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Table of Contents

Explain the term ‘Narrative arc’ (Inciting incident, rising action, climax and resolution) of a story. Use as example a film, novel, poem or play of your choice.

screwed up question. I have no idea what exactly is the answer. But I will try.

A narrative arc is a broad sketch of the high and low points of the dramatic developments, including key turning points and moments of tension within.

The pattern for the narrative arc was largely handed down from the Greek tradition in drama. So many plays today are written in three acts because the pattern reflects the three-stage nature of the traditional narrative arc: Exposition yields Rising Action yields Resolution

A narrative arc [ also known as story arc] is the episodes within a storyline; it is the narrative structure of a book or a story (or even a film, or a series of TV episodes). It is the rising and falling of tension, and the pacing and timbre of a plot. The tension should, in turn, force a shift in the behaviour of the characters and changes in their behaviour as they evolve and are changed by what happens to them.

Although an arc suggests a curve, most stories look more like a roller coaster. The image over here is only one of many examples of a story arc, with a zig-zag of tension which falls at the point of obstacles in the story and ends with a denouement, a resolution. Films often use a three act structure: Setup – Confrontation – Resolution. Short stories also have a story arc.

The introduction draws the reader into a setting, the characters and any potential conflict or goal. It is where the reader discovers what drives the protagonist and what will stand in their way.

A series of complications will often develop in the core of the text, leading to perhaps a crisis or a series of problems. Each of these crises may be temporarily resolved but the story will lead to a climax. There is a rising and falling of tension with each crisis, but an overall rising tension as we approach the Climax.

Elements of Narrative Arc

Exposition

The exposition is the setup of the narrative. It includes the introduction of characters, setting, background events, and other information necessary to understanding the narrative as it will develop.

Inticing Incident

It is the event or decision that begins a story’s problem. Everything up and until that moment is Backstory; everything after is “the story.”

Rising Action

The rising action of the story is all of the events that lead to the eventual climax, including character development and events that create suspense.

As the name Rising Action suggests, this stage often employs storytelling techniques such as suspense, foreshadowing, and flashbacks to develop the characters and events, as well as to emphasize the expectation of a climactic event.

 

Climax

Throughout Rising Action the audience has been expecting, fearing, or perhaps needing something major to happen about the characters, places, and/or events they’ve become invested in. Everything comes together in the climax for good or ill. This is the major battle, the biggest test, the most desperate ordeal of the protagonist. After all the suspense and mystery of the Rising Action, it’s finally time to rip the bandaid off.

It is important to realize that the climax depends on how one interprets the plot of the narrative. For example, if the audience views the plot of The Lion King as primarily Simba’s struggle against Scar, the climax would be the final battle between the two. However, if the audience considers the plot of the movie to be primarily Simba’s identity crisis, one could consider Simba’s conversation with Mufasa’s ghost as the climax.

Falling Action

The falling action is everything that happens as a result of the climax, including wrapping-up of plot points, questions being answered, and character development.

After the excitement of the climax, things tend to slow down. The Falling Action stage is often a time of recovery, reflection, and rest. The tension introduced by the Rising Action and peaked by the climax must now be calmed.

While Rising Action is generally a very long and intense stage, Falling Action usually takes up a considerably smaller portion of the narrative.

 

Resolution

The resolution is not always happy, but it does complete the story. It can leave a reader with questions answers, frustration, or satisfaction.

The Resolution is the conclusion of the narrative. It can range from simple to complex. Classic examples of a simple resolution are from many fairy tales (“and they lived happily ever after. The end.”) and Scooby Doo (wherein the gang explains the mystery).

When complex, though, the resolution can significantly develop the characters by showing the end result of all their training and trials. It is here that the protagonist shows how adept he is at using his newfound skills; he is a master and perhaps even a teacher of the lessons he learned.

Oftentimes authors will leave some things unresolved for a sequel or for audience speculation and criticism. While the resolution in many stories does set out to completely end the story, this is not necessarily the case for all narratives.


Explain the following four types of plot structure

There was lot of other information provided in the question bank for writing this answer. But I guess I can just do it with the words “plot structure”. You can find an interactive PPT by Prezi by clicking the word KalingadDynasty. [hehe please follow this Instagram Account 😭😭😭😭😭 ]

There are four types of plot that a writer can create

Unified Plot

The Unified Plot can also be termed as the basic unit. It is also known as the Dramatic or Progressive Plot.

In a Unified Plot, the story is realistic, includes a central character and action, and takes place in a single place, usually during a short span of  time, such as an hour, a few hours, a day. For instance, Ernest Hemingway’s “Hills Like White Elephants” is a short story based on a conversation that takes place on a single day.

This is a chronological structure which first establishes the setting and conflict, then follows the rising action through to a climax [the peak of the action and turning point] and concludes with a denouement [a wrapping up of loose ends]

Episodic Plot

The second type of plot that a writer can craft is the episodic plot. The story has a setting central character, conflict, take place over a much longer period of time. Episodic plots work best when the writer wishes to explore the personalities of the characters, the nature of their existence and the flavour of an era

Parallel Plot

For a parallel plot the writer weaves two or more dramatic plots, they are usually linked by a common character and a similar theme. It is usually used to depict the events happening simultaneously

A Parallel Plot is like having two unified plots occurring concurrently.

The Non Linear or Flash Back Plot

This structure conveys information about events that occurred earlier. It permits authors to begin the story in the midst of the action but at last fill in the background for full understanding of the present events. Flashbacks can occur more than once and in different parts of a story.

Often the writer will use Story ke flashback banane ki Ninja Technique of “Flashback” to provide background details or to tell the story. For instance, Margaret Attwood, “Death by Landscape” tells a tale that goes from childhood to middle age


Using the following points create a fictional character:

Who actually made this bank? Well its an easy question so I will provide some of my favourite Protagonist Characters and some tips on how to make a fictional character. I am not an expert, and these are just for referential purposes

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I’m making the choice. Give up your dreams and die for us.

Levi Ackerman (Rivai Akkāman), often formally referred to as Captain Levi Rivai Heichō), is the squad captain (Heishichō, lit. “leader of the soldiers”) of the Special Operations Squad within the Survey Corps, and is widely known as humanity’s strongest soldier.

Levi has short, straight black hair styled in an undercut, as well as narrow, intimidating dull gray eyes with dark circles under them and a deceptively youthful face. He is quite short, but his physique is well-developed in musculature from extensive vertical maneuvering equipment usage. He is usually either frowning or expressionless; that, plus his extremely calm demeanor, often makes it difficult for others to guess what he is thinking.

He is most often seen in his Survey Corps uniform, with a light gray button up shirt underneath along with his trademark white ascot. When embarking on expeditions outside the Walls, he also wears the Survey Corps’ green hooded cloak. Once, when forced to take leave from his duties due to injury, Levi was seen in a black suit, plain white shirt, ascot, and dress shoes. However, since the beginning of the The Uprising arc, he has left the ascot off. For most of the arc, during which the Survey Corps were on the run from the military and monarchy, he simply wore his vertical maneuvering equipment harness over casual clothes.

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L  is a world-renowned detective who takes on the challenge of catching the mass murderer known as Kira. In his investigation, L becomes suspicious of Light Yagami and makes it his goal to prove that Light is Kira.

L is a very slim, tall young man with messy black hair and dark eyes. One of his most noticeable features is the shadow below each of his eyes, a result of him being an insomniac. L is always shown to be wearing blue jean trousers and a long-sleeved white shirt. He almost never wears shoes or socks, preferring to go barefoot, even while in public. This was shown when he visited Light Yagami’s school and was seen barefoot while sitting on a bench, not bothering to wear his shoes until he got up to walk.

L is quite secretive, and only communicates with the world through his assistant, Watari. He never shows his face to the world in person, instead representing himself with a capital letter L drawn in “Old English MT” or “Cloister Black” typeface. It is more likely to be “Cloister Black” as Watari’s “W” is different in “Old English MT

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From Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by J. K. Rowling (Scholastic, 1998)

• He was a big, beefy man with hardly any neck, although he did have a very large mustache. Mrs. Dursley was thin and blonde and had nearly twice the usual amount of neck, which came in very useful as she spent so much of her time craning over garden fences, spying on the neighbors. (p. 1)

• A giant of a man was standing in the doorway. His face was almost completely hidden by a long, shaggy mane of hair and a wild, tangled beard, but you could make out his eyes, glinting like black beetles under all the hair. (p. 46)

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From I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou (Bantam, 1993)

Where I was big, elbowy and grating, he was small, graceful and smooth. …he was lauded for his velvet-black skin. His hair fell down in black curls, and my head was covered with black steel wool. And yet he loved me. (p. 17)

• Her skin was a rich black that would have peeled like a plum if snagged, but then no one would have thought of getting close enough to Mrs. Flowers to ruffle her dress, let along snag her skin. She didn’t encourage familiarity. She wore gloves too. (p. 78)

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From Holes by Louis Sachar (Scholastic, 2000)

They were dripping with sweat, and their faces were so dirty that it took Stanley a moment to notice that one kid was white and the other black. (p. 17)

• Madame Zeroni had dark skin and a very wide mouth. When she looked at you, her eyes seemed to expand, and you felt like she was looking right through you. (p. 29)

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From The Poisonwood Bible by Barbara Kingsolver (HarperCollins, 1998)

• We wore our best dresses on the outside to make a good impression. Rachel wore her green linen Easter suit she was so vain of, and her long whitish hair pulled off her forehead with a wide pink elastic hairband…. Sitting next to me on the plane, she kept batting her white- rabbit eyelashes and adjusting her bright pink hairband, trying to get me to notice she had secretly painted her fingernails bubble-gum pink to match. (p. 15)

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Science fiction and fantasy are built on cool ideas and fascinating worlds — but those things are only as good as the people who live around and inside them. How do you create compelling fictional characters? It’s a huge challenge. But here are some tips that might make it easier.

There’s no silver bullet or easy formula for creating characters who live and breathe inside your head (and hopefully other people’s heads, too). If there were, we’d all be using it and it wouldn’t be such a nightmare.

So here are some ideas and tips that might make your characters come to life more easily:

1) Character Is Action

Your characters can be witty and spout interesting philosophies, and have cool names and awesome fashion sense — but in the end, they are what they do. We judge people by their actions. Dont make your characters just sit around with spouting witty one-liners for page after page, but not getting off their butts and doing something, then they’re probably not such interesting characters after all. (applies for comics or drawings as well, there needs to be strong actions)

2) Surprising Acts

When you first create a character, you need a “hook” to get yourself interested in them, have someone who does something unexpected. Make a character who does something completely wild and goes off the map, something that nobody else would ever do. And then try to imagine what would motivate someone to behave that way, and what sort of person does that sort of thing.

3) Weird Contradictions

Again, a lot of inventing people, and having them take on a life of their own, is making yourself curious about them. And one thing that can make you wonder about someone is their personal contradictions — in real life, as well as fiction.

A Vegan who wears leather, you want to know more about why they refuse to eat animal products but they wear animal skins. Or if you meet a Buddhist sadist, that’s automatically fascinating.

4) One Detail Can Be Your Way In

If it’s a vivid enough detail. Especially for a supporting character, a single striking detail (like a jewel that this person wears, or an odd habit they have) can make them stick in your mind. But even for your main character, a single interesting detail about her or his appearance, or a habit of speech (a catch-phrase?) can make them a lot more vivid to you.

In a lot of ways, this is like trying to remember someone you used to know years ago — anything that brings them into focus in your head is helpful.

5) But Save The Extra Details For The Rewrites

When I was starting out as a fiction writer, I was in a workshop where someone handed out “character creation sheets” they’d printed out from somewhere. These weren’t like D&D character sheets — there was no space for alignment or dexterity or whatever — but instead were just accumulations of details that would hopefully add up to a three-dimensional character. Favorite color, childhood pet, favorite music, etc. The one time I tried to fill out that sheet for a character, I lost interest in her before I got halfway through. It was too much clutter, and made me get bogged down in trying to invent stuff that I wasn’t that interested in. On the other hand, one trick I’ve found really useful is to go back, in the ninth or tenth draft, and seed in more stuff like the character’s taste in music, eating habits, taste in decorations — once the character is already living and breathing and the story is already written and polished, I often find adding stuff like that in just adds an extra layer of realness to the whole thing.

6) Write An Origin Story, Even If You Don’t Use It

Not just where your character comes from, or who they used to be — but an actual story. It doesn’t have to be more than a paragraph or two. Write the story of how your main character dropped out of high school, ten years before your story begins. Or the tale of how your protagonist first realized they were different. Sometimes writing a brief, snappy tale of how the character learned something or dealt with something, that turned them into the person they were at the start of your story, can give you a powerful little nugget to keep in your back pocket. I almost never include these “origin stories” in the actual finished story, but they help me see who this person is now, by imagining how they got here.


Explain elements of poetry (Title, tone, symbolism, imagery, plot, diction,rhythm, metre, repetition, thyme, form, stanza).

People asking answer for this. How exactly did you come till this age? Ofcourse using Google. So did I, so am I, here we go then. The Answers would be big, but not bigger than your pride, or the time you waste on the internet. So read.

Title

The title is the first thing a reader will see, so it’s important to get it exactly right. With many poems, the title functions as the first line of the poem; with others, there is no actual title, so the poem is known by its first line (that line “becomes” the title, in effect). A good title can add depth to the poem, or help illuminate the meaning for the reader. A bad title can be too obvious, too revealing, or simply confusing. This small element deserves more thought than it usually gets.

Tone

 

The poet’s attitude toward the poem’s speaker, reader, and subject matter, as interpreted by the reader. Often described as a “mood” that pervades the experience of reading the poem, it is created by the poem’s vocabulary, metrical regularity or irregularity, syntax, use of figurative language, and rhyme.

And a comparatively longer answer…

The tone of a poem is the attitude you feel in it — the writer’s attitude toward the subject or audience. The tone in a poem of praise is approval. In a satire, you feel irony. In an antiwar poem, you may feel protest or moral indignation. Tone can be playful, humorous, regretful, anything — and it can change as the poem goes along.

Sometimes tone is fairly obvious. You can, for example, find poems that are absolutely furious. The Scots poet Hugh MacDiarmid didn’t care for mercenary soldiers (men who fight not because they believe in a cause, but because someone is paying them to fight). Here is MacDiarmid’s very angry “Another Epitaph on an Army of Mercenaries”:

It is a God-damned lie to say that these

Saved, or knew, anything worth any man‘s pride.

They were professional murderers and they took

Their blood money and impious risks and died.

In spite of all their kind some elements of worth

With difficulty persist here and there on earth.

Poetry is already so packed with emotion that seeing a poet swearing right at the start may be a shock, but MacDiarmid does exactly that. He makes the disturbing move of insulting the dead soldiers, calling them “professional murderers.” Usually, people try not to speak ill of the dead, but evidently MacDiarmid thinks so little of the mercenaries that he feels justified in insulting them. In the last two lines, he implies that, with such evil men in existence, human goodness persists only “with difficulty.” These clues lead you to MacDiarmid’s tone and his attitude toward his subject: contempt.

Sharpen your awareness of tone. You’ll see it in direct statement, to be sure (as when MacDiarmid cries, “They were professional murderers”), but tone can also reside in:

    • Images and how they are presented

 

    • The implications of a statement or story

 

  • The very music and rhythms of a poem

Symbolism

Something in the world of the senses, including an action, that reveals or is a sign for something else, often abstract or otherworldly. A rose, for example, has long been considered a symbol of love and affection.

Every word denotes, refers to, or labels something in the world, but a symbol (to which a word, of course, may point) has a concreteness not shared by language, and can point to something that transcends ordinary experience. Poets such as William Blake and W.B. Yeats often use symbols when they believe in—or seek—a transcendental (religious or spiritual) reality.

 

A metaphor compares two or more things that are no more and no less real than anything else in the world. For a metaphor to be symbolic, one of its pair of elements must reveal something else transcendental. In “To the Rose upon the Rood of Time,” for instance, Yeats’s image of the rose on the cross symbolizes the joining of flesh and spirit. As Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren write in their book Understanding Poetry (3rd ed., 1960),“The symbol may be regarded as a metaphor from which the first term has been omitted.”

Imagery

Elements of a poem that invoke any of the five senses to create a set of mental images. Specifically, using vivid or figurative language to represent ideas, objects, or actions. Poems that use rich imagery include T.S. Eliot’s “Preludes,” Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind,” Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy,” and Mary Oliver’s “At Black River.”

Almost every poem every written has imagery in it (as do fiction and non-fiction). Imagery is all the detail of the senses that make a poem come alive for the reader. It includes not only visual information (images), but also information from the other senses. Imagery can be used simply to write about a setting or event, such as a poem about the forest, or about a day at the beach. Imagery can also be used metaphorically, where the detail described refers to something else entirely.

Plot

Did you think that only ficiton had plots? Well, poems have plots, too. The plot of a poem is the underlying idea or impulse that connects all the individual ideas or images together and arranges them in an effective way. A narrative poem, for example, uses plot in much the same way as fiction does, in order to tell a story. Other kinds of poems might have plots that pose and seek to answer questions, that contrast ideal images with reality, or that progress through images from blurry to sharp.

Diction

All creative writing is written in artificially constructed language; that is, poetry isn’t the way we talk every day. The kind of language you choose for a poem, its range of vocabulary, is its diction. The words you choose–whether you use old-fashioned “poetic diction” or something that sounds like contemporary street slang–affects the impact you poem has. Think about what you want you poem to do, what you want it to say, when you choose your diction. As with many things, consistency is key

 

Rhythm

All poetry has rhythm, from the strictest metered verse to the loosest free verse. The rhythm of poetry is like the beat of music, and if you have control over it, you have control over your writing. Rhythm is composed mainly of stress (in varying levels from none to a lot) and pauses. It is what influences how the words are read, rather than what the words are. Very often, fixing a line that doesn’t quite work is a simple as examining its rhythm and seeing where it goes wrong.

Metre

We mostly think of metre as occurring in rhymed poetry, but even unrhymed poetry can be metered. Metre is specific patterns of rhythm, and many of those patterns have names. It can be a difficult element to work with, as too strict a metre can make a poem sound staccato and artificial (and even annoying). But mastering metre (or at least becoming aware of its possibilities) will give you an advantage even in your least structured work. It’s all about how words sound together.

Repetition

Repetition emphasizes whatever it is that’s repeated, but too much repetition can make a great word or phrase seem commonplace. It’s a matter of balance or moderation. Repetition is another one of those elements that we usually think of in connection with strict forms of poetry, but which is also of great use in less structured poems, including free verse. There are many possibilities–one can repeat words, phrases or whole stanzas, and one can play with the location of repeated parts.

 

Thyme

?

Form

The form of a poem refers to the “rules” of metre, rhythm, rhyme and line length that determine a poem’s shape. Form can be as loose as having no rules at all, or as strict as specifying a particular pattern of metre and rhythm, a specific rhyme scheme, and a certain number of syllables per line and lines per stanza (and more). Even if you plan to write mainly free verse, it’s worth becoming familiar with forms. You can use parts of the “rules” for one or many forms and create something new.

Stanza

A stanza is a set of lines in a poem grouped together and set apart from other stanzas in the poem either by a double space or by different indentation. Poems may contain any number of stanzas, depending on the author’s wishes and the structure in which the poet is writing. However, there are many strict poetic forms that designate the exact number of stanzas, as we will see below.

In general, it is easy to think of stanzas in poems as being equivalent to paragraphs in prose. That is to say that both stanzas and paragraphs contain related information, while new thoughts and concepts become the next stanza or paragraph. In some poems stanzas have regular meter and rhyme, though this is by no means a requirement for all stanzas in poetry.

Types of Stanzas

While there are many dozens of obscure forms, here are a few common stanza examples:

    • Closed Couplet: A stanza of 2 lines, usually rhyming

 

    • Tercet: A stanza of 3 lines. When a poem has tercets that have a rhyme scheme of ABA, then BCB, then CDC and so forth, this is known as terza rima. One famous example is Dante’s Divine Comedy.

 

    • Quatrain: A stanza of 4 lines, usually with rhyme schemes of AAAA, AABB, ABBA, or ABAB

 

    • Cinquain: A stanza of 5 lines

 

    • Sestain or Sestet: A stanza of 6 lines (when discussing Italian sonnets the appropriate term is sestet; the Italian sonnet form starts with an octave and is concluded by a sestet)

 

  • Octave: A stanza of 8 lines in iambic pentameter or hendecasyllables, usually with the rhyme scheme ABBA ABBA

Groups of stanzas in fixed verse forms:

    • Sonnet: A poem with 14 lines; English sonnets have 3 quatrains with the rhyme scheme ABAB and a closed couplet at the end, while Italian sonnets (also known as Petrarchan sonnets) are made up of an octave and a sestet.

 

    • Sestina: A poem with 6 stanzas of 6 lines each, ending with a final 7th stanza of 3 lines. While there is no rhyme scheme, the unity in a sestina comes from the fact that the final words at the end of the first 6 lines of the poem continue to end the lines in the rest of the poem in a fixed pattern.

 

  • Villanelle: A poem with 19 lines, consisting of 5 tercets and a final quatrain. Lines are repeated throughout the poem in a fixed pattern.

Art

“Art” is a concept that is difficult to define, but here I mean something like “the part of poetry writing that is not craft.” By craft, I mean the techniques you learn to use to consciously make your writing better. Sort of. Art, then, is the unconscious, creative aspect of writing poetry, what I have elsewhere called “the heart of poetry.” In some ways, it is the most important element of poetry, and it’s one you either have or don’t have. Craft you can learn, but art is innate.


Figures of Speech

Mandatory question every year

Image result for i came i saw i conquered

A figure of speech is a word or phrase that has a meaning other than the literal meaning. It can be a metaphor or simile that’s designed to further explain a concept. Or it can be the repetition of alliteration or exaggeration of hyperbole to give further emphasis or effect. There are many different types of figures of speech in the English language. We will give you examples of some of the most commonly used types here.

Alliteration

Alliteration is the repetition of the beginning sounds of neighboring words. Examples are:

 

  • She sells seashells.

 

  • Walter wondered where Winnie was.

 

  • Blue baby bonnets
  • Nick needed new notebooks.
  • Fred fried frogs.

 

 

 

Anaphora

Anaphora is a technique where several phrases (or verses in a poem) begin with the same word or words. Examples are:

 

  • I came, I saw, I conquered – Julius Caesar

 

  • Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition! – King John II, William Shakespeare

 

  • It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness – A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens
  • With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right – Abraham Lincoln
  • We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end… we shall never surrender – Winston Churchill

 

 

 

Assonance

Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in words that are close together. Examples are:

 

  • A – For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore (Poe)

 

  • E – Therefore all seasons shall be sweet to thee (Coleridge)

 

  • I – From what I’ve tasted of desire, I hold with those who favor fire (Frost)
  • O – Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn (Wordsworth)
  • U – Uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (Poe)

 

 

 

Euphemism

Euphemism is a mild, indirect, or vague term substituting for a harsh, blunt, or offensive term. Examples are:

 

  • ‘A little thin on top’ instead of ‘going bald’

 

  • ‘Homeless’ instead of ‘bum’

 

  • ‘Letting him go’ instead of ‘firing him’

  • ‘Passed away’ instead of ‘died’

  • ‘Economical with the truth’ instead of ‘liar’

 

 

 

Hyperbole

Hyperbole uses exaggeration for emphasis or effect. Examples are:

 

  • I’ve told you a hundred times

 

  • It cost a billion dollars

 

  • I could do this forever
  • She is older than dirt
  • Everybody knows that

 

 

 

Irony

Irony is when there is a contrast between what is said and what is meant, or between apearance and reality. Examples are:

 

  • “How nice!” she said, when I told her I had to work all weekend. (Verbal irony)

 

  • A traffic cop gets suspended for not paying his parking tickets. (Situational irony)

 

  • The Titanic was said to be unsinkable but sank on its first voyage. (Situational irony)
  • Naming a Chihuahua Brutus (Verbal irony)
  • The audience knows the killer is hiding in a closet in a scary movie but the actors do not. (Dramatic irony)

 

 

 

Metaphor

Metaphor compares two unlike things or ideas. Examples are:

 

  • Heart of stone

 

  • Time is money

 

  • The world is a stage
  • She is a night owl
  • He is an ogre

 

 

 

Onomatopoeia

Onomatopoeia is a word that sounds like what it is describing. Examples are:

 

  • Whoosh

 

  • Splat

 

  • Buzz
  • Click
  • Oink

 

 

 

Oxymoron

Oxymoron is two contradictory terms used together. Examples are:

 

  • Peace force

 

  • Kosher ham

 

  • Jumbo shrimp
  • Small crowd
  • Free market

 

 

 

Personification

Personification is giving human qualities to non-living things or ideas. Examples are:

 

  • The flowers nodded

 

  • Snowflakes danced

 

  • Thunder grumbled
  • Fog crept in
  • The wind howled

 

 

 

Simile

Simile is a comparison between two unlike things using the words “like” or “as.” Examples are:

 

  • As slippery as an eel

 

  • Like peas in a pod

 

  • As blind as a bat
  • Eats like a pig
  • As wise as an owl

 

 

 

Synecdoche

Synecdoche is when a part represents the whole or the whole is represented by a part. Examples are:

 

  • Wheels – a car

 

  • The police – one policeman

 

  • Plastic – credit cards
  • Coke – any cola drink
  • Army – a soldier

 

 

 

Understatement

Understatement is when something is said to make something appear less important or less serious. Examples are:

 

  • It’s just a scratch – referring to a large dent

 

  • It’s a litttle dry and sandy – referring to the driest desert in the world

 

  • The weather is a little cooler today – referring to sub-zero temperatures
  • It was interesting – referring to a bad or difficult experience
  • It stings a bit – referring to a serious wound or injury

 

 

 

These examples of figures of speech were selected to show a variety of stylistic and rhetorical devices that make the English language more creative, more expressive, and more interesting.


Write a two column script for a PSA (Public service ad) of your choice.

This is tough. If it has been left blank. Then it means I didnt find any suitable answer on the internet. However if you dont actually download and open through the site then I might update at a future date
Click this to follow my Instagram Account

 

Title: BIJLI BACHAO CAMPAING

VIDEO AUDIO
LS: Student using his phone and charger is on but phone isn’t connected. Then another student enters. Light music
MS: Student (2) looking at Student (1) and telling him to switch of the button of charger through eye contact. Student 1:- Kya

 

 

Bijili bachao music

LS: of a girl sitting all alone in the classroom and all lights are on Music Continues…
MS: Student 1 enters and close the remaining lights and give a look at girl Music Continues…
MS: Girl switching of the AC and switching off the light… Narration:- Agar Rasi bhar bhi bijali bachti hai to samjh lo desh mai vikas ho raha hai
PM Modi Speech  

 


Write a radio script of your choice.

Write Your Script Like it’s Going to be Spoken Aloud, Not as if You’re Reading it

A mistake that is often made when writing scripts for all mediums is not writing the prose for it to be spoken. A script should sound natural when read aloud. It is often a mistake to write too formally, as it results in a stiff sounding read through. Always write with the thought of speaking naturally and with a good flow in mind.

Keep it Succinct

When you write a radio script, try to keep it as tight as possible. Don’t add unnecessarily flowery words or sentences that do not add to what what you are trying to say. Also make sure your grammar is By being as concise and succinct as possible, it will allow you or your presenter improvise and expand on what is written in the script. Radio is at its best when it doesn’t sound rigid, whether fully scripted or not.

Set the Scene

Whether you are breaking a news story, or telling a joke on your comedy and music show, you have to remember that your listeners don’t have the visual aid of television or online video. This doesn’t mean that you have describe every setting you are talking about or every single detail, you just need to be aware that the listener may need helping hand to know what you are talking about.

 

RADIO PROGRAM SCRIPT:

CONTROL: PLAY SIGN TUNE FOR ONE MINUTE. AND CUE IN THE PRESENTER.

 

PRESENTER: HALLO AND WELCOME TO OUR TODAY’S PROGRAME “Dank Memes melt steel beems” I AM YOUR PRESENTER Kalingad Dynasty AND TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LOOK AT SOME OF THE POEMS THAT SPICE-UP AND HEAL BROKEN RELATIONSHIPS IN OUR DAILY LIVES, IN JUST A MOMENT.

 

PLAY MUSIC FOR 2 MIN AND CUE IN THE PRESENTER.

 

PRESENTER: WELCOME, TO KICK OFF THE SHOW;

Roses are red

Violets are blue

Omai wa mou Shindeiru

For more in just a moment

 

CONTROL: PLAY MUSIC FOR ONE MIN. AND THEN PLAY AN ADVERT, CUE IN THE PRESENTER.

 

PRESENTER: WELCOME BACK IF YOU ‘VE JUST JOINED US, YOU ARE TUNED IN THE FREQUENCIES OF 96.1 MODULATION Blaze it FM AND WITH YOU IN THE STUDIO IS Kalingad Dynasty

 

PRESENTER: I WILL BE TAKING A GLASS OF WATER AND COME BACK WITH MORE AFTER THE BREAK, STAY TUNED IN 420 Blaze it FM.

 

CONTROL: PLAY MUSIC FOR 3 MIN AND CUE IN THE PRESENTER.

 

PRESENTER: YOU ARE TUNED IN 420 FM, AND THE PROGRAM ON AIR IS “LOVE INDUSTRY” A PROGRAM THAT IS BROUGHT TO YOU BY Kalingad Dynasty EVRY FRIDAY AFTERNOON.

AND TODAY WE ARE HOSTING SOME OF THE POEMS THAT ADD SPICE AND HEAL BROKEN RELATIONSHIPS. WITH YOU IN THE STUDIO IS Kalingad Dynasty

 

I like memes

 

 

Words don’t deliver half as much

My reaction can be boiled down

To 500×500 pixels

I’m utterly speechles

It takes no thought to post

It takes little wit

To giggle at an injoke

That the whole world is in on

It’s nice to be part of something though

And share a snigger

We watch trends change

 

 

And language evolve

Without considering our role

What was rellevant some years ago

Is nostalgia in the archives

Of our collective history

Memes are the roman wall graffiti

Of the techno age

Only it’s copied over and over

And spread like wildfire

Only to diseappear in the blink of an eye

 

CONTROLER: PLAY BACKGROUND MUSIC AS THE PRESENTER SIGNS OUT

 

PRESENTER: WE NOW COME TO THE END OF OUR TODAY’S SHOW, JOIN ME NEXT TIME SAME PLACE, SAME TIME, SAME FREQUENCIES, I HAVE BEEN YOUR PRESENTER Kalingad Dynasty. THANKYOU FOR LISTENING.

CONTROLER: PLAY MUSIC FOR 3 MIN, THEN ADVERT AS YOU CUE IN ANOTHER PROGRAM.

 


“The jacket or cover of a book is crucial in its marketing.” Discuss.

The Question Bank is a literal Mindblast

The popular idiom is “Don’t judge a book by its cover,” but despite how true it might be in an idealistic sense, the reality of the book industry is that the vast majority of readers do indeed use the cover of a book as a deciding factor in not only whether or not they should buy the book, but if they will enjoy it as well.

With millions of books for readers to choose from, the first “sales pitch” is the cover. If it is not striking enough to draw attention, it will be passed over for something more interesting on either side.

If the text is not clear enough from a distance, or when the image is a thumbnail online, then a great sounding title will be lost on a potential customer. If the font is sloppy, unappealing, illegible, or just unprofessional (such as the overly-used, and some would say abused, Comic Sans or Papyrus fonts), it will immediately turn off the reader.

The cover is not only a billboard for the book, but, in a sense, the first page of the story, because it is here that the book can communicate a little of the style and mood of the tale inside. A dark cover, with lots of shadow, can suggest a horror, while a bright white cover with clouds could suggest a motivational textbook. This is important because it speaks to the emotions of the reader, engaging them on a deeper level, and thus potentially not only securing a book sale, but setting the stage for whether or not they will like the book in the first place.

A cover can also create preconceptions in a reader’s mind about what the characters or the setting look like. It is debatable whether or not this is a good thing, as the cover design may not match the author or reader’s ideas, but it could act as a visual aid where necessary. Romance and erotica obviously make good use of this fact with appealing models on the front cover, enticing readers as much as they might entice each other as characters in the story.

A well-designed cover is the first assurance the reader has that the book is of a high quality, both in content and delivery. The cover can scare away a customer or lure them in. Bad covers, with pixelated images, watermarks clearly visible, text badly formatted or aligned, and so forth, suggest to the reader that the interior of the book will be equally sloppy.

When a cover design is poorly produced it can also create preconceptions in the mind of the reader, setting them in “critical” mode as opposed to “enjoyment” mode. With their attention already drawn to errors and sloppiness, they will more easily spot mistakes in the text, or might even go looking for them. They are also likely to be less forgiving of typos than they would of what appears to be a more professional work.

The importance of cover design has prompted many big publishers to come up with different covers for different markets, catering to the unique culture of each region. Design principles are not the same the whole world over, leading to, for example, simpler designs on many UK covers, with more frequent use of negative space, and more detailed designs on US covers that cram in more imagery, potentially speaking to different cultural perceptions of “value for money.”

Titles on covers can also change, thanks to different meanings of words in different countries. A classic example is Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, which was renamed Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone in the US, since “philosopher” does not have the same connotations with magic there as it does in the UK. The artwork also changed to help reinforce the magical themes of the book, and the font itself became much more mystical, ending up being the form that was employed for the movies as well.

Great cover designs therefore need to draw the reader’s attention, engage them on an emotional level, suggest the tone and style of the work, and showcase the quality of the book itself, all the while taking into consideration the potential cultural expectations of the reader. This is a monumental task, without doubt, but one that could be a deciding factor in making a book a best-seller.

 


Explain the significance of revision and editing before publishing a work.

It goes without saying that you should revise and edit your work. Have you ever sent in a paper or a manuscript to a publisher without revision? A clumsily written paper with grammatical mistakes may lead to a rejection. If you run a blog, typos will do nothing to increase the traffic in your website. Hence, make sure to revise and edit your writing.

What is revision?

When you revise a piece of writing, you are looking at the text for possible mistakes. A revision should be followed by a re-drafting of the text. You need to see if your argument follows a logical sequence, if all your ideas are in place, and if you need to include or exclude any points. Think of revision as structural editing. You must ensure that your text follows a proper structure before you start looking for spelling or grammatical mistakes.

What is editing?

Once you are satisfied with the revision, start the editing process. Editing is all about paying attention to detail. You need to scan your text for silly typos, grammatical and spelling errors, and syntactical mistakes. You must also ensure that the cited references are correct. Software for checking grammar and spelling can come in handy, but you cannot trust them blindly.

Errors that you may find when you revise and edit your work:

  • One common error relates to the apostrophe.

Incorrect: I always spend summer holidays at my grandmothers house.

Correct: I always spend summer holidays at my grandmother’s house.

  • Do you know that you can mix up two similar sounding words? For example: The word ‘affect’ means ‘to have an influence on’, while ‘effect’ means ‘to bring about something’.

Incorrect: The tragedy effected my family.

Correct: The tragedy affected my family.

  • It is also common to make a mistake in the subject-verb agreement.

Incorrect: Each and every student were given chocolates.

Correct: Each and every student was given chocolates.

Incorrect: I could see my grandfather coming through the window.

Correct: Through the window, I could see my grandfather coming.

Making sure to revise and edit your work will increase the quality of your text. Remember, what you have written might be great, but the necessary tweaks will make it greater.

 


Explain how important it is for an author or publisher to determine the commercial potential of the work to be published.

The Answer is Kind of Self Study and Stuff.

You may be a good writer, you may have a good story or work, you may go to publish it and the publisher may tell you that it lacks potential. 

I bet Potterheads exist, and so do many others, and might’ve heard that a book is rejected for publication by many publishers. In these cases an author goes to different publishers, or they try to look at their work.

 

The Question comprises of all the points you read about literature in this Answer Bank. The Narrative Arc, the Rhyme Schemes, the Metaphors, Figures of Speech, the Freshness of the Character, the determination of Popular Culture, the Characters, Protagonist, Antagonist, their depth, etc. All of these when thoroughly checked will get you a good work.

Many a times a work is published as well and then you realize that it is falling down on sales. CID ended recently #sadboihours.  Was it bad? No. Was it good? Yes. Were you watching? …um… yes. Thats the Potential. The Work was good, but you did not go to it again and again. My Instagram Captions are hardcore btw, #CanReadAgain #Like5Times<3. 

 

This is not an answer, there is nothing definite I found. However you can definitely suggest or add something to add up to it. I was reminded to write for this answer and wrote on basis of what Deepita, Sheldon, and Nishtha [few of my friends] said.


 

What is standard manuscript format?

Bored ? Tired ? Partner left ya ? Didn’t get a Partner? Wanna die?

Well just check the Bolded Words if you are in a hurry and expand on them

    1. Manuscripts must be typed, double-spaced, on one side of the paper, with wide enough margins (min. 1-in.) for the editor to make notations.

 

    1. Fonts (and here’s where the fights occur): The preference is for monospaced fonts — fonts where all letters are the same width. The most commonly used monospaced font is Courier; the most commonly preferred size is 12 points (also called 10 pitch — 10 characters to the inch).

 

    1. No fancy formatting within the manuscript. Indent each paragraph five spaces (1/2 in.). Indicate italics by underlining (do not use italics; they are easily missed). Indicate boldface by drawing a wavy line beneath the text and writing “bf” in a circle in the margin. Do not hyphenate words (the typesetter will include the hyphen so the word might read “Schenec-tady”). Do not right justify the text (you may like it, but it’s harder to read — especially on long paragraphs — and it messes up word counts).

 

    1. Indicate a blank line by placing a # in the center of the line. The # indicates space to a typesetter.

 

    1. At the top of the first page, type your name (the one you want them to write the checks out to) and address at the upper left corner. Type the word count at the upper right corner Skip down to the middle of the page. Type the title of the story, centered (optionally: ALL CAPS). Go down a line. Type “by Your Name” (if you want to use a pen name, type it here; the check will be sent to the name at the upper left). Go down another line and begin the story.

 

    1. Don’t put on a Copyright notice. It’s unnecessary. You also don’t have to indicate the rights offered. Most magazines tell you what they’re buying; if you don’t like it, don’t submit to them. Don’t write “Approximately” by the word count. Editors know the word count is approximate.

 

    1. On each additional page, put your last name and the page number in the upper right corner: Name/2

 

    1. You can also include a keyword from the title of the story: Name/Keyword/2, but this is optional — it’s rare that you have two manuscripts in a position when they can be mixed up, and if at the last minute you decide to retitle your novel, you only have to change the title page instead of printing out the entire thing with the correct keyword.

 

  1. At the end of the story, center the word “end”.

In general, a document with standard manuscript format will have the following features:

    • 8.5″×11″ or A4 paper size.

 

    • Courier or a similar monospaced serif font.

 

    • 12-point (10 pitch) or 10-point (12 pitch) font size.

 

    • Double-spaced lines of text (set in a word processor as 24-point or 20-point line spacing).

 

    • 24 or 25 lines of text.

 

    • 1, 1.25 or 1.5 inch margins.

 

    • Paragraph indentation of 0.5 inches.

 

  • Printed one-sided with black ink.

On the first page of the document, the author’s name and contact information appears in the top left corner. In the top right corner of the first page, the wordcount appears.

Subsequent pages only have text in the top right corner. This text includes: the author’s name, a slash, an abbreviated title, another slash, and the page number.


Write a detailed note on the intellectual property rights in publishing industry.

Alright so I did not actually find an answer, but I will post this article, which might help you maybe?

Certain Rights exist, A Person has full claim on what his content is, but the publisher doesnt
An Author has the rights for making the story and taking it forward, but Publisher decides the Publishing Aspects
An idea can be taken, but the the entire book cannot be reused again,
Publisher and Author have a certain discussed amount and share, which can also tend to change
Author has all the rights to make changes in his story and take it forward

According to Ananth Padmanabhan, Vice-President, Sales, Penguin Books India, “the English language publishing market in India is estimated to be about Rs 7,000 crores or US$1.4 billion with a growth rate of 10per cent per annum.  Of this, it is estimated that book pirates impact nearly 30 per cent of the market. At times, with best sellers by Jeffrey Archer and Dan Brown, the pirated copies could even equal the amount of copies sold by the legitimate publisher.”  So, the financial contribution of the rights department to the business of publishing for the firm and the author is not to be sneezed at as it is a significant revenue-generating stream, but it is tough to get figures as no one reveals them. It is possible to gauge the size of the rights market by the volume of business conducted at Frankfurt Book Fair-a trade fair that focuses on the buying and selling of rights. It is safe to say that the volume of business transacted is substantial and exceeds millions of dollars.

 

According to the WTO, intellectual property rights are “defined as the rights given to people over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creations for a certain period of time. Copyright and rights related to copyright is a part of rights granted to authors of literary and artistic works, and the rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations. The main purpose of protection of copyright and related rights is to encourage and reward creative work.”

 

If the work is published, then the publisher is bound by the contract signed, to give the author a royalty based upon the total sales. The author transfers or assigns an exclusive license to the publisher the copyright of the work for a fixed time period, which usually coincides with the duration of the publishing contract. This implies that the publisher is authorised to sell “rights” to the author’s work, across “territories” and in all formats and they are able to do so with the explicit consent of the author. The copyright term in India is for the lifetime of the author plus sixty years. After the lapse of the copyright period, the work enters the public domain.   

 

The concept of copyright and protection of an author’s rights has been enshrined by the Berne Convention, 1886. As soon as the work is written or recorded, its author is automatically entitled to all copyrights in the work and to any subsidiary rights. All authors are given the same rights and privileges to copyrighted material in any country that signed the Convention. In 1996, the World Intellectual Property Organisation Copyright Treaty was adopted to address the electronic forms of publishing. The core principle of the Berne Convention recognises the author as the key figure to the owner of copyright dispute and not the publisher. Over a period of time, this right has encompassed the moral and the economic right to the work. Till September 2008, there were only 164 countries that were signatories to this Convention.

In the publishing industry, the price of the book is miniscule compared to the total cost involved in producing it that ranges across departments like editorial; legal; rights; design; production; and sales and marketing. Unfortunately, it is impossible to get numbers about the costs per department, as there are thumb rules to decide the distribution of the costs, and the percentages allocated to each department depend upon the strategies of the firm.  As with any business, the common costs of a publishing house has to take into account the possibility of a title not recovering its investment. But there is one definite, reliable and profitable revenue stream for any publisher, which is the buying and selling of rights. This is done by “carving up” the world in territories for which the copyright of a work is bought or sold. For instance, the sale of Vikram Seth in English language territories is managed by different publishers. He is published in Britain by Hachette, in the US by HarperCollins, in Canada by McArthur, and by Penguin in India. Today, he is legally safeguarded by any infringing copy infiltrating any territory, except for a stray copy or two that may have been bought from online sites like Amazon by readers for their personal use. But Vikram Seth is secure in the sales of his books and gets due royalty from all concerned territories. Apart from the sale of books in one language across distinct geographical boundaries, other subsidiary right possibilities include translations, serial rights, extracts, book clubs, audio and other electronic formats, hard back editions, loose sheet sales, and dramatisations including film, theatre and radio. In theory, the long tail of the subsidiary rights could be equally if not more lucrative than a straightforward language/territorial right.  So, a healthy publishing firm will insist on the sale of rights of its successful titles to ensure a steady revenue stream that will help bolster its publishing programme. This interdependence between different lines of business works well, but it is dependent on the close safeguarding of the territory, which is usually done with the government protection of trade barriers.


Explain how one could start a blog.

Well, where do I start. Make a Gmail Account. Go to Blogger.com.

It’s really that simple. I had this question in 10th Grade as well, some people are never gonna give up asking the same questions again and again and again and again

Wondering how to start a blog? I’m so glad you’re here! I will explain the necessary steps for a successful blogging start, no technical experience required.

Why start a blog?

There are so many reasons! Here are a few common ones:

    • Work from home. Making money blogging is hard work, but the barrier to entry is low, making it very low risk.

 

    • Be an author. It’s no secret, these days publishers rarely work with authors who don’t have a blog (the main piece of a “platform”). Why? It’s a lot easier to sell books to people who already know you.

 

    • Grow an existing business. A blog gives anyone–individuals or large companies–the ability to reach a world of people at very little cost.

 

  • Just write. If you want to write, share your story, encourage others and build a community, a blog is a great place to do that.

 

The 6 basic steps to start a blog 

Step 1. [Dont. Please.]

Here’s what we’ll cover. Don’t worry, I’ll walk you right through!

    1. Decide what to blog about. You probably have a good idea already.

 

    1. Choose a blogging platform. WordPress wins!

 

    1. Find a host. Here’s my vote.

 

    1. Pick a domain name & hosting package. Simple.

 

    1. Open WordPress. It’s starting to get fun!

 

    1. Make your site secure with HTTPS. So important.

 

  1. Design & use your blog!

Step 1: Decide what to blog about

If you’re an individual, pick a topic of your choice! If you’re a business or organization, your blog should be related to the product(s) or service(s) you provide, or the cause you promote.

    • Pick a topic you truly enjoy. If you don’t care about your topic, writing about it will be drudgery and your readers will pick up on your disinterest.

 

  • Pick something you can talk about for a long time to come. A blog requires a lot of content to get going and remain interesting.

The goal for any blog is to become the go-to resource for its topic or niche.

Step 2: Choose a blogging platform

If you want to cook, you need a kitchen. If you want to blog, you need a blogging platform.

What is the best blogging platform?

I use and recommend WordPress. It is by far the most popular blogging platform (source). This is for good reason—it’s easy to use, flexible and has a large community of people who share tools and ideas.

There are 2 types of WordPress blogs you can start (and one I don’t recommend):

    1. A free one on WordPress.com. I don’t recommend this option because your growth is limited (you get what you pay for, right?).

 

  1. A self-hosted WordPress site. This is my recommendation, and the subject of this post. You’ll have much more control and flexibility. (Sometimes this type is called a WordPress.org blog.)

Step 3: Find a host

A host makes your site available on the internet. There are many to choose from (and no host is perfect), but I’ve been a paying customer of Bluehost for over a decade. They are well-established, inexpensive and good for beginners.

Go to BlueHost,

Select a plan,

Choose your Plan.

I typically go with the Plus or Prime plan because you get more unlimited features, but if your budget is tight choose the Basic plan. You can upgrade at any time.

Step 4: Pick a domain name & hosting package

A domain is a web address. For example, instagram.com/kalingad_dynasty  google.com is a domain.

Enter a new or existing domain

Quick tips for choosing a domain name:

    • The goal is to make it easy to remember and easy to share!

 

    • Go with a .com whenever possible. People always assume .com before other extensions like .net, .org, .co or others.

 

    • Make it easy to say and spell.

 

    • Don’t include hyphens, numbers, obscure terms or confusing strings of words.

 

    • If you’re not sure what to use, your name is a safe bet to start.

 

  • Be creative or try a phrase if you’re having trouble finding an available name.

Enter your account info

On the next page, enter your account info. Make sure you use a working email address because this is where your login information will be sent.

Select an account plan

Under Package Information select your Account Plan based on how far in advance you want to pay.

Enter your billing info

Fill in your billing information, confirm that you’ve read the fine print and then click Submit.

Activate your domain

In one of the welcome emails, you need to activate your domain (if you chose a new one). Simply open the email and click the button inside to complete the activation process.

Choose a password

At the end of your purchase, you’ll be welcomed and asked to choose a password. Just click the “Create your password” button to choose a secure password.

 

This password will allow you to login and get started.

Step 5: Open WordPress

Bluehost automatically installs WordPress for you so you can start working on your WordPress site right away. Click the blue log in button in the “Congratulations!” window to get started with WordPress!

 

Should you choose a theme now?

Once you’ve logged in, Bluehost gives you the option to pick a free theme immediately. I recommend you skip this step for a few reasons:

    1. Free themes need to be used with caution as many times they are not kept updated.

 

  1. The free theme that comes pre-packaged and automatically installed will suffice for now. You can always add a new theme later.

Just click “Skip this step” at the bottom of the screen. Then you’ll be prompted to start building your site.

 

Step 6: Make your site secure with HTTPS

Take advantage of Bluehost’s free SSL Certificate included free with your hosting account. This option is only available once your domain registration is fully completed and you are no longer on your temporary domain.

Step 7: Design & use your blog!

Congratulations! You are now the proud owner of a self-hosted WordPress Blog/Site. There are many things you can do at this point. Blogging is about learning as you go and tackling things as you can. Here are some things you might want to explore.


What is premise? Write premises of any four films, novels or plays of your choice.

The premise is the foundation of your story-that single core statement, says James N. Frey, “of what happens to the characters as a result of the actions of astory.” For instance, the premise of The Three Little Pigs is “Foolishness leads to death, and wisdom leads to happiness.”

MICHAEL CRICHTON doesn’t have the deep human characters of a Chekhov or the brilliant plots of a Dickens. He just happens to be the best premise writer in Hollywood.

Take Jurassic Park, for example. Crichton’s story might have come from this designing principle: “What if you took the two greatest heavyweights of evolution—dinosaurs and humans—and forced them to fight to the death in the same ring?”

Now that’s a story I want to see.

There are many ways to start the writing process. Some writers prefer to begin by breaking the story into its seven primary steps, which we will explore in the next chapter. But most begin with the shortest expression of the story as a whole, the premise line.

 

WHAT IS THE PREMISE?

The premise is your story stated in one sentence. It is the simplest combination of character and plot and typically consists of some event that starts the action, some sense of the main character, and some sense of the outcome of the story. Some examples:

    • The Godfather: The youngest son of a Mafia family takes revenge on the men who shot his father and becomes the new Godfather.

 

    • Moonstruck: While her fiance visits his mother in Italy, a woman falls in love with the man&#39;s brother.

 

    • Casablanca: A tough American expatriate rediscovers an old flame only to give her up so that he can fight the Nazis.

 

    • A Streetcar Named Desire: An aging beauty tries to get a man to marry her while under constant attack from her sister’s brutish husband.

 

    • Star Wars: When a princess falls into mortal danger, a young man uses his skills as a fighter to save her and defeat the evil forces of a galactic empire.

 

    • Attack on Titan: After his hometown is destroyed and his mother is killed, young Eren Jaegar vows to cleanse the earth of the giant humanoid Titans that have brought humanity to the brink of extinction.
      SPOILER ALERT GRIM REMINDER 2 . 0 IS COMING SOOOOOOON HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHHAA

 

  • Death Note: Light Yagami, a high school student who discovers a supernatural notebook from a Shinigami named Ryuk that grants its user the ability to kill anyone whose name and face he knows.

Difference between a Theme and a Premise:

PREMISE

This is a general term used to the describe the overall concept of a loosely formed story. It is the precursor to the genre, plot, tone and conflict of a film, without making any moral judgement on the underlying idea. There is no grand argument in a premise defining a premise as being either good or bad.

A premise often starts with the central question of the story without much reference to the film’s execution.

THEME

The theme evolved after the premise has been defined and what will be said about the central question. It refers to the underlying message of the story and how it expects an audience to respond to the material. A single premise may give rise to very different films if the thematic focus if the thematic focus is altered.


Write a poem in four lines with the syllable structure of 5-7, 5-7.

Alright I feel there has been a major mistake, this was supposed to be based on the original concept called Haiku, with three lines, and 5-7-5 pattern. However and Whatever, I added some based on Haiku concept, if they ask you in Exam, what to do? Die.

 

  • Windows NT crashed

 

I am the Blue Screen of Death

No one hears your screams

This wasn’t a proper 5-7-5, the rest are.

  1. Wanna play a game? (5)

With seventeen syllables (7)

Let’s write some haiku (5)

 

  1. Count your syllables (5)

Make sure you have seventeen (7)

In groups of three lines (5)

 

4. The first line has five (5)

The second line has seven (7)

The third line has five (5)

Now some Original Haikus,  submitted by a forum. You can even write Memes, meh, who cares.

 

  1. Japan has fallen

Pizza butt to the rescue

Season three come soon

  1. On that day: Attack.

Mankind again knows terror;

and with it, their shame.

On that day: Attack!

Hear the bellow of vengeance;

Humanity’s rage.

 

Now, no longer prey,

we shall become the hunter.

Devour the Titans!

 

Fantastic manga

A fantastic anime

But so many die

 

They have suffered so

I want the wicked to pay

Let it end in joy

 

You hated titans,

yet you transform into one.

What the hell, Eren?


Discuss ‘setting’ as an element of writing.

 

Setting is the place of story. It includes locations (office, bedroom, bar, cave, forest), cities or countries or planets, era or age, time of day, and cultural milieu. Setting answers the questions where and when.

A change in a novel’s setting produces a new story. That is, a story whose setting contributes to the tone and plot cannot be dropped into a different setting and remain the same story.

Setting influences character type, word choice, pace, tone, even genre. Setting enhances story by enfolding plot and character in a place where they fit, where their strengths can best be highlighted. Setting helps characters and events shine, it gives them a backdrop that allows them to show what best fits the story and hide what doesn’t belong.

Setting wraps the story in a package that provides plot & character clues and motivations and instigators that hold the story elements together in a cohesive unit.

Writers may naturally emphasize character over plot or plot over character. As do readers, writers have their preferences. One writer may have learned how to write character before she learned how to plot or vice versa. Or, one may have a natural talent for action rather than the psychological development of characters and therefore leans first to plot. Whatever comes easiest is likely to be the element on which the writer spends most of her time. If she’s good at it, why not emphasize her strength?

Yet, all writers can bring more to their stories, more character motivation or more action. They can take their strengths and add to them by learning more about how to delve into character and how to write action scenes that have the reader turning the pages for more.

Writers can use setting to bolster their weak areas—bring depth to a plot-first story by introducing a setting that heightens the characters’ strengths and weaknesses. Or use setting, some place of great meaning for the main character, as a jumping off place for a dramatic action scene.


Discuss ‘flashback’ as a literary device.

Flashback is a literary device wherein the author depicts the occurrence of specific events to the reader, which have taken place before the present time the narration is following, or events that have happened before the events that are currently unfolding in the story. Flashback devices that are commonly used are past narratives by characters, depictions and references of dreams and memories and a sub device known as authorial sovereignty wherein the author directly chooses to refer to a past occurrence by bringing it up in a straightforward manner. Flashback is used to create a background to the present situation, place or person.

Example:

Back in the day when Sarah was a young girl…

[so cliche. ew]

You can see flashbacks used very often in movies. For example, it is common in movies for there to be a flashback that gives the viewer a look into the characters life when they were younger, or when they have done something previously. This is done to help the viewer better understand the present situation.


Discuss ‘theme’ as an element of writing.

In contemporary literary studies, a theme is the central topic a text treats. Themes can be divided into two categories:

    • a work’s thematic concept is what readers “think the work is about”

 

  • and its thematic statement being “what the work says about the subject”.

The most common contemporary understanding of theme is an idea or point that is central to a story, which can often be summed in a single word (e.g. love, death, betrayal).

Typical examples of themes of this type are conflict between the individual and society; coming of age; humans in conflict with technology; nostalgia; and the dangers of unchecked ambition. A theme may be exemplified by the actions, utterances, or thoughts of a character in a novel.

An example of this would be the thematic idea of loneliness in John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men, wherein many of the characters seem to be lonely. It may differ from the thesis—the text’s or author’s implied worldview.

A story may have several themes. Themes often explore historically common or cross-culturally recognizable ideas, such as ethical questions, and are usually implied rather than stated explicitly. An example of this would be whether one should live a seemingly better life, at the price of giving up parts of one’s humanity, which is a theme in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. Along with plot, character, setting, and style, theme is considered one of the components of fiction.

 

Too Long? Dont Worry!

The theme is the main idea the writer of the poem or story wants the reader to understand and remember.

You may have used the word “Moral” in discussing theme; but it’s not a good synonym because “moral” implies a positive meaning or idea.  And not all themes are positive.

One word—love, for example—may be a topic; but it cannot be a theme.

A theme is a statement about a topic.

For example:  “The theme of the story is that love is the most important thing in the world.”  That’s a cliché, of course, but it is a theme.

Not all stories or poems (or films) have an overriding “universal” theme.  


Discuss ‘hyperbole’ as a literary device.

Hyperbole, derived from a Greek word meaning “over-casting,” is a figure of speech that involves an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis.

It is a device that we employ in our day-to-day speech. For instance, when you meet a friend after a long time, you say, “It’s been ages since I last saw you.” You may not have met him for three or four hours, or a day, but the use of the word “ages” exaggerates this statement to add emphasis to your wait. Therefore, a hyperbole is an unreal exaggeration to emphasize the real situation. Some other common Hyperbole examples are given below.

Common Examples of Hyperbole

    • My grandmother is as old as the hills.

 

    • Your suitcase weighs a ton!

 

    • She is as heavy as an elephant!

 

    • I am dying of shame.

 

  • I am trying to solve a million issues these days.

It is important not to confuse hyperbole with simile and metaphor. It does make a comparison, like simile and metaphor. Rather, hyperbole has a humorous effect created by an overstatement. Let us see some examples from Classical English literature in which hyperbole was used successfully.

Short Examples of Hyperbole

    1. A ton of worry was lifted from the beggar’s back when he received the alms.

 

    1. He saw a man as tall a power poll.

 

    1. He saw his childhood friend after ages.

 

    1. The weather was so hot that literally everything was on fire.

 

    1. The boy was dying to get a new school bag.

 

    1. The teacher told his students not to repeat that mistake for the umpteenth time, but to no avail.

 

    1. He was in such a hurry that he drove his car at a bazillion miles per hour.

 

  1. The minister told the guests that the couple’s friendship was deeper than the sea, and sweeter than honey.

Discuss ‘non-linear or flashback plot’.

Non-linear plot structures present the events of a story in a non-chronological order. Authors will use non-linear plots to more closely mimic the way human memory works.

If flashback begins the story, it’s considered part of a linear plot, because it presents the events of a story in chronological order.

If it occurs after the story begins, it disrupts the chronological events of the story, which creates a non-linear plot.

This structure conveys information about events that occurred earlier. It permits the authors to begin the story in the midst of the action but later fill in the background for full understanding of the present events. Flashbacks can occur more than once and in different parts of a story.

Often the writer will use the technique of flashback to provide background details or to tell the story. For instance, Margaret Attwood “Death by Landscape” tells a tale that goes from childhood to middle age

 


Discuss third person omniscient point of view.

The third-person omniscient point of view is a method of storytelling in which the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters in the story, as opposed to third-person limited, which adheres closely to one character’s — usually the main character’s — perspective.

Through the use of the third-person omniscient viewpoint, a writer can bring to life an entire world of characters and give them significant depth.

This is an especially useful literary device in complicated stories with many characters. The narrator might let the reader know information about each character that some of the characters might not know about each other.

Third-Person Omniscient in ‘Anna Karenina’

For instance, Leo Tolstoy’s renowned and character-heavy novel “Anna Karenina” is told from multiple points of view.

Some sections are told from Anna’s point of view: ‘”All the same, he’s a good man, truthful, kind and remarkable in his sphere,’ Anna said to herself, going back to her room, as if defending him before someone who was accusing him and saying that it was impossible to love him. ‘But why do his ears stick out so oddly? Did he have to have his hair cut?”‘

“Exactly at midnight, when Anna was still sitting at her desk finishing a letter to Dolly, she heard the measured steps of slippered feet, and Alexei Alexandrovich, washed and combed, a book under his arm, came up to her.”

“‘It’s time, it’s time,’ he said with a special smile, and went into the bedroom.”

“‘And what right did he have to look at him like that?’ thought Anna, recalling how Vronsky had looked at Alexei Alexandrovich.”

But many other points of view are given equal importance. Here’s some inside information for the reader about another major character in “Anna Karenina,” Konstantin Levin, told entirely by the narrator, without dialogue:

“The house was big, old and Levin, though he lived alone, heated and occupied all of it. He knew that it was even wrong and contrary to his new plans, but this house was a whole world for Levin. It was the world in which his father and mother had lived and died. They had lived a life which for Levin seemed the ideal of all perfection and which he dreamed of renewing with his wife, with his family.”

Novels Told in Third-Person Omniscient

    • “Anna Karenina” by Leo Tolstoy

 

    • “Little Women” by Louisa May Alcott

 

    • “The Scarlet Letter” by Nathaniel Hawthorne

 

    • “1984” by George Orwell

 


Discuss ‘characterization’.

Characterization is a literary device that is used step by step in literature to highlight and explain the details about a character in a story.

It is in the initial stage where the writer introduces the character with noticeable emergence and then following the introduction of the character, the writer often talks about his behavior; then as the story progresses, the thought-process of the character. The next stage involves the character expressing his opinions and ideas and getting into conversations with the rest of the characters. The final part shows how others in the story respond to the character’s personality.

Characterization as a literary tool was coined in the mid 15th century. Aristotle in his Poetics argued that “tragedy is a representation, not of men, but of action and life”. Thus the assertion of the dominance of plot over characters, termed as plot-driven narrative, is unmistakable. This point of view was later on abandoned by many because, in the 19th century, the dominance of character over plot became clear through petty bourgeois novels.

Types of Characterization

An author can use two approaches to deliver information about a character and build an image of it:

  1. Direct or explicit characterization

This kind of characterization takes a direct approach towards building the character. It uses another character, narrator or the protagonist himself to tell the readers or audience about the subject.
E.g. Elsa meet Him, I fell in Love with Him, he is caring and all stuff. It was love at first sight kinda stuff [Dude is Nice, Charming and Caring]

  1. Indirect or implicit characterization

This is a more subtle way of introducing the character to the audience. The audience has to deduce for themselves the characteristics of the character by observing his/her thought process, behavior, speech, way of talking, appearance, and way of communication with other characters and also by discerning the response of other characters.
e.g. Anna wakes up with messed up hair, some in her mouth, she is lousy and stuff, and she starts walking with eyes closed and realises its the day the gates open [Anna is Lazy AF] [Papa can you hear me?]

Function

Characterization is an essential component in writing good literature. Modern fiction, in particular, has taken great advantage of this literary device. Understanding the role of characterization in storytelling is very important for any writer. To put it briefly, it helps us make sense of the behavior of any character in a story by helping us understand their thought processes. A good use of characterization always leads the readers or audience to relate better to the events taking place in the story. Dialogues play a very important role in developing a character because they give us an opportunity to examine the motivations and actions of the characters more deeply.


Discuss the following types of conflict with examples from literature and/or film (Any one ):

1. Man against society

2. Man against fate

3. Man against supernatural

4. Man against nature

5. Man against man

6. Man against machine

Well if you click a hidden word in this very sentence, it will open a PPT, which has detailed information about all of this, you just need to expand on it


Epic

The word epic is derived from the Ancient Greek adjective, “epikos”, which means a poetic story. In literature, an epic is a long narrative poem, which is usually related to heroic deeds of a person of an unusual courage and unparalleled bravery. In order to depict this bravery and courage, the epic uses grandiose style.

The hero is usually the representative of the values of a certain culture, race, nation or a religious group on whose victor of failure the destiny of the whole nation or group depends. Therefore, certain supernatural forces, deus ex machina, help the hero, who comes out victor at the end. An epic usually starts with an invocation to muse, but then picks up the threads of the story from the middle and moves on to the end.


Difference Between an Epic and a Ballad

A ballad and an epic both are poems, which narrate stories. However, a ballad is shorter in length than an epic, while it is composed to be sung on some occasions, and not narrated. They are also known as folk ballads as well as popular ballads. Most of the ballads have unknown origin and source and usually pass on orally from generations to generations. On the other hand, an epic poem tells a story, but about the heroic ideals of a specific society. The actual difference between the two is the length and the fact that one is usually meant to be sung, while the other is to be narrated. Both differ in style where a ballad is composed in a simple language, while an epic demonstrates mastery in style such as Paradise Lost.

Examples of Epic from Literature

The Epic of Gilgamesh (~2000 BCE)

Perhaps, the Epic of Gilgamesh is the first example of an epic. It tells the story of the life of an Assyrian king, Gilgamesh. Like all other epics, the narrative of this epic revolves around the themes related to gods, human beings, mortality, legacy and seduction. Like other epics, it is also composed in a grand style. Gilgamesh is a young arrogant king due to his being half-god and half-human. His strength and masculine beauty becomes a constant source of trouble for others. Therefore, gods grow sick of Gilgamesh’s arrogant and troublesome attitude and decide to teach him a lesson. He is made to fight his antagonist, Enkidu, and then go on a long journey to bring the plant of life — a journey on which he learns the lessons of life. Although the epic is written nearly 4,000 years ago, critics are unanimous that it is a human work.

The Iliad (800 BCE)

Iliad is another example of an epic. It was written by the popular Greek poet, Homer. It relates the story of the Trojan wars, involving themes of courage, boldness, love for one’s country and nostalgia of family. However, it describes many legends related to the siege of Troy, the events took place before the siege, the gathering of the warriors prior to the siege and the causes of the war. Later, the epic foretold the looming death of Achilles and the destruction of Troy. The style of narration is grand, and suits an epic poem — the reason that it is still one the most celebrated work of antiquity.

 

Ramayan

Ramayana, ( Sanskrit: “Rama’s Journey”) shorter of the two great epic poems of India, the other being the Mahabharata (“Great Epic of the Bharata Dynasty”). The Ramayana was composed in Sanskrit, probably not before 300 bce, by the poet Valmiki and in its present form consists of some 24,000 couplets divided into seven books.

 

Function of Epic

As the epic poem is the earliest form of poetry, it is the earliest form of entertainment as well. Epics were written to commemorate the struggles and adventures of kings and warriors. The main function of epic poetry was to elevate the status of the hero among the audiences to inspire them to be ready to perform heroic actions. Epic obtained most of its themes from the exploits performed by legendary characters and their illustrious ancestors. That is why these exploits became examples for others to follow, and still lived in books. It is through epics, models of ideal heroic behavior were supplied to the common people. Moreover, epics also were collections of historical events not recorded in common history books — the reason that they are read today to be enjoyed and be informed regarding the past


Thriller

A thriller is a genre of literature, film, and television whose primary feature is that it induces strong feelings of excitement, anxiety, tension, suspense, fear, and other similar emotions in its readers or viewers—in other words, media that thrills the audience.

Example of a Thriller

Read the story below:

The woman crept down the hall in the dark, holding baseball bat above her head, her arms shaking, lungs begging for air as she tried not to breath. She knew it was here, the one who stalked her, terrorized her, tried to kill her—she didn’t care what everyone said. She knew it was all of it was real, and now she was going to catch it and prove to everyone that she wasn’t insane. She was almost at the doorway. 5 more steps. 4 more steps. 3. 2. 1…BANG! She threw open door, and swung the bat with all of the force in her being—

The short passage above is a small part of a thriller—it builds tension and suspense in both the audience and for the main character, drawing the audience in to find out what happens—one way or another, whether the woman is crazy or sane, the outcome promises to be exciting.

Types of Thrillers

There are a seemingly endless number of types of thrillers, as they can be combined with nearly any type of conflict to produce emotions that thrill the audience. Below are the most prevalent types of thrillers:

a. Psychological Thriller

Thrillers that focus on characters that have extreme psychological disorders, such as psychopaths and people with split personalities. These disorders accordingly cause serious personal issues, that eventually lead to conflicts with strangers and other characters. Sometimes, the main character is a psychopath that serves as both the protagonist and the antagonist.

b. Crime Thriller

Thrillers that have crime and justice as their primary focuses, usually with topics like murder, kidnapping, drugs, robbery, mistaken identity, etc. Usually the main character is a person who is fighting for justice, like a cop, lawyer, special agent, or even superhero (for example, Batman).

c. Mystery Thriller

A thriller that begins with a mystery that needs to be solved, typically with negative consequences at stake. Suspense and tension build as the audience gets closer and closer to learning the answer to the mystery.

Thrillers are an important genre because they exist to excite audiences—their whole purpose is to induce the strongest emotional responses possible. They allow the audience to experience feelings that they typically do not feel on a normal basis, providing a level of (usually) fearful excitement that would regularly be difficult and unusual to achieve. Readers and viewers do not typically want to experience these emotions in their own daily lives; but because thrillers are fictional, the sensations thrillers produce in the audience are exhilarating rather than actually threatening.


Point of View

Point of view is the angle of considering things, which shows us the opinion, or feelings of the individuals involved in a situation. In literature, point of view is the mode of narration that an author employs to let the readers “hear” and “see” what takes place in a story, poem, essay etc.

Point of view is a reflection of the opinion an individual from real life or fiction can have. Examples of point of view belong to one of these three major kinds:

  1. First person point of view involves the use of either of the two pronouns “I” and “we”.
    • Example:

 

  • “I felt like I was getting drowned with shame and disgrace.”
  1. Second person point of view employs the pronoun “you”.
  • “Sometimes you cannot clearly discern between anger and frustration.”
  1. Third person point of view uses pronouns like “he”, “she”, “it”, “they” or a name.
  • “Mr. Stewart is a principled man. He acts by the book and never lets you deceive him easily.”

Point of View Examples in Literature

Example # 1

Hamlet, the protagonist, explains the feeling of melancholy, which afflicts him after his father’s death in the following lines (from Shakespeare’s “Hamlet”, Scene II of Act II).

“I have of late,—but wherefore I know not,—lost all my mirth, forgone all custom of exercises; and indeed, it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly frame, the earth, seems to me a sterile promontory.”

This is one of the best first person point of view examples. The use of first person point of view gives us a glimpse into the real inner feelings of frustration of the character. The writer has utilized the first person point of view to expose Hamlet’s feelings in a detailed way.

 

Point of view is an integral tool of description in the author’s hands to portray personal emotions or characters’ feelings about an experience or situation. Writers use a point of view to express effectively what they want to convey to their readers.


Protagonist

Protagonist (pronounced  pro-TAG-oh-nist) is just another word for “main character.” The story circles around this character’s experiences, and the audience is invited to see the world from his or her perspective. Note that the protagonist is not necessarily a “good guy.” Although most of the time the protagonist is some kind of hero, sometimes we see the whole story from the perspective of a villain.

Most stories have only one protagonist, but it’s entirely possible to have a story that weaves together multiple different perspectives. In such a story, the different narrative threads should all get tied together in the end.

Examples of Protagonist

Example 1

The word “hero” originally derives from Heracles, the Greek name for Hercules. So many of our heroic protagonists are based in some way on this archetypal hero whose tremendous strength allowed him to slay monsters that no one else could defeat. In modern stories, our heroes tend to be more complicated than the classical monster-slayer – not always, though! Plenty of modern super heroes can be seen doing battle with giant, destructive monsters.

Example 2

Villain protagonists are often created by re-telling classic stories from the perspective of the villain. For example, John Gardner’s Grendel tells the story of Beowulf from the monster’s perspective. In the story, Grendel starts out as merely misunderstood, not evil. Years of abuse, however, ultimately turn him into the monster we see in Beowulf.

Example 3

Bilbo Baggins from The Hobbit is a good example of a supporting protagonist. The major events surround Thorin Oakenshield, the exiled Dwarf King, trying to reclaim his kingdom. But Bilbo, a simple member of Thorin’s company, is the main character in the narrative as told by Tolkien and Peter Jackson.

 

Types of Protagonist

A. Hero

Most protagonists are heroes. That is, they are “good guys” and have the audience’s full sympathy. The hero is morally upstanding, and usually some kind of leader, either of a small ragtag band or a massive army. Either way, a hero is morally right, and generally less in need of development than other characters.

B. Anti-Hero

An anti-hero is one who has characteristics completely opposed to those of an ordinary hero. This may apply to the character’s psychology (i.e. loners and mentally ill people), ethics (i.e. a hero who does not follow ordinary moral codes) or just personality (i.e. sarcastic, cynical, or ironic). An anti-hero may be in a moral grey area, or make us feel uneasy in some way, but such characters are ultimately redeemed. They’re still heroes, after all.

C. Villain Protagonist

Unlike an anti-hero, a villain is never redeemed – this character is just a “bad guy.” But in some cases, the villain is also the protagonist, or the main character of the story. For example, the protagonist of American Psycho is the serial killer Patrick Bateman, whose actions are in no way justified by the plot.

D. Supporting Protagonist

Most protagonists are major characters in their own right – whether they are heroes, anti-heroes or villains, they are central to all the action that takes place in the story. Occasionally, though, a writer will experiment with a supporting protagonist, or a main character who is more peripheral to the events. For example, the most important person at the White House is clearly President Obama. But you might have a story set in the White House in which the main character is the president’s Chief of Staff, or one of his aides. In this case, the protagonist has a “supporting” role in the events, despite being the central figure of the story.

 

The Importance of Protagonists

Protagonists give the audience someone to focus on and lend narrative unity to the story. Without a protagonist, the story’s various elements would have nothing to tie them together. And if the protagonist is boring, then the story will not be compelling and readers will not care what happens next.

In general, the protagonist is the person that the audience relates to – we imagine ourselves in her shoes, suffer with her failures, and exult in her successes. Of course, this is definitely not the case with a villain protagonist. In those cases, we want the protagonist to lose in the end.


Antagonist

In a story, the antagonist (pronounced an-TAG-oh-nist) is the opposite of the protagonist, or main character. Typically, this is a villain of some kind, but not always! It’s just the opponent of the main character, or someone who gets in their way.

Every story has at least one protagonist, but not all stories have an antagonist! In some cases, the protagonist is simply struggling against impersonal forces like nature, circumstance, social strictures, or addiction. In these cases, there is no antagonist in the story. However, a story can have any number of antagonists getting in the protagonist’s way.

Examples and Explanation

Example 1

Adolf Hitler (World History)

The dictator has appeared as an antagonist in countless stories, both fictional and non-fictional, over the past few generations. In re-tellings of the Second World War, the Allies are almost always the heroes, making Hitler the villainous antagonist.

Example 2

Homer Simpson (the Simpsons)

If Homer  is the protagonist of The Simpsons, then he has many antagonists, some of them evil and others less so. His wife Marge, for example, is often out to stop his plans – not because she is a villain, but because she fears for his safety or the family’s reputation. But when she obstructs Homer’s goals, she is still acting as an antagonist (though neither a hero nor a villain)

 

Types of Protagonist

a. Villain

Most antagonists are traditional villains – they’re “the bad guy” and are motivated in some way by evil. The most interesting villains have believable motives for their actions, but sometimes the villain is just pure evil and wants nothing more than to kill and destroy for no particular reason.

b. Hero Antagonist

Sometimes, the entire story is told from the perspective of the villain, and thus the hero becomes the antagonist. This is less common than traditional villains, but it can make for a very interesting story!

 

The Importance of Antagonists

Stories are naturally driven by conflict, and the simplest form of conflict is waged between two or more characters. The hero has a goal; the villain hopes to thwart that goal; and conflict develops naturally. In order to make the story compelling, of course, the antagonist must be well-written and believable. We’ll cover what that looks like in the “How to Create an Antagonist” section.

 


Tragicomedy

Tragicomedy is a literary device used in fictional works. It contains both tragedy and comedy. Mostly, the characters in tragicomedy are exaggerated and sometimes there might be a happy ending after a series of unfortunate events. It is incorporated with jokes throughout the story just to lighten the tone.

Examples of Tragicomedy from Literature

Example #1

The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare is considered as one of the most popular traditional tragicomedy examples. Though it has a comic structure, there are tragic characters such as Shylock (who is a central character) and tragic events such as Antonio’s “loss” (because he is not really dead) of life. Although the play ends on a happy note with the union of the lovers in the story and Antonio is saved from a tragic incident, readers are left with a taste of Shylock’s sufferings. Hence, the feeling and mood of the play at the end is neither happy nor gloomy. Though, this play has definitely a comic structure, it also has a strong tragic story. Therefore, it can be classified as a tragicomedy.

Function of Tragicomedy

The main purpose of tragicomedy is to describe dual nature of reality where both modes can coexist, perhaps simultaneously. Therefore, the interweaving of both aspects gives both a comic and tragic view of life. Tragicomedy is mainly used in dramas and theater. Since tragic plays focus exclusively on protagonists, while comic plays are devoid of focus and concern, therefore such plays which fell between these two categories were developed. These types of plays present both modes of life through absurdity and seriousness.


Apostrophe

In literature, apostrophe is a figure of speech sometimes represented by exclamation “O”. A writer or a speaker, using an apostrophe, detaches himself from the reality and addresses an imaginary characterin his speech.

It is important not to confuse the apostrophe which is a figure of speech and the apostrophe which is a punctuation mark (‘). It shows possession or a mark to indicate omission of one or more letters (contractions) while apostrophe used in literature is an arrangement of words addressing a non-existent person or an abstract idea in such a way as if it were present and capable of understanding feelings.

Apostrophe Examples from Literature

English literature is replete with instances of apostrophe. Let us have a look at a few examples.

Example #1

William Shakespeare makes use of an apostrophe in his play “Macbeth”:

“Is this a dagger which I see before me,

The handle toward my hand?

Come, let me clutch thee!

I have thee not, and yet I see thee still.”

In his mental conflict before murdering King Duncan, Macbeth has a strange vision of a dagger and talks to it as if it were another person.

Example #2

Jane Taylor uses apostrophe in the well-known nursery rhyme “The Star”:

“Twinkle, twinkle, little star,

How I wonder what you are.

Up above the world so high,

Like a diamond in the sky.”

In the above nursery rhyme, a child addresses a star (an imaginary idea). Hence, this is a classic example of apostrophe.

Example #3

Look at how Mary Shelly uses apostrophe in her novel “Frankenstein”:

“Oh! Stars and clouds and winds, ye are all about to mock me; if ye really pity me, crush sensation and memory; let me become as nought; but if not, depart, depart, and leave me in darkness.”

Talking to stars, clouds and winds is an apostrophe.

By employing apostrophe in their literary works, writers try to bring abstract ideas or non-existent persons to life so that the nature of emotions they want to communicate gets across in a better way – because it is more convenient for the readers to relate themselves to the abstract emotions when they observe them in their natural surroundings. In addition, the use of apostrophe motivates the readers to develop a perspective that is fresh as well as creative.


Antihero

Hey I explained it in Protagonist. So please refer to that question. Yeah, in your dreams. Not the cliche dude who does that. It doesnt cost a sweat. You get it. It just costs 3 Kilo Bytes. I am gonna put that Answer over here again

Anti-hero is a literary device used by writers for a prominent character in a play or book that has characteristics opposite to that of a conventional hero. The protagonist is generally admired for his bravery, strength, charm, ingenuity etc. while an anti-hero is typically clumsy, unsolicited, and unskilled and has both good and bad qualities.

The origin of this literary device is marked in 1714 but there have been literary figures who believe that the concept of an anti-hero existed well before that. Recently the usage of anti-hero in television and books has increased and became bolder than ever. Nowadays, there are thousands of shows, books and movies that portray such characters, who are widely admired by audiences.

Anti-Hero Examples

The majority of television shows these days portray dark characters. The most celebrated TV shows have anti-heroes who seem to possess both positive and negative traits. Many have successfully explored and impressively depicted the darkest aspects of a human life, fantasies and psyches. Particular characters from these shows are discussed below:

Character: Dexter Morgan

TV Show: Darkly Dreaming Dexter series by Jeff Lindsay

Dexter is one of the most celebrated anti-heroes of recent times. He is a blood spatter analyst for the Miami Police Department. He is a kind and loving father, friend and husband who has an anti-social personality that makes him murder criminals.

The idea of killing only the guilty people does not seem such a bad thing to do at first. Rather, to some extent, it sounds rational but it is not. Dexter did not become a serial killer to rid society of crime. He did so because he took pleasure in it while the social cleansing part came in as a spinoff. The show depicts that he is slowly moving towards redemption and that is what keeps the audience glued. This is a good case of a modern anti-hero.

Character: Gollum

Novel(s): Lord of the Rings series J. R. R. Tolkien

There is a wide array of opinions on whether or not Gollum should be considered an anti-hero. He does not really have any good or useful characteristics but his character is a perfect example of the struggle that we go through in our daily lives when choosing between good and evil.

He is portrayed as a swamp creature who warns those who want the ring. The good side of him that occasionally surfaces makes him a loyal servant. The dark side of him that is infected by the greed to have the ring makes him do evil things which eventually lead to his death. Thus, Gollum can justly be called an anti-hero of the novel.

Function of Anti-Hero

Anti-hero can serve a great purpose if used skillfully. An anti-hero brings the spice and flavor to a script that an ordinary hero-villain format cannot. The more secular approach to the idea of using anti-hero shows that it has much more potential as compared to the conventional style. It can be used to represent many things at the same time such as, social flaws, human frailties and political culture.

An anti-hero is usually given the most prominent role after the protagonist and is represented as an amalgamation of both good and evil. Instead of having two different people to represent two extremes, an anti-hero combines both into one person and thus shows the real human nature. This is why people associate themselves with some stories better than others. Gulliver of Jonathan Swift and Jean Valjean of Victor Huge are two such characters. They have been portrayed to have flaws but still they held fast to their nature. These two characters can exemplify anyone who has suffered all through their lives but they are not the kind of characters one can look up to.

Moreover, in modern society when we are presented with a character that is overly righteous and upright, we find it too good to be true. The social turmoil that the entire world as a community has been facing recently has disposed us to be skeptical of almost everything. The greatness that a conventional antagonist shows is something we do not witness in society, which is why we find it far from reality. Suffering and sorrow are a part of human life. So, we relate better to a character that has suffered through life and has both good and bad sides than a character that is only seen doing good.


Round Character

A round character in a novel, play, or story is a complex personality. Like real people, they have depth in feelings and passions. For instance, in the movie “Shrek,” the main character says “‘Ogres are like onions,” which means that, what appears to them is not the only truth. Rather, there is something more inside them. Similarly, a round character has many layers of personality. Writers define a round character fully, both physically and mentally. It is the character with whom the audience can sympathize, associate with, or relate to, as he seems a character they might have seen in their real lives.

Characteristics of a Round Character

    • Round characters are major characters in a story, who encounter contradictory situations, and undergo transformation during this phase. Therefore, these characters do not remain the same throughout the narrative, making their traits difficult to identify from beginning until the end.

 

    • These characters are more realistic, their personalities somewhat inconsistent.

 

    • They are fully developed and show complex traits, like real people.

 

    • Round characters are also known as “main characters,” or “major characters,” because they are suitable to surprise the readers in a very convincing manner.

 

  • Major characters must be round characters to be believable.

Examples of Round Characters in Literature

Example #1: Hamlet, Hamlet (by William Shakespeare)

Yet another great example of a round character is Hamlet. He is a complex, enigmatic, and mysterious character that is knowledgeable, philosophical, intelligent, and thoughtful by nature. Hamlet makes hasty decisions, yet he delays his revenge. His contemplative nature also becomes his tragic flaw, and his lack of timely action becomes the cause of his tragedy. Hamlet’s personality is contradictory, while he also encounters many contradictory situations.

Function of Round Character

In play writing and fiction writing, authors develop round characters to make their stories more believable and effective. These characters bring surprise to the readers’ expectations by undergoing a significant metamorphosis at the end of a narrative – as compared to what they were in the initial phases. Hence, due to this development, the audience can relate their own lives to this transformed character. By the end, after developing new traits, a round character also demonstrates new facets of human behavior.


Static Character

A static character is one that does not undergo inner changes, or undergoes a little change. It is a character that does not develop or grow, such as Sherlock Holmes and James Bond.

In fact, this character does not develop the inner understanding to know how his environment is affecting him, or he does not understand that his actions have positive or negative impacts on others. The personality of this character remains the same at the end of the story as it appeared in the beginning. All his actions stay true and unchanged to his personality in-between the scenes.

Difference Between Static and Flat Characters

Static characters should not be confused or mixed up with flat, one-dimensional characters. Though neither changes as the story progresses, if a character remains unchanged, it does not mean that he is one-dimensional like a flat character. A static character can be perfectly interesting, like Sherlock Holmes, who is completely ingenious, eccentric, and sometimes jerky. He never changes, but the audience still loves him. Thus, a static character could be the protagonist too, and a flat character, on the other hand, only plays a side role in the story.

Examples of Static Characters in Literature

Example #1: Scar, The Lion King (by Don Ferguson)

Scar is another excellent example of a static character. Scar is a sly and clever brother of the Lion King. This cunning character plots to kill Simba and his father. As the film goes on, we notice that Scar does not go through any changes, keeping his personality traits until the end. By the end of the story, he does not survive and dies due to his wicked deeds.

Example #2: Draco, Harry Potter (by J. K. Rowling)

Draco Malfoy is another good example of a static character. Although he gets many opportunities to grow and transform for the better, he prefers not to change. He also dimly senses that Lord Voldemort and the Death Eaters are evil, even though he continues to believe that only purebloods are worthy, and “Mudbloods” and “Muggles” are to be disdained.

Function of a Static Character

The function of the static character is not less than the hero with whom he is often found at every critical juncture in the narrative. It happens that, whenever the protagonist is in some quandary, the static character is there to help him out. It is because the main character or the protagonist cannot get there on his own. He needs other characters to serve some purpose to add to the plot or help outright. This is the static character who helps the protagonist and also serves as a foil to a character. Moreover, the foil helps reveal the differences between the two characters.


Flat character

A flat character is a type of character in fiction that does not change too much from the start of the narrative to its end. Flat characters are often said not to have any emotional depth.

  1. M. Foster has discussed some features of flat characters in his book, Aspects of the Novel. According to Foster, a flat character is a simple character, shown by the author as having just one or two qualities, which generally remain the same throughout the story, not undergoing significant growth or changes. The audience does not know much about these characters, because the writer does not provide detailed information about them.

Characteristics of Flat Character

    • The role of flat characters is to support the main character.

 

    • They do not go through a substantial growth or transformation in the course of the narrative.

 

    • They have recognizable characteristics that make them appear stereotypical.

 

  • They are often referred to as one- or two-dimensional characters, usually having one perspectiveor point of view about life, things, or events.

Examples of Flat Characters in Literature

Example #1: Gertrude from Hamlet (William Shakespeare)

Outwardly, Queen Gertrude seems to be a caring mother of Hamlet, but inwardly she is a weak-willed lady, who walks blindly through her life, is not aware that Claudius has trapped her by murdering her husband, or that he has seized her husband’s throne. Gertrude has no idea why Hamlet is upset about her marriage. She behaves like a tool of fate in the whole tragedy, even when she stops Hamlet from going back to Wittenberg for studies.

Gertrude is a weak character, whom Claudius and Polonius have used for their own interests. She arranges a meeting with Hamlet, so that Claudius could spy on him, and also lets Polonius remain behind the curtains to hear the conversation between them. Thus, throughout the narrative, she proves her flat character and does not transform. She remains passive, never acts on her own until she becomes a victim herself.

Example #2: Miss Maudie from To Kill a Mockingbird (By Harper Lee)

Miss Maudie is a flat character because she maintains the same characteristics and outlook throughout the narrative. She begins and ends the novel by acting as a voice of reason for kids, and supporting and explaining Atticus’ motivations and actions. She is the one who does not openly give a warning to Atticus for taking the case of Tom Robinson. Her positive and optimistic attitude remains steady, even after losing her house to a fire. Also, she represents more open-minded woman in the novel, as she sees error in social structure of Maycomb.

Function of Flat Character

The role of a flat character is to help the main character in pursuing his ambitions and goals. Flat characters often play a supporting role in the story, play, or novel. Though they are not very prominent characters, nor are they unimportant, because they bring harmony, peace, and comedy to the story. Writers use these characters to create a specific atmosphere in the complex narrative structure.


Dynamic character

Like a round character, a dynamic character also undergoes changes throughout the narrative, due to conflicts he encounters on his journey. A dynamic character faces trials and tribulations, and takes time to learn from his encounters, his experiences, and his mistakes, as well as from other characters. Sometimes a character learns a lesson, and gains maturity, such as Prince Hal in Shakespeare’s Henry IV.

Some characters discover mistakes in their points of view, and others discover important aspects of their own personalities, such as Neville Longbottom did in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. All of these changes make a character dynamic, but they are implied changes, not stated outright.

Difference between Dynamic and Round Character

Though dynamic and round characters both undergo character development, there is a slight difference between them. The traits of a dynamic character are not described outright. Rather, his traits are referred to as they change over time. On the other hand, a round character’s traits are complex, and described by the author. Round characters are dynamic as well, such as Hamlet.

Examples of Dynamic Characters in Literature

Example #1: Harry, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (By J. K. Rowling)

The most important conflict in this novel is the inner conflict of Harry Potter, which makes him a dynamic character. Harry perceives that he shares some abilities similar to Tom Riddle, who becomes the evil Lord Voldemort, and this makes him worry that he might also turn out to be an evil character.

Dumbledore mentions Harry’s presence in Gryffindor House, and Tom Riddle’s in Slytherin House. Harry, in a defeated tone, says, “It only puts me in Gryffindor” because Harry did not want to go in Slytherin. Beaming again, Dumbledore says, “exactly … Which makes you very different from Tom Riddle. It is our choices, Harry … far more than our abilities.” Harry learns this lesson about the importance of the choices one makes. It resolves his inner conflict, making him a good example of a dynamic character.

Example #2: Hamlet, Hamlet (by William Shakespeare)

Throughout the play, Hamlet is worried about life and death, and it is this apprehension that makes him a dynamic character. The greatest fear of Hamlet is the afterlife, which is quite understandable, because his father’s Ghost comes out of purgatory and tells him about the horror and terror awaiting there.

Because of his preoccupation with this fear, Hamlet does not act out on his desire to take vengeance on Claudius. Nevertheless, when he visits the graveyard, and holds Yorick’s dead skull, he becomes apprehensive of the inevitability of death. Hamlet thinks that even great men, such as Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, could not escape it. This philosophical change in his perspective about death lets him finally take revenge on King Claudius.

 

Function of Dynamic Character

A dynamic character plays an important role in a narrative. Often it is the main character of the story, which helps to build a compelling and convincing story. By going through an important transition, having a coming-of-age experience, pulling through trials, gaining maturity, feeling a change of the heart, and developing likable qualities, a dynamic character shows he has made a full transformation. All these changes bring a flavor to the story line and an element of surprise to the readers.


Sidekick

Batman and Robin, Sherlock and Watson, Eren and Armin, Hercules and his Pegasus? DOPINDER!!

Sidekicks have a strong association with genre fiction as secondary characters in comic books and superhero movies, but these characters first appear in the earliest mythological tales before continuing through the centuries. On first impression, it’s easy to picture sidekicks as little more than humorous aides to the superhero, but these literary assistants perform a significant function in the stories they appear in. Examining the role of the sidekick in literature reveals the full range of their narrative capabilities.

 

Etymology

The term “sidekick” is a relatively recent linguistic creation. Derived from the now-rare term “sidekicker,” the new word is called a “back-formation,” a new word created based on a prior term. In this case, both the original term and the modern one designate “a close companion” or “associate,” sometimes a subordinate accomplice. The Oxford English Dictionary credits O. Henry with making one of the earliest references to the term. In his McClure’s Magazine short story “The Phonograph and the Graft,” O. Henry uses the earlier term, writing, “Billy was my side-kicker in New York,” suggesting Billy was an associate to the speaker.


Climax

Climax, a Greek term meaning “ladder”, is that particular point in a narrative at which the conflict or tension hits the highest point.

Climax is a structural part of a plot and is at times referred to as a crisis. It is a decisive moment or a turning point in a storyline at which the rising action turns around into a falling action. Thus, a climax is the point at which a conflict or crisis reaches its peak that calls for a resolution or denouement(conclusion). In a five-act play, the climax is close to the conclusion of act 3. Later in the 19th century, the five-act plays were replaced by three-act plays and the climax was placed close to the conclusion or at the end of the play.

Climax Examples in Literature

Let us analyze a few climax examples in literature:

Example #1

In William Shakespeare’s play “Romeo and Juliet”, the story reaches its climax in Act 3. In the first scene of the act, Romeo challenges Tybalt to a duel after he (Tybalt) killed Mercutio:

“And fire-eyed fury be my conduct now!

Now, Tybalt, take the ‘villain’ back again

That late thou gavest me; for Mercutio’s soul

Is but a little way above our heads,”

As soon as he killed Tybalt, Romeo says:

“O! I am Fortune’s Fool!”

He realizes that he has killed his wife’s cousin. This juncture in the play is a climax as the audiencewonders how Romeo would get out of this terrible situation. Similarly, it qualifies as a climax because after this act all the prior conflicts start to be resolved and mysteries unfold themselves and thus the story moves toward its logical conclusion during the coming scenes.

Example #2

In Joseph Conrad’s novel “The Heart of Darkness”, the narrative reaches its climax when Marlowe starts his journey in his steam boat, in the direction of the inner station and his final discovery upon reaching the station and meeting “Kurtz”. He was shocked to discover that Kurtz had abandoned all norms and morals of his civilization after giving in to the savage customs of the wild Congo. Following this point in the novel, the mystery surrounding Kurtz is unfolded and the questions in the mind of Marlow find their answers automatically when he sees the real situation.

Function of Climax

A climax, when used as a plot device, helps readers understand the significance of the rising action earlier to the point in the plot where the conflict reaches its peak. The Climax of the story makes readers mentally prepared for the resolution of the conflict. Hence, climax is important to the plot structure of a story. Moreover, climax is used as a stylistic device or a figure of speech to render balance and brevity to speech or writing. Being properly employed, it qualifies itself as a powerful tool that can instantly capture the undivided attention of listeners and readers alike. Hence, its importance cannot be underestimated.

 


Flash-forward

Flash-forward or prolepsis is a literary device in which the plot goes ahead of time i.e. a scene that interrupts and takes the narrative forward in time from the current time in a story.

Generally, a flash-forward represents expected or imagined events in the future interjected in the main plot revealing the important parts of the story that are yet to occur. It is an opposite of flashback or analepsis (reveals past events).

Flash-Forward Examples in Literature

Let us look at some famous examples of flash-forward in literature below:

Example #1

Flash-forward is essentially a postmodern narrative device but there are a few flash-forward examples in early literature.

Charles Dickens’ “Christmas Carol” depicts Scrooge in a flash-forward. The tightfisted and ill-tempered Scrooge is visited by the “Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come” who shows him his future. Scrooge sees himself dead, and people finding comfort and happiness in his death. No one mourns his death and the people he ruined in his life stole his wealth. He sees Mrs. Dilber, his housekeeper, selling his property to junkmen and friends. The only one touched by his death is a young and poor couple. His only legacy is a cheap tombstone in a graveyard. He weeps on his own grave and asks the third ghost of Christmas to give him a chance to change himself. He wakes up and finds that he is back on the Christmas morning of the present. Scrooge repents and becomes kind and generous.

Example #2

In Stephen king’s novel “The Dead Zone”, the hero receives a special power of predicting the future after a car crash. Through physical contact, he sees the future of a person. After some time, he feels cursed with the gift. Like when he shakes hands with a politician and flash-forwards to the future, he sees a nuclear war. He says:

“If you knew Hitler was going to do what he did to the Jews, would you kill him before he had the chance?”

At this moment, the hero suffers from a moral conflict between what he knows about the future and what he could do to save people.

Function of Flash-Forward

Flash-forward enables a writer to give logical explanations to the actions of the characters in a narrative. The character’s actions make more sense to the readers – after having developed a greater understanding of the character and the character’s personality.

Moreover, flash-forward grabs the readers’ interest in the current events of the narrative to see how the story develops towards the future that has already been shown to them.


Epiphany

Derived from the Greek word “epiphaneia”, epiphany means “appearance” or “manifestation. In literary terms, an epiphany is that moment in the story where a character achieves realization, awareness or a feeling of knowledge after which events are seen through the prism of this new light in the story.

James Joyce, the great Irish writer used this term in his writings to indicate a sudden eye-opener regarding the nature of a person or situation. He means to say that even insignificant things in our life can suddenly inspire in us an awareness that can change our lives for good.

A Common Example of Epiphany

Let us consider an epiphany of a smoker:
“I used to smoke a lot. Everyone let me know that it was bad for my health however, I didn’t pay any notice. One day I saw my two years of age offspring trying for a used cigarette within an ashtray. Seeing this, abruptly it dawned upon me how terrible smoking was and I stopped smoking.”

So, this sudden feeling of knowledge that brings to light what was so far hidden and changes one’s life is called epiphany.

Here is another example

Shakespeare also makes use of an epiphany in his play “Hamlet”. It is when Hamlet, the hero, is on a ship sailing to England. Till then, he was over-burdened with thinking and planning a flawless revenge on his father’s murderer, Claudius. Suddenly there is a flash of realization and he says:

“there is a divinity that shapes our ends, rough-hew them how we may.

He realizes that there is no wisdom for him to try to inflict the perfect revenge on Claudius — he must take hold of the moment and go with the current.

Function of Epiphany
The purpose of epiphany in a novel or a short story is to use it for the characters to point out a turning point in the plot in the near future. It may also be used to change the opinion of one character about other characters, events and places after a sudden awareness of the situation. It may also be a sign of a conclusion in the story.


Hubris

Hubris is extreme pride and arrogance shown by a character that ultimately brings about his downfall. Hubris is a typical flaw in the personality of a character who enjoys a powerful position; as a result of which, he overestimates his capabilities to such an extent that he loses contact with reality. A character suffering from Hubris tries to cross normal human limits and violates moral codes. Examples of Hubris are found in major characters of tragic plays.

 

“Hubris consists in doing and saying things that cause shame to the victim…simply for the pleasure of it. Retaliation is not hubris, but revenge. … Young men and the rich are hubristic because they think they are better than other people.”

– Aristotle

Function of Hubris

In literature, portrayal of hubristic characters serves to achieve a moralistic end. Such characters are eventually punished thus giving a moral lesson to the audience and the readers so that they are motivated to improve their characters by removing the flaws that can cause a tragedy in their lives. Witnessing a tragic hero suffering due to his hubristic actions, the audience or the readers may fear that the same fate may befall them if they indulge in similar kinds of actions.


Foreshadowing

Foreshadowing is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story. Foreshadowing often appears at the beginning of a story, or a chapter, and helps the reader develop expectations about the coming events in a story. There are various ways to create foreshadowing.

A writer may use character dialogues to hint at what may occur in the future. In addition, any event or action in the story may throw a hint to the readers about future events or actions. Even a title of a work or a chapter title can act as a clue that suggests what is going to happen. Foreshadowing in fiction creates an atmosphere of suspense in a story, so that the readers are interested to know more.

Short Examples of Foreshadowing

    1. The final graveyard flower is blooming, and its smell drifts through their house, speaking gently the names of their dead.

 

    1. (Foreshadows death)

 

    1. The evening was still. Suddenly, a cool breeze started blowing and made a windy night.

 

    1. (Foreshadows thunderstorm)

 

    1. The most awful thing happened on a stormy evening,

 

    1. The battle between good and evil started.

 

    1. (Foreshadows danger)

 

    1. Mary pulled back the curtains and saw some magpies sitting on the wall.

 

    1. (Foreshadows gossip)

 

    1. They thought there would not be more bodies; however, they could not believe the thought.

 

    1. (Foreshadows murder)

 

    1. An old man opens his drawer to find a magnifying glass, and sees a revolver.

 

    1. (Foreshadows warning)

 

    1. In the middle of the night, the father hears the back door opening. He rushes to check on his kids, but a masked intruder is blocking the way with a knife.

 

    1. (Foreshadows threat)

 

    1. Rainbow sparks,

 

    1. With shining lights.

 

    1. (Foreshadows optimism)

 

    1. Inhale fresh air, exhale bad breath.

 

    1. (Foreshadows new ideas)

 

    1. From the window, the gusts look so furious, the roofs of high buildings are stripped off, and the trees are torn up in the city.

 

    1. (Foreshadows someone’s angst)

 

    1. Michael sees his own face under Donavan’s mask.

 

    1. (Foreshadows Donavan is his father)

 

    1. They have made up their minds to remove an evil eye forever.

 

    1. (Foreshadows harm to an evil character)

 

    1. I observed devices,

 

    1. The symbols in the books

 

    1. To indicate the written future.

 

    1. (Foreshadows writer)

 

    1. As the twilight colors blush

 

    1. The eyes of the night arouse.

 

    1. (Foreshadows night)

 

    1. The same old thinking and the same old results.

 

  1. (Foreshadows change)

Foreshadowing Examples in Literature

Example #1: Romeo and Juliet (By Robert Francis)

Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is rich with foreshadowing examples, one of which is the following lines from Act 2, Scene 2:

“Life were better ended by their hate,

Than death prorogued, wanting of thy love”

In the balcony scene, Juliet is concerned about Romeo’s safety as she fears her kinsmen may catch him. Romeo says, in the above lines, that he would rather have her love and die sooner, than not obtain her love and die later. Eventually, he gets her love and dies for her love, too.

Example #2: Da Vinci Code (By Dan Brown)

Examples of foreshadowing are also found in mystery and detective stories. The kind of foreshadowing usually found in mystery or detective novels is referred to as “Red-Herring” – this is a misleading clue that distracts readers by giving them wrong hints about future events.

For example, the character of Bishop Aringarosa in Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown, is shown to act in such a suspicious way that the readers are bound to suspect him to be the mastermind of the whole conspiracy in the church. His mysterious actions seemingly foreshadow the exposure of his crime in a later part of the narrative, but it is later revealed that he was innocent and not involved in any secret action. Characters like Bishop Aringarosa contribute to the mystery and suspense of the novel.

Function of Foreshadowing

Generally, the function of foreshadowing is to build anticipation in the minds of readers about what might happen next, thus adding dramatic tension to a story. It is deliberately employed to create suspense in mystery novels, usually by giving false clues – or red herrings – to distract readers. Moreover, foreshadowing can make extraordinary and bizarre events appear credible, as the events are predicted beforehand so that readers are mentally prepared for them.


Science Fiction/Fantasy

Fantasy is a form of literary genre in which a plot cannot occur in the real world. Its plot usually involves witchcraft or magic, taking place on an undiscovered planet of an unknown world. Its overall theme and setting involve a combination of technology, architecture, and language, which sometimes resemble European medieval ages. The most interesting thing about fantasies is that their plot involves witches, sorcerers, mythical and animal creatures talking like humans, and other things that never happen in real life.

Types of Fantasy

Modern Folktales

Modern folktales are types of fantasy that narrators tell in a traditional tale accompanying some typical elements, such as strong conflict, little description of characters, fast-moving plot with a quick resolution, and sometimes magical elements and vague settings. However, these tales are popular, as authors throughout history have written them. Hans Christian Andersen has written several fairy tales of this category including:

    • The Nightingale

 

    • The Emperor’s New Clothes

 

    • Thumbelina

 

  • The Ugly Duckling

Animal Fantasy

    • The Wind in the Willows, by Kenneth Grahame

 

    • Charlotte’s Web, by E. B. White

 

  • The Tale of Peter Rabbit, by Beatrix Potter

Toy Fantasy

    • Winnie the Pooh, by A. A. Milne

 

  • The Adventures of Pinocchio, by Carlo Collodi

Magical Fantasy

    • Charlie and Chocolate Factory, by Roald Dahl

 

  • Sylvester and the Magic Pebble, by William Steig

Alternative Worlds & Enchanted Journeys

    • Alice Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll

 

    • Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, by K. Rowling

 

  • Gulliver’s Travels, by Jonathan Swift

Quest or Heroic Fantasy (High Fantasy)

    • The Lord of the Rings trilogy / Hobbit, by J. R. R. Tolkien

 

    • The Hero and the Crown, by Robin McKinley

 

  • The Book of Three, by Lloyd Alexander.

Mystery and Supernatural Fantasy

  • The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, by Washington Irving

Science Fiction

Science fiction is a type of imaginative literature. It provides a mental picture of something that may happen on realistic scientific principles and facts. This fiction might portray, for instance, a world where young people are living on Mars. Hence, it is known as “futuristic fiction.” It dramatizes the wonders of technology, and resembles heroic fantasy where magic is substituted with technology. You can find this type of imaginative fiction in these stories:

    • Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley

 

    • Rocket Ship Galileo, by Robert Heinlein

 

  • The White Mountains, by John Christopher

Function of Fantasy

We all like fantasy stories, and grow up reading and listening to fantasies. These tales serve to fuel our imaginations, and satisfy our longings for adventure. Thus, fantasy directly relates to our deepest desires and dreams. That is why they are important for increasing power of imagination in growing minds, especially in children. In addition, exposing our minds to lots of romance and magic, the seeking for ideal heroes and beauty queens, adventure, and even deception, captures the attention and imagination of every age group. Also, fantasy has a distinguished writing style, with freedom of expression – the reason that authors can experiment and employ elements of narrative to strengthen their tales.


Young adult fiction

Thirteen Reasons Why, Fault in Our Stars

Young-adult fiction (often abbreviated as YA) is fiction written for, published for, or marketed to adolescents and young adults, roughly ages 13 to 18. Young-adult fiction, whether in the form of novels or short stories, has distinct attributes that distinguish it from the other age categories of fiction. The vast majority of YA stories portray an adolescent as the protagonist, rather than an adult or a child. The subject matter and story lines are typically consistent with the age and experience of the main character, but beyond that YA stories span the entire spectrum of fiction genres. The settings of YA stories are limited only by the imagination and skill of the author.

Themes in YA stories often focus on the challenges of youth, so much so that the entire age category is sometimes referred to as problem novels or coming of age novel. Writing styles of YA stories range widely, from the richness of literary style to the clarity and speed of the unobtrusive. Despite its unique characteristics, YA shares the fundamental elements of fiction with other stories: character, plot, setting, theme, and style.


Campus Novel

A campus novel, also known as an academic novel, is a novel whose main action is set in and around the campus of a university. The genre in its current form dates back to the early 1950s. The Groves of Academe by Mary McCarthy, published in 1952, is often quoted as the earliest example

Many well-known campus novels, such as Kingsley Amis’s Lucky Jim and those of David Lodge, are comic or satirical, often counterpointing intellectual pretensions and human weaknesses. Some, however, attempt a serious treatment of university life.

The novels are usually told from the viewpoint of a faculty member (e.g., Lucky Jim) or the viewpoint of a student (e.g., Tom Wolfe’s I Am Charlotte Simmons). Novels such as Evelyn Waugh’s Brideshead Revisited that focus on students rather than faculty are often considered to belong to a distinct genre, sometimes termed varsity novels.


Apocalyptic Fiction

Apocalyptic fiction is a subgenre of science fiction that is concerned with the end of civilization due to a potentially existential catastrophe such as nuclear warfare, pandemic, extraterrestrial attack, impact event, cybernetic revolt, technological singularity, dysgenics, supernatural phenomena, divine judgment, climate change, resource depletion or some other general disaster. Post-apocalyptic fiction is set in a world or civilization after such a disaster. The time frame may be immediately after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, or considerably later, often including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten (or mythologized).

Apocalypse is a Greek word referring to the end of the world. Apocalypticism is the religious belief that there will be an apocalypse, a term which originally referred to a revelation of God’s will, but now usually refers to belief that the world will come to an end very soon, even within one’s own lifetime.

Apocalyptic fiction does not portray catastrophes, or disasters, or near-disasters that do not result in apocalypse. A threat of an apocalypse does not make a piece of fiction apocalyptic. For example, Armageddon and Deep Impact are considered disaster films and not apocalyptic fiction because, although earth and/or human-kind are terribly threatened, in the end they manage to avoid destruction. Apocalyptic fiction is not the same as fiction that provides visions of a dystopian future. George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, for example, is dystopian fiction, not apocalyptic fiction.


Post-Apocalyptic Fiction

Post-apocalyptic fiction is set in a world or civilization after such a disaster. The time frame may be immediately after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, or considerably later, often including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten (or mythologized).

Post-apocalyptic stories often take place in an agrarian, non-technological future world, or a world where only scattered elements of technology remain. There is a considerable degree of blurring between this form of science fiction and that which deals with dystopias.


Black Comedy

Black comedy, also known as black humor or dark comedy, is a sub-genre of comedy and satire where topics and events that are usually treated seriously are treated in a satirical manner while still being portrayed as the negative events that they are. Typical targets are death, (mass) murder, suicide, blackmail, (domestic) violence, disease, insanity, handicaps, environmental disasters, famine, fear, child pornography/abuse, drug abuse, rape, castration, cannibalism, war, terrorism, racism, sexism, homophobia, bestiality and line-cutting.

It is not quite Toilet Humour, which is just gross, neither is it quite Vulgar Humor, since it can be delivered quite easily without swearing. It often times takes the form of Refuge in Audacity, while incorporating elements of the above mentioned forms of humor. What makes it different though, is that the theme of the comedy would tend to gravitate towards topics that are considered to be “dark” and/or taboo (such as depression, death, atrocities, racism, poverty, etc.) This form of humor will usually go beyond the mere act of telling jokes, some works focusing instead on situational comedy, Dr. Strangelove being one example. Movies that alternate between comedy and tragedy, like Full Metal Jacket, are not black comedy, since by definition Black Comedy draws humor from the tragic parts. To sum it up, black humor is a type of comedy that deals with negative aspects of life, deriving humour due to it being shocking and unexpected, Family Guy having dead babies singing for example, being shockingly cruel (and thus unexpected,) and in part because it many time reflects a truth that might be too grim to state seriously, something quite common for example in Soviet Russia, and quite abundant in political humor.

A joke might revolve around, for example, a homeless man committing a string of murders so that he will get sentenced to death, a state that, properly tied up in appeals, is better than his former life expectancy and quality. Delivered correctly, it can be very funny, yet at the same time more than a little disturbing. If done wrong, however, the audience may be extremely offended.

Black Comedy doesn’t necessarily have to involve death — anything tragic can be fodder for Black Comedy. A Kafka Komedyis a subtrope of Black Comedy in which the object of humor is abject failure.


Spaghetti western

Inshort, It is a cowboy film in which is directed by an Italian Director, in which you can see load of fight sequences and heroism plot. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, Django, Once upon a time in West, are some of the examples. Sholay, is an/a inspired/influenced/copied movie from The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly, and is on the same Spaghetti Western Films Settig.

Spaghetti Western, also known as Italian Western or Macaroni Western (primarily in Japan), is a broad subgenre of Westernfilms that emerged in the mid-1960s in the wake of Sergio Leone’s film-making style and international box-office success.  The term was used by American critics and other countries because most of these Westerns were produced and directed by Italians.

According to veteran Spaghetti Western actor Aldo Sambrell, the phrase ‘Spaghetti Western’ was coined by Spanish journalist Alfonso Sánchez. The denomination for these films in Italy is western all’italiana (Italian-style Western). Italo-Western is also used, especially in Germany. The term Eurowesterns may be used to also include Western movies that were produced in Europe but not called Spaghetti Westerns, like the West German Winnetou films or Ostern Westerns. The majority of the films were international co-productions between Italy and Spain, and sometimes France, Germany, Israel, Yugoslavia, or the United States.

These movies were originally released in Italian, but as most of the films featured multilingual casts and sound was post-synched, most “western all’italiana” do not have an official dominant language. The typical Spaghetti Western team was made up of an Italian director, Italo-Spanish technical staff, and a cast of Italian, Spanish, German, and American actors, sometimes a fading Hollywood star and sometimes a rising one like the young Clint Eastwood in three of Sergio Leone’s films.


Chick Lit

Literature which women might like/appeal to

“Chick” is American slang for a young woman, and “lit” is a shortened form of literature.In the mid-1990s, the term was used by various media outlets to describe fiction written by women authors for women readers.

 

Chick lit or chick literature is genre fiction, which “consists of heroine-centered narratives that focus on the trials and tribulations of their individual protagonists”. The genre often addresses issues of modern womanhood – from romantic relationships to female friendships to matters in the workplace – in humorous and lighthearted ways. At its onset, chick lit’s protagonists tended to be “single, white, heterosexual, British and American women in their late twenties and early thirties, living in metropolitan areas”.[1] The genre became popular in the late 1990s, with chick lit titles topping bestseller lists and the creation of imprints devoted entirely to chick lit.Chick lit critics generally agree that British author Helen Fielding’s Bridget Jones’s Diary (1996) is the “ur-text” of chick lit.

Controversy

While chick lit has been very popular with readers, critics largely disapproved of the genre. Reviewer Alex Kuczynski writing for The New York Times condemned Fielding’s novel, in particular, writing “Bridget is such a sorry spectacle, wallowing in her man-crazed helplessness, that her foolishness cannot be excused.”[6] Writer Doris Lessing deemed the genre “instantly forgettable” while Beryl Bainbridge called the genre “a froth sort of thing”.The feud was further fueled with the publication of editor Elizabeth Merrick’s anthology This Is Not Chick Lit (2005), where Merrick argued in her introduction that “Chick lit’s formula numbs our senses”, and editor Lauren Baratz-Logsted’s 2006 response This Is Chick Lit[9] whose project was “born out of anger”.


Ghost Writing [seems interesting]

Someone who writes for a popular/lowkey guy but his name is never highlighted, because he is paid to do the work. The only thing which happens here is write for an author, get paid, never get fame.

A ghostwriter is a writer who is paid to write for someone else, under that person’s name. It is most commonly associated with publishing a book, but today it is also widely used in public relations, corporate communications, social media, and many other industries and fields that are producing greater and greater amounts of written content.

In this article, professionals from Gotham Ghostwriters, New York City’s only full-service writing firm, explains what kinds of projects ghostwriters work on and how the process works and describes what to look for when “shopping” for a ghostwriter for your own project.

When you ghostwrite, you let someone else put their name on your work. That is, you don’t get any credit — at all. Typically, the person who commissions the work will own the copyright, which also means they can modify or republish the work in any way they see fit.

So why would someone hire a ghostwriter? Are they too lazy to write their own stuff?

Not necessarily. People hire ghostwriters for many different reasons, but the most common ones are:

    • Their business has grown so much that they no longer have time to write (all) their own material.

 

  • They have a wealth of expertise or an exciting story to tell, but they don’t enjoy writing or they’re not that good at it.

It’s nothing new, either: ghostwriting has been around, in one form or another, for centuries.


Cyberpunk

In short, it is a genre of science fiction set in a lawless subculture of an oppressive society dominated by computer technology. Examples can be Ghost in Shell, Matrix, Terminator BAALIKA VADHU

Cyberpunk is a sub-genre of science fiction that features advanced science and technology in an urban, dystopian future.  On one side you have powerful mega-corporations and private security forces, and on the other you have the dark and gritty underworld of illegal trade, gangs, drugs, and vice.  In between all of this is politics, corruption, and social upheaval.

We can break down a basic definition of cyberpunk by dissecting the word itself. Cyber refers to technology, and is most often associated with cyberspace (this word was originally coined by William Gibson himself), and cybernetic enhancements to the body. But this can can also refer to other technologies such as biotechnology and nanotechnology for instance.

Punk, on the other hand, refers to the people and the attitude that cyberpunk has. Protagonists in cyberpunk tend to be outsiders, anti-heros, outcasts, criminals, visionaries, dissenters, and misfits. The underlying aspect that applies to all of these groups is their subversive nature.


Dystopia

A kind of setting in a novel which includes imagined place or state in which everything is unpleasant or bad,
Pehredaar Piya Ki  Matrix, Wall E, are some good examples. [Maybe even IT]

Dystopia, which is the direct opposite of utopia, is a term used to describe a utopian society in which things have gone wrong. Both utopias and dystopias share characteristics of science fiction and fantasy, and both are usually set in a future in which technology has been used to create perfect living conditions. However, once the setting of a utopian or dystopian novel has been established, the focus of the novel is usually not on the technology itself but rather on the psychology and emotions of the characters who live under such conditions.

Dystopias are a way in which authors share their concerns about society and humanity. They also serve to warn members of a society to pay attention to the society in which they live and to be aware of how things can go from bad to worse without anyone realizing what has happened.

Lois Lowry chose to write The Giver as a dystopian novel because it was the most effective means to communicate her dissatisfaction with the lack of awareness that human beings have about their interdependence with each other, their environment, and their world. She uses the irony of utopian appearances but dystopian realities to provoke her readers to question and value their own freedoms and individual identities.


Comic Relief

How do you relieve tension? Whacking golf balls? Going for a drive? Watching some Pewdiepie Videos? Secretly Making Maggi? Asking people to follow Kalingad_dynasty on instagram??

Authors relieve stress in their otherwise high-stakes stories by adding a little comic relief. Sometimes it’s a funny scene, sometimes it’s a clever line of dialogue, and sometimes it’s an entire character.

Shakespeare (maybe you’ve heard of him?) is a master of taking the edge off a tragedy with a little comic relief. Characters like the Porter in Macbeth, the Nurse in Romeo and Juliet, and Falstaff in Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2 all exist to ease tension in some otherwise thoroughly tragic tales.

In a literary work, comic relief is an author’s use of humor to give the reader or audience an emotional break from the tension and heavy mood of a serious or tragic plot. This can include humorous characters, clever dialogue, and funny scenes.

Comic relief also functions as an element of contrast to intensify the tragedy to come, and it can be found in all genres of writing. Now, some authors are the examples of comic relief  and are noted for their use of this important literary technique: William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, and Harper Lee.


Confessional poetry

Confessional poetry is the poetry of the personal or “I.” This style of writing emerged in the late 1950s and early 1960s and is associated with poets such as Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, and W. D. Snodgrass. Lowell’s book Life Studies was a highly personal account of his life and familial ties and had a significant impact on American poetry. Plath and Sexton were both students of Lowell and noted that his work influenced their own writing.

The confessional poetry of the mid-twentieth century dealt with subject matter that previously had not been openly discussed in American poetry. Private experiences with and feelings about death, trauma, depression and relationships were addressed in this type of poetry, often in an autobiographical manner. Sexton in particular was interested in the psychological aspect of poetry, having started writing at the suggestion of her therapist.

The confessional poets were not merely recording their emotions on paper; craft and construction were extremely important to their work. While their treatment of the poetic self may have been groundbreaking and shocking to some readers, these poets maintained a high level of craftsmanship through their careful attention to and use of prosody.

One of the most well-known poems by a confessional poet is “Daddy” by Plath. Addressed to her father, the poem contains references to the Holocaust but uses a sing-song rhythm that echoes the nursery rhymes of childhood:

Daddy, I have had to kill you.

You died before I had time–

Marble-heavy, a bag full of God,

Ghastly statue with one gray toe

Big as a Frisco seal


Prologue

The prologue, Greek prologos (meaning: before word), is an opening of a story that establishes the setting and gives background details.

Generally speaking, the main function of a prologue tells some earlier story and connects it to the main story. Similarly, it is serves as a means to introduce characters of a story and throws light on their roles. In its modern sense, a prologue acts as a separate entity and is not considered part of the current story that a writer ventures to tell.

Function of Prologue

As previously mentioned, the primary function of a prologue is to let the readers/audience be aware of the earlier part of the story and enable them to relate it to the main story. This literary device is also a means to present characters and establish their roles.


Epilogue

An epilogue or epilog is a chapter at the end of a work of literature which concludes the work.

Epilogue, Prologue and Afterword

Epilogue is the opposite of prologue, which is a piece of writing at the beginning of a literary work. An epilogue is different from an afterword. An epilogue is part of the main story, occurring after the climax and revealing the fates of the characters. Usually, it may be set a few hours later or far in the future where the writer speaks to the readers indirectly through the point of view of a different character. In an afterword, on the other hand, an author speaks to the readers directly. In it, a writer may provide a reason for writing the book and detail the research that has gone into writing the book.

Sometimes, a writer may employ an epilogue to cover loose ends of his story i.e. resolves those issues which were brought up by the writer in the story but were not resolved in the climax.

Function of Epilogue

Writers of great examples of epilogue show how useful this device is to achieve the following ends:

    • To satisfy the readers’ curiosity by telling them about the fate of the characters after the climax

 

    • To cover loose ends of the story

 

  • To hint at a sequel or next installment of the story

Tragedy

Its like hum dil de chuke sanam

Tragedy is kind of drama that presents a serious subject matter about human suffering and corresponding terrible events in a dignified manner.

“Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is admirable, complete (composed of an introduction, a middle part and an ending), and possesses magnitude; in language made pleasurable, each of its species separated in different parts; performed by actors, not through narration; effecting through pity and fear the purification of such emotions.”

-Aristotle

English Tragedy

Many of Shakespeare’s play revolve around Tragedy, like King Lear, Hamlet.

Shaped on the models of Seneca, the first English tragedy appeared in 1561, written by Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville. The play chose the story of a British king and his sufferings at the hand of his two disobedient sons as a subject matter. The importance of the play lies in the fact that it transformed the style of English drama from morality and mystery plays to the writing of tragedies in the Elizabethan era.


Copyright

“Copyright” literally means the right to copy.  Copyright is a form of protection given to the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other works.  This protection is available “automatically” to both published and unpublished works.

For the purpose of copyright, the term “literary works” is not confined to works of literature in the commonly understood sense, but is taken to include all works expressed in writing, regardless of whether they have literary merit or not.  Thus, the definition is defined as works, other than audiovisual works, expressed in words, numbers, or other verbal or numerical symbols or indicia, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as books, periodicals, manuscripts, phonorecords, film, tapes, disks, or cards, in which they are embodied.  For example, computer databases and computer programs are considered to be “literary work” to the extent that they reflect the programmer’s expression of original ideas. Computer software is also considered a “literary work” and is thus given all of the protections of the copyright law.

 

 

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