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Explain the relevance of Media Studies today with respect to:

Racial Discrimination

 

 

Media makes certain Claims, Media Portrays Blacks as Niggers, Hipsters, Gamblers, etc.

By continously Digesting Content from Media which portrays Black/Yellow/Dark Skin Coloured People as a particular stereotype, it becomes a part of our thinking, we tend to believe that this is a concept which has been existant from a long time. Media Studies enables us to understand these cliches and stereotypes and makes us think about them

 

Dr. Stuart Hall has been termed as one of the country’s leading cultural theorists. Now settled in the United Kingdom, he delivers lectures at the Opera University UK for interdisciplinary subjects related to sociology.

  • Dr.Hall has his basic research related to the Social Stratas and its influence and incorporation in Media.  Dr. Hall propounded on the idea of a differentiation based on racism, which was portrayed even in films, as films made in the year 1950s, 60s, 70s projected the white skinned as the protagonist.

 

  • Whereas, the black skinned was always portrayed to be a slave or a barbarian or under certain negative aspects. He stated that racism even existed in media, and that films had/have a great influence on the society and social structure.

 

  • Hall discovered a connection between racial prejudice and media. He said moral panic was deliberately created to achieve political and economic ends, so that people could be tricked into giving them support to what he called policing the crisis. He also believed that it was the media which crashed in on crime stories thereby contributing to social production of news.
  • It is eye opening to do an indepth analysis of racism, racist ideology and many elusive aspects. Stuart hall’s article are particularly insighful for that purpose.
  • This is to be referred to the, “The White of Their Eyes, racist Ideologies in  the Media” and “Representation and Media”
  • Stuart Hall’s application of culture studies is a useful way of understanding, and even countering racism by taking us out of our ideology so we can reflect about the things in the world we believe are absolutely real to us, and see that concepts that are reflecting those “real” things are actually mirroring worlds that don’t exist.
  • One major point of his article concerns ideological racism, and that there are institutional apparatuses that can circulate and reiterate racist ideologies. Ideologies being “chains of meaning” being articulated with many elements which are neither isolated or separated concepts (Whites of Their Eyes 89). These elements or concepts influence each other and are connected together complexly, and can include for instance, “Humanity is not determined by color” with “Racism is a hurtful ideology”.
  • What concepts you may take to be common sense, Mr. Hall says are part of your ideology, for he states “We have to speak through the ideologies which are active in our society and which provide us the means of making sense of social relations and our place in them” (Whites of Their Eyes 90). The consequent then, is that one who is immersed in a racist ideology, or its converse, must speak through it concepts to make sense of the world. Those concepts then, subjectively, becomes their mirror of the world. This causes the ideology to become naturalized, in a process that Hall describes as “disappearing from view” and “being taken for granted” (Whites of Their Eyes 90). When it is taken for granted, it becomes a common sense of sorts, something upon which opinions are then based off of.
  • A racist ideology then can be predicated to several underlying conceptions or opinions taken as common sense premises. The issues then occurs is when the producers of ideology (Whites of their Eyes 90) are themselves constructing frames that are influenced by such racist underpinnings.
  • This of course transfers to the viewer, especially if they themselves are immersed in a similar racist tinted world frame. It reinforces hidden or explicitly believed concepts. The problem is that the representations that the media make create meaning, rather depicting a meaning of something that exists before. They can effectively create “representations of the social world, images, descriptions, explanations, and frames of knowledge” (Whites of Their Eyes 90). Hence an institution can actually produce racist representations if if they only mean to re-present already existing one that they may not support

Explain the relevance of Media Studies today with respect to:

Women and Media

 

 

This is a huge answer, however please take time to read it, it will actually enlighten you about the feminine stereotype and how media is actually dominating women

A number of international conferences and conventions have voiced and publicized the need to break public stereotypes through change in the media policy. Mass media, however, continue to reproduce discriminatory stereotypes about women and portray them in sexist ways. As a rule, women are portrayed in a narrow range of characters in mass media. Women are often associated with the household or sex-objects, and in the latter category, they lack roles.

 

Only in a limited number of news programs do women appear as main actors or experts. One of the reasons for this situation is the smaller number of women in these spheres, but even the existing number of women are underrepresented compared to their male counterparts.

 

Femininity, as well as masculinity, are not biological, but rather, cultural constructs. Representations and manifestations of femininity differ across cultures, time and societies.

 

In the initial stage of its history, media were managed exclusively by men. The media images of men and women were tailored to men’s preferences. In other words, men were creating media images of men and women they wished to see in reality.

 

Gender roles are shaped mainly by mass media influences including television, advertisements, music, promotions, commercials, billboards, Internet, cosmetics, and social media. Nowadays, the media has major control over societal norms and it influences opinions and perspectives through psychology. Specifically, the female viewers are subconsciously changing.

 

Women are prone to objectification with the constant vulgar advertisements and sex industries. In a social perspective, objectification means to treat a human as if he or she was a thing, or an object, without any regards of their emotions or dignity. Objectification can also include treating someone as a belonging to another person (usually belonging to a man), used as a tool for self-fulfillment or needs, and also permissible to use, abuse, damage, and destroy. Furthermore, sexual objectification is a culturally masculine perspective aimed towards women being solely objects for sexual pleasure and disregarding the intelligence capabilities of a woman. The cause of this perspective has unfortunately affected women to be submissive as sexual objects and exploited in numerous types of mass media. For example, rap music often uses degrading terminology in regards of women.

 

Subconsciously, this creates a barrier between men and women. Men feel that it is permissible in today’s society to use and damage a woman’s dignity by treating them as sexual objects. In correspondence to these man made ideas, women often submit themselves as sexual objects through participating in vulgar music videos, modeling in advertisements, and pornography.

 

Pornography itself is the portrayal of sexual objectification of women and mainly targeted towards male audiences. It is the intentional act of using women for sexual advantage and then tossed aside like an object. Pornography is a source of emotional disconnection between male and female relationships.

 

Why do companies choose to advertise female sexual objectification in commercials and billboards? “Sex sells,” and truthfully, it really does. Often we see seductive photographs in promoting a certain product or brand. Companies tend to use sex in their advertisements because they are aware that it is simply attractive, and from a business standpoint, any attention is good attention. Companies want to stand out to their customers, attract large audiences, which results in large revenues.

For example, the deodorant company called AXE uses sexual advertisements to promote their product, which is a masculine target market. The company calls it the “AXE Effect.” The message means that if you use this particular product, women will always surround you because you will be the best smelling man around. This message is implied of course, but it really has psychologically trained men to not only buy this AXE deodorant spray product and be more hygienic, but also to view women as sexual beings.

 

The women in the advertisements are usually thin, blonde, speechless girls who appear as emotionless zombies who are instantly attracted to the male smell. This is a subtle example of female objectification.

 

The cultural phenomenon of objectification is not entirely new to today’s society. In fact, it has progressed over time. Many actresses are considered “sex symbols” or objectified. The word “Sex Symbol” was first used in the 1950’s. For example, the first “It girl” many are familiar with was the pop culture star Marilyn Monroe, who starred in films of the 1950’s-1960’s era. She is a perfect example of a dehumanized sex symbol because of the media’s emphasis about Marilyn Monroe being the “most beautiful woman of her time.” The media tends to utilize movie stars, actors, actresses, and models to mold the latest norms.

 

Studies say young women are especially affected by objectification in media. There are countless cases of young girls suffering from anorexia and bulimia. Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder caused by psychological obsession with obtaining a “thin” figure. Even worse, Bulimia Nervosa is the eating disorder that consists of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, followed by forcefully vomiting to result in drastic weight loss. Unfortunately, these cases usually end in physical shock, and sometimes death. The underlying reason for these disorders is mainly mass media influences. When young girls see unrealistic models glamorized and having size 0 waists, adolescents begin a psychological unhappiness with themselves. To justify their dissatisfaction, adolescents try to change their appearances, becoming obsessed with weight, calorie counting, and more. These cases are not widely noted, in fact, the media never mentions them. Therefore, it is the media to blame for the dehumanization of women.

 

Depression is also another psychological disorder caused by media influences. Young women are especially at risk of this disorder. Depression is when a person feels unmotivated, sad, anxious, hopeless, guilty, restless, and even suicidal.

 

There are many causes of depression, but surely the media has influences that can enhance this disorder. For example, a commercial that depicts a skinny girl being chosen over a heavier girl may affect a young teen to think she is not worthy of affection and love. Moreover, she will psychologically be steered to think she must fix herself, rather than identifying a problem in society as a whole.

 

More often now than before, women are alternating their appearances by conducting plastic surgeries for breast enlargement, eyebrow or lip tattoos, and liposuction (slimming) to enhance physical features.

What is the reason behind these painful and expensive procedures? Outside forces affect female mentality including reality shows like Extreme Makeover, a plastic surgery reality show aired in 2002. These kinds of television shows suggest the acceptance of a new norm to enhance the physical attractiveness of ordinary people especially in superficial environments like Hollywood and Beverly Hills in America. Some critics noted that Extreme Makeover reinforces unattainable and unrealistic goals for audiences. It is implied through these reality shows that real beauty can only be achieved through plastic surgery and cosmetics. For example, the idea that people should pay a surgeon to conduct liposuction instead of exercising and maintaining a balanced diet in order to lose weight. It is ignored that most people cannot afford to have cosmetic surgery done. Television shows like this can potentially encourage disorders like anorexia, bulimia and depression.

 

Although most of the time audiences see women exploited in advertisements, sometimes women are portrayed as intelligent, liberated, strong individuals.

 

A great example of this kind of women-empowering companies is Dove, another deodorant company but aimed towards female audiences instead. Dove emphasizes natural beauty in women of all shapes and sizes. Real women like to see other women, with whom they can identify, furthermore making the Dove Company very profitable through their feminist approach. Other cosmetic companies including Pantene, Covergirl, and Proctor & Gamble are woman empowering. Pantene, a hair care company’s slogan reads, “Shine Strong.” Covergirl is a Cosmetics company whose slogan reads, “Girls can.” Proctor & Gamble is a feminine product manufacturer commercials say “throw and fight like a girl” empowering a woman’s strength. Most importantly, Verizon, a mobile phone company, slogan said, “inspire her mind” suggesting brains over beauty in a woman.

 

Women are becoming leaders in today’s society; achieving record athletic accomplishments, being CEOs of popular companies, and achieving civil rights. Today’s women outnumber men in college, with 33% more likely to earn a college degree. The International Woman’s Achievers’ Awards (IWAA) celebrated and honors the accomplishments of women Globally. The purpose of this commemoration association is to empower young women to achieve their goals.

 

Popular companies should follow this marketing strategies that Dove, Pantene, Covergirl, and especially Verizon have adopted. Women take more pride in being intelligent than being the beautiful stereotypical uneducated and emotionless sex object. Perhaps there would less eating disorders and expensive cosmetic surgeries. This approach would make for a better environment and respect towards women. Music, Television, Advertisements and Promotions, Cosmetics, Internet, and Billboards are powerful tools used by mass media in order to shape and influence large audience opinions.

 

Pornography and sex work has become a leading industry in today’s society. This reality truly affects the everyday woman’s perception and insults the real beauty inside a woman. Meanwhile, the media hardly does anything to resolve these issues. In fact, there isn’t much conversation of the fatal truths about the negative side affects in young women including anorexia, bulimia, and depression. Rather than suggesting that women should worry about being beautiful and fitting into the hottest swimsuit of the season, women in mass media should be empowered for the strength they have to give childbirth and be educated individuals. More companies should adopt a more woman-friendly approach in their marketing strategies because it would be mutually beneficial for both parties.


Discuss the relevance of:

It is purely my understanding, but I feel that they wanted the theories by Lazarsfeld and McLuhan to be framed under one head. So I present you the theories by Marshall McLuhan and Paul Lazarsfeld.

Marshall Mcluhan & Lazarsfeld’s Two Step Flow with examples.

Before reading this answer, you will find the term one step flow many a times, so this is what it means

The ‘one step flowtheory‘ is a communication process in which the mass media communicates directly to the mass audience.

Just in case you don’t get anything from the provided answer, the below is a small model.

You can use the example of Donald Trump, he did media, people shared it, people talked about it with their own conviction, the media was in a large number, leading to his victory.

Note: The Question Bank literally asks four different questions to be written together, however I have separated them.

 

A visual model would look like this:
Source > Message > Mass Media > Opinion Leaders > General Public[Opinion Followers]

Image result for two step flow theory

Before Lazarsfeld’s study, it was assumed that mass media have a direct influence on a mass audience who consume and absorb media messages. Media were thought to significantly influence people’s decisions and behaviours. However, the research done by Lazarsfeld and others showed that only about 5 percent of people changed their voting preference as a result of media consumption and that interpersonal discussions of political issues were more prevalent than consumption of political news within one typical day.

 

The Two Step Flow of Communication Model says that most people form their opinions under the influence of Opinion Leaders, who in turn are influenced by the mass media. In contrast to the One Step Flow Of The Hypodermic Needle Model or Magic Bullet Theory, which holds that people are directly influenced by mass media, According to the two step flow model, ideas flow from mass media

to opinion leaders and from them to a wider population and from them to a wider population

 

The Theory and its Understanding

 

  • The two step flow model of communication makes a hypothesis,
    “Ideas flow from mass media opinion leaders, and from them to wider population.”

 

  • The two-step flow of communication hypothesis was first introduced by Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet, in The People’s Choice, a 1944 study focused on the process of decision-making during a Presidential election campaign.
  • The two step model says that most people are not directly influenced by mass media, but they form their opinions based on opinion leaders who interpret media messages and put them into context. Opinion leaders are those who are initially exposed to a specific media content, and who interpret it based on their own opinion.
  • They then begin to infiltrate these opinions through the general public who become “opinion followers”
  • These opinion leaders gain their influence through more elite media as opposed to mainstream mass media
  • In this process, social influence is created and adjusted by the ideals ad opinions of each specific “elite media” group, and by these media group’s opposing ideals and opinions and in combination with popular mass media sources. Therefore, the leading influence in these opinions is primarily a social persuasion.
  • In contrast to the one-step flow of the hypodermic needle model or magic bullet theory, which holds that people are directly influenced by mass media, according to the two-step flow model, ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders, and from them to a wider population.

 

  • Individuals (opinion leaders) who pay close attention to the mass media and its messages receive the information.
  • Opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content. The term ‘personal influence’ was coined to refer to the process intervening between the media’s direct message and the audience’s ultimate reaction to that message.

 

  • Opinion leaders are quite influential in getting people to change their attitudes and behaviors and are quite similar to those they influence.

 

Positives and Praises

  • The two-step flow theory has improved our understanding of how the mass media influence decision making.
  • The theory refined the ability to predict the influence of media messages on audience behavior, and it helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to alter audience attitudes an behavior.
  • Factors such as interpersonal communication with family members, friends, and members of one’s social and professional circles turned out to be better predictors of a person’s voting behaviour than that person’s media exposure.
  • Provided a very believable explanation for information flow.
  • The theory did provide a very believable explanation for information flow. The opinion leaders do not replace media, but rather guide discussions of media.

 

Contemporary Debate

  • In the times of digital social media, the more than six decade old theory sparks much new interest. The fact that massive databases are being used to send tailor-made messages to individuals lead back to the idea of a “one-step flow of communication”. The idea is a kind of Hypodermic needle / magic bullet model, with the capacity of big data analytics informed mass customization.
  • Empirical studies by other scholars, in contrast, have found that modern social media platforms, like Twitter, exhibit clear evidence of a two-step flow of communication
  • Many social media users obtain their news from celebrities or other amplifying opinion leaders, who again get informed by mass media or by individuals with specific insights. The fine-grained digital footprint of social media also suggests that there are more than simply the one-step and two-step modes of communication flow, leading the search for more complex Multistep Flow Models based on distinct network structures.

 

Example

Epsit’s Ghodke reading News/WhatsApp Forward, they flash the headlines with “Research reveals some toys are leads the children’s aggressive and Violent”. That day Epsit calls his little son and goes for shopping and Epsit warns his son some toys are not good and made skin allergy which leads his son to avoid those toys.

  • Opinion leader: Eppy
  • Audience: His Son
  • Added information in actual content: Skin Allergy

 

¡The two-step flow of communication model says that most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders, who in turn are influenced by the mass media.

 

 

The theory of the two-step flow of mass communication was further developed by Lazarsfeld together with Elihu Katz in the book Personal Influence (1955). The book explains that people’s reactions to media messages are mediated by interpersonal communication with members of their social environment.

 

Criticism

 

The original two-step flow hypothesis—that ideas flow from the media to opinion leaders and then to less active sections of the population—has been criticized and negated by myriad consequent studies. Findings from Deutschmann and Danielson assert, “we would urge that the Katz-Lazarsfeld two-stage flow hypothesis, as a description of the initial information process, be applied to mass communication with caution”.

 

  • They find substantial evidence that initial mass media information flows directly to people on the whole and is not relayed by opinion leaders.
  • Furthermore, the two-step hypothesis does not adequately describe the flow of learning.
  • Everett Rogers’ “Diffusion of Innovations” cites one study in which two-thirds of respondents accredited their awareness to the mass media rather than face-to-face communication.
  • Similarly, critics argue that most of Lazarsfeld’s findings pertain to learning factors involved with general media habits rather than the learning of particular information. Both findings suggest a greater prevalence of a one-step flow of communication.

 

Marshall McLuhan – Medium is Massage

 

 

 

Actually, the title was a mistake. When the book came back from the typesetter’s, it had on the cover “Massage” as it still does. The title was supposed to have read “The Medium is the Message” but the typesetter had made an error. When Marshall McLuhan saw the typo he exclaimed, “Leave it alone! It’s Great and right on target”.  Now there are possible four readings for the last word of the title, all of them are accurate: “Mesage” and “Message-Age”, “Massage” and “Mass-age”

 

  • Herbert Marshall McLuhan is famed for having one of the most poignant predictions of the 20th century. He was once referred to as the “Oracle of the Electronic Age” and is perhaps the best known for his phrase turned into book title, “The Medium is the Massage”. The philosopher and intellectual foresaw the birth of the internet 35 years before it happened.

 

  • The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects is a book co-created by media analyst Marshall McLuhan and graphic designer Quentin Fiore, and coordinated by Jerome Agel. It was published by Bantam books in 1967 and became a bestseller with a cult following.

 

  • The title is a play on McLuhan’s oft-quoted saying “The Medium is the Message”. The book was initiated by Quentin Fiore. McLuhan adopted the term “massage” to denote the effect each medium has on the human sensorium, taking inventory of the “effects” of numerous media in terms of how they “massage” the sensorium.

 

  • McLuhan’s point was that the impact of the medium itself is more significant than the content it carries; that each medium, from light bulbs to computers, conveys a message to its users. The internet, for example, isn’t important because of its endless supply of content, but because it has created a world where we expect content to be endlessly, immediately there

 

  • Firearms are themselves neither good nor bad, it is the way they are used that determines their value. If you shoot a person and the person dies, then the bullet and the gun isn’t bad but the person behind the gun is. A Cigarette isn’t bad as long as it is not lit and you do not take a drag.

 

  • The first thing to be said about the medium is the message that it is a warning and a wake up call. It is a plea to pay attention for as McLuhan insists, there is absolutely nothing inevitable as long as there is a willingness to contemplate what is happening.

 

  • This theory states that it is the medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action. The contents and uses of media are as diverse as they are ineffectual in shaping the form of human association, Indeed it is only too typical that the content of any medium blinds us to the character of the medium.

 

  • Marshal McLuhan insisted that the medium itself was a message not the content it delivered.

 

  • All media works over us completely. They are so pervasive in their personal, political, economic, and aesthetic, psychological, moral, ethical and social consequences that they leave no part of us untouched unaffected and unaltered.
  • He said that a medium affects the society in which it plays a role not only by the content delivered over the medium, but also by the characteristics of the medium itself.
  • The message of any medium or technology is th change of scale of pace or pattern that it introduces into human affairs. The railways did not introduce movement or transportation or wheel or road into human society, but it accelerated and enlarged the scale of previous human functions, creating totally new kinds of cities and new kinds of work and leisure. This happened whethere the railways functioned ina tropical or northern environment, and is quite independent of the freight or content of the railway medium
  • What McLuhan writes about the railroad applies with equal validity to the media, or print, or television, computers and now the Internet. “The Medium is the Message” because it is the “medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action

 

 

Hot and Cold Media

 

 

  • Hot Media are low in audience participation due to their high resolution or definition. Hot media is that which engages one sense completely. It demands little interaction from the user because it ‘spoon-feeds’ the content. Typically the content of hot media is restricted to what the source offers at that specific time. Examples of hot media include radio and film because they engage one sense of the user to an extent that although the user’s attention is focused on the content, their participation is minimal.
  • Cool Media are high in audience participation due to their low definition (the receiver must fill in the missing information). Cool media generally uses low-definition media that engages several senses less completely in that it demands a great deal of interaction on the part of the audience. Audiences then participate more because they are required to perceive the gaps in the content themselves. The user must be familiar with genre conventions in order to fully understand the medium. Examples: TV, phone conversations, comic books.

 

 

Global Village

 

  • People use technology to fit into a digital community in which they are no longer physically connected, they are now mentally connected. Each social media platform acts as a digital home for each individual which has allowed people to express themselves through the global village Since mass media has been in effect, this has called for the westernization of the world hence the global village. Without the mass media in effect countries like India or Turkey wouldn’t be living American lifestyle because they wouldn’t have the knowledge of what the acquisitions of the American nation constitute. Since most of the developing countries acquired the news and entertainment from developed nations like the U.S, the information received is biased in favor of developed nations which connects the world in similarities within the media
  • The new reality of the digital age has implications for forming new sociological structures within the context of culture. Interchanging messages, stories, opinions, posts, and videos through channels on telecommunication pathways can cause miscommunication, especially through different cultures.
  • Across the global village people have reached out and transcended their neighborhood.They are involved in a complex community of networks stretching across cities, nations, oceans, governments and religions. The global village’s implications on sociological structures are yet to be fully realized. Not only does multimedia have the ability to impact individuals differently for cultural reasons, messages also affects people due to religion, politics, beliefs, business, money etc. The time in which messages are received also affects how a message is understood.
  • In Marshall McLuhan’s time, the global village was nonexistant, it was an idea. During the primitive years, people survived simply among one another and stayed in tune with their senses. Today human society struggles neurologically. Our brain is constantly adapting and morphing to the modifications of technological advancements. Through technology, the creation of social media allows people to constantly comment on each others posts as well as creating them to share with the multi-media global world. 55 percent of teens possess a social media profile. Social media has connected people with jobs that they couldn’t have received before because of their geographic location. New social media has connected the world so cultures can be learned through interactions on social media as well as maintaining relationships from opposing countries.

Discuss the relevance of: Agenda Setting & Uses and Gratification theory.

Agenda Setting

Like how our boys on Internet take a picture from Taarak Mehta and literally make it look like something else. Or Memes, completely out of context. Agenda Setting is pretty much the same.

The press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about.

 

  • Agenda setting describes a very powerful influence of the media – the ability to tell us what issues are important. Mass communication creates mass culture. Agenda setting is the ability of the media to determine sailence of issues with news, through a cognitive process caled “accessibility,” which is the process of retrieving an issue in the memory

 

  • As far back as 1922, the newspaper columnist Walter Lippman was concerned that the media had the power to present images to the public. McCombs and Shaw investigated presidential campaigns in 1968, 1972 and 1976. In the research done in 1968 they focused on two elements:
    • Awareness
    • Information.

 

  • Investigating the agenda-setting function of the mass media, they attempted to assess the relationship between what voters in one community said were important issues and the actual content of the media messages used during the campaign.
  • McCombs and Shaw concluded that the mass media exerted a significant influence on what voters considered to be the major issues of the campaign.

 

Core Assumptions and Statements

This study correlated what people thought and media showed as the most important issue in the election. The theory put forward the idea that news media creates public agenda by making people think things they want to show. For example, a media stressing on what type of work each gender should do, completely neglecting the idea of gender equality, creates similar mindset in the people.

 

Media provide cues to public which tells them where they should focus their attention. This way political reality is set by the media. Similarly, another media theorist, Walter Lippman, has also written about the Agenda Setting Theory in 1922.

Agenda-setting is the creation of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the news media. Two basis assumptions underlie most research on agenda-setting:

  • The Press and the Media do not reflect Reality; they Filter and Shape it
  • Media Concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues.

People have a choiuce to believe in media or not but people’s thining of obstructiveness and un-obstructiveness of an issue affects it a lot. If the issue affects a large number of people, like increase in price of gas, it will get more coverage as well as a place in human memory.

One of the most critical aspects in the concept of an agenda-setting role of mass communication is the time frame for this phenomenon. In addition, different media have different agenda-setting potential. Agenda-setting theory seems quite appropriate to help us understand the pervasive role of the media (for example on political communication systems).

 

Three Types of Agenda-Setting

 

  • Public Agenda Setting – The Pattern in which most important public issues or problems are measured by public opinion and agenda.

 

  • Media Agenda Setting- The Pattern in which news covers, prints, and broadcast news gets measured through the importance and depth of the story.

 

  • Policy Agenda Setting – Is more scientific in its nature it’s the thought in which we pay more attention to how the media or public might influence elite policy makers. Example (President, Congress, Religion)

 

Media do not tell us what to think, they tell us what to think about. Mass media which can be a newspaper, a book and television takes control of the information that we see or hear.

 

The Levels of Agenda Setting Theory:

 

First Level:

  • Media uses objects or issues to influence the people what people should think about.

 

Second level:

  • Media focuses on the characters of issues how people should think about. The main concept associated with the agenda setting theory is gate keeping. Gate keeping controls over the selection of content discussed in the media; Public cares mostly about the product of a media gate keeping. It is especially editors media itself is a gatekeeper.

 

Priming:

  • To say in simple words, Media is giving utmost importance to news so that it gives people the impression that is the most important information. This is done everyday the particular news is carried as a heading or covered everyday for months.
  • A Particular news is carried as a heading “Breaking News”,  and covered for a day or couple of days depending upon its intensity
  • On and above this news, there are special news, features, expert advices, discussions, opinions, etc about the news item.
  • Activity of the media in proposing the values and standards by which objects of the media attention can be judged. Media’s content will provide a lot of time and space to certain issues, making it more vivid.
  • Media Primes News by repeating them quite often, helping them gain importance

 

Framing:

  • Framing talks about how people attach importance to certain activities, feelings, emotions
  • Framing is a process of selective control and the way in which news content is typically shaped and contextualized within the same frame of reference.
  • It is the fact that mass media become more powerful on the masses nowadays. For this reason, agenda setting statement enhanced and ‘how’ part is included to the definition.
  • Thus media may also tell us how and what to think about it. Perhaps even what to do about it.

e.g  A terrorist attack, a Win or Defeat of a Cricket Match, a Natural Calamity

 

Criticism of Agenda Setting Theory

  • Agenda setting of any media or news article is difficult to measure.
  • Surveys and studies are very subjective and not very accurate. There are too many variables to consider.
  • People have many options to read the same stories from different angles due to new media nowadays. So people have various choices on what to see or hear.
  • Nowadays, media uses two way communication unlike when this theory was developed.
  • Agenda setting has many benefits as media influences public and public influences policy.
  • People might not look at the details and miss some important points resulting in misunderstanding.
  • Media effect does not work for people who have fixed mindset.
  • Media is not able to create information but is able to change the priority of the information to the public mindset.

 


Uses and Gratification

 

  • The Theory was introduced by Blemler and Katz in 1972 in the article “the Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research” and focuses its attention on media users’ roles
  • Gratifications means pleasure gained from satisfaction of a desire. The uses and gratification theory deals with how and why people adopt specific media to satisfy their needs. It deals with the effects of media on the people.

 

  • Uses and Gratification Theory is more concerned with what people do with media rather than what media does to people.

 

  • Uses and gratifications theory is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. It is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. Diverging from other media effect theories that question “what does media do to people?”, UGT focuses on “what do people do with media?”

 

  • UGT discusses how Users/Audience deliberately choose media that will satisfy given needs and allow one to enhance knowledge, relaxation, social interactions/companionship, diversion, or escape. It assumes that audience members are active consumers of media. Rather, the audience has power over their media consumption and assumes an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives.
  • Unlike other theoretical perspectives, UGT holds that audiences are responsible for choosing media to meet their desires and needs to achieve gratification. This theory would then imply that the media compete against other information sources for viewers’ gratification.                         

 

Assumptions

  • Unlike Agenda Setting Thoery, this theory is about the use of media and not the effect of media.
  • The audience is active and its media use is goal oriented
  • The initiative in linking need gratification to a specific medium choice rests with the audience member
  • The media compete with other resources for need satisfaction
  • People have enough self-awareness of their media use, interests, and motives to be able to provide researchers with an accurate picture of that use.
  • Value judgments of media content can only be assessed by the audience.

 

 

Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) saw Mass Media as a mean by which individuals connect or disconnect themselves with others. They developed 35 needs taken from the largely speculative literature on the social and psychological functions of the mass media and put them into five categories:

 

  • Cognitive Needs:

People use media to acquire information and satisfy mental and intellectual needs.Acquiring information, knowledge and understanding

Media Examples: Television (News), Videos (how-to), movies (Documentaries or Videos on history)

 

  • Affective Needs:

Affective needs talk about emotional fulfillment and plasure people get by watching soap operas, series on television and movies. People relate to character, if the characters cry/laugh, so does the audience

Media Examples: Movies, Television (soap operas, sitcoms)

 

  • Personal Integrative Needs:

Personal Integrative needs are the needs for self esteem and respect. People need reassurance to establish their status, credibility, strength, power, etc. Watch programs/videos to know what is in fashion/trend and shop accordingly

Media Examples: Video

 

  • Social Integrative Needs:

Need of a person to socialize with people like family and friends is social integrative need. People use media to socialize and interact through social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Reddit

Media Examples: Internet (e-mail, instant messaging, chat rooms, social media)

 

  • Tension Release Needs:

People listen to songs and watch TV when they are in stress to relieve their stress or when they are bored or when they are WUBBA LUBBA DUB DUB

Media Examples: Television, movies, video, radio, internet

 

Social Media

Recent research has looked at social networking services, personal and subject-based blogs, and internet forums put together to study the U&G in posting social content, the relationship between gratifications and narcissism, and the effects of age on this relationship and these gratifications. Users have motivations of the following overall:

  • Social and affection
  • Need to vent negative feelings
  • Recognition
  • Entertainment
  • Cognitive needs

Forums were found to be the main media for venting negative feelings, potentially due to the fact that comparatively, forums are more of a one-way street. Use of social media cures loneliness and satisfies a compulsion for addictive behaviors. Similar to the variables of gender, location, and audience as previous research has found, the U&G differed by category of narcissism. The researchers found four multi-dimensional narcissistic personality types: feeling authoritative or superior, exhibitionistic, exploitative, and often hungry for vanity.


Role of Language and Religion as important constituents of Media.

This is a big messup answer, please contact me if you have a really good version

 

Mass Media survives in the society, without a society. We can’t even imagine the existence of media. The society or culture is based on few factors which are called as components or constituents of mass media. The society or culture is based on few values and factors. The first factor which represents the identity of culture or a society is Language, then all ethical, moral values of society are colloborated in its religion.

 

In Media Studies, the word ‘text’ is used to describe any media product such as television programmes, photographs, adverts, film, newspaper adverts, radio programmes, web pages etc. The English language itself is a set of codes: letters made up into words, words made up into sentences and sentences made up into paragraphs

 

Just as we learn to read the letters, words and sentences, so, too, we learn to ‘read’ media codes and languages. We learn that sounds or images can be put together in particular sequences, working as codes, to give particular meaning. Media language has always attracted the attention of linguists, particularly applied linguists and sociolinguists. There are four practical and principled reasons for this interest

 

  • The media provide an easily accessible source of language data for research and teaching purposes
  • Their output makes up a large proportion of the language that people hear and read every day
  • Media usage reflects and shapes both language use and attitudes in a speech community
  • The media may function as the primary or even the sole—source of native-speaker models

The ways in which the media use language are interesting linguistically in their own right; these include how different dialects and languages are used in advertising, how tabloid newspapers use language in a projection of their assumed readers’ speech, or how radio personalities use language—and only language–to construct their own images and their relationships to an unseen, unknown audience

 

The media are important social institutions. They are crucial presenters of culture, politics, and social life, shaping as well as reflecting how these are formed and expressed. Media ‘discourse’ is important both for what it reveals about a society and for what it contributes to the character of society

 

One can identify many forms of mass media such as: the English Language Books, Magazines, Newspapers, Comics, Advertising, Records, Film, Television. Many of these forms are inter-related.

Written by a linguist who is himself a journalist, this is a unique account of the language of media.

 

The Language of Media understands the existant Society and Cultures, it aims at Creation of new words. It analayzes our behaviour, our thinking, our understanding, our acquisitions and needs, and it becomes a substantial self. Media has been in the existence for a very long time, its existence cannot be traced, since it has been in existence in some manner or the other. We cannot trace Medias’ existence, but media can trace ours. It reads the language and behaviour and gets acustomed to us.

 

Language however is not dialect. Media is of a large and multilayered audience, Media has to exist and be relateable and accustomed to each and every individual in its list of a mass audience. Media may be in different forms for every other audeince/user in its mass, but it has to be very relevant to them as well.

 

Language is a means of conducting our social lives. Language of Media understands what we want, what we need, and at times, what we are meant to demand. It sometimes shapes our idealogies, thinking and behaviour. Or sometimes it gives an understanding and reasoning to our understanding, and lives. Language of Media may be in many forms, but we tend to acquire it and feed upon it.

 

Language is full of symbols. It is very peculiar in certain things. Few things may be understood by some and others may not. The Language of Media can target an audience which may or may not always be from one single culture/upbrining. It will provide meaning to many different cultures, and none to many, at the same time. The meanings of these symbols vary from culture to culture.

 

Language deals with verbal as well as non-verbal styles and mediums of cultural exchange. It may not always be in text, it may be audio, video, or something else, something not conceivable into our thinkings due to limitations of time.

 

Media and Religion

In many parts of the world, media organizations as well as religious communities and institutions fight for public attention and attempt to influence public opinion. Media has become an important site for religious practice and performance, as media outlets become popular a places to express public remembrance and celebration

 

Understanding the impact of Media on religion requires looking at religious tradition from a somewhat unusual perspective. It is possible to say that if one takes an extremely inclusive view of what a religious tradition is — a view, that includes its total range of manifestations in belief, patterned behavior, written records, ceremonial performances, iconography, traces in human memory, and so forth — then one can visualize any particular religious tradition as a sort of “system” that retains and transmits information. The information is encoded in the form of symbols that can be propagated in various media: speech, writing, ritual gesture, iconography, and others.

Thus conceived, a religious tradition can be regarded as a reservoir that retains such information, which is deposited in human memory, books, durable artifacts, carved images, and so on.

 

Media is not existant in nature in form but many. It exists in from sof Films, Comics, Pictures, Audios, Videos, etc. Media is particularly shaped for us to belive and think a particular fragment. Religion has been portrayed by Media in India many a times. Movies often show religious symbols, and peciular actions which show devotion to a particular religion. This invokes a sense of responsibility, belongingness, and devotion towards one wo/man’s religion. One may even become more religious after a particular Media Portrayal.

 

People many a times learn new values through Media’s portrayal of Religion. Newspaper and Radio have helped unite and replenished the religious sentiments, feelings and people. Media many a times give us religious values to live on. It tells us how to move forward, and through some series/movies/articles it also tells us to be closer to God

 

Nowadays, even children are fed with Religious Media through Animated Series, Comics, Books, etc. They are retold certain stories and characters so that they may endear them and live unto them.

 

At times, Media has also introduced new values like the Colour Day of Navratri, which does not have religious symbolism, however it unified people throughout the culture. And established a new culture on its own


Discuss Media in context to Diaspora.

I remember one time I went to Singapore to be freem from Zee Marathi, apparently the Diasporic Tendency of the Country has made Zee Marathi and its show available over there in real time. Basically people scattered across the world, but unified by certain cultural, linguist, background

 

A diaspora (Greek Word ‘diaspeirein’ means ‘scattering of seeds’) is a scattered population with a common origin in a smaller geographic area. Diasporas are viewed as comprising members of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious groups who reside in a number of countries to which they or their ancestors migrated.

 

The identities of these groups are formed over time by complex historical, social, and cultural relationships within the group and with other groups. It is characterized by practice of ancestral customs, language, religious practices and marriage patterns and ease of communication between various parts of the dispersed community.

 

Communities scattered around the world establish contact with each other and the homeland. Various modes of communication such as postal services, telephone, radio, email, internet, film, television etc have been used over time by diasporic members to keep in touch.

 

Exposure to media on global platform often creates a sense of rootlessness among residents and they show diasporic tendencies

 

Ethnic Media – While some migrants lost touch with their homeland others almost completely assimilated into larger societies into which they settled. With the development of communication technology, even members of earlier generations who had lost touch with their diasporas now revived relations with the help of new media. Thus they maintained aspects of their ancestral customs and traditions, forms of music and art and at the same time began to integrate into their new settlements.

 

Newspapers are the most common form of ethnic media with large variations in the form, quality and frequency. Some have well established dailies that compete with mainstream papers; these print media usually have full-scale production facilities and strong advertising revenues.

 

Satellite television provides remarkable opportunities for diasporic communities. Al Jazeera has in recent years turned out to be a popular transnational Arabic-language broadcaster. The commercial success of ‘Bollywood’ (Mumbai’s Film Industry) has become known for annually producing the largest number of films in the world. It has responded by including storylines and characters that reflect Indian diaspora. Strong diasporic subscriber bases exist for competing channels such as Zee, Sony, Star Plus and B4U, all of which carry material from ‘Bollywood’. Cable and satellite television providers around the world have realized the viability of ethnic channels and are making them an integral part of their services.

 

Internet based media suits the needs of diasporic communities the best. Apart from the increasing numbers of linguistic fonts that can be accommodated through developments in software, the structures of electronic systems are able to support ongoing communication in the widely-separated transnational groups. The contents of diasporic electronic communications largely consist of cultural heritage, genealogical, religious, and institutional information.

 

Thus we can say that print media, satellite television and the internet have provided unique opportunities for inter-continental communities to develop worldwide communication networks. Diasporic connections have become integral to the networks of transnational trade and thus become an intrinsic feature of contemporary international relations and key participants in the contemporary unfolding of modernity.


Discuss the Trends in Social Media.

[same answer for Trends in Media]

If the answer says millenials, it literally means us

Too Long? Didn’t Read? Here are the points which you should expand on

Short content which fits in mind easily, live streaming VR, Instant Content which can be shared, Chatting with absolutely anyone, WhatsApp, Facebook, Internet Culture, Artificial Intelligence, Wearable Devices [Content/World on the go]

 

Media Trends is a part study of Media Studies which attempts to understand what the current generation audience and consumers will find relatable, and more attractive. It attempts to understand the upcoming ways and patterns in which marketers are connecting with consumers in new and more meaningful ways.

 

Study of Media Trends is very crucial. It gives you an insight about what the current world is think. You need to have immersive study of the current situations, and trends to understand what an entire mass is thinking. This Knowledge enables you to become a Leader as well. Once you are able to understand what the mass is thinking, you can further shape their thinking as well.

 

Study of Media Trends includes the following Aspects

 

  • Dynamic New Landscape.
  • Comprehensive Market Review/Study.
  • Evolving  Technology and Media.

 

Here are five crucial social media trends that will have the maximum impact on your social media strategy in the coming years

 

Ephemeral content will provide the best engagement rate

 

Snapchat has led to the popularity of ephemeral content. With 10 billion daily video views, no marketer can ignore the platform that Snapchat provides. It is the best way to reach younger millennials. Ephemeral content is short-lived, and the longest it can last is 24 hours. After that, it disappears forever. This might sound scary to marketers, but the considerable popularity it has received so far has forced them to develop strategies for ephemeral content marketing.

 

There are several advantages that Ephemeral content offers:

  • Content that is short lived is thought to be more authentic versus sponsored ads or spammy posts that lasts longer and push customers into making purchases.
  • The content is lost within hours, so it effectively raises the potential of FOMO(fear of missing out). As a result, audiences take fast action and marketers gain from it.
  • Users can access content easily with the help of Snap Codes or QR codes.
  • Ephemeral content gives you potential customers’ attention, which is undoubtedly the most prized commodity on the internet today.

 

Content that engages audiences on a personal level will be liked the most

 

84 percent of millennials do not trust traditional advertising, so it does not makes any sense to create content that is written from a selling point of view. People do not like content that is not relevant to them. Instead, content that is personalized and based on user personas is more likely to be read and shared.

 

With buyer personas, you get an exact answer to what your audience wants instead of guessing it. It is much better to prepare content that solves users’ pain points. Know your target market and create a user persona based on the person’s age, gender, education level, income, likes, location, etc.

 

Adopt a storytelling approach and narrate the story in a manner and language that your audiences understand best. Reach out to influencers and ask them to share your brand stories.  Engage with the audiences on a personal level. Comment on their posts, share their voices, tag them and respond to them when they need you.

 

Businesses leveraging the power of social chat bots for customer service will win the game

 

Gartner predicted that by 2018, around 30 percent of our conversations will be assisted by machines.

A chat bot is a software application built to simulate a human-like conversation. It is like a friend to the customer. It assists people 24/7 and helps improve revenue by building lasting relationships with potential customers.

 

For businesses that have thousands of followers, adopting a personalized marketing strategy for every customer that requires responding to followers’ comments can be a daunting task. Chat bots can assist by creating one-to-one interactions with each follower and responding immediately to the questions posed by them. They are fast, they initiate timely responses and they are always polite no matter how rude the customer’s replies are.

 

Brands that use chat bots for customer service will certainly win the hearts of audiences and ultimately defeat their competitors.

 

Livestreaming and interactive broadcasting will be the next big thing

 

Facebook offers livestreaming via Facebook Live, and businesses must use it to reach their niche target audiences. Livestreaming requires commitment from audiences, so it will automatically keep the uninterested ones away, which allows people to chat with each other. The best part is that your audience is not required to download another app. It integrates with existing apps and allows brands to reach consumers in real-time.


AI and image recognition have already begun to transform social media marketing

Social media is no longer a text business for marketers. With around 3.2 billion photos being shared every single day on platforms like Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat, the trend is moving toward visual content. Brands now have the power to search for pictures related to their brands on social media. This product from Salesforce uses artificial intelligence algorithms for image recognition, coupled with visual search, brand detection and product identification. Brands quickly need to capitalize on this visual phenomenon, as people are more likely to share and comment on posts that contain images. With AI in place, it has become easier for marketers to find visuals that do not have text keyword mentions in them. Moreover, image processing will provide better metrics and accurate data to uncover the minute details that remained inaccessible before AI.

 

Take a demand led marketing approach.


Facebook followed a slow roll out strategy where they only opened at a few colleges, then more, then the military and then high schools and then the open public.  For start-ups and new products, the slow, invite-only beta rollout can work pretty well and is often imitated.

 

Crowdsourcing.


Facebook realized there were things that needed to be done but couldn’t with current staff. Translating Facebook into multiple languages for example. The site was translated by users into Farsi in 24 hours.

 

Communications goes OTT

 

Consumers are increasingly using services delivered ‘over-the-top’ (OTT) of the communications network—for example, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) and OTT mobile messaging applications like WhatsApp. Globally, the volume of OTT mobile messages sent has overtaken SMS traffic. In Australia, the number of VoIP users has grown to reach nearly half the number of fixed line telephone services.

 

Consumers Build Their Own Communications Links

 

Rather than relying on devices such as phones and computers that are closely associated with specific networks or applications, we can mix and match devices, networks and services. If one way of communicating is not working, we can often just choose a different option.

 

Wearable Devices : Personalised data Arrives

 

Growing numbers of internet-accessible devices allow users to track their activities—for example, wearable devices collect a broad range of continuous observed data, including biometric, location and communications information.

 

Flexible TV: Online expands consumer options

 

Broadcast television viewing retains its hold on Australian audiences, but OTT video content (including catch-up television) is now a commonly used complementary platform. Half of online Australians watched some form of internet television within a six-month period.

 

TV still main news source even as platforms shift

 

Broadcast television remains the main source of news, including for Australians accessing news online. Consistent with overseas trends, consumption of newspapers is declining in Australia—but at the same time we’re consuming a more interactive and dispersed set of news sources.


Two Step Flow Theory has a strong impact in contemporary times.  Comment with examples. 

There is an elaborated answer in the very beginning. However I found some article for Advantages and Disadvantages so here you go. You may ask how can it relate to contemporary times?
There is not a concrete answer for contemporary times, but examples? Yes!
Bloggers putting out their opinions, Someone reading something on the internet and telling it to us, Someone infuenced by a Political party’s propaganda and then making us follow it, NASA CLAIMS THAT IF YOU PUT PHONE NEAR YOU WHILE SLEEPING THEN YOU ARE RICKETY RICKETY WRECKED SON, this is my favourite example, because it was by a fake source, then it was taken by some opinion leaders and put on the net, and literally every third month -my mom gets it on WhatsApp, and then tells me to follow it
Just write a little on your own words as to how it has had an strong impact on the society

A visual model would look like this:
Source > Message > Mass Media > Opinion Leaders > General Public

How the system does not directly affect the public, but has intermediaries (known as opinion leaders). The media is considered the gatekeeper. Unlike McLuhan’s, they are saying here that the media is not necessarily controlling the message, but at best they are just filters/gatekeepers. Eg. If the govt. is putting out a message they use the media.

 

What is crucial are the opinion leaders.

 

What are opinion leaders? – People in society, like, Teacher, parent, public figure, friend.

The opinion followers? – Public, you and I.

 

Advantages of Two Step Flow

  • If you, as a system, (eg. Govt.) want to influence the public – you need to influence the opinion leader. If you want a mass following; influence the opinion leaders. – I, as the government, don’t have to go out and talk to people; eg. In Haryana, the Khap panchayat is not stopped from dictating the people and violating human rights by the government. If I want votes, I don’t have to go to the villages, I just pick out the opinion leaders and then I get elected. Some panchayats actually do work (eg. In terms of sanitation issues, schools, keeping children in schools), they target the village elders as they are considered insiders.
  • The opinion leaders are easily accessible, rather than reach/track 1.2 billion people. – It is easier to reach out to a smaller group of people than to a large population of people (in a country like India). Eg. Today in our social media spaces, IT companies are looking for bloggers, as if they want to sell a product/a philosophy, they can do it through bloggers who have the power of influencing people. They also look out for microblogging spaces like Twitter/Instagram. People who are popular on such platforms are considered opinion leaders. In politics and commodity selling, they target opinion leaders on social media especially right now. It’s interesting how they’re employing young people today as opinion leaders. Using advertising is very direct, but using opinion leaders is more subtle and effective. Eg. Chetan Bhagat, Baba Ramdev are considered opinion leaders.
  • We assume that opinion leaders will be responsible citizens, as after all they are
  • playing a role. – We work on this premise that opinion leaders mean well, that they are not politically aligned/bought. Eg. Accusation against Rabindranath Tagore regarding Jana Gana Mana, saying it was anti-national (was a way of right-wing opinion leaders to make Vande Mataram the national anthem). Eg. Parents are also opinion leaders for example the pathological hatred between Indians and Pakistanis.

 

What are the disadvantages of this?

  • From the gatekeeper to the opinion leader ; is the opinion leader getting the information from the source or the gatekeeper? How reliable is your source as opinion leaders. Is your source reliable? – Who is checking the source of the opinion leaders? Eg. Text message forwards from your friends, you will believe them. , The Taj Mahal-Shiva Temple issue.
  • There is a strong possibility of policy decisions being taken, not keeping in my interest of the public but of the opinion leader. – Eg., horrible decision taken by Rajiv Gandhi in the Shah Bano case (about this woman divorced by the husband, 5 children thrown out, no alimony. Goes to lower court and wins, courts say she needs to be paid alimony. Clerics say this is wrong. Since Congress gets votes by them, Rajiv Gandhi took a presidential decision of denying her the alimony.). Lalu Prasad Yadav and Mamta Banerjee, who are presumably secular, have been conspicuously silent about the latest triple talaaq verdict; as they have clerics as vote banks who will give them male Muslim votes.
  • Is this whole business/communication cycle of a democratic setup and connecting with people; only limited to the source and the opinion leader? – Indirectly asking if public opinion really counts. Communication process is happening between the source and the opinion leader, doesn’t filter down to the people. If the opinion leaders want they will communicate it to the people, if not then they won’t. Eg. The Shia niqaahnama, the opinion leaders spread about it to the rest of India, but the community itself didn’t know about it.

Discuss Propaganda Model in relation to Media. With relevant examples

Walter Lippman, Harold Lasswell, jacques Ellul and Edward Bernays were the earliest theorists to propound propaganda theories in the early 1900s

Propaganda is a mass communication tool that is used to influence mass opinion. The idea of propaganda took on a negative connotation during World War 2 with the German Dictator, Adolf Hitler using it extensively to propagate nazi ideology. Propaganda uses loaded messages ostensibly to produce an emotional, rather than rational response from people. It is a method or approach to spread ideas that further either a political, commercial, religious or civil cause.

The mass media serve as a system for communicating messages and symbols to the general populace. It is their function to amuse, entertain, and codes of behavior that will individuals with the values, beliefs, and codes of behavior that will integrate them into the institutional structures of the larger society. In world of concentrated wealth and major conflicts of class interest, to fulfill this requires systematic propaganda.

Propaganda is most commonly used through various forms of media by governments to convince the public about welfare schemes, policies or new leislation. Propaganda is also used to spread religious ideologies; for marketing new lifestyle products

The Propoganda Model is a conceptual model in political economy advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky to explain how propaganda and systematic biases function in mass media. The model seeks to explain how populations are manipulated and how consent for economic social and political policies is manufactured in the public mind due to this propaganda. The theory posits tha the way in which news is structured [advertising, concentration of media, govenment, etc.] creates an inherent conflict of interest which acts as a propaganda for undemocratic forces.

First presented in their 1988 book, Manufacturing Consent : The Political Economy of the Mass media,
The propaganda model views private media as businesses interested in the sale of product -readers and audiences to other businesses rather than that of quality news to the public. Describing the media’s societal purpose”

The three types of Propaganda are as follows,

  • White Propaganda where information comes from a known source
  • Grey Propaganda where source of information is not identified
  • Black Propaganda  where information appears to come from one source wheres it actually comes from another

Discuss Division and Contradiction in Global Information Structure.

Proposed worldwide infrastructure of governmental and non-governmental telecommunications and information technology networks. Its objective is faster and greater economic growth through dissemination of information and remote collaboration. Most of the modern development has come from the west. They have invested things pumped through financers and also built the infrastructure. This is a historical reality.

 

The global information infrastructure (GII) is the developing communications framework intended to eventually connect all telecommunications and computer networks world-wide. Sometimes called a network of networks, the GII would eventually make all electronically stored or transmitted information accessible from anywhere on the planet.

 

The Internet is considered the de facto global information infrastructure right now. However, for the GII to evolve as envisioned, either the Internet or its successor must deal with challenging issues such as security, privacy, hardware and software compatibility, translation, rights to information, identity management, digital rights management (DRM), competition, and governance. Over 50 countries across the world are working, independently or collaboratively, to resolve these issues.

 

According to Christine L. Borgman, author of From Gutenberg to the Global Information Infrastructure: Access to Information in the Networked World, the creation of a successful GII could have as much impact on global culture as Gutenberg’s printing press has done since its development in the mid-fifteenth century. The GII is expected to revolutionize the ease with which electronic information can be shared across the planet much as the printing press enabled an abundance of printed information to become easily accessible for anyone who knew how to read.

 

In building cyberinfrastructure, the key question is not whether this is a “social” problem or a “technical” one. That is putting it the wrong way around. The question is whether we choose, for any given problem, a social or a technical solution, or some combination. It is the distribution of solutions that is the object of study. An everyday example comes from the problem of email security. How do I distribute my trust? I can delegate it to my machine, and use Pretty Good Encryption for all my email messages. Or I can work socially and organizationally to make certain that sysops, the government, and others who might have access to my email internalize a value of my right to privacy. Or I can change my own beliefs about the need for privacy – arguably a necessity with the new Infrastructure. For our purposes, cyberinfrastructure is the set of organizational practices, technical infrastructure and social norms that collectively provide for the smooth operation of scientific work at a distance


Young people as consumers of Advertising Art.

 

I have written more of Youth Marketing rather than Art. I have Explained the Advertising Art in the Opening Lines, you can manipulate the text and write it in your own words. I wrote it and referred the internet for this, however if you have a better answer you can contact me.

Advertising art refers to Graphical Design and Imagery used in the field of advertising. It includes many areas like print design, illustration, photography, web, videos, social media, etc

  • Imagery and Graphic of a more conceivable and relatable sense helps the audience to being more attracted towards a particular product, or company. The Graphic becomes a sort of recognition for the particular Product. Audience will perceive the product by the specific Graphic/Illustration.
  • This then becomes a field/area of substantial importance. Since any idea can lead to a huge turnover, any graphic.

 

Teenagers as we know them today are a distinct part of the population since the 1900’s. A burgeoning youth culture in film and popular music celebrated the years when young people were no longer children, but not quite adults. Young people suddenly became very conscious of their own identity.

  • Youth marketing is any marketing effort directed toward young people. This group is typically broken down into smaller segments depending on their age, including tweens, teenagers, college students, and young adults aged 23-34. Each market segment has products and ad campaigns that are targeted specifically for them.
  • This advertising strategy is not limited to any one marketing channel or technique. Youth marketing takes place on TV, Radio, in print and in dozens of forms online. Companies often sponsor extreme athletes, musicians, and high school sports teams as a way to insert themselves into youth culture. Authenticity is particularly important to the young — they want the brands they support to reflect their values and tastes.
  • Young people make such valuable consumers because they influence the purchasing decisions of their friends and family. In addition to being consumers themselves, teens can affect where their family goes on vacation, the car they choose to buy, and the clothes that their friends wear. If a product or brand is popular with young people, it gains an image of being “cool.”
  • Marketing professionals have invested a lot of thought over the years in understanding how they can make their messages relevant to today’s youth audience by completely understanding their lives, habits and attitudes.
  • It’s obvious why they continue. Young people are key to numerous markets, from mobile, cartoons, merchandise, fashion and technology to alcohol, snack foods and entertainment. Imagine the somewhat maligned Shopping Street without them and you’ll picture many more empty shops.
  • Young people want things that work with the technology they own. Convenience and Quick Access is what they look out for. Most now have smartphones (74% and rising quickly), watch TV on their laptops (75%) and many will be using Kindles and tablets for their studies this year (around half will own one of either in 2012/13). Marketers These are the insights marketers should look to when planning for success.

 

Conclusion and Examples

Marketing and Creating Art for young people is a strategy used by a wide range of companies, particularly those selling consumer goods. Companies that sell food, clothing, personal electronics, and entertainment will invest heavily in the youth market.

 

Small businesses have something to gain as well. Imagine a local pizza shop that offers a special discount for college students by creating some innovative and appealing art. Even companies that would seem to have no interest in young consumers will try to keep their advertising relevant to them.

 

Youth marketing is such a common advertising strategy because being young is associated with being free, happy, cool, and culturally relevant. This is an image that every brand aspires to, even if they market to older consumers. The images and slogans used to market to young people often influence the ads of companies who want to seem vital, new, and forward thinking.


Trends in Media

If the answer says millenials, it literally means us

Too Long? Didn’t Read? Here are the points which you should expand on

Short content which fits in mind easily, live streaming VR, Instant Content which can be shared, Chatting with absolutely anyone, WhatsApp, Facebook, Internet Culture, Artificial Intelligence, Wearable Devices [Content/World on the go]

 

Media Trends is a part study of Media Studies which attempts to understand what the current generation audience and consumers will find relatable, and more attractive. It attempts to understand the upcoming ways and patterns in which marketers are connecting with consumers in new and more meaningful ways.

 

Study of Media Trends is very crucial. It gives you an insight about what the current world is think. You need to have immersive study of the current situations, and trends to understand what an entire mass is thinking. This Knowledge enables you to become a Leader as well. Once you are able to understand what the mass is thinking, you can further shape their thinking as well.

 

Study of Media Trends includes the following Aspects

 

  • Dynamic New Landscape.
  • Comprehensive Market Review/Study.
  • Evolving  Technology and Media.

 

Here are five crucial social media trends that will have the maximum impact on your social media strategy in the coming years

 

Ephemeral content will provide the best engagement rate

 

Snapchat has led to the popularity of ephemeral content. With 10 billion daily video views, no marketer can ignore the platform that Snapchat provides. It is the best way to reach younger millennials. Ephemeral content is short-lived, and the longest it can last is 24 hours. After that, it disappears forever. This might sound scary to marketers, but the considerable popularity it has received so far has forced them to develop strategies for ephemeral content marketing.

 

There are several advantages that Ephemeral content offers:

  • Content that is short lived is thought to be more authentic versus sponsored ads or spammy posts that lasts longer and push customers into making purchases.
  • The content is lost within hours, so it effectively raises the potential of FOMO(fear of missing out). As a result, audiences take fast action and marketers gain from it.
  • Users can access content easily with the help of Snap Codes or QR codes.
  • Ephemeral content gives you potential customers’ attention, which is undoubtedly the most prized commodity on the internet today.

 

Content that engages audiences on a personal level will be liked the most

 

84 percent of millennials do not trust traditional advertising, so it does not makes any sense to create content that is written from a selling point of view. People do not like content that is not relevant to them. Instead, content that is personalized and based on user personas is more likely to be read and shared.

 

With buyer personas, you get an exact answer to what your audience wants instead of guessing it. It is much better to prepare content that solves users’ pain points. Know your target market and create a user persona based on the person’s age, gender, education level, income, likes, location, etc.

 

Adopt a storytelling approach and narrate the story in a manner and language that your audiences understand best. Reach out to influencers and ask them to share your brand stories.  Engage with the audiences on a personal level. Comment on their posts, share their voices, tag them and respond to them when they need you.

 

Businesses leveraging the power of social chat bots for customer service will win the game

 

Gartner predicted that by 2018, around 30 percent of our conversations will be assisted by machines.

A chat bot is a software application built to simulate a human-like conversation. It is like a friend to the customer. It assists people 24/7 and helps improve revenue by building lasting relationships with potential customers.

 

For businesses that have thousands of followers, adopting a personalized marketing strategy for every customer that requires responding to followers’ comments can be a daunting task. Chat bots can assist by creating one-to-one interactions with each follower and responding immediately to the questions posed by them. They are fast, they initiate timely responses and they are always polite no matter how rude the customer’s replies are.

 

Brands that use chat bots for customer service will certainly win the hearts of audiences and ultimately defeat their competitors.

 

Livestreaming and interactive broadcasting will be the next big thing

 

Facebook offers livestreaming via Facebook Live, and businesses must use it to reach their niche target audiences. Livestreaming requires commitment from audiences, so it will automatically keep the uninterested ones away, which allows people to chat with each other. The best part is that your audience is not required to download another app. It integrates with existing apps and allows brands to reach consumers in real-time.


AI and image recognition have already begun to transform social media marketing

 

Social media is no longer a text business for marketers. With around 3.2 billion photos being shared every single day on platforms like Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat, the trend is moving toward visual content. Brands now have the power to search for pictures related to their brands on social media. This product from Salesforce uses artificial intelligence algorithms for image recognition, coupled with visual search, brand detection and product identification. Brands quickly need to capitalize on this visual phenomenon, as people are more likely to share and comment on posts that contain images. With AI in place, it has become easier for marketers to find visuals that do not have text keyword mentions in them. Moreover, image processing will provide better metrics and accurate data to uncover the minute details that remained inaccessible before AI.

 

Take a demand led marketing approach.


Facebook followed a slow roll out strategy where they only opened at a few colleges, then more, then the military and then high schools and then the open public.  For start-ups and new products, the slow, invite-only beta rollout can work pretty well and is often imitated.

 

Crowdsourcing.


Facebook realized there were things that needed to be done but couldn’t with current staff. Translating Facebook into multiple languages for example. The site was translated by users into Farsi in 24 hours.

 

Communications goes OTT

 

Consumers are increasingly using services delivered ‘over-the-top’ (OTT) of the communications network—for example, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) and OTT mobile messaging applications like WhatsApp. Globally, the volume of OTT mobile messages sent has overtaken SMS traffic. In Australia, the number of VoIP users has grown to reach nearly half the number of fixed line telephone services.

 

Consumers Build Their Own Communications Links

 

Rather than relying on devices such as phones and computers that are closely associated with specific networks or applications, we can mix and match devices, networks and services. If one way of communicating is not working, we can often just choose a different option.

 

Wearable Devices : Personalised data Arrives

 

Growing numbers of internet-accessible devices allow users to track their activities—for example, wearable devices collect a broad range of continuous observed data, including biometric, location and communications information.

 

Flexible TV: Online expands consumer options

 

Broadcast television viewing retains its hold on Australian audiences, but OTT video content (including catch-up television) is now a commonly used complementary platform. Half of online Australians watched some form of internet television within a six-month period.

 

TV still main news source even as platforms shift

 

Broadcast television remains the main source of news, including for Australians accessing news online. Consistent with overseas trends, consumption of newspapers is declining in Australia—but at the same time we’re consuming a more interactive and dispersed set of news sources.

 

Media and Globalization.

Globalization has enabled Media to reach absolutely anyone in any remote parts of the world. eg. War is covered in media throughout the world no matter where it is, which enables people all over the world have a sense of empathy for the warzones, bridging the distance. Disasters anywhere in the world are felt by people all over the world, and forces like UN, Red Cross can be mobilized. Media has made, what can be seen as a local catastrophe, a a global phenomenon. There is more aid coming in, being able to rehabilitate people. This is a phenomenal way that media, helps the world.

Media enables global trends to spread and reach all parts of the world. The larger agenda is consumerism. If people get more and more aware – they get hooked – products/services can be commercially sold to them. Eg. Music; one listens to global music, as people get to know about it through social media through various ways, then you get hooked to it, then the artist is brought to you and you can go watch them by paying loads of money. Many people, even in your locality might hear to artists you might’ve never heard of. I hear to Hiroyuki Sawano, have you heard of him? No? Exactly!

Products and advertising – seeing global brands, see Hollywood films – available in India. You are told all the time that products are the best in the market, and ads tell you that if you use it you will be the best. Eg. They tell you the standards of beauty, and then sell you the products to achieve that.

The Society and Culture of the World Right now can be called by the name Information Society. Information is considered a commodity and it has a price. Information Industry persons people generate and store and use vast amounts of information digitalized or otherwise and are the key drivers of most industrial processes today. In the city spaces anthropologists find meteoric rise in the consumption of media and it is only estimated to grow with media tools reaching people of younger age groups as well as lower socio economic groups. People can now also be classified in bold categories of “information rich” and “information poor”.

The global information infrastructure (GII) is the developing communications framework intended to eventually connect all telecommunications and computer networks world-wide. Sometimes called a network of networks, the GII would eventually make all electronically stored or transmitted information accessible from anywhere on the planet.

Continously Digesting Content from around the Globe which portrays Black/Yellow/Dark Skin Coloured People as a particular stereotype, it becomes a part of our thinking, we tend to believe that this is a concept which has been existant from a long time. Globalization and Media has enabled us to brought these cliches and stereotypes and makes us think about them.

Femininity, as well as masculinity, are not biological, but rather, cultural constructs. Representations and manifestations of femininity differ across cultures, time and societies. Mass media, however, continue to reproduce discriminatory stereotypes about women and portray them in sexist ways. As a rule, women are portrayed in a narrow range of characters in mass media. Women are often associated with the household or sex-objects, and in the latter category, they lack roles.

Only in a limited number of news programs do women appear as main actors or experts. One of the reasons for this situation is the smaller number of women in these spheres, but even the existing number of women are underrepresented compared to their male counterparts.

Globalization has benefitted us in many ways, it has brought the world closer. It has given us the technological advancement which might have taken decades. However it has certain dark sides to it as well


Cognitive Theory

    Cognitive theory is an approach to psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding your thought processes. For example a therapist is using the principle of cognitive theory when he teaches you to how to identify maladaptive thought patterns and transform them in to constructive ones.

Social cognitive theory Social cognitive theory (SCT), used in psychology, education, and communication, holds that portions of an individual’s knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. The theory states that when people observe a model performing a behavior and the consequences of that behavior, they remember the sequence of events and use this information to guide subsequent behaviors. Observing a model can also prompt the viewer to engage in behavior they already learned. In other words, people do not learn new behaviors solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others. Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, the observer may choose to replicate behavior modeled. Media provides models for a vast array of people in many different environmental settings.

This social cognition through the use of media representations operates in one or more of three ways (see Bandura, 1971, 1994, for excellent extended discussions):

Observational learning. Consumers of representations can acquire new patterns of behavior by simply watching these representations. We all know how to shoot a gun, although many of us have never actually performed or been reinforced for that act. Many of us probably even think that we can rob a convenience store. We’ve seen it done.

 

Inhibitory effects. Seeing a model in a representation punished for exhibiting a certain behavior decreases the likelihood that the observers will make that response. It is as if the viewers themselves are actually punished. We see the villain brought low for evil deeds, or in A Christmas Story we observe Flick, challenged by Schwartz’s triple-dog-dare, with his tongue painfully stuck to the frozen flag pole as the bell rings and his friends scurry away. Our likelihood of responding to various real-world stimuli in similar ways is reduced. Experimental studies using film and video of people being punished for various behaviors have shown that these representations can inhibit in observers such things as aggression, exploratory behavior, and antisocial interaction with peers.

Disinhibitory effects. A media representation that depicts reward for a threatening or prohibited behavior is often sufficient to increase the likelihood thatthe consumer of the representatiowill make that response. A young man sees Johnny Knoxville and his Jackass crew set themselves afire, apparently suffering no ill effects. His likelihood of responding to various real-world stimuli in similar ways is increased. Experimental studies using film and television representations of various threatening and prohibited encounters have successfully reduced fear of dentists, dogs, and snakes and increased aggression by reducing viewers’ inhibitions regarding such action.

Vicarious reinforcement is central to social cognition through the mass media. Although observational learning can occur in the absence of any reinforcement, vicarious or real, whether observers actually engage in that learned behavior is a function of the reinforcement contingencies (positive or negative) they associate with it. For example, when we see a television character rewarded or punished for some action, it is as if we ourselves have actually been rewarded or punished. This vicarious reinforcement tells us where to place the observationally learned behavior in our behavioral hierarchy—the likelihood that we will choose a given behavior.

Media effects studies

Social cognitive theory is pervasively employed in studies examining attitude or behavior changes triggered by the mass media. As Bandura suggested, people can learn how to perform behaviors through media modeling. SCT has been widely applied in media studies pertained to sports, health, education and beyond. For instance, Hardin and Greer in 2009 examined the gender-typing of sports within the theoretical framework of social cognitive theory, suggesting that sports media consumption and gender-role socialization significantly related with gender perception of sports in American college students.

In health communication, social cognitive theory has been applied in research related to smoking quit, HIV prevention, safe sex behaviors, and so on. For example, Martino, Collins, Kanouse, Elliott, and Berry in 2005 examined the relationship between the exposure to television’s sexual content and adolescents’ sexual behavior through the lens of social cognitive theory, confirming the significant relationship between the two variables among white and African American groups; however, no significant correlation was found between the two variables in the ethic group of Hispanics, indicating that peer norm could possibly serve as a mediator of the two examined variables.


Lazarsfeld’s Two Step Flow Theory.

Paul Lazarsfeld’s
-Two Step Flow Theory

Just in case you dont get anything from it, the below is a model.

You can use the example of Donald Trump, he did media, people shared it, people talked about it with their own conviction, the media was in a large number, leading to his victory.

Note: The Question Bank literally asks four different questions to be written together, however I have separated them.

 

A visual model would look like this:
Source > Message > Mass Media > Opinion Leaders > General Public

 

Before Lazarsfeld’s study, it was assumed that mass media have a direct influence on a mass audience who consume and absorb media messages. Media were thought to significantly influence people’s decisions and behaviours. However, the research done by Lazarsfeld and others showed that only about 5 percent of people changed their voting preference as a result of media consumption and that interpersonal discussions of political issues were more prevalent than consumption of political news within one typical day.

 

The Theory and its Understanding

The Two Step flow theory of communication was first introduced by “Paul Lazarsfeld”.

  • The two step flow model of communication makes a hypothesis,
    “Ideas flow from mass media opinion leaders, and from them to wider population.”
  • The two-step flow of communication hypothesis was first introduced by Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet in The People’s Choice, a 1944 study focused on the process of decision-making during a Presidential election campaign.
  • In contrast to the one-step flow of the hypodermic needle model or magic bullet theory, which holds that people are directly influenced by mass media, according to the two-step flow model, ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders, and from them to a wider population.

 

  • Individuals (opinion leaders) who pay close attention to the mass media and its messages receive the information.
  • Opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content. The term ‘personal influence’ was coined to refer to the process intervening between the media’s direct message and the audience’s ultimate reaction to that message.

 

  • Opinion leaders are quite influential in getting people to change their attitudes and behaviors and are quite similar to those they influence.

 

Positives and Praises

  • The two-step flow theory has improved our understanding of how the mass media influence decision making.
  • The theory refined the ability to predict the influence of media messages on audience behavior, and it helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to alter audience attitudes an behavior.
  • The two-step flow theory gave way to the multi-step flow theory of mass communication or diffusion of innovation theory.
  • Factors such as interpersonal communication with family members, friends, and members of one’s social and professional circles turned out to be better predictors of a person’s voting behaviour than that person’s media exposure.
  • Provided a very believable explanation for information flow.
  • The theory did provide a very believable explanation for information flow. The opinion leaders do not replace media, but rather guide discussions of media.

 

Example

Epsit Ghodke watching News in ANB Channel they flash the headlines with “Research reveals some toys are leads the children’s aggressive and Violent”. That day Epsit calls his little son and goes for shopping and Epsit warns his son some toys are not good and made skin allergy which leads his son to avoid those toys.

  • Opinion leader: Eppy
  • Audience: His Son
  • Added information in actual content: Skin Allergy

 

¡The two-step flow of communication model says that most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders, who in turn are influenced by the mass media.

 

 

The theory of the two-step flow of mass communication was further developed by Lazarsfeld together with Elihu Katz in the book Personal Influence (1955). The book explains that people’s reactions to media messages are mediated by interpersonal communication with members of their social environment.


Uses and Gratification Theory.

 

  • Gratifications means pleasure gained from satisfaction of a desire.

 

  • The uses and gratification theory deals with the effects of media on the people. It deals with how and why people adopt specific media to satisfy their needs

.

  • Uses and Gratification Theory is more concerned with what people do with media rather than what media does to people.

 

  • Uses and gratifications theory is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. It is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. Diverging from other media effect theories that question “what does media do to people?”, UGT focuses on “what do people do with media?”

 

  • UGT discusses how users deliberately choose media that will satisfy given needs and allow one to enhance knowledge, relaxation, social interactions/companionship, diversion, or escape.

 

  • It assumes that audience members are active consumers of media. Rather, the audience has power over their media consumption and assumes an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives.
  • Unlike other theoretical perspectives, UGT holds that audiences are responsible for choosing media to meet their desires and needs to achieve gratification. This theory would then imply that the media compete against other information sources for viewers’ gratification.

                        

Given these differing theories, UGT is unique in its assumptions:

  • The audience is active and its media use is goal oriented
  • The initiative in linking need gratification to a specific medium choice rests with the audience member
  • The media compete with other resources for need satisfaction
  • People have enough self-awareness of their media use, interests, and motives to be able to provide researchers with an accurate picture of that use.
  • Value judgments of media content can only be assessed by the audience.

 

 

Social Media

Recent research has looked at social networking services, personal and subject-based blogs, and internet forums put together to study the U&G in posting social content, the relationship between gratifications and narcissism, and the effects of age on this relationship and these gratifications. Users have motivations of the following overall:

  • Social and affection
  • Need to vent negative feelings
  • Recognition
  • Entertainment
  • Cognitive needs

Forums were found to be the main media for venting negative feelings, potentially due to the fact that comparatively, forums are more of a one-way street. Use of social media cures loneliness and satisfies a compulsion for addictive behaviors. Similar to the variables of gender, location, and audience as previous research has found, the U&G differed by category of narcissism. The researchers found four multi-dimensional narcissistic personality types: feeling authoritative or superior, exhibitionistic, exploitative, and often hungry for vanity.

                                                                                                         

 

Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) saw mass media as a means by which individuals connect or disconnect themselves with others. They developed 35 needs taken from the largely speculative literature on the social and psychological functions of the mass media and put them into five categories:

 

  • Cognitive Needs: Acquiring information, knowledge and understanding
    • Media Examples: Television (news), video (how-to), movies (documentaries or based on history)
  • Affective Needs: Emotion, pleasure, feelings
    • Media Examples: Movies, television (soap operas, sitcoms)
  • Personal Integrative Needs: Credibility, stability, status
    • Media Examples: Video
  • Social Integrative Needs: Family and friends
    • Media Examples: Internet (e-mail, instant messaging, chat rooms, social media)
  • Tension Release Needs: Escape and diversion
    • Media Examples: Television, movies, video, radio, internet

Media, Power and Political Culture.

Political culture: refer to a people’s psychological orientation, political culturebeing the ‘pattern of orientations’ to political objects such as parties, government, the constitution, expressed in beliefs, symbols and values.Political culture differs from public opinion in that it is fashioned out of long-term values rather than simply people’s reactions to specific policies and problems

The media is often known as the “watchdog” of the country; one which will ensure the democratic society is always alert and knows all the inside activities of the government. This role of media is banked upon upon the people so that all the faith that they place in their heads of state and state representatives is well accounted. The role of media is to expose all that affects the people and can break the faith that the people place in their democratically placed government.

There are four factors of change that have affected media, power and political culture:

The changing character of political publicity and news management:
Contemporary television systems with added visual performance have made television a ‘theatre of political performance’. It is not only a ‘theatre of voices’ but also one of faces, bodies and actions.  Politicians and their aides work to get their actions and their views into the news frame in the most positive possible way and try to limit the impact of opposing views or the damage that follows from reporting of ‘bad events’ that reflect negatively upon their policies and decisions. Television has become a crucial space within which aspects of the political contest become visible and heard by the general public.

The changing profile and tone of political journalism within a changed media economy:
Political mediation, including that through journalism, is reflecting some of the broader changes in the media industry, as it becomes more market-driven, competitive and linked to the provision of entertainment. As there is increased emphasis on political personality, there is also increased scope for stories of scandal and flow of political gossip. Combinations of traditional ‘hard’ and new ‘soft’ stories and the extensive use of Internet-based sources, together with email linkage, greatly increases the number of informal routes through which a story can develop. Thus, the relationship between publicity and journalism is an interactive one involving uncertainty and struggle in contributing to relative power, benefit and concession.

Shifts in the nature of ‘citizenship’, in the way that people relate to their rights and obligations within the political system and use the media in this relation:
Due to economic development and shifts in social structure and popular culture, the relationship of ordinary people to the official political process has changed in many democratic countries. The increasing emphasis on consumer identity, purchase of goods and services, are significant. The ‘citizen’ role and the ‘consumer’ role have been brought into new kinds of alignment or convergence due to changes in the economic character of everyday life. This has led to a stronger emphasis on ‘consumer identity’.

 

The consequences of new communications technology:
New media technology like television, with its multi-channel system, the internet, etc, play a vital role in the propagation of politics. e.g. Today bloggers have wider independent use of information and commentary to their story building. The broad idea of ‘political culture’ is a useful one for relating different elements in the complex politics-media-people pattern. It gives emphasis to questions of value and meaning and to the baselines of popular experience that the activities of politics and of the media help form and from which they also take their cues and fashion their appeals.

 

Intellectual Property and Media.

‘Intellectual Porperty’ relates to the ownership of ‘intangible’ property such as ideas, various forms of literary and artistic expression, broadcasting and the mass media, folklore, and new media (any mode of expression which has commercial value)

The law encompasses four distinct types of intangible property:

  1. Patents
  2. Copyright
  3. Trademarks or Tradenames
  4. Others such as industrial designs, trade secrets and confidential information.

The above collectively are referred to as ‘intellectual property’. Of these, Copyright directly applies to mass media.

‘Copyright’ is generally defined as an ‘exclusive right granted to the owner of an original work (i.e. lyrics, movies, computer programs, paintings, designs logos) for a limited period of time’.

Copyright offers a legal protection granted to an artist or creative writer to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute, perform and display the work publicly.

Developments in new technologies such as cable and satellite TV as well as the internet have made the protection of ‘intellectual property’ more complicated.

An area of concern for authors, film makers, music composers, playwrights and other creative artists is the ‘broadcasting of their work on a host of delivery platforms: radio, television, internet, mobile phones, etc. The gap between high priced media goods and low price pirated good has resulted in piracy.

Piracy is the illegal or unauthorised reproduction of copyrighted books, recordings, television programmes, softwares, movies etc.

With the dawn of globalization, India saw the entrance of piracy. Earlier piracy was confined to audio cassettes and books sold on the street. today it is in the form of:

  1. Media windowing: Duplicating of content in the digital medium enables pirate to disrupt the chances of maximizing profits for distributors. While the cost of reproducing every duplicate decreases, the quality of the content remains constant.
  2. Torrents: Bit Torrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing protocol used for distributing large amounts of data. These have been controversial since their inception. However, youngsters continue to download free games, software, movies etc via peer-to-peer file sharing / torrents.

Anti Piracy Enforcement: Media companies and anti-piracy groups have been lobbying for change in laws and stricter enforcement of laws. With cheaper technologies for circulation of media, this is a tough struggle.

Business Software Alliance (BSA) has been creating information on software piracy and assisting the police in conducting raids on pirates around India. In Bombay, the Social Services Wing, the Indian Music Industry (IMI) and major producers like Reliance Entertainment, and distributors such as United Television have driven anti-piracy efforts with the film industry.

Apart from enforcement efforts, anti-piracy lobbies have been instrumental in creating literature and annual statistical publication to demonstrate losses caused by piracy. Consultancy firms such as KPMG, Price Waterhouse Coopers, Ernst & Young have published piracy estimates.

Piracy is not a problem that can be eradicated overnight. New amendments but more importantly educating the masses will play an important role in making a difference in the future.

What are Copyrights?

  • Copyrights are a form of legal construct that falls under the realm of intellectual property law
  • It is a concept that grants a set of exclusive rights to the author of an original work
  • These exclusive rights mean that the author has the power to, among other things, make and sell copies of their work
  • Works that can be copyrighted include, software, movies, songs, literature, and pictures
  • Copyrights last for the author’s lifetime, plus up to a hundred years beyond his or her death


Discuss Agenda setting of Media studies.

If you dont click this Blue Magic  Text  for a video which will explain the theory. I guess you a racist fam

 

  • The press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about.

 

 

  • Agenda setting describes a very powerful influence of the media – the ability to tell us what issues are important.
  • As far back as 1922, the newspaper columnist Walter Lippman was concerned that the media had the power to present images to the public.
  • McCombs and Shaw investigated presidential campaigns in 1968, 1972 and 1976. In the research done in 1968 they focused on two elements:
    • Awareness
    • Information.

 

  • Investigating the agenda-setting function of the mass media, they attempted to assess the relationship between what voters in one community said were important issues and the actual content of the media messages used during the campaign.
  • McCombs and Shaw concluded that the mass media exerted a significant influence on what voters considered to be the major issues of the campaign.

 

Core Assumptions and Statements

Agenda-setting is the creation of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the news media. Two basis assumptions underlie most research on agenda-setting:

  • The Press and the Media do not reflect Reality; they Filter and Shape it
  • Media Concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues.

One of the most critical aspects in the concept of an agenda-setting role of mass communication is the time frame for this phenomenon. In addition, different media have different agenda-setting potential. Agenda-setting theory seems quite appropriate to help us understand the pervasive role of the media (for example on political communication systems).

 

Three Types of Agenda-Setting

 

1) Public Agenda Setting – Is in which most important public issues or problems are measured by public opinion and agenda.

2) Media Agenda Setting- Is the pattern in which news coverage print and broadcast news gets measured through the importance and depth of the story.

3) Policy Agenda Setting – Is more scientific in its nature it’s the thought in which we pay more attention to how the media or public might influence elite policy makers. Example (President, Congress, Religion)

 

Media do not tell us what to think, they tell us what to think about. Mass media which can be a newspaper, a book and television takes control of the information that we see or hear.

 

The Levels of Agenda Setting Theory:

 

First Level:

  • Media uses objects or issues to influence the people what people should think about.

Second level:

  • Media focuses on the characters of issues how people should think about. The main concept associated with the agenda setting theory is gate keeping. Gate keeping controls over the selection of content discussed in the media; Public cares mostly about the product of a media gate keeping. It is especially editors media itself is a gatekeeper.

 

Priming:

  • Activity of the media in proposing the values and standards by which objects of the media attention can be judged. Media’s content will provide a lot of time and space to certain issues, making it more vivid.
  • To say in simple words, Media is giving utmost importance to news so that it gives people the impression that is the most important information. This is done everyday the particular news is carried as a heading or covered everyday for months.
  • A Particular news is carried as a heading “Breaking News”,  and covered for a day or couple of days depending upon its intensity
  • On and above this news, there are special news, features, expert advices, discussions, opinions, etc about the news item.
  • Media Primes News by repeating them quite often, helping them gain importance

 

Framing:

 

  • Framing is a process of selective control and the way in which news content is typically shaped and contextualized within the same frame of reference.
  • Framing talks about how people attach importance to certain
  • It is the fact that mass media become more powerful on the masses nowadays. For this reason, agenda setting statement enhanced and ‘how’ part is included to the definition. Thus media may also tell us how and what to think about it. Perhaps even what to do about it.

e.g  A terrorist attack, a Win or Defeat of a Cricket Match, a Natural Calamity

 

Criticism of Agenda Setting Theory

 

  • Media users are not ideal
    I.e. People do not pay attention to the news item in detail
  • The effect of Agenda Setting Theory is weakened for the people who have made up their minds
  • Media cannot create problems, it identifies problems, generates awareness and then prioritises
  • In Agenda Setting Theory, the agenda setting becomes a combination of gatekeepers, editors, and managers who make and many a times do not come down to consensus [a general agreement, harmony, like mindedness]  Moreover, there are many external influences on media that affect the purposed agenda
    Like – Political Influences, Pressures, Elite Societal Pressures

Technology in Media Studies.

Technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems‘ 

The technology of the Internet involves more than just a collection of tools, but a system that combines computers, telecommunications, software and rules and procedures or protocols. The word ‘medium’ comes from the Latin, meaning in the middle (a median) and also that which intermediates or interprets

Media require an active act of creation of content and/or communication, and someone who receives and understands the communication, as well as the technologies that carry the medium. Media of course depend on technology, but technology is only one element of media

Thus we can think of the Internet as merely a technological system, or as a medium that contains unique formats and symbol systems that help convey meaning and knowledge. These formats, symbol systems and unique characteristics (e.g. the 140 character limit in Twitter) are deliberately created and need to be interpreted by both creators and end users

Furthermore, at least with the Internet, people can be at the same time both creators and interpreters of knowledge


Discourse in Media Studies.

Discourse is the use of language both in written and spoken. For one, it may simply refer to the manner in which individuals and groups communicate. On a deeper level, though, it can symbolize the systems of thoughts and beliefs that determine how individuals understand and interpret the world

What is media discourse?

Media discourse refers to interactions that take place through a broadcast platform, whether spoken or written, in which the discourse is oriented to a non-present reader, listener or viewer. Media-driven discourse in the first sense would include the various outlets that individuals in the media use, such as newspapers and magazines, television, radio, and the Internet

Individuals filter the events and local happenings through various lenses; some of this is determined by personal experience, but a lot of it is also driven by the manner in which the information was presented to them in the first place. This can include subtle cues or emphasis on certain details, and can even include things like tone of voice and word choice. The means of delivery is very important

Discourse Influences on media content on Micro and Macro Levels:

The term discourse describes a formal way of thinking that can be expressed through language; the discourse is a social boundary that defines what statements can be said about a topic. Discourse affects the person’s perspective; it is impossible to avoid discourse. For example, two notably distinct discourses can be used about various guerrilla movements describing them either as “freedom fighters” or “terrorists”. In other words, the chosen discourse provides the vocabulary, expressions and perhaps also the style needed to communicate.

Discourse is closely linked to different theories of power and state, at least as long as defining discourses is seen to mean defining reality itself. This conception of discourse is largely derived from the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault.

Micro Level Influences:

  • Personal characteristics, professional background, personal attitudes and professional role, conception of media workers are micro level influences that affect upon media content

Macro Level Influences:

  • Individuals, organizations, interest groups, public relations practitioners, government etc. macro level influences that affect upon media content
  • Sources that provide news to media organizations sometimes withhold information or lie

Language in Media Studies.

  • In Media Studies, the word ‘text’ is used to describe any media product such as television programmes, photographs, adverts, film, newspaper adverts, radio programmes, web pages etc. The English language itself is a set of codes: letters made up into words, words made up into sentences and sentences made up into paragraphs
  • Just as we learn to read the letters, words and sentences, so, too, we learn to ‘read’ media codes and languages. We learn that sounds or images can be put together in particular sequences, working as codes, to give particular meaning. Media language has always attracted the attention of linguists, particularly applied linguists and sociolinguists. There are four practical and principled reasons for this interest
  • The media provide an easily accessible source of language data for research and teaching purposes
  • Their output makes up a large proportion of the language that people hear and read every day
  • Media usage reflects and shapes both language use and attitudes in a speech community
  • The media may function as the primary or even the sole—source of native-speaker models
  • The ways in which the media use language are interesting linguistically in their own right; these include how different dialects and languages are used in advertising, how tabloid newspapers use language in a projection of their assumed readers’ speech, or how radio personalities use language—and only language–to construct their own images and their relationships to an unseen, unknown audience
  • The media are important social institutions. They are crucial presenters of culture, politics, and social life, shaping as well as reflecting how these are formed and expressed. Media ‘discourse’ is important both for what it reveals about a society and for what it contributes to the character of society

Michel Foucault – Power and Authority theory.

Slightly Big. But Please bear with it

The fundamental idea emerging from all these works is that the privileged place to observe the power in action is the relation between individual and the society, especially its institutions. Consequentyl, Foucault sutdies – in what he calls “the analysis of power” – how various institutions exert their power on groups and individuals, and how the latter affirm their own identity and resistance to the effects of power

Foucault thinks that it is wrong to consider power as something that the institutions possess  and use oppressively against individuals and groups, so he tries to move the analysis one step beyond viewing power as the plain oppression of the powerless by the powerful,  aiming to examine how it operates in day to day interactions between people and institutions.

In  the first  volume of Histoire de la sexualité [History of Sexuality]  he  argues  that we  must overcome the idea that power is oppression, because – even in their most radical form – oppressive measures are not just repression and censorship, but they are also productive, causing new behaviours to emerge

Foucault  built a model  of the daily and mundane  manners in which power is  exerted and contested, as well  as an analysis centered on the human  individual as an active subject, not as  a simple object for the power.

Usually, power is understood as the capacity of an agent to impose his will over the will of the powerless, or the ability to force them to do things they do not wish to do. In this  sense, power is understood as possession, as something owned by those in power. But in Foucault’s opinion, power is not something that can be owned, but rather something  that acts and manifests itself in a certain way; it is more a strategy than a possession:

“Power  must be  analyzed as something  which circulates, or as  something which only functions in the form of a chain. Power is employed and exercised through a  netlike organization. Individuals are the vehicles of power, not its points of application”.

Foucault’s Perceptions of power changed the way people thought of power in the 18th century. How it completely dehumanizes the person who is a follower, who is losing all his freedoms, and who believes that this structure is the right structure. He importantly says that power need not be violence, a very interesting perspective. What he means is; we seem to think that power = violence. Whereas, violence is just one expressions of power. Other expressions of power are more muted or subtle.

So, if you are in a prison cell that is open from the top but where prisoners are walled, you would not talk to each other as the jailer has a bird’s eye view on you. The prisoners are not physically being told to not communicate, but you don’t because at the back of your mind you know that the jailer has a view on you. So, that is a way without any violence that you are being controlled.

Thus, he says that we can do a lot with people in a social space without being violent or overtly compelling them (you can compel, but that is only one dimension of power). There are many ways to enforce authority.

The best example of this is contemporary India. Eg. Some 40 years ago, Mrs. Indira Gandhi declared Emergency over India. That was power/authority. Anybody who didn’t listen was picked up and sent to prison. Very overtly enforcing. That is one dimension of power.

In current India, 1.3 billion Indians are not being lynched, but they are being disciplined by that power. You are being told in soft whispers to be careful what you’re putting on WhatsApp, on Facebook, be careful about hashtags, all types of social media. Whether you listen to it or not, that is the question. As, for there to be power there must be freedom.
Eg. Slavery is not power as the slave is physically chained.
The actual game of power is when you mentally chain people. This game is being played in modern India. But, now we are noticing our freedoms are being contained.
Eg. Cases being slapped against media houses.

Power is working in a phenomenal way in our country. Eg. Great Laughter Challenge, child who mimicked Modi’s voice was taken off the show. There were no ridiculous levels of censorship during the Congress rule, where you couldn’t say anything against the government.

Eg. Tamil film has scene criticizing taxes and GST, and so Government was offended and called to ban the film and then cut the scenes. The very united South Indian film producers association said no they won’t do it, so the next day the GST Union of Tamil Nadu raided the Chairperson’s office, “coincidentally”, when they haven’t raided anyone ever and also what were they looking to find?

Modi is all about power, in the sense every 1-2 months he launches a new programme just to promote himself. Starts the project, then goes into cold storage. If every time there is a problem with another country, why should the PM go there personally? What is the External Minister for? What is Sushma Swaraj doing? She has only made 2 trips; to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. We have a Finance Minister; Arun Jaitley, why did he not make the announcement of Demonetization, why did our PM do it? It was an economic law. And why open the Parliament at midnight and make the announcement, for the first time after we got freedom?

If you have power and you don’t demonstrate it, you can’t call yourself powerful. People should know that you have power. Those in power, know how to use their power. “Govern” doesn’t mean just the government, it can mean your parents or your peer group. Any social structure has that kind of a role to play. Eg. Even in your peer group there will be one person who is the leader.

The game is, when you are free and someone is able to play mind games with you. That is when their sense of power increases. If you’re a megalomaniac, it doesn’t give you a high to govern power over people who don’t have power. But, you get drunk on power when you govern it over people who are free.

Power relationships are when the person holding power is constantly looking for challenges. If you are power hungry, you are not going to stop at anything, and will keep wanting to expand the number of people under your power.

Power is interlinked with authority. Again, it may not just be a political game; here, anybody who’s wealthy can show power. Eg. Ambanis. When we talk about social status, are people who have got power not because they have worked for it at all but because they come from wealthy backgrounds? Eg. Compare Indian corporations vs American/Europeans corporations. How many large American/European corporations which were started by a family, still are run by members of the family? It’s an industry, why should it be from son to son to son.

Authority is about having the power, the legitimacy to act. One is to have the power, but when linked with authority; it is about legitimising that power. So, you have the legal right to execute the power.


Discuss the contribution of Marshall McLuhan in media studies.

 

Medium is Massage

 

 

  • Actually, the title was a mistake. When the book came back from the typesetter’s, it had on the cover “Massage” as it still does. The title was supposed to have read “The Medium is the Message” but the typesetter had made an error. When Marshall McLuhan saw the typo he exclaimed, “Leave it alone! It’s Great and right on target”.  Now there are possible four readings for the last word of the title, all of them are accurate: “Mesage” and “Message-Age”, “Massage” and “Mass-age”

 

  • Herbert Marshall McLuhan is famed for having one of the most poignant predictions of the 20th century. He was once referred to as the “Oracle of the Electronic Age” and is perhaps the best known for his phrase turned into book title, “The Medium is the Massage”. The philosopher and intellectual foresaw the birth of the internet 35 years before it happened.

 

  • The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects is a book co-created by media analyst Marshall McLuhan and graphic designer Quentin Fiore, and coordinated by Jerome Agel. It was published by Bantam books in 1967 and became a bestseller with a cult following.

 

  • The title is a play on McLuhan’s oft-quoted saying “The Medium is the Message”. The book was initiated by Quentin Fiore. McLuhan adopted the term “massage” to denote the effect each medium has on the human sensorium, taking inventory of the “effects” of numerous media in terms of how they “massage” the sensorium.

 

  • McLuhan’s point was that the impact of the medium itself is more significant than the content it carries; that each medium, from light bulbs to computers, conveys a message to its users. The internet, for example, isn’t important because of its endless supply of content, but because it has created a world where we expect content to be endlessly, immediately there

 

  • Firearms are themselves neither good nor bad, it is the way they are used that determines their value. If you shoot a person and the person dies, then the bullet and the gun isn’t bad but the person behind the gun is. A Cigarette isn’t bad as long as it is not lit and you do not take a drag.

 

  • The first thing to be said about the medium is the message that it is a warning and a wake up call. It is a plea to pay attention for as McLuhan insists, there is absolutely nothing inevitable as long as there is a willingness to contemplate what is happening.
  • This theory states that it is the medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action. The contents and uses of media are as diverse as they are ineffectual in shaping the form of human association, Indeed it is only too typical that the content of any medium blinds us to the character of the medium.

 

  • Marshal McLuhan insisted that the medium itself was a message not the content it delivered.

 

  • All media works over us completely. They are so pervasive in their personal, political, economic, and aesthetic, psychological, moral, ethical and social consequences that they leave no part of us untouched unaffected and unaltered.
  • He said that a medium affects the society in which it plays a role not only by the content delivered over the medium, but also by the characteristics of the medium itself.
  • The message of any medium or technology is th change of scale of pace or pattern that it introduces into human affairs. The railways did not introduce movement or transportation or wheel or road into human society, but it accelerated and enlarged the scale of previous human functions, creating totally new kinds of cities and new kinds of work and leisure. This happened whethere the railways functioned ina tropical or northern environment, and is quite independent of the freight or content of the railway medium
  • What McLuhan writes about the railroad applies with equal validity to the media, or print, or television, computers and now the Internet. “The Medium is the Message” because it is the “medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action”

 

Hot and Cold Media

 

 

  • Hot Media are low in audience participation due to their high resolution or definition. Hot media is that which engages one sense completely. It demands little interaction from the user because it ‘spoon-feeds’ the content. Typically the content of hot media is restricted to what the source offers at that specific time. Examples of hot media include radio and film because they engage one sense of the user to an extent that although the user’s attention is focused on the content, their participation is minimal.
  • Cool Media are high in audience participation due to their low definition (the receiver must fill in the missing information). Cool media generally uses low-definition media that engages several senses less completely in that it demands a great deal of interaction on the part of the audience. Audiences then participate more because they are required to perceive the gaps in the content themselves. The user must be familiar with genre conventions in order to fully understand the medium. Examples: TV, phone conversations, comic books.

 

Global Village

 

  • People use technology to fit into a digital community in which they are no longer physically connected, they are now mentally connected. Each social media platform acts as a digital home for each individual which has allowed people to express themselves through the global village Since mass media has been in effect, this has called for the westernization of the world hence the global village. Without the mass media in effect countries like India or Turkey wouldn’t be living American lifestyle because they wouldn’t have the knowledge of what the acquisitions of the American nation constitute. Since most of the developing countries acquired the news and entertainment from developed nations like the U.S, the information received is biased in favor of developed nations which connects the world in similarities within the media
  • The new reality of the digital age has implications for forming new sociological structures within the context of culture. Interchanging messages, stories, opinions, posts, and videos through channels on telecommunication pathways can cause miscommunication, especially through different cultures.
  • Across the global village people have reached out and transcended their neighborhood.They are involved in a complex community of networks stretching across cities, nations, oceans, governments and religions. The global village’s implications on sociological structures are yet to be fully realized. Not only does multimedia have the ability to impact individuals differently for cultural reasons, messages also affects people due to religion, politics, beliefs, business, money etc. The time in which messages are received also affects how a message is understood.
  • In Marshall McLuhan’s time, the global village was nonexistant, it was an idea. During the primitive years, people survived simply among one another and stayed in tune with their senses. Today human society struggles neurologically. Our brain is constantly adapting and morphing to the modifications of technological advancements. Through technology, the creation of social media allows people to constantly comment on each others posts as well as creating them to share with the multi-media global world. 55 percent of teens possess a social media profile. Social media has connected people with jobs that they couldn’t have received before because of their geographic location. New social media has connected the world so cultures can be learned through interactions on social media as well as maintaining relationships from opposing countries.

What is a Propaganda theory?

 

Walter Lippman, Harold Lasswell, jacques Ellul and Edward Bernays were the earliest theorists to propound propaganda theories in the early 1900s

Propaganda is a mass communication tool that is used to influence mass opinion. The idea of propaganda took on a negative connotation during World War 2 with the German Dictator, Adolf Hitler using it extensively to propagate nazi ideology. Propaganda uses loaded messages ostensibly to produce an emotional, rather than rational response from people. It is a method or approach to spread ideas that further either a political, commercial, religious or civil cause.

The mass media serve as a system for communicating messages and symbols to the general populace. It is their function to amuse, entertain, and codes of behavior that will individuals with the values, beliefs, and codes of behavior that will integrate them into the institutional structures of the larger society. In world of concentrated wealth and major conflicts of class interest, to fulfill this requires systematic propaganda.

Propaganda is most commonly used through various forms of media by governments to convince the public about welfare schemes, policies or new leislation. Propaganda is also used to spread religious ideologies; for marketing new lifestyle products

The Propoganda Model is a conceptual model in political economy advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky to explain how propaganda and systematic biases function in mass media. The model seeks to explain how populations are manipulated and how consent for economic social and political policies is manufactured in the public mind due to this propaganda. The theory posits tha the way in which news is structured [advertising, concentration of media, govenment, etc.] creates an inherent conflict of interest which acts as a propaganda for undemocratic forces.

First presented in their 1988 book, Manufacturing Consent : The Political Economy of the Mass media,
The propaganda model views private media as businesses interested in the sale of product -readers and audiences to other businesses rather than that of quality news to the public. Describing the media’s societal purpose”


Discuss Advertising and Magazine culture.

 

Why do companies choose to advertise female sexual objectification in commercials and billboards? “Sex sells,” and truthfully, it really does. Often we see seductive photographs in promoting a certain product or brand. Companies tend to use sex in their advertisements because they are aware that it is simply attractive, and from a business standpoint, any attention is good attention. Companies want to stand out to their customers, attract large audiences, which results in large revenues.

 

For example, the deodorant company called AXE uses sexual advertisements to promote their product, which is a masculine target market. The company calls it the “AXE Effect.” The message means that if you use this particular product, women will always surround you because you will be the best smelling man around. This message is implied of course, but it really has psychologically trained men to not only buy this AXE deodorant spray product and be more hygienic, but also to view women as sexual beings.

 

The women in the advertisements are usually thin, blonde, speechless girls who appear as emotionless zombies who are instantly attracted to the male smell. This is a subtle example of female objectification.

 

It’s not only women who are affected by sexist advertising. A new study suggests that print ads targeting men also encourage them to aspire to an unrealistic and potentially harmful brand of masculinity.

 

Psychologists analyzed advertisements in men’s magazines to see what messages they were sending about what it means to be a man. They found that a significant number of the advertisements portrayed or promoted one or more of the following beliefs:

 

  • Danger is exciting.
  • Toughness is a form of emotional self-control.
  • Violence is manly.
  • It’s fine to be callous about women and sex.

The researchers defined these beliefs as four components of “hypermasculinity,” an extreme gender ideal.

 

The research team looked at all of the print advertisements featuring men in a 2007 or 2008 issue of Playboy, Field and Stream, Game Informer, Maxim, Esquire, Wired, Fortune and Golf Digest magazine. One male and one female author coded the advertisements using a checklist the team had developed, answering questions for each ad like, “Does it appear that being extremely muscular is important for men?”

 

They found that 56 percent of the 527 advertisements analyzed depicted one or more of the four hypermasculine beliefs above. The beliefs that toughness equals control and that danger is exciting were more common than the belief that violence is manly or callousness towards women and sex. They also found that hypermasculine content was more likely to appear in magazines targeted to younger, lower-income, and less educated readers — those the researchers concluded were most at-risk for appropriating such beliefs and behaviors.

 

In their paper, published in the May 2013 issue of Sex Roles, the researchers claim hypermasculinity in ads is a problem because it exposes readers to these beliefs and normalizes them to some extent.

 

Previous research has linked hyper-masculine beliefs to social and medical problems in men, including drug use, violence towards women and dangerous driving.

 

Research has also suggested that men are increasingly affected by media messages about body image. In a 2008 study, male participants exposed to pictures of muscular men were more likely to feel dissatisfied with their own bodies. A study published earlier this month found that men’s body self-esteem was linked to how hopeful they felt about romantic relationships.

 

ADVERTISING

  • Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or service
  • Advertising is a non-personal form of promotion that is delivered through selected media outlets that, under most circumstances, require the marketer to pay for message placement

MAGAZINE

  • Magazines create communities of individuals with shared interests
  • Readers develop trusted relationships with magazines through their content and inspire conversations amongst friends, family and social groups

This environment of trust and high level of engagement provides an incredibly desirable location for savvy advertisers

  • Reasons to advertise in magazines
  • Magazines and magazine ads capture focused attention
  • Magazine advertising is targeted: Magazines engage readers in very personal ways
  • Magazine advertising is relevant and welcomed
  • Magazines are credible
  • Magazines offer a lasting message
  • Magazines deliver brand relevant imagery
  • Magazine advertising drives web searches and visits
  • Magazines drive the purchase funnel
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