewer in instances where specific demographics are being targeted. However, it can also be perceived negatively in instances where the stereotyping begins causing offence. “Marketers should be aware of the potential to cause serious or widespread offence when referring to different races, cultures, nationalities or ethnic groups”.

Stereotypes are defined as the inferred belief that roles, attributes and positions in society are assigned to different groups of people based on race, religion, sexual orientation or gender. Stereotyping in advertising can be used in ways that are useful in providing orientation with which an audience can relate to, but often are oversimplified representations of any group in society which can contribute to misleading information.

Reasons for stereotyping in advertising have long been discussed, and often boil down to the “mirror” vs the “mold” argument coined by Pollay in 1986. On the one hand, it can be argued that advertising mirrors society, and is not presenting any stereotypes not already held. Advertising merely reflects our lifestyles, and uses repetition and insistence that this is what life already is to drive consumer engagement and purchase. Conversely, the “mold” argument insists that advertising influences society, and thus encourages stereotypes that are shaped by media. Sales are driven by society attempting to conform to the stereotypes and ideas communicated in advertising, as it shapes their own values and beliefs.

Essentially, stereotyping in advertising is the use of caricatures, be they based on truth or perception, to portray an idea in a short amount of time. With these quick-fire caricatures, there is no need for a thirty-second commercial to include a back story to the featured idea, as audiences fill in the gaps based on preconceived notions of what that person or situation represents. This facilitates a relationship between audiences and the advertisement in which audiences can understand a simplified situation with little to no information, and thus make purchasing decisions, however can be damaging towards the affected groups.

Positive effects: targeting specific demographics

Racial stereotyping creates positive results in situations where the advertisement is being targeted to a specific demographic, (for example, a specific race). Audiences automatically install a perceptual bias toward people or characters similar to themselves. This is called an in-group. An in-group consists of people that individuals socially identify themselves with, such as similarities in age, race, gender, religion and so on. Studies have shown that “the enhancement of in-group bias is more related to increased favoritism toward in-group members than to increased hostility toward out-group members”. Advertisers use this knowledge when targeting a product or service to a particular market and might use demographics to aid their information. For example, different countries and cultures inhibit different languages, different interpretation of symbols and cultural barriers that can limit the effectiveness of advertisements. This is where advertisers take into consideration the in-group bias theory. Viewers are more likely to cast favouritism toward people that they can socially identify with. Therefore, if an advertiser is advertising in Japan, they would use Japanese models, characters and language so that the viewers could identify with the advertisement. Whereas if they were advertising in Italy, these features would not reach the target audience effectively unless they altered the advertisement to align with the specific demographics of the Italian audience. Edward T. Hall explains to us that context is an element in communication that must never be overlooked. Context is what gives meaning to words, if they are not in the correct context they are meaningless.

Targeting specific demographics is a form of racial stereotyping; however, it is seen to create positive results for both the advertiser and the viewer. The advertiser reaches the targeted audience effectively while the audience views advertisements that applies to them and that they can relate with.

Many questions are constantly arising regarding the ethical use of racial stereotyping in advertising. This form of racial stereotyping, where a specific demographic is being targeted for a product or service particular to them, is seen as commonplace for advertising stereotypes. This technique is deemed ethical so long no offence has occurred.

Negative effects: causing offence

Negative effects of racial stereotyping come into play when we start to see people taking offence. It is very common for advertisements to be misinterpreted due to the increased number of factors contributing to noise along the communication process.

Srividya Ramasubramanian talks about the way that stereotypes turn from being harmless into something that can be deeply offensive. She states that there are two stages of the stereotyping process “stereotype activation that is more automatic, and stereotype application that is more deliberate. In other words, stereotypical thoughts about out-groups are readily activated at the implicit level even though they are not applied consciously at the explicit level.” It is when we see these stereotypical thoughts activated explicitly through the use of advertisements that offence takes place. It is the conscious thought that is being communicated that offends people.

Beauty whitewash

Beauty whitewash is a term that is used in the advertising industry that refers to the harmful ideal that beauty can be defined by skin and hair colour. The term applies particularly to photographs where the skin and hair colour of the model is manipulated to be lighter. In a TEDx talk, Jean Kilbourne stated that “women of colour who are considered beautiful only in so far as they resemble the white ideal, light skin, straight hair, Caucasian features, round eyes.” Whitewashing is a technique used by advertisers usually in an attempt to target a specific demographic, as discussed earlier. However, advertisers sometimes attempt to change who a person is rather than use a different person or model.

For example, in 2008, L’Oreal Paris was accused of whitewashing the singer Beyoncé’s skin and hair colour for their advertising campaign. Her skin and hair colour became significantly lighter. This advertising campaign received tremendous amounts backlash due to the racial offence caused. Kilbourne stated that the image advertisers create “isn’t real, it’s artificial, it’s constructed, it’s impossible”. The black community felt offense as they believed that a mockery was made of the black race. This advertisement was seen to send conflicting messages to the young fan base that Beyoncé maintains. In an opinion piece, Yasmin Alibhai-Brown wrote, “Too many black and Asian children grow up understanding the sad truth that to have dark skin is to be somehow inferior. Of course, black and Asian parents work hard to give their children a positive self-image and confidence in their appearance, despite the cultural forces stacked against them. But when black celebrities appear to deny their heritage by trying to make themselves look white, I despair for the youngsters who see those images.”

Though this issue generally involves lightening a person’s skin colour, the opposite can also occur. For example, in 2001, Nike digitally manipulated the skin colour of Jason Williams, a basketball player, from white to black for an advertising campaign. This received backlash for racially abusing Asian fans and Nike was fined. A similar incident occurred with Ford Motor, where they darkened the face of a stunt driver in a TV advertisement. Ford was later forced to remove all new commercials featuring the modification. Ford stated that the alteration was made to make the driver less noticeable; however, they still received allegation

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Advertising in Contemporary Society – Answer Bank

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