Radio and Television – Answer Bank


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What are the different types of microphones? Explain with examples  

Microphone is an instrument or a device which converts sound waves into electrical energy. It amplifies the sound. Sometimes abbreviated as mic, a microphone is a hardware peripheral originally invented by Emile Berliner in 1877 that allows computer users to input audio into their computers

Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.

Several different types of microphone are in use, which employ different methods to convert the air pressure variations of a sound wave to an electrical signal. The most common are the dynamic microphone, which uses a coil of wire suspended in a magnetic field; the condenser microphone, which uses the vibrating diaphragm as a capacitor plate, and the piezoelectric microphone, which uses a crystal of piezoelectric material. Microphones typically need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced.

Dynamic Microphones

  • The Dynamic Microphone is a good all rounder microphone which can be used for vocals, recording drums as well as guitar amps
  • It does not need a power supply
  • They are fairly low cost

Overall a dynamic microphone is a sturdier and more reliable microphone option for those who play live, record their vocals or guitars at high levels and swing their microphones around due to the fact if you drop them they’ll be ok. They take an awful lot of noise before they start to distort, so for heavier guitars and more aggressive vocals in a live setting, this microphone is for you.

Dynamic microphones are the most widely used microphones. They have a simple design that includes a magnet wrapped by a metal coil. A thin sheet called a diaphragm is placed on the front end of the magnet and transmits vibrations from sound waves to the coil. The coil then transfers these vibrations to electrical wires that transmit the sound as an electrical signal. Since dynamic microphones use a simple design, they are typically very durable and do not require electrical power.

Condenser Microphones

The image has a popfilter attached

  • Ideal for recording vocals or acoustic guitars
  • Perfect for precision recording and capturing subtle nuances on pianos or acoustic guitars
  • They do need a power supply
  • Very sensitive to breathing and “popping”
  • Not suitable for high volume recording i.e. a guitar amp

Condenser microphones are commonly used for audio recording purposes. They are known for their sensitivity and flat frequency response. Each condenser microphone includes a front plate (the diaphragm) and a back plate that is parallel to the front plate. When sound waves hit the diaphragm, it vibrates and alters the distance between the two plates. This change is transmitted as an electrical signal. Unlike dynamic microphones, condensers require electrical power. This current may be provided by an internal battery, but is most often provided as 48 volt “phantom power” from an external preamp or mixing console.

Condenser microphones are extremely sensitive and due to the fact they use a conductive diaphragm which vibrates with sound pressure and uses capacitance to create the audio signal, they are very susceptible to distortion at higher levels, so not ideal for recording guitar amps up close. You will often see a condenser microphone with a popper stopper or “pop shield” filter placed in front of it when someone is recording vocals with them. This is to stop excess air pressure vibrating the microphone. Due to the fact they are so sensitive, you get a far more natural and transparent recording with a condenser microphone.

Ribbon Microphones

  • Extremely sensitive microphone
  • Great for vocals, choirs, piano, strings, and woodwind
  • Perfect for recording multi-instruments in a room
  • Often described as a more vintage vibe
  • Can be quite expensive

Ribbon microphones are also known for their high fidelity. They contain a thin ribbon made of a aluminum, duralumin, or nanofilm, which is suspended in a magnetic field. Incoming sound waves make the ribbon vibrate, generating voltage proportional to the velocity of the vibration. This voltage is transmitted as an electrical signal. While early ribbon microphones required a transformer to increase the output voltage, modern ribbon mics have improved magnets that provide a stronger signal – in some cases even stronger than dynamic microphones. Though ribbon mics have been largely replaced by condensers, several models are still manufactured and used today.

Ribbon mics are for the recording connoisseur (and those with a little extra funds to spare), and often those who want a vintage sounding vibe to their recording. Ribbon mics have an uncanny ability to record an entire room beautifully, record higher notes associated with woodwind or strings accurately and relay more ambient sounds. These features make these microphones very popular with those who want to record a wide range of acoustic instruments professionally.

Discuss in detail different types of camera shots and camera positions with examples.

Okay the shots are from Hindi and Marathi Scenes, which I watched just for getting a good screencap. Some maybe slightly inaccurate. But you get the idea. Also I saw 7 Episodes of TKMOC for this Answer

Camera angles are a critical element of visual storytelling. Directors are very deliberate about where to place the camera and what to include in the frame. The choice of angles is an art form unto itself, because each type of shot functions in a specific way.

If used correctly, proper use of angles will enhance the story without drawing attention to the shots. They should flow together in an organic manner and seem “invisible” to the audience.

Unlike Cinema, which ends in a couple of hours. Television Show Director has to film hours and hours of content, and tell a story in a set of episodes ranging from a minute to an hour or more.  


Extreme Close-Up (ECU)

The subject appears with very tight framing. Such a shot is used in dramatic moments when it becomes necessary to scrutinize the person’s reactions or emotions. When the subject is a presenter or host, leave enough space so a lower-third graphic can appear without covering their mouth.

Close-Up (CU)

A tight shot that is taken from above the chest and typically includes the top of the person’s head (head room). The close-up is used for many interview shots and helps show the person’s emotions in more details.

Medium Close-Up (MCU if Infinity War Music played in your head. Instant Besties)

A head & shoulders shot that ends about mid-thorax. Note that there is adequate head room. Next to the close-up, the MCU is used most frequently in television interviews

Medium Shot (MS)

The angle is taken from the waist up.

Long Shot (LS)

also referred to as Wide Shot (WS)

This angle shows a person from head-to-toe, or the relationship between the subject and its environment.

Establishing Shot

This shot is often an extreme wide shot that establishes the location of a scene.  When editing, this shot appears first followed by a shot of the interior where the characters interact in the scene.

Over-the-Shoulder (OTS)

Used during scenes between people having a conversation or interviews. The camera looks over the shoulder of one person often past their cheek so we don’t have to see their lips moving, which allows us to use audio from different takes of the same scene without having to worry about syncing issues.

How can a talk show host make the programme more interesting?

Consider the points. And Manipulate in the Answer. There are many points. At Least read 5 of them

Understanding your skills and abilities and making the best use of it is what helps you achieve excellence in your career. The TV and film industry are the ones that have always been in the limelight. It is a matter of great pride if you make your presence on the television.

Make the subject comfortable

Before you turn on the camera or the recorder or start writing in your notebook, try to establish a connection and level of trust with the person you’ll be interviewing. Putting him or her at ease before the questioning begins can make a big difference. And while interviewing people, if you can, have them in an environment that keeps them comfortable. Talking to a fisherman while he fishes may be more fruitful than plopping him down at a conference table.

Do your homework, but don’t over think

Not every story will necessitate extensive research, and in some cases, you just won’t have time. But when you’re treading into a complicated or controversial discussion, and sitting down with someone who may have an interest in avoiding certain topics, you and your audience will be best served if you have your head around the issue and are ready to ask the tough questions.

At the same time, no matter how complicated or controversial the subject matter, you should approach an interview as you would any other conversation. Your basic curiosity should drive your questions. Jot down some notes going in, key ideas you want to be sure to touch on, but don’t have a typed-out long list of questions. That’ll only distract you.

Respect who you’re talking to:

Politicians, business leaders, Hollywood stars — these sorts of people are not strangers to media. But most people have never been interviewed or quoted before, so it’s important — even a moral imperative — to keep that in mind.

If a guy on the street blurts out something that you think might put his family in danger or cost him his job, for example, you may
(a) want to keep that out of your story, especially if it’s not relevant to what you’re covering; or, if his words are connected to what you’re doing

(b) talk to him about what he’s saying, make sure he’s comfortable putting those words out there or see if there’s a way to incorporate his sentiments without endangering him — assuming he doesn’t want to be endangered.

Listen, listen, listen:

You may be prepared going into an interview and have a list of questions you want to ask, but listen carefully to what you’re being told. An interview may take you in directions you didn’t see coming, and you don’t want to miss out on opportunities for follow-up questions. And actively listen. Look at those you interview, show them you’re engaged with a nod of the head, your eyes, your smile when appropriate.

Ask open-ended questions:

If you’re looking for good quotes or meaty answers and descriptions, stay away from questions that’ll elicit one-word responses. Say, for instance, that you’re interviewing someone who witnessed a disaster. Don’t ask, “Were you scared? Did you run away?” The better questions would be along these lines: “What do you remember seeing, feeling and thinking? What could you smell or hear? Tell me what you did.”

Allow for silences; don’t interrupt:

Most people need some time to grapple with their thoughts and formulate responses. It’s on you to give them that space. You don’t know what memories or ideas are going through their minds, and if you jump in too quickly, you might miss a gem. By carefully watching the person you’re talking to, you can see if someone’s deep in thought or ready to move on. Another advantage to silences is that they can make people uncomfortable and push them to speak.

Reword or re-ask, as necessary:

There may be a very important piece of information you’re going after. If the person you’re interviewing doesn’t answer the question the first time around, you may have to rephrase it or come back to it later. Don’t hesitate to revisit what you need.

Admit what you don’t know:

You can be as prepared as possible, but you can’t pretend — nor should you pretend — to know everything. An expert will respect you more if you don’t act like you are one yourself. Someone who is a leader in his or her field, or someone who simply observes a holiday you don’t, is generally happy to explain what you and others should know.

Keep tabs on your own emotions:

There are times when interviews may move you to tears or near tears. You are human. But as a general rule, as hard as it may be, you should hold yourself together. There are ways to show sympathy or empathy without falling apart. You can’t always know how the interview subject will view your tears if they come. There are those that might clam up, not wanting to hurt you. Others might get annoyed or even offended, because who are you to act like you know what they feel? You can cry all you want once you walk out the door, but in that space, your job is to let them say and feel what they need to say and feel.

Invite the last word:

A great way to end interviews is to ask those you’re speaking with if they have anything else they’d like to add or if there’s any question they wish you or others in the media were asking. An angle may exist that no one is touching. This is a good tool to get those tips and can sometimes reveal the most useful material.

You need to be outspoken and smart:

If you wish to continue as a television host, you have to be outspoken and smart. While most television programmes are presented to the audiences after proper rehearsals and preparations, you must have the courage to deal with last minute variations in programme schedules. You need to be smart and outspoken to handle such challenges of a television host career.

You must work on your language skills:

The audience only appreciates hosts who can speak in a similar style. Audiences can never appreciate things that they cannot understand. As a television host, you need to make sure that your language is well suited for the select audiences. Working on language skills does not mean you should have a ginormous vocabulary. It actually means you should understand what kind of language goes best with the select audiences.

You must be aware of the latest trends in the industry:

Fashion is not just restricted to the film industry. There are fashion trends in the television industry too. You need to watch several television programmes. Focus on the type of programmes that you plan to host. Identify what changes in dressing and style have occurred in the last decade. Adapt to the changes and understand the reason behind these changes.

You need to address your Guests in a unique manner.

You will many guests, and celebrities in your Show. You need to be prepared for all of them. You need to ask the the right questions. You need to know about them as well, you must study them properly otherwise you may ask something which will ruin your show. You need to talk with them in a manner which will fit your audience and even the celebrity.

Beware of the critics:

Critics have to critically analyse the work of television hosts like you and give thoughtful opinions to earn their bread. They are people who have an eye for detail and any trivial mistake in your presentation style or the way you interact will never miss their eye.  You need to make sure that you take their criticism in a positive light and improve. And you need to handle and respond to criticism in a unique way. You Audience is always eager to know how you react to certain things. You cannot be a successful television host if you do not take criticism positively.

The tv reporter or tv presenter jobs are truly respectable. Young lads who are thinking about how to become a talk show host should prepare themselves well so that they can do justice to the career they have chosen. Here is a step by step approach that you may follow:

Select your specific type of host:

There are many different options among television shows that you may host. You need to pick the type of programme that you would enjoy hosting. You may host a debate and act as talk shows host that are telecast on the news channels. In such programmes, you need to have knowledge regarding the subjects that are being discussed. You may even choose to host award functions and competitions. These are exciting roles and you get to meet many people. You should be able to speak continuously and your presentation style should arouse interest in the minds of the viewers.

Watch many programmes of your niche:

Selecting your niche can really be a challenging task. There are multiple options available and you may easily be carried away by any of these options. The best way to make a wise choice would be to conduct a thorough research beforehand. You can pick episodes of your favourite television shows and watch it over and over again. Try to observe what makes the TV host popular among his audiences. Try to inculcate these traits in you. It will help you advance as a television host.

Read magazines and visit blogs:

The audiovisual media is a great option when you have to research but there are some facts that you do not observe when you are viewer because you get carried away by distractions. It is best to visit websites and blogs that have information regarding television shows and programmes. They have the facts explained in greater detail. This helps you learn facts that you would otherwise miss out. You may even subscribe to magazines that have similar information.

Define ‘documentary’. Explain its types by giving one example each


A docusoap is a hybrid genre, it is observational. It is a long running documentary series which follows an individual or group of people. This genre of documentary was popular because people liked that it was a real soap opera. Docusoaps follow a central protagonist, the means that the audience will begin to know the character.

Example Narcos, Vets in Practice, Gold Rush, Big Fat Gypsy Wedding

Mixed Documentary

A mixed documentary is a combination of interviews, observation, actuality footage, archive material and narration. The narrator links the story together, it also advances the narrative. A lot of the time newer documentaries are mixed.

Example Secret World of Lego, Devil Made me Do it, Ancient Alien

Self Reflexive

This type of documentary is when the camera follows a person or group of people around. The person/people know that that camera is there and they stop to talk to it.

Example MAN VS WILD, Yoga With Ramdev


A docudrama is a reconstruction or re-enactment of something which has actually happened.They show events which have happened at the time.

Example Nirbhaya, Wormwood, Sachin: A Billion Dreams

Fully Narrated

This documentary is when the narrator narrates the whole way through the documentary. It is used to convey the exposition, and used to make sense of what they see.They dominate what is happening.

Example Human Planet, Bharat Ek Khoj.

Reality TV

Reality TV is factual TV. It progressed between 1989 and 1999. This type of TV gives you useful information in the form of entertainment.This is a mix of authentic material with serious information and commercial content. They have a use of camcorder, observation, surveillance and commentary.

Examples American Idol, Indian Idol, Pawn Stars,

Fly on the Wall

A fly on the wall is when the camera is unseen or the people ignore it. Therefore, the cameras record the events which are unrolled. As the cameras are hidden which makes the people in the house act as if they were not there.

Example Whats that show which is completely scripted yet nobody believes it to be??  BIGG BOSS

The above were actual Television Documentaries, however below might include television, series, and film documentaries.


Documentaries which deal with the realities or flavours of life, or based on the problems faced by men/women. Problems like illiteracy, unemployment, corruption are a few examples


Documentaries which capture the beauty of nature and portrays the life of animals/birds are naturist documentaries. Usually, these types of documentaries are shown on channels like Discovery, or Animal Planet. MAN VS WILD IS NOT A PART OF THIS


Initially these films were made to understand government’s’ point of view, these types of documentaries are usually of Political perspective, or promoting or in favour of them. These are often produced by political parties as a form of Publicity.  


These films try to bring about a positive impact, or convey a message with the help of a short and realistic story. Themes like “Family”, “Do not Drink and Drive”, “Respect Women”, etcs, can be seen in Instructional Documentaries


Films based on the lives of a renowned person, a person who broke the limits, a person who went against the society, a person who brought about a change, or just a man who did something. There have been many Biographical Films, characters Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Einstein, etc. The films may or may not be in a positive light. The character might also be someone who did something really evil.


Documentaries which includes fresh news in it. It is a kind of a representative of the event that have taken place in the recent past. Recent issues in the country, change in orders, courrption on the rise, new reforms and treaties, the death of a person, bombing of a nation, etc. can be seen under this category.

Pick up a story from a leading daily of your city/region and rewrite it as a Radio news

  • Okay I found out one, the format is pretty simple. You have write it in a formal Manner.
  • You have to write 5/4 Headlines
  • Followed by, you have to write a news

2018’s Most Awaited Movie is just around the corner and undoubtedly Avengers: Infinity War – it is, from the gripping trailer to Scarlett Johansson; everything is perfect. But the love for the MCU (Marvel Cinematic universe) is just too much in some of us. Some like 19 year old, Agnik Ghosh, who hit his friend Rishi with a hammer after he spoilt the movie for him (for real)


Mumbra University has postponed all Third and Second Year BMM examinations scheduled to be held in Mumbra today. In a statement, MrU said, the decision to postpone the examinations was an important step because students have been threatening to spoil the Infinity War Movie, in the Examination Paper, due to the Examination Dates, and the Messed up Journalistic Money Shots.

The Decision has been taken at the request of the Suprem Council in view of a bandh call given by some colleges. The new date of the exams will be announced soon. The board said, exams in the rest of the country, including the Union Territory of Vomir, will be held as per schedule.


Referring to the letter of request, Russo Brothers also said, we thank our fam boi eppy for the bmm notes, here’s a 1000 bucks.


Just Kidding. But this is a format, you have to be formal and also make sure you are writing for which medium, it will also be better to ask your maam for a format, since she will/might check your paper. But this is how it is supposed to be.

Write in detail the production process in television

I did not find the answer. But these are the points


A proposal, includes a treatment, and is a thorough description of all aspects of a project. It is created in the pre-production stage of a project to persuade funders, distributors and others to support the project.

An effective proposal will:

  • Tell a good story
  • Make human truths emerge through images—not just verbal description.
  • Present a personal, critical perspective on some aspect of the human condition.
  • Inform and emotionally move an audience

The goal of a proposal is to communicate your idea to someone who may know nothing about either you, your previous work, or this project—don’t make assumptions. Usually a proposal is a key element in securing resources to produce a project- so the credibility of the production team, and such factors as ‘Why this film?’ ‘Why now?’ and ‘Why these producers?’ are important.

Writing a production proposal is for the purpose getting permission of shoot or to make a plan.

  1. A treatment  (written format)
  2. A proposed budget
  3. A video format or script
  4. Proposed production schedule

Researching a topic

Cast and crew

Production locations

Contact persons

Content nature (type of program)


Place of people

Place of shooting

Location permission

Location charges

Crew expenses


Short note of whole program.

A treatment is a piece of prose, typically the step between scene and the first draft of a screenplay for a motion picture, television program, or radio play.

Less words for a documentary.


Every penny (rupee) must go screen.

Workout on budget




Other charges

Writing Script

Words of the screen.

Idea to paper

Camera details (Shot scale, angle, movement)

Video Description

Audio Description


Production Schedule (Before shooting)

Dates of each videotapes

Place of travel

Transportation plans

Crew accommodation


Interviewee details


Coordinate all production problems

  1. Shooting
  2. Interview
  3. Content
  4. Creative work

After Shooting

Checking the footage

Writing final script


Music, Dubbing

Title, effects

Final Script (If needed)

Draw a storyboard of a fictional scene of 2 Minutes duration ?

Excuse me as I showcase storyboards of my favourite scenes

A storyboard is a graphic organizer that plans a narrative. Storyboards are a powerful way to visually present information; the linear direction of the cells is perfect for storytelling, explaining a process, and showing the passage of time. At their core, storyboards are a set of sequential drawings to tell a story. By breaking a story into linear, bite-sized chunks, it allows the author to focus on each cell separately, without distraction.

Depending on the source, either Howard Hughes, with the 1930 film, Hell’s Angels, or Walt Disney, with the 1933 animated film, Three Little Pigs, is cited as the father of modern day storyboards. In 1939, Gone with the Wind was the first live-action movie to be completely drawn out on storyboards before filming.

The original storyboards showed stories broken up into pieces. Each piece of the story was drawn out on a card or piece of paper and pinned to a board in sequential order. Collaborators were then able to talk about and revise the story by looking at one part at a time, check to be sure it made sense, and plan for the production. Instead of redoing a large-scale drawing when changes were made, a single card could be reordered, redrawn, or even deleted. The ability to make changes easily ahead of time saves a lot of time and money

The ultimate in visual storytelling is film. Storyboards were first used for this purpose and work just as well (if not better) than they did in the 1930s. By storyboarding before filming, you can better plan out your camera angles, setting, props, actors, effects and so on and be more industrious during production. Storyboarding ahead of time also checks to see that your script makes sense and allows you to correct errors before they become too expensive to fix.

These are some film projects that greatly benefit from storyboarding.

  • Commercial advertisement
  • Television show (with or without commercial breaks)
  • Instructional video
  • Feature film
  • Independent Film
  • YouTube & Vimeo Videos

The Most Preferred Type

Image result for deadpool storyboardRelated image

Image result for storyboard dc

Discuss the relevance of community Radio today. How it can be used in India in reaching rural masses.

Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting. Community stations serve geographic communities and communities of interest. They broadcast content that is popular and relevant to a local, specific audience but is often overlooked by commercial or mass-media broadcasters.

Community radio stations are operated, owned, and influenced by the communities they serve. They are generally nonprofit and provide a mechanism for enabling individuals, groups, and communities to tell their own stories, to share experiences and, in a media-rich world, to become creators and contributors of media.

In many parts of the world, community radio acts as a vehicle for the community and voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, NGOs and citizens to work in partnership to further community development aims in addition to broadcasting.

Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interest of a certain area, broadcasting content that is popular to a local audience but which may often be overlooked by commercial or mass media broadcasters.

Today, there are more than 180 community radio stations across India, broadcasting in languages like Bundelkhandi, Garhwali, Awadhi and Santhali — tongues that typically find little or no space on television.

Radio has also been the last man standing in times of calamity and disaster. During situations like the 2004 tsunami, and the 2013 Uttarakhand floods, radio played a stellar role in conveying information on relief work, aid and recovery efforts when other mediums became inaccessible.

Most importantly, radio personalities the experience of listeners, driving them to use their imagination while deciphering what’s unfolding.

“TV gives everyone an image, but radio gives birth to a million images in a million brains,” wrote the American author Margaret ‘Peggy’ Noonan. In an era that prioritises customised content, her lines provide the perfect summation of the immense flexibility and the continued relevance of the medium.

In India the campaign to legitimise community radio began in the mid-1990s, soon after the Supreme Court of India ruled in its judgment of February 1995 that “airwaves are public property”. The judgment inspired several free speech advocates, academics and community members across the country to being a concerted campaign to legitimize community radio in India.

Successful Examples of Community Radio in India

Sarang 107.8 FM

SARANG 107.8 is run by St Aloysius College (Autonomous), Mangalore, a coastal town in the southern part of Karnataka. SARANG 107.8 FM means ‘all colours’ of Mangalore signifying various social, religious, linguistic communities and their harmonious existence – which is a requirement now after the disturbance in the context of attack on churches (post 14 September 2008) by radical saffronists, and later assault on women in a pub in the name of moral policing by similar groups.  The local communities of farmers, fisher folk, medical/ legal experts, students, workers contribute regularly to this radio. The radio also spreads messages of peace and harmony among people through programmes based on the need for the same. Health and hygiene, agricultural messages, fisher folk issues, road safety, water conservation, rain water harvesting, folk culture and life, original entertainment by locals and students are the hall mark of this radio. Currently (as on the last day of July 2009), SARANG 107.8 broadcasts in Konkani, Kannada, Tulu, and English languages regularly, besides occasionally broadcasting in Malayalam.

Kunjal Panchhi Kutch Ji

This community radio station is administered by Kutch Women Development Corporation and is immensely popular among the rural womenfolk. This corporation is working in this area since last two decades. This radio station mostly focuses on the issues relating to women and tries to find a solution to all the problems being discussed here. The topic for discussion mostly consists of issues like female foeticide, dowry and female education.

Chala Ho Gaon Mein

The importance of this community radio lies in the fact that the programs broadcasted here is prepared by the people belonging to rural background. The programs basically cover issues like dowry, violence against women, corruption, social evils etc. Needless to say that ‘Chalo Ho Gao Me’ has really proved to be a landmark in providing common platform to the residents of Palamu district of Jharkhand from where they can communicate their thoughts without any restriction.

Mandakini ki Awaaz

‘Mandakini ki Awaaz’ Community Radio is located in Mandakini river valley at Pauri in Garhwal, supported by a group of people from a tiny village called Bhanaj. Located at a 5 hour drive from the nearest town centre of Rudraprayag, this group of people aims at creating an open and transparent administrative and governance information system. The radio group mediates between the people and the governing bodies (panchayats) of these villages, in order to create an open platform where policies, schemes and financial budgets can be made available for public discussion and scrutiny.

Discuss the History & Development of All India Radio.

All India Radio is the largest national broadcasting system in India. It has 415 stations across the country. During the British Raj, broadcasting began in July 1923 with programmes by the Bombay Presidency Radio Club and other radio clubs. According to an agreement of 23 July 1927, the private Indian Broadcasting Company LTD (IBC) was authorized to operate two radio stations; the Bombay station began on 23 July 1927, and the Calcutta station followed on 26 August 1927.

However, on 1 March 1930, the company went into liquidation. The government took over the broadcasting facilities, beginning the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on 1 April 1930 on an experimental basis for two years and then permanently in May 1932. On 8 June 1936, the ISBS was renamed All India Radio. On 1 October 1939, the External Service began with a broadcast in Pushtu; it was intended to counter radio propaganda from Germany directed to Afghanistan, Iran and the Arab nations. 1939 also saw the opening of the Dhaka station of eastern India, in what is now Bangladesh.

This station catered and nurtured the pioneers of Bengali intellectuals. The foremost among them, Natyaguru Nurul Momen, became the trailblazer of talk-show in 1939. In 1942 he wrote and directed the first modern radio-play of this station. When India became independent in 1947, the AIR network had only six stations (in Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow, and Tiruchirappalli); three radio stations at Lahore, Peshawar and Karachi fell in the share of Pakistan. The total number of radio sets at that time was about 275,000 in India. On 3 October 1957, the Vividh Bharati Service was launched, to compete with Radio Ceylon. Television broadcasting began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was split off from the radio network as Doordarshan on 1 April 1976. FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, and was expanded during the 1990s.

Growth & Development

Broadcasting in India actually began about 13 years before AIR came into existence. In June 1923 the Radio Club of Bombay made the first ever broadcast in the country. This was followed by the setting up of the Calcutta Radio Club five months later. The Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) came into being on July 23, 1927, only to face liquidation in less than three years.

In April 1930, the Indian Broadcasting Service, under the Department of Industries and Labour, commenced its operations on an experimental basis. Lionel Fielden was appointed the first Controller of Broadcasting in August 1935. In the following month Akashvani Mysore, a private radio station was set up. On June 8, 1936, the Indian State Broadcasting Service became All India Radio.

The Central News Organisation (CNO) came into existence in August, 1937. In the same year, AIR came under the Department of Communications and four years later came under the Department of Information and Broadcasting. When India attained independence, there were six radio stations in India, at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Tiruchirapalli and Lucknow. There were three in Pakistan (Peshawar, Lahore and Dacca). AIR then had a coverage of just 2.5 % of the area and 11% of the population. The following year, CNO was split up into two divisions, the News Services Division (NSD) and the External Services Division (ESD). In 1956 the name AKASHVANI was adopted for the National Broadcaster. The Vividh Bharati Service was launched in 1957 with popular film music as its main component.

The phenomenal growth achieved by All India Radio has made it one of the largest media organisations in the world. With a network of 262 radio stations, AIR today is accessible to almost the entire population of the country and nearly 92% of the total area. A broadcasting giant, AIR today broadcasts in 23 languages and 146 dialects catering to a vast spectrum of socio-economically and culturally diverse populace.

Programmes of the External Services Division are broadcast in 11 Indian and 16 foreign languages reaching out to more than 100 countries. These external broadcasts aim to keep the overseas listeners informed about developments in the country and provide a rich fare of entertainment as well.

The News Services Division, of All India Radio broadcasts 647 bulletins daily for a total duration of nearly 56 hours in about 90 Languages/Dialects in Home, Regional, External and DTH Services. 314 news headlines on hourly basis are also being mounted on FM mode from 41 AIR Stations. 44 Regional News Units originate 469 daily news bulletins in 75 languages. In addition to the daily news bulletins, the News Services Division also mounts number of news-based programmes on topical subjects from Delhi and its Regional News Units

AIR operates at present 18 FM stereo channels, called AIR FM Rainbow, targeting the urban audience in a refreshing style of presentation. Four more FM channels called, AIR FM Gold, broadcast composite news and entertainment programmes from Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai. With the FM wave sweeping the country, AIR is augmenting its Medium Wave transmission with additional FM transmitters at Regional stations.

In keeping with the Government decision for transition to the digital mode of transmission, AIR is switching from analog to digital in a phased manner. The technology adopted is the Digital Radio Mondiale or DRM. With the target of complete digitization by 2017, the listeners can look forward to highly enhanced transmission quality in the near future.

Write a detail note on ‘Satellite Radio’. Give suitable examples

Radio in which the audio information is transmitted in digital form and decoded at the radio receiver. Signals are transmitted via one or more satellites. It covers much wide geographical area than terrestrial FM Radio Stations.

Satellite radio broadcasters are slowly emerging, but the enormous entry costs of space based satellite transmitters and restrictions on available radio spectrum licenses has restricted growth of this market. In the USA and Canada, just two services exist. XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio exist.

XM Satellite radio was launched in the year 2001, and Sirius in 2002 in US. Both companies merged in the year 2008 to become Sirius XM Radio Inc.

Both radio’s offer more variety of programmes on more than 120 channels of music, news, sports, wealth and talk, and unlike terrestrial radio, the signal stays tuned no matter where one travels within the US.

Satellite radio services are subscription based. Subscriber have to pay fees on a monthly basis to avail the services. In comparison to terrestrial radios, the satellite radio is a more reliable technology available significantly at a lower price with a variety of attractive options

Siruis XM claims 20 million subscribers today

Been in Radio being 20 Months,
Passed All the Competitions man
Pewdiepie is Next <3
Radio is my City

Describe the evolution of Television in India.

On March 25, 1925, Scottish inventor John Baird gave the first public demonstration of moving images in London. The first British broadcast was made by Baird Television Company over the BBC radio transmitter in September 1929. The first regularly scheduled television service in the United States began on July 2, 1928.

Television started much later in India, i.e. in the year 1959. In India, Doordarshan is the only public service broadcaster performing the functions. It is the largest broadcasting organization in the country. It covers the whole nation as well as it is available in almost 146 countries worldwide. Prasar Bharati is a parent body of Doordarshan, which works under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.

In January 1950, The Indian Express reported that a television was put up for demonstration at an exhibition in the Teynampet locality of Madras (now Chennai) by B. Sivakumaran, a student of electrical engineering. A letter was scanned and its image displayed on a cathode ray tube screen. The report said that “it may be this is not the whole of television but it is certainly the most significant link in the system” and added that the demonstration of the sort could be the “first in India”.

In Kolkata, television was first used in the house of the wealthy Neogi family. Terrestrial television in India started with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. Daily transmission began in 1965 as a part of All India Radio (AIR). Television service was later expanded to Bombay and Amritsar in 1972. Up until 1975, only seven Indian cities had television services.

Television services were separated from radio in 1976. National telecast was introduced in 1982. In the same year, color television was introduced in the Indian market.

Indian small screen programming started off in the early 1980s. During this time, there was only one national channel, the government-owned Doordarshan. The Ramayana and Mahabharata, both based on the Indian epics of the same names, were the first major television series produced. They notched up world record in viewership numbers. By the late 1980s, more people began to own television sets. Though there was a single channel, television programming had reached saturation. Hence the government opened up another channel which had part national programming and part regional. This channel was known as DD 2, later renamed DD Metro. Both channels were broadcast terrestrially. In 1997, Prasar Bharati, a statutory autonomous body was established. Doordarshan along with the AIR were converted into government corporations under Prasar Bharati. The Prasar Bharati Corporation was established to serve as the public service broadcaster of the country which would achieve its objectives through AIR and Doordashan. This was a step towards greater autonomy for Doordarshan and AIR. However, Prasar Bharati has not succeeded in shielding Doordarshan from government control.

Growth and Development of Television in India

  • 1959: Delhi’s DD station began.
  • 1972: The second TV centre at Mumbai started after almost 12 years.
  • 1967: ‘Krishi Darshan’ programme for farmers began.
  • 1975-76: SITE (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) was launched by Indian Government in collaboration to NASA.
  • 1982: DD’s first color transmission over national network started.
  • 1985: Cable TV came to India
  • 1987: DD introduced morning transmission UGC.
  • 1989: Afternoon transmission started
  • 1991: Star TV started in India
  • 1992: Zee Tv telecast began

In urban India 75.4%watch television and DD1 National network was watched by 39.6% in rural and urban areas.

What are different types of sound that are used in production?

Natural sound:

Sound produced by natural resources is known as natural sounds. Sounds of bubbling water, sound of cow moaning mooing, sound of wind or birds singing are some of the examples of natural sounds. These are not created in the studio, but they are naturally found in the environment.

Ambient Sound:

The sound which is in the background of a scene or location. This sound becomes the part of a scene and provides continuity between shots. For instance, ambient sound could be the sound of a bus going by on a busy street for a story about traffic.

Recorded Sound:

Sound which is not conveniently created inside the studio like the noise of an aircraft while landing and takeoff, running train, running cars, etc. Such sounds can be recorded and kept in the library. They can be used in radio plays whenever required.

What are sound effects? Give examples.

Sound effects (or audio effects) are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music. There are three main types of sound effects:

Spot Effect

Also called as manual effect, includes the noises of doors, telephones, bells, tea cups, letters being opened, crashes, bangs, footsteps, horses ‘hooves’. These noises are the part of the action created live. Example high heel footstep noise for women, leather heels for men shoes. Walking, running up and down stairs are done better with real steps. Opening of wooden door is exaggerated but closing of door is softened. Knocking of door done on solid frame. Earlier they used rolling of dried peas noise for rain effect.

Library Recorded Effects

It principally consists of those that cannot be conveniently created in the studio. For example cars, aircrafts, weather, crowd chatter and so on. Purpose of this effect is not to recreate actuality but to suggest. Library effects are those already available on disc.

The wind in TV can be created by wind generating machine. For including coal and log fires in TV studios is usually provided by gas, with any visual flicker effects added by lighting.

Actually Recorded Effects

These are also recorded effects but they are recorded for occasion. More often for films and television film programmes. They are as per demanded by the script of the programme which may not be used afterwards.

Spot effects can also be pre recorded. Engineers or editors will divide their work. One looks after the microphones and audio console link, the team leader at the console is responsible for balance; one assistant looks after all the recorded effects including on site editing and another creates effects in the studio.

Discuss different types of recording in detail.

Audio Tape Recording

In audio tape recording, the medium of recording is reel and not the cassette. This reel or a magnetic tape is mounted on a circular spindle. Interviews, music and all types of programme material is stored on such devices and played out as per the requirement. It is also known as real-to-reel tape recording. This technique was highly popular till 1990s. Today many stations have replaced this by other digital equipments, where audio is recorded direct on to a computer hard disk, which can be re-edited, stored, played out and archived.

Digital Recording

In digital recording, audio and video signals are picked up and converted into a digital form and then stored on computer hard disk. Portable hard disks are used for storage which is smaller in size than analogue cassettes. Audio is in the ‘bit’ form. This sound is again converted in to their original analog waveforms so that they can be heard through speakers. Video signals are also converted to original analogs wave forms to view on television. The sound quality remains exactly the same as the original and unlike analogue tape copies does not degrade as successive digital copies are made.

Digital recording technique is popular on many radio stations as vast amount of programme material can be stored and it’s cheaper. Stations are using portable machines like sonifex which contains portable machine disks, a small memory card. So recording and editing on the spot is possible. This machine can be plugged easily in to the computer’s USB port for on-screen editing.

Outdoor Recording

Outdoor recording is a big task comparing to indoor recording. It contains the whole different range of challenges and problems than indoor. It is very important that you record the best sound emitted from the source and that too without distortion. The most disturbing sound is wind noise or the traffic noise. While recording a radio and television programme, the position of the mike should be such that so as to avoid wind noise gets the kikes as close to the sound source as possible. Shotgun microphones are used by many outdoor recorders. It won’t be difficult to record the information bit by a news anchor or a small programme of music with one or two singers. But big show will require number of microphones. The recordings are then brought to the studio and edited.

Discuss the various types of lighting in production. Explain its importance

Key light

The first set light is usually the key light. It’s positioned thirty to forty five degrees to the side of the camera and should strike the subject at an angle of forty five degrees from vertical. This lighting angle is best for people with normal features.

People with short noses or weak chins should be lit from a steeper angle to increase the length of the shadow cast under the nose or chin.  The key light is focused on the subject by putting the bulb in the “fullspot” position and centering the beam on the subject.

Back light

The back light is placed directly behind the subject in line with the camera. It is set at a forty five degree angle from vertical. The back light is spotted down and aimed at the subject’s neck. It is then flooded until it is the same intensity at the key light.

The back light should be adjusted to produce a crisp but subtle border around the subject.

Fill light

Fill light is added on the side of the camera opposite the key light. Fill light should be about half the intensity of the key and back lights. It should also be softer, producing no harsh shadows. Fill lights are frequently scrimmed to soften them and reduce their intensity.

Background light

Background light is added to bring the background up to a level in the middle of the overall grey scale of the subject. Background lighting should be even and unobtrusive. The background shouldn’t be made the centre of attention with harsh or uneven light.

Importance of lighting

  1. Lighting can enhance your video: Notice how you get a cold feeling on the back if your neck when you are watching horror movies. The way that scene is lighted will have something to do with that. Contrast and shadows can have more of an effect on a TV scene than you shoot. Even in TV commercials light plays an important role.

  1. Lighting determines the quality of your programme: If lighting isn’t done properly, a video producer can go from top quality to a cheap video. Even basic lighting in a production will make a huge difference on the set. One technique that is known by most people in video production is three point lighting. It’s one of the most versatile lighting techniques and is pretty much the most basic one.

  1. High quality lighting will save time of editors: If your lighting on a set is not really up to snuff, it means your editors are going to end up paying for your mistake. It is very important to fix your lighting before you shoot, because if not the editors will have to pay the price. Therefore, extending the editing process and in turn the entire production process gets delayed.

Explain the studio operations in Television Production.

TV Programme production involves many skills compared to Radio Programme. It requires more man power and each of them have a specific role to play, coordination is necessary to make the programme a huge success. The programme is played out in front of the cameras in a soundproof studio, lit up with powerful lights. Microphones pick up the sound. Minimum two cameras are required. Movie cameras record optical image on a photographic emulsion. Video cameras record optical image and convert into electrical signals. Cameramen wear headphones over which they get instructions on the camera angles and shots from the producer/director in the CR.

Control Room

Video cameras connected to video equipment and microphones are connected to audio equipment. Video equipments consist of monitors and vision mixers which are ‘received images’ from the cameras. Editor or video engineer selects most relevant picture and clear picture – a master monitor shows the selected shot.

Special Effects

The Wipe, the superimposition, corner insertions, circular iris, split screen, fades, dissolves are the type of special effects that the editor uses in a programme to transition from one scene to the other.

Graphic Editor

  • Names of news ready, participants projecting titles
  • Weather, cricket match, maps, chart, table etc.
  • Character generator

These are some of the functions performed by a graphic editor.

Sound or Audio Console

It consists of tape, mixer, amplifier, recording and mixing and addition of sound. In a ‘live’ programme the video and audio are picked up at the same time and the need for ‘dubbing’ does not arise. In a live telecast of a play soundtracks of environmental sounds and other background sound effects need to be mixed with the dialogue. In a taped programme on the other hand, video and audio elements could be recorded separately and then matched.

Discuss how radio documentaries have proved to be an important tool of communication.

Not yet… idk…

Explain with examples, how the spoken word idiom is different from printed medium language.

Nuh huh

Write the relevance of educational television in India.

In India, since the inception of TV network, television has been perceived as an efficient force of education and development. With its large audience it has attracted educators as being an efficient tool for imparting education to primary, secondary and university level students.

In the year 1961, it was for the first time in India, Delhi government took the decision to broadcast curriculum based lessons for school children on television. The experiment was made possible. Next successful project was Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) in the year 1975. This project was commissioned for the villagers and their primary school going children. The main objectives of SITE were to:

  • Familiarize the rural masses with the improved and scientific know how about farming, the use of fertilizers and the maintenance of health and hygiene
  • Bring about national and emotional integration
  • Make rural children aware of the importance of education and healthy environment

IGNOU started telecasting its programmes in the year 1991 through Doordarshan. It was designed mainly for Distance Learners. Its aim was to provide tele-counselling to students of open universities in remote areas. One more remarkable development in the field of educational TV was Gyan Darshan. It is a 24 hour transmission programme channel on education.

Today Teletext is a digital technology used for educating the masses. It is another form of communication system wherein text and graphics are transmitted as digitized signals through air broadcasting or cable channel for display on television set. There are several educational programmes on television today including educational channels like Animal Planet, Discovery and History. There are many institutes in India who consistently contribute in educating the masses.

Jamia Millia Islamia University in India is one of them. AJK Mass Communication Research Centre of this university has been producing high quality educational programmes for UGC. They have so far produced 1000 TV educational programmes for UGC.

Television in education has undergone many incarnations. It has been used extensively in conventional and distance education formats. The developed countries are taking full advantage of television in education. This has greater scope in developing countries also. The above discussed projects on the use of television in education underline its role and significance for achieving the goals set for education for all.




Discuss Prasar Bharti in detail

Radio and Television in India were strictly under government’s control. There was a lot of political pressure on both the media. There was a danger of losing credibility with the listeners. Hence media advisors like Lionel Fielden and Ahmed Bokhari suggested autonomy to the electronic media.

In the year 1964 the government appointed a committee on information and broadcasting under the chairmanship of Mr. Ashok Chanda. The Chanda committee made three major recommendations in its report which was published in 1966.

  1. AIR be converted into a corporation run by a Board of Governors on the BBC model
  2. Television be separated from radio and given a 20 year development plan
  3. Vividh Bharti channel be commercialized and its profit should be used for the improvement of radio programmes.

In the year 1978, B.G. Verghese committee also submitted its report on autonomy of electronic media. In which they suggested to set up a single ‘National Broadcast Trust’ instead of autonomous regional corporations. Based on all these recommendations Prasar Bharti bill was introduced in the parliament by the Janata government. But the bill lapsed after the Janata’s collapse.

The bill passed in the year 1990 but it was not enacted until September 15, 1997. Hence, Prasar Bharati is an autonomous broadcasting corporation formed under the Prasar Bharati Act. The act grants autonomy to both radio and Doordarshan in India. The main objective of the corporation is to ensure balanced development of broadcasting on radio and television and also to safeguard the citizen’s right to be informed freely and objectively on all national and international matters.

Broadcasting also aims in providing suitable programmes keeping in view the special needs of minorities, tribal communities, rural and weaker sections in the country.

Prasar Bharati shall be guided by the following objectives:

  • Upholding the unity and integrity of the country and the values protected in the Constitution.
  • Providing appropriate programmes keeping in view the special needs of the youth.
  • Safeguarding the rights of the working classes and advancing their welfare.
  • Providing adequate coverage to sport games so as to encourage healthy competition and the spirit of sportsmanship.
  • Informing and stimulating the national consciousness in regards to the status and problems of women and paying special attention to the upliftment of women.

Discuss the role of Satellite TV today


How animation on television is a powerful communication medium today


Shin-Ei is one of the animation studios behind the biggest hit animation television series, Doraemon and Crayon Shin-Chan, which still runs on Japanese TV since 1979 and 1992 respectively. Shin-Ei Animation Co. Ltd. is a Japanese animation company owned by TV Asahi Corporation which was founded in Tokyo in 1976.

Doraemon is a Japanese manga series and illustrated by the manga writing team Fujiko Fujio. The story revolves around a robotic cat named Doraemon, who travels back in time from 22nd century to aid a small boy named Nobita. The Doraemon manga series was first published in December 1969 in 6 different magazines[monthly, weekly, and daily shonen magazines, it had 4 panels, and later became a full fledged Manga]. Turner Broadcasting System bought the rights to the Doraemon animation series in the mid 1980s for United States.

Television actually began showing cartoons in the late 1940s. As TV became a phenomenon and began to draw audiences away from movie theatres, this introduced a new generation of children to the wonderful world of cartoons.

Characters like Mighty Mouse and Heckle and Jeckle, became very popular on children’s television channels and block the next 30 to 40 years. Also beginning in 1954, Walt Disney capitalized on the medium of television with his own weekly TV series, Disneyland. This ABC show popularized his new Disneyland theme park and began a decades-long series of TV broadcasts of Disney cartoons, which later expanded into the show Walt Disney’s Wonderful World of Color. With the arrival of Cartoon Network in the year 1995, popular animated shows and cartoons were shown to the viewers for the first time.

Eventually lot more animated channels, international and national, started to come up as well in India.

Now there are several  Indian Animation Channels namely, Animax, POGO, Sonic, Disney Channel, Toon Disney, Hungama TV,etc. that offers various types of programmes from cartoons, game shows, art and crafts etc.

Many popular animated and children movies are also premiered on the above mentioned channels, some even dubbed in Hindi and other regional languages.

No doubt cartoons are great source of fun and entertainment for children. Children are also fond of cartoons as because of many reasons. As they find human in cartoon form with cute or weird shape and dress with colorful attire.

Children aged 3 to 9 years usually starts to watch cartoons. But at this age kids have growing mind. They are curious and fast learners. The capability to learn by observing things.

And that is why cartoons directly make an impact on their minds and nature as well. It is better to lead children to watch cartoon having positive effect. Watching cartoon, a child can learn language and talking way.

Accordingly, animation influences family functioning in various ways. Learning and education, leisure and entertainment, household routines, work from home, personal development, extended family communication, e-commerce and civic involvement are possible affected domains.

Animation Weather 2D or 3D has shaped our culture and social system. Today, the wonders of animations are not limited to cartoon shows and films that we love and enjoy.

They have become the highlight for the video marketing campaigns. Animation has its influence not only among kids but adults as well.

Animated advertisements are very effective in communicating the message.

Animations can go to any depth and explain the product and process. The main benefit of using animation in commercial is to make it interesting and unique.

One of the major advantages of using animation in advertising is the ability of animators to create environments and worlds that could not be accessed or reproduced by a live action camera crew.

The more original the advertisement is, the biggest is the chance that the customer will remember it and then buy the product. The advertisement of Amul Butter is no doubt a landmark in its own field.

Overall effect of animation in Indian television has given the boost to the 3d animation industry in witnessing a major boom.

Overseas entertainment giant’s or production companies mainly Walt Disney, Imax and Sony are increasingly outsourcing cartoon characters and special effects to India.

Difference between AIR and commercial radio channels

  • AIR (non-commercial except Vividh Bharati and FM Gold and Rainbow) is government controlled radio, which talks about the Government in a Positive Light.
  • Commercial radios are run by Private Organizations, whose main aim is to earn profit.
  • Non-Commercial FM Stations are very similar in practice except that all of their income is turned back into the corporation for station growth, upgrades, repairs, salaries, etc.
  • Non Commercial Radio Stations differs from commercial FM stations primarily in that they are not permitted to accept revenue in exchange for broadcasting “spots” (announcements advertising goods and services)
  • Presently, non-commercial educational stations may accept advertising for goods and services provided by non-profit organizations. As well, they may receive underwriting and sponsorship spots from national and local businesses to pay for programming.
  • Unlike Commercial FM channels, there is less competition for non-commercial educational FM channels.
  • AIR can broadcast news but private FM stations cant
  • Equipment, Staffing, and Operating requirements are essentially the same.
  • AIR has a three-tier system of broadcasting. These three levels of programmes are the National, Regional and Local each having distinct audiences.

Commercial channels are meant for pure entertainment and target mostly youths. Young listeners have a major impact on their lifestyles due to FM Channels. Overall whether its FM or Community Radio, the medium has its impact on middle and lower-middle income households, cab drivers, and auto-rickshaw drivers, factory workers, office boys are eligible targets of radio transmissions.

All India Radio is at the Public Service of its nation 24*7, by promoting the interest of the urban, rural, illiterate, and underprivileged population. As per its objective, it is also promoting national integration. One special day is marked in the history of AIR. Every year, 12th November is declared as public service broadcasting day by AIR.

In the year, 1947, Mahatma Gandhi was scheduled to visit Kurukshetra on 12th November and address 2.5 Lakh refugees camping. But he couldn’t due to some unavoidable reasons. He then visited broadcasting house and addressed the refugees at 03:00 PM on radio to commemorate 50 Years of this historic visit of Mahatma Gandhi to AIR, a function was organised at AIR premises on 12th November 1997 at 03:00PM. Later on, in the year 2001, the day was officially declared as “Public Service Broadcasting Day”

“Reality show is a popular format of television today” Discuss with examples.

The production volume generated by the TV format business globally was in excess of 9 Billion Euros as estimated by a FRAPA study in 2009.  Estimates are that this could have crossed Euros 10 billion by now. calculations place the size for the business in India at around Rs 950 crore nationally, for shows which are produced from international, indigenous formats and even format TV show imports.

Dance India Dance,  one of the most popular original Indian formats in recent times, and has branched out, spawned three spin-offs’ viz., Dance India Dance: Super Moms, Dance India Dance: Li’l Masters and Dance India Dance Doubles.

Cadbury Bournvita Quiz Contest remains India’s oldest original format to be still in production, since its inception back in 1972; and still remains India’s longest running quiz contest. India has adapted quite a few international reality formats, namely, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, Masterchef, Big Brother, Britain’s Got Talent, American Idol, Dancing with the Stars and Road Rules, along with adaptations of scripted formats such as 24 and The Killing

Reality Show is one of the most popular format on Television. Indian audience loves to watch reality shows and generally, the TRP of these reality shows are always found to be more than that of other TV Programmes.

Reality shows are those shows which are based on the real incidences with no scripted story. Generally shot inside the studio huge Set decoration or in natural surroundings on outside locations. Big Boss, Comedy Nights with Kapil, MTV Roadies, Khatron ke Khiladi, Jhalak Dikhla Ja, Master Chef, Eka Peksha Ek, Home Minister, and many others are very popular shows on Indian Television.

Reality shows like Khatron ke Khiladi, Roadies, not only thrill us, but also strike our emotional chords. On the other hand, competition based reality shows like Indian Idol, Jhalak Dikhhla Ja, provide people an opportunity from all walks of life to showcase their talent and rise to fame.

In India, reality shows have become a new age entertainment recipe to all the audiences. Most of the reality shows are remake of foreign formats. They lag behind in originality but still manage to keep the viewers glued. Some Indian shows with foreign concepts are Big Boss, Khataron ke Khiladi, etc.

The Popular Show hosted by Salman Khan on Colors TV is originally inspired from “Big Brother” which was first developed by Endemol in Netherland in the year 1999. Since then the format has become popular on a global scale. Khataron ke Khiladi is based on the Show “Fear Factor”, whereas Kaun Banega Crorepati is based on “Who wants to be a Millionaire”

Today if you look at these popular shows, use of new advance technology of multi camera set-up, of vans, special effects have changed the format of programs completely.

Due to advance technology, multi camera setup is used in television shows. Also, with advent of HDTV picture and digital sound set up quality of reality shows is improved.

Challenges of recording in outdoor shooting

Outdoor recording is a big task comparing to indoor recording. It contains the whole different range of challenges and problems than indoor. It is very important that you record the best sound emitted for the source and that too without distortion.

Recording outside presents a whole different range of problems and challenges than working in the studio, but almost all are of a technical nature. The basic concepts and practices of mic placement are unaffected; you still need to position a mic where it can ‘hear’ the best balance of sound emitted from the source, and where the rejection null (or nulls) of its polar pattern reject the most unwanted noise.

The most disturbing sound is wind noise or the traffic noise. While recording a radio and television programme, the position of Mic should be such that it avoids wind noise and close and records the sound source as accurately as possible.

Shotgun microphones are used by many recorders for outdoors. It won’t be difficult to record the information bit by a news anchor or a small programme of a music with one or two singers. But a big show will require number of microphones.

The recordings are then brought to the studio and edited.

Outdoor recording today is growing in popularity, both from audiences seeking more diverse listening experiences and by artists looking for environmental sources as compositional tools. Affordable music technology has made the recording process more accessible and the results infinitely manipulatable – it’s easy to see why the approach can be found across a wide spectrum of electronic and pop music.

Write in short about Gyan Vani

Gyan Vani is an educational FM radio station in several cities of India. Gyan Vani stations operate as a media cooperative with the day-to-day programmes being contributed by various educational institutions, NGOs, government and semi-government organizations, UN agencies, ministries such as Agriculture, Environment, Health, Women and Child Welfare, Science & Technology, etc. besides national level institutions such as NCERT, NIOS and state open universities.

Each Gyan Vani station has a range of about 60 km and covers an entire city including the adjoining rural areas. The medium of broadcast is English, Hindi or language of the region. Gyan Vani FM radio uses stereophonic FM transmitters, and professionals operate the radio stations. Each nodal centre is provided with media from Indira Gandhi National Open University’s (IGNOU) Electronic Media Production Centre.

The centre serves purposes of production, dissemination and transmission of educational material. The facilities available at the media production centre are shared with various educational and training institutions, state open universities, central and state government ministries or departments, non governmental organizations, corporate bodies and other sectors.

Once the Government of India through a cabinet decision decided to allot one frequency for Education with IGNOU as the nodal agency, Dr R Sreedher, [then] the director of EMPC designed the network by organising a series of brainstorming sessions. His idea was to use the audio video studios available with the educational institutions for producing the programmes and use the AIR or the Doordarhsan, public broadcasters’ towers and technical facilities for transmission.

He wanted to hire these facilities instead of creating his own infrastructure and appointing technical persons. A memorandum of understanding was signed between IGNOU and Prasar Bharati to share the towers. But as of 2013 there are 37 stations functioning. But the original concept of localised broadcasts have been given a go by and most of them are relaying the Delhi programmes. The second phase of radio privatisation even though reserved one frequency for education, neither the MHRD, the nodal ministry nor IGNOU, has taken any interest in pursuing the network. Change of governments and the party in power at the centre, resulted in step-motherly treatment of the network.

Dr Sreedher left IGNOU in 2003 and thereafter the EMPC centre is not having any other dynamic director. The regular director, VK Arora was able to complete the task of installing 37 transmitters but was responsible for deviating from original programmes to a relay concept. After Arora left, a new regular full-time director has not been appointed and also the autonomous status of EMPC has been withdrawn making the centre really helpless in expanding the network

News Section in Radio

Radio is a medium to hear. Television can be heard or seen, or print can be heard. However, Radio is a Spoken Medium. News is brought to you by a faceless reader

The electronic media editor has to ensure that he holds the attention of the listener or viewer all the time

In Print, if a word or a sentence is difficult to understand. You read it again or refer a dictionary.  However, in radio you cannot wait or think as you may miss the rest of the bulletin

Radio news is similar to television news, but is transmitted through the medium of the radio instead. It is based on the audio aspect rather than the visual aspect. Sound bites are captured through various reporters (generally through audio capture devices such as tape recorders) and played back through the radio. News updates occur more often on radio than on television – usually about once or twice an hour.

Radio news broadcasts can range from as little as a minute to as much as the station’s entire schedule, such as the case of all-news radio, or talk radio. Stations dedicated to news or talk content will often feature newscasts, or bulletins, usually at the top of the hour, usually between three and eight minutes in length. They can be a mix of local, national and international news, as well as sport, entertainment, weather and traffic reports, or they may be incorporated into separate bulletins.

There may also be shorter bulletins at the bottom of the hour, or three at 15-minute intervals, or two at 20-minute intervals. All-news radio stations exist in some countries (most commonly in North America), primarily located in major metropolitan areas such as New York City, Chicago and Toronto, which often broadcast local, national and international news and feature stories on a set time schedule (sometimes known as a “wheel” format, which schedules the presentation of certain segments focused on a specific type of news content at a specific point each hour).

‘Mann ki Baat’ programme

Mann Ki Baat (Hindi: मन की बात; roughly, “Mind’s Voice”) is an Indian radio programme hosted by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in which he addresses the people of the nation on All India Radio, DD National and DD News.

In fifteen addresses of Mann ki Baat broadcast so far, more than 61,000 ideas have been received on the website and 1.43 lakh audio recordings by listeners have been received. Each month, some selected calls become a part of the broadcast. PM Narendra Modi’s ‘Mann Ki Baat’ is available in regional dialects, starting with Chhattisgarh, Haryana and Jharkhand. For now, previous episodes won’t be available in local languages. The aim is to expand reach of the program as far as possible.

The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, is usually expected to address the nation every month on All India Radio. Having officially started on and from 3 October 2014, the programme aims to deliver the Prime Minister’s voice to the general masses of India. Since television connection is still not available everywhere in India, especially in the isolated, rural and less developed regions, radio was chosen to be the medium for the programme, owing to its wider reach.

An estimated 90% of the total Indian population is reachable over the medium. Additionally, various private FM radio stations in the metropolitan cities of India are allowed to broadcast a recording of the show.

Doordarshan’s Direct to Home (DTH) service Freedish relays feeds of the 20-minute-long episodes, to television and radio channels.

The first Mann Ki Baat programme was broadcast on the occasion of Vijayadashami on 3 October 2014 followed by the second broadcast on 2 November 2014.

The former President of the United States was a part of the January edition of ‘Mann Ki Baat’, which was aired on 27 January 2015. Obama had arrived in India to be a part of the Republic Day Parade.

Online Editing

Online editing is the processing of video or graphic editing which is done as the final step of video making. This step is the opposite of offline editing, where a video is processed in its earliest and most raw state. In small productions, online-offline workflow is replaced with video editing software working on a non-linear editing system (NLE), whereas sophisticated post-productions that utilize high-grade equipment still make use of offline-online workflow.

Offline Editing

Take the clip, go home or workplace, do it properly, with reviewing

It produces a work print, a preliminary and lower quality tape dubbed from the higher quality master tape

The major advantage of offline editing is that you can time for reviewing the unedited material and deciding where to cut, to add transition, to fix, all, without any expensive equipment. You can identify the exact point where you want to cut and note these decisions on an editing short list, or even timeline. Later, you can proceed with the actual editing.

Sometimes people start editing without properly thinking about the sequence. This saves time but does not establish the story properly, and is of poorer quality. One needs to do an editing outline a list of desired event sequences and necessary transitions. [It is like photo editing in background of print media]

Online Editing

It produces the master copy that is used on the air. (that is done in live programmes) It is a computer controlled copy editing system.

Assemble Mode

If you want to assemble a series of shots one by one then do it with the help of this mode

Insert Mode

Insert a shot to replace the existing video with the help of this

Time Code

Time and Position of videotape is shown. It identifies and marks the address of the segments where these are stored.

Spinning a Show

It is the act of quickly fast forwarding the programme, to get the final running time, instead of watching the tape in real time.

Control track pulse counter

Your show can run shorter than it was supposed to or runs longer than estimated, you can control this feature. When videotape was first introduced in Britain in 1960s, tape was actually cut with a razor blade and spiced together like audiotape, it may sometimes show jumping and rolling of a picture. So it was important to cut in between the tracks.

Then Smith Splicer came. The editor would push a stop button where you want to edit. Mark it with grease pensit. Take out this tape from the machine and put it on Smith Spicer for editing. Today helical scan VTRs are used.

Smith Splicer Helical Scan

Studio Setup

Production studios will normally have equipments like microphones, audio consoles, computers for video audio outputs, mixing consoles.

There is a facility of sound recording and mixing in the studio itself. Sound is recorded or gathered from different sources like microphones, ISDN Phone Lines or telephone lines in case of outdoor recording, and this audio is mixed with the help of audio mixing consoles. Now a days sound is recorded on computer hard disk or on small memory cards used in recording device like palm cards

It is mixed, edited and used as and when required.

There are talk – studios for news and talk shows, and recording studios for instrumentalists and vocalists to perform

These studios have microphone and musical instruments also. All studios will have a control takes place. After mixing and combining audio from all the sources, it is covered into a broadcast signal and sent to transmitter to put on air

Sports Broadcasting

In the year 1923, the first radio broadcast of an ice game hockey took place on 8th Februarymy birthdayyy yayyy with the broadcast of the third period of a game between midland & North Toronto of the Ontario Hockey Association. Later that month, the first full – game broadcast took place in Winnipeg that same season, hockey broadcasting pioneer Foster Hewitt made his first broadcast.

The firsts sports even broadcast in the United Kingdom was a Rugby Union International between England and Wales, broadcast from Twickenham in January 1927. Two weeks later the first broadcast of a football match took place, with the BBC covering Arsenals League fixture against Sheffield United at Highbury.

For any kind of live sports broadcasting Radio has to acquire radio broadcast rights from the Organizers. Once the rights are acquired, appropriate arrangements are made for coverage of that particular sports events on the National Channel. Efforts are made to provide prior information to the listeners/public through print and electronic media about the live coverage of important sports events.

Panel of commentators and special sports correspondents have to be on their toes till the entire event is on. In India, All India Radio, facilitates the coverage and live comments on various national international sports events. There was a time when only radio was the medium in India. After movies it was only cricket which people would like to listen on reached all parts of the country, cricket commentaries became very popular. Narottam Puri in English and Sushil Doshi in Hindi were the eminent commentators at that time. Sunil Gawaskar and Kapil Dev were the icon players in those days.

Today, All India Radio has panel of commentators in Hindi, English, Marathi and all other regional languages. Cricket, Football, Hockey, Tennis, Badminton, Basketball, Volleyball, KhoKho are some of the most popular sports broadcasted on All India Radio

In India, Sunil Gavaskar, Ravi Shastri, Navjyot [N-A-V-J-Y-O-T] Singh Sidhu are the best commentators for Cricket, Wasim Akram from Pakistan, Russel Arnold from Sri Lanka, Tony Greig from England are quite popular.

Television News

Indian Television is extremely popular in terms of news and current affairs programmes. News Channels like NDTV 24*7, Aaj Tak and others are well known for their news and other non fictional programmes.

In news channels, Reporters of all beats cover the news with ENG[Electronic News Gathering] crew on the field. They conduct interviews for their stories. While covering any incident, it is very important for a television reporter to confirm that interviewee was present on the spot to see what happened. They can prove as a witness for your story. You may gather lot of information. But use a second source to double check information that seems surprising or may be in doubt especially if it could put any person or any organisation in a bad light.

Main News program Television news refers to disseminating current events via the medium of television. A “news bulletin” or a “newscast” are television programs lasting from seconds to hours that provide updates on the universe, world, national, regional or local news events.

There are numerous providers of broadcast news content such as BBC News, NBC News NBC, CNN, Fox News Channel Fox News, RT (TV network) RT and Al Jazeera, as well as numerous programs that regularly provide this content such as NBC Nightly News. In addition to general news outlets, there are specialized news outlets, for example about sports ESPNews, Fox Sports News, Eurosport News and finances CNBC, Bloomberg Television, Fox Business Network.

Television news is very image-based, showing video footage of many of the events that are reported; still photography is also used in reporting news stories, although not as much in recent years as in the early days of broadcast television. Television channels may provide news bulletins as part of a regularly scheduled news program. Less often, television shows may be interrupted or replaced by breaking news reports (“news flashes”) to provide news updates on events of great importance.


This stage includes everything you do before entering the studio or reaching the shooting location. It involves idea generation, research, scripting, discussions with all the crew members and talents (actors), arranging equipment, video / audio tapes, properties, costumes, sets designing or location hunting and booking of editing shifts.

The first thing to know about any and every production is what you want the programme to look like, just like you need to know what you want to cook. This is the pre production stage. You need a clear idea of what you want to make. Only then will you be able to make a good programme, understandable by the audience. Once the idea is clear, the next stage is how to get from the idea to the television image. To translate an idea on screen effectively you need a good and detailed script.

In all it involves planning everything in advance. This is very essential to get desired results. If you have all the raw ingredients ready in your kitchen, you can easily cook the food. Similarly, if you have worked well in this stage of programme production, the other two stages become easy and workable.

TV Programme Production involves many skills compared to radio programmes. More man power, more money is involved. Lot of advanced sophisticated electronic equipments re used.

  • The Director, producer, assistant producer, Editor, sound engineer, cameraman, lighting and art or set director, graphic editor, makeup artist, floor manager, technicians, and such hundreds of people are involved.
  • Each of them have a specific role to play, coordination is necessary to make the programme a huge success.

In production, what exactly happens in TV Studio and Control Room [CR].


  • The Programme is played out in front of the cameras in a soundproof studio, lit up with powerful lights. Microphones pick up the sound. Minimum two cameras are required.
  • Movie cameras record optical image on a photographic emulsion.
  • Video/TV cameras record optical image and convert it into electrical signals.
  • Cameraman wear headphones over which they get instructions on the camera angles and shots from the Director/Producer in the CR

Music Shows on Radio

Music radio is a radio format in which music is the main broadcast content. After television replaced old time radio’s dramatic content, music formats became dominant in many countries. Radio drama and comedy continue, often on public radio.

Music drives radio technology, including wide-band FM, modern digital radio systems such as Digital Radio Mondiale, and even the rise of internet radio and music streaming services (such as Pandora, Spotify and JioMusic xD).

The radio station provides programming to attract listeners. Commercial radio stations make profits by selling advertising. Public and community radio stations are sustained by listener donations and grants. Young people are targeted by advertisers because their product preferences can be changed more easily. Therefore, the most commercially successful stations target young audiences.

The programming usually cycles from the least attractive item, to most attractive, followed by commercials. The purpose of this plan is to build listener interest during the programming.

Because dead air does not attract listeners, the station tries to fill its broadcast day with sound. Audiences will only tolerate a certain number of commercials before tuning away. In some regions, government regulators specify how many commercials can be played in a given hour.

There are several standard ways of selecting the music, such as free-form, top-40, album-oriented rock, and Jack. These can be applied to all types of music.

Jingles are radio’s equivalent of neon signs. Jingles are brief, bright pieces of choral music that promote the station’s call letters, frequency and sometimes disc-jockey or program segment. Jingles are produced for radio stations by commercial specialty services. Jingles are often replaced by recorded voice-overs

In order to build station loyalty, the station announces time, station calls letters and frequency as often as six to twelve times per hour. Jingles and stingers (liners) help to give the station a branded sound in a pleasant, minimal amount of air-time.

In India, music is the lifeline of the people. All India Radio has been playing a very important role in the propagation and preservation of the music in general and the rich classical music and folk music traditions in particular.

Many eminent artists have been associated with AIR since many years. National Programme of music was started by AIR in the year 1952, which is broadcasted on every Saturday and Sunday. Also national programme of folk music is broadcasted on every 1st Thursday of the month. Akashwani ‘Sangeet Sammelan’ is an annual music event organised all the country every year.

Not only these, but all FM Channels keep playing filmy music and albums all the time, in the country. Internet radio also has 24*7 streaming of entertaining music.

Direct to Home Challenge

Direct to Home Television is often abbreviated as DTH. Sitting at your homes, you can receive the satellite television signals directly on your home dish. Here you do not have to wait for the cable operators to connect your channels.

DTH puts the broadcaster directly in touch with the consumer. So you as a consumer do not get hassles technically.

Before the arrival of this technology, it was difficult for a broadcaster to know the exact number of a subscribers. Today because of DTH Technology, broadcasters can communicate directly with the subscriber without the middleman and can know their exact number.

Also, it was difficult for a broadcaster to know how many are still using cable.

The way out of this was to use a set-top box so that it will be clear how many households are actually using cable or going for DTH.

Earlier the broadcasters use to lose a lot. Broadcasters do not earn much in subscription fees and are mostly dependent on advertisement revenue to cover their costs, which is not sustainable and does not offer high growth in revenues for broadcasters. This challenge is overcome today. The subscriber will now py directly to the satellite company offering the service.

All this is very disheartening to cable operators.

Direct-to-Home (DTH) television is a method of receiving satellite television by means of signals transmitted from direct-broadcast satellites. The Government of India permitted the reception and distribution of satellite television signals in November 2000. The first DTH service in the country was launched by Dish TV on 2 October 2003. DD Free Dish, the first free DTH service in India, was launched by public broadcaster Prasar Bharati in December 2004. ABS Free Dish is another free DTH service operated by ABS Group.

India is the largest DTH market in the world by number of subscribers. As on 30 September 2017, there were 66.99 million active pay DTH subscribers in the country. These figures do not include subscribers of free DTH services. The market is serviced by 6 pay DTH providers and 2 free DTH providers.

DTH services were first proposed in India in 1996. The proposal was not approved to due to concerns over national security and negative cultural influence. In 1997, the Government of India banned DTH services when Rupert Murdoch-owned Indian Sky Broadcasting (ISkyB) was about to launch its DTH services in the country.

After deliberations among groups of ministers, DTH services were permitted by the NDA government in November 2000. The group of ministers was headed by Home Minister L.K Advani and included Information & Broadcasting Minister Arun Jaitley, Information Technology Minister Pramod Mahajan, Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha, Defence Minister George Fernandes, Communications Minister Ram Vilas Paswan and Law Minister Ram Jethmalani.

Additional Questions

Not from the Question Bank

What are the factors to be considered while writing for a Radio

  • Radio is a medium to hear. Television can be heard and seen, and print can be read. Spoken word is important. News is brought to you in words spken by a faceless news reader.
  • The electronic media editor has to ensure that he holds the attention of the listener or viewer all the time.
  • While writing for Radio, one has to remember that they are writing to be heard and not to be read. This calls for usage of language, sentences, words, used in day to day language. These should be wr itten in a such a manner so that it will be easier for the listener to hear and understand, and often, relate.
  • The Language has to be simple, convenient and easy to understand. Even the simiplicity must be properly measured. While writing it is often written as  Rs. 15 Million however while writing for Radio it should be written as fifteen million rupees.
  • Some companies, agencies, and firms provide data which is suited for Print Medium. However, while writing for Radio, it has to be changed so that it will suit a Radio Format, and the audience will perceive it properly.
  • Certain Events, News are written in long sentences and often suited for a report, however while writing for Radio, there has to be changes accordingly. Empasis on certain words, shift in tone based on event, simple and easy language.
  • Unlike print, radio listeners can’t go back to the part they’ve missed. It has to be clear the first time, because there is no second chance.
  • Unlike TV, there are no pictures to reinforce your words. That means your script has to do all the describing. It also has to grab the listener’s attention. You can’t back into the main point – you have to get to it quickly without a long preamble.
  • Unlike Internet, it’s not available for weeks at a time. You have one, and only one, opportunity to make an impact.
  • Radio is conversational. Think of the most boring lecture you have ever attended. For starters, the presenter probably read it. And it probably sounded like a term paper, full of jargon and longwinded sentences. Does anybody really talk like that?
  • Radio is personal – you’re talking to one person at a time. That’s why your writing has to sound like it is “talked”, not read. Lectures don’t work on radio. Your script can’t be just “read”. It has to be performed.

Define Radio Ratings (RRP) & explain how these ratings are useful for advertisers.

A Newspaper company is always aware of the copies that are sold to its readers, they are aware of the number of readers their newspaper has, a film producer can find out how many people have seen the film and its box office collection in first week, even a YouTuber can track how many people saw the video, and whether they liked it or not.

However, things are not the same for the Radio Company. It is very difficult in the Radio Company to know the exact number of the audience that too for the specific programme they have. So a Method was Adapted, to find out the extent of listening of a particular channel or a Programme, by using specific method is known as audience rating or programme rating.

These Audience Ratings are extremely useful to understand the popularity of a radio channel or the programme and also beneficial for advertisers. Depending on the highest ratings, advertisers can choose the channel to market their products.

The Answer for this Question is Non Existent but a good friend told me we have to mention a few Radio Channels, and tell how are they performing, how were they performing and how have they become better with their increase in viewers.

How Chotta Bheem got better and better when they found out that more kids are watching it. Isn’t that a blessing in disguise😭😭😭😭👌. But then my boys Motu and Patlu came into the Picture 🥖🍑. And with lot of suffering and persecution even they are my favourites now.

Just apply this to your answer, and mention Radio Everywhere. Legit. Everywhere.

Compare between Amplitude modulation (AM) & Frequency Modulation (FM)

For the Brilliant Souls, I have table. For Souls like mine? Text.

Amplitude Modulation

Frequency Modulation

Stands for AM stands for Amplitude Modulation FM stands for Frequency Modulation
Origin AM method of audio transmission was first successfully carried out in the mid 1870s. FM radio was developed in the United states in the 1930s, mainly by Edwin Armstrong.💪😭👌
Modulating differences In AM, a radio wave known as the “carrier” or “carrier wave” is modulated in amplitude by the signal that is to be transmitted. The frequency and phase remain the same. In FM, a radio wave known as the “carrier” or “carrier wave” is modulated in frequency by the signal that is to be transmitted. The amplitude and phase remain the same.
Pros and Cons AM has poorer sound quality compared with FM, but is cheaper and can be transmitted over long distances. It has a lower bandwidth so it can have more stations available in any frequency range. FM is less prone to interference than AM. However, FM signals are impacted by physical barriers. FM has better sound quality due to higher bandwidth.
Frequency Range AM radio ranges from 535 to 1705 KHz (OR) Up to 1200 bits per second.[its like a comparison between floppy disks and pendrives. Does anyone remember a Floppy? FM radio ranges in a higher spectrum from 88 to 108 MHz. (OR) 1200 to 2400 bits per second.
Bandwidth Requirements Twice the highest modulating frequency. In AM radio broadcasting, the modulating signal has bandwidth of 15kHz, and hence the bandwidth of an amplitude-modulated signal is 30kHz. Twice the sum of the modulating signal frequency and the frequency deviation. If the frequency deviation is 75kHz and the modulating signal frequency is 15kHz, the bandwidth required is 180kHz.
Zero crossing in modulated signal Equidistant Not equidistant
Complexity Transmitter and receiver are simple but synchronization is needed in case of SSBSC AM carrier. Transmitter and receiver are more complex as variation of modulating signal has to be converted and detected from corresponding variation in frequencies.(i.e. voltage to frequency and frequency to voltage conversion has to be done).
Noise AM is more susceptible to noise because noise affects amplitude, which is where information is “stored” in an AM signal. FM is less susceptible to noise because information in an FM signal is transmitted through varying the frequency, and not the amplitude.


AM method of audio transmission was first successfully carried out in the mid 1870s to produce quality radio over telephone lines and the original method used for audio radio transmissions. FM radio was developed in the United states mainly by Edwin Armstrong in the 1930s.

Differences in Spectrum Range

AM radio ranges from 535 to 1705 kilohertz, whereas FM radio ranges in a higher spectrum from 88 to 108 megahertz. For AM radio, stations are possible every 10 kHz and FM stations are possible every 200 kHz.

Pros and Cons of AM vs. FM

The advantages of AM radio are that it is relatively easy to detect with simple equipment, even if the signal is not very strong. The other advantage is that it has a narrower bandwidth than FM, and wider coverage compared with FM radio. The major disadvantage of AM is that the signal is affected by electrical storms and other radio frequency interference. Also, although the radio transmitters can transmit sound waves of frequency up to 15 kHz, most receivers are able to reproduce frequencies only up to 5kHz or less. Wideband FM was invented to specifically overcome the interference disadvantage of AM radio.

A distinct advantage that FM has over AM is that FM radio has better sound quality than AM radio. The disadvantage of FM signal is that it is more local and cannot be transmitted over long distance. Thus, it may take more FM radio stations to cover a large area. Moreover, the presence of tall buildings or land masses may limit the coverage and quality of FM. Thirdly, FM requires a fairly more complicated receiver and transmitter than an AM signal does.


FM radio became popular in the 1970s and early 80s. By the 1990s most music stations switched from AM and adopted FM due to better sound quality. This trend was seen in America and most of the countries in Europe, and slowly FM channels exceeded AM channels. Today, speech broadcasting (such as talk and news channels) still prefers to use AM, while music channels are solely FM.

Technical Details

AM was initially developed for telephone communication. For radio communication, a continuous wave radio signal called double sideband amplitude modulation (DSB-AM) was produced. A sideband is a band of frequencies higher (called upper sideband) or lower (called lower sideband) than the carrier frequencies which is a result of modulation. All forms of modulations produce sidebands. In DSB-AM the carrier and both USB and LSB are present. The power usage in this system proved inefficient and led to the double-sideband suppressed-carrier (DSBSC) signal in which the carrier is removed. For greater efficiency, single-sideband modulation was developed and used in which only a single sideband remained. For digital communication, a simple form of AM called continuous wave (CW) operation is used in which the presence or absence of carrier wave represents binary data. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designated different types of amplitude modulation in 1982 which include A3E, double sideband full–carrier; R3E, single-sideband reduced-carrier; H3E, single-sideband full-carrier; J3E, single-sideband suppressed-carrier; B8E, independent-sideband emission; C3F, vestigial-sideband and Lincompex, linked compressor and expander.

FM radio characteristics and services include pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, stereophonic FM sound, Quadraphonic sound, Dolby FM and other subcarrier services. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis are processes that require boosting and reducing certain frequencies. This is done to reduce noise at high frequencies. Stereophonic FM radio was developed and formally approved in 1961 in the USA. This uses two or more audio channels independently to produce sound heard from various directions. Quadraphonic is four-channel FM broadcasting. Dolby FM is a noise reduction system used with FM radio, which has not been very successful, commercially.

Explain the process of listeners’ participation in phone–in programs

I found this in a text, if you have anything better. Then Please <3

You must have heard the RJs, almost every day keep talking to their listeners and invite their calls and SMS when the show is on. In these programmes a listener is allowed to call the RJ and request his/her favourite song. Not only this but listeners are specially invited by the RJs to air their live comments by telephone on the topic that is selected for discussion on that particular day. Mostly on FM Radio Interviews and talks with celebrities invite listener’s call to make the programme more interactive. On government owned channels, the format contains both fiction and non fiction content. The programmes are both informative and entertainment based. They cover wide range of issues like human rights, politics, corruption, health, arts, religion, education, etc..

The format also contains the advice line programmes like expert’s advice on health and agriculture issues, etc. “Love Guru” which is most popular programme on Radio City and is the example of advice line programme but it is based on personal problems

On private FM Channels all the calls are screened by the producer and editer properly. Screend calls are lined up for the RJ to resond. Whereas on “All India Radio” many times calls are directly picked by the programme announcers. Sometimes two to three callers speak at a time. The announer or the RJ has to use his/her skill to overall control the show. The caller is connected via a telephone hybrid which connects the telephone line to the audio console through digital signal processing. A mixture provides input as well as outputs of calls to be aired. A Profanity delay unit is also used to delay the broadcast and to present the undesirable material which is likely to appear through listener’s calls. Calls can be edited and recorded with the help of this unit

Discuss on future of radio

I seriously think this is a secret propaganda. The Answers will be analyzed and the psychology of entire Mumbai will be studied. And thus they will revolutionalize Radio. And then Rick and Morty Season 4 is out, along with Boku no Pico S2 AND DOKI DOKI LITERATURE CLUB BABYYYYY. So I am outta Here

So lemme summarise it for you all, Radio was at rise, they saw the Titans TV and other Boys coming and were afraid, but they did not stop, they trained and faced many troubles😭👌. And still maintained a position[pozishion], but then came Internet, and Radio did not pay attention [correct if wrong]. Now they are trying to improve and bring difference and preserve Radio, but it will prevail if they Digitalize themselves.

Coz Unlike Books, Radio does not have a Smellll for each Frequency atleast. So you might get audience guys

There was a time when a radio was a must-have in every Indian house. A messenger to the masses, it gave us memorable moments and was the primary source of scoop. For some, listening to it was a morning ritual, and to some it was a companion. With the passage of time, it has, like many other mediums, undergone a sea change, and it continues to evolve in the digital age. But what remains unchanged is its essence.

It is a source of nostalgia for those who have grown old with it. “People think that radio is dead and that TV has taken over. I don’t agree with them, for it is irreplaceable,” said veteran All India Radio (AIR) broadcaster Jasdev Singh. “As long as you have a radio, you have the world in your pocket!” he added.

Radio’s relationship with the music industry has changed dramatically in a few short years.

In its prime, radio was the dominant medium for music discovery – both new hits and back catalog. Today, radio exists in a sea of options and online alternatives for music enjoyment.

For many people, radio is no longer the primary source for listening to music. Indeed, radio’s most frequent listeners are 20% to 30% less valuable to the music industry (in terms of per capita expenditures) than less frequent listeners. Radio should make measures to adapt to the new digital reality because the global music ecosystem is better off with a vibrant, innovative broadcast radio industry.

Time is running out for broadcasters to change the way they do business.

A similar revolution rocked the music industry, which ultimately approached digital disruption as an opportunity to evolve. Broadcasters should take the same approach. Rather than resist the Digital Age, radio must either ride the digital wave or have it crash on top of them.

Younger listeners (12-24 years old) have fled terrestrial radio on a massive scale.

Apple Music, Spotify and Pandora have created offerings targeted at radio’s audience of the future. The result: AM/FM radio listening among teens declined by almost 50 percent between 2005 and 2016.

Broadcasters have done everything they can to stall the momentum behind the legislation, hoping to prop up their outdated model. But in doing so they miss the point, because digital is only going to grow. Rather than doubling-down on a declining business, radio should seek a commonsense solution that recognizes the new reality of the marketplace.

Radio should move to digital – and all that entails.

The record industry and the broadcast radio industry have a relationship going back decades, and that’s a foundation on which we can build. We urge broadcasters to recognize the audiences and revenue that the digital future can deliver.

To do so radio must adapt to the new world, just as the music industry has. Radio’s free ride on free content has to end. A true partnership starts with the recognition by broadcasters that music has value. We stand ready to work with radio to craft a fair and equitable solution.

With this step, radio can truly begin to embrace their digital future and start on a path towards their own recovery.Music Business Worldwide

Congress Radio

Congress was first Party. They made a Radio, Which was secret, nobody knew locations. And they shut down soon. Done. The Pogo Channel Joke fits here. Legit Fits. Think Hard.

Congress Radio was a clandestine[🤫🤫🤫seeeeccccrettttt 🤫🤫🤫] and underground radio station, which operated for about three months during the Quit India Movement of 1942, a movement launched by Gandhi against the British Raj for independence of India.

Congress Radio was the broadcasting mouthpiece of the Indian National Congress, and functioned from different locations from Bombay, currently known as Mumbai. It was organized by Usha Mehta (1920–2000), a veteran freedom fighter of India with the help of ham radio operators. Her other associates for organizing the Congress Radio included Vithalbhai Jhaveri, Chandrakant Jhaveri, and Babubhai Thakkar. The technicians and the equipment were supplied by Nanak Motawani of Chicago Radio, Mumbai. Eminent personalities like Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyutrao Patwardhan, and Purushottam Trikamdas were also associated with the Congress Radio.

On 14 August 1942, within a week of launching of the Quit India Movement, the Secret Congress Radio, went on air, with Dr. Usha Mehata herself broadcasting this announcement: “This is the Congress Radio calling on (a wavelength of) 42.34 meters from somewhere in India.”

During the 1942 movement, no newspaper or radio station was willing to write or talk against the government. After Gandhiji’s arrest, Dr Mehta wanted to tell the people what was happening in the country and hence, decided to start Congress Radio

The Congress Radio started at a place near Girgaum Chowpatty.  Dr Mehta used to announce that this was the Congress Radio calling on (a wavelength of) 42.34 m from somewhere in India

Dr Thakkar says there was a woman revolutionary who anchored the bulletin. Her name was Coomi Dastur and nobody could trace her. She eventually became the principal of Elphinstone College. As news of the radio reached the police, they tried to track down the location and hunt down the “culprits”. But the members kept changing places.

The police finally traced them at Parekh Wadi and arrested them while Dr Mehta was anchoring the bulletin. “When the police tried to arrest Dr Mehta, she told them to stand still as Vande Mataram was being played. The police did as told and then confiscated the equipment and 140 records,” Dr Thakkar said.

In 1946, Dr Mehta was released from jail. She stayed in Laxmi Bhavan till her death and worked for the freedom of speech. She was a professor of political science at MU’s Kalina campus.

Internet Radio

Do you guys remember how PewDiePie sang Chotta Bheem Opening Song🤣🤣🤣🤣

Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. It can either be used as a stand alone device running through the internet, or as a software running through a single computer system.

Internet radio is generally used to communicate and easily spread messages through the form of talk. It is distributed through a wireless communication network connected to a switch packet network (the internet) via a disclosed source.’

Internet Radio involves streaming media, presenting  listeners with a continuous stream of audio that typically cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from on-demand file serving. Internet radio is also distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming.

Internet radio services offer news, sports, talk, and various genres of music—every format that is available on traditional broadcast radio stations. Many Internet radio services are associated with a corresponding traditional (terrestrial) radio station or radio network, although low start-up and ongoing costs have allowed a substantial proliferation of independent Internet-only radio stations.[citation needed]

The first Internet radio service was launched in 1993. As of 2017, the most popular internet radio platforms and applications in the world include (but are not limited to) TuneIn Radio, iHeartRadio, and Sirius XM.

Internet radio services are usually accessible from anywhere in the world with a suitable internet connection available; one could, for example, listen to an Australian station from Europe and America. This has made internet radio particularly suited to and popular among expatriate listeners. Nevertheless, some major networks like TuneIn Radio, CBS Radio, Pandora Radio, iHeartRadio and Citadel Broadcasting (except for news/talk and sports stations) in the United States, and Chrysalis in the United Kingdom, restrict listening to in-country due to music licensing and advertising issues.

Internet radio is also suited to listeners with special interests, allowing users to pick from a multitude of different stations and genres less commonly represented on traditional radio.

Radio Rating Points

Straight up Copied from Above. You Mind? Mate?

A Newspaper company is always aware of the copes that are sold to its readers, they are aware of the number of readers their newspaper has, a film producer can find out how many people have seen the film and its box office collection in first week, even a YouTuber can track how many people saw the video, and wether they liked it or not.

However, things are not the same for the Radio Company. It is very difficult in the Radio Company to know the exact number of the audience that too for the specific programme they have. So a Method was Adapted, to find out the extent of listening of a particular channel or a Programme, by using specific method is known as audience rating or programme rating.

These Audience Ratings are extrmely useful to understand the popularity of a radio channel or the programme and also beneficial for advertisers. Depending on the highest ratings, advertisers can choose the channel to market their products.

The Answer for this Question is Non Existent but a good friend told me we have to mention a few Radio Channels, and tell how are they performing, how were they performing and how have they become better with their increase in viewers.

Discuss the role played by CNN in Gulf war & terrorist attack of 9/11 WTC

Gulf War (1991)

The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the network past the “big three” American networks for the first time in its history, largely due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the American bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman, and Peter Arnett.

The moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Bernard Shaw on January 16, 1991 as follows:

This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside…. Peter Arnett, join me here. Let’s describe to our viewers what we’re seeing…
The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated…. We’re seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky.

The Persian Gulf War was a heavily televised war. New technologies, such as satellite technology, allowed for a new type of war coverage.[1] The media also had access to military innovations, such as the imagery obtained from “camera-equipped high-tech weaponry directed against Iraqi targets”, according to the Museum of Broadcast Communications. For the first time, people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters taking off from aircraft carriers from the actual perspective of the machinery. The images of precise land bombing and use of night vision equipment gave the reporting a futuristic spin which was said to resemble video game imagery and encourage the “war drama”.

CNN was the only 24‑hour coverage news network and by the time the war began they had already been doing this type of coverage for 10 years. When the war broke out they already possessed the necessary equipment and personnel and were ready to follow events in Baghdad on a 24‑hour basis. “They had the reporters, satellite, linkups, the engineers, the producers and expert commentators in place or on standby”.

In addition when the government warned American journalists that their security might be put at risk because of the bombings, CNN’s Baghdad correspondents Bernard Shaw, John Holliman, and Peter Arnett, as well as the rest of their team chose to stay behind. Furthermore, when the Iraqi authorities decided to expel the rest of the Western correspondents CNN’s team was able to stay behind because producer Robert Winner had spent the last months trying to build cooperative relations with government officials in Baghdad.

During the first days of the bombing the CNN team was able to report live via radio from their hotel suite in the Rashid Hotel, while no other network was able to do this.

The CNN live coverage from the hotel was also significant since it was unedited. This event was a critical turn to the 24-hour news coverage. Out of the CNN correspondents the one who received the most attention was Peter Arnett who became known for the controversy of his reportages. His reports on the Coalition’s POWs, on the bombing of what was claimed to be a milk factory by the Iraq authorities, and on the bombing of the bunker outside Bagdad where nearly 400 civilians were killed, were particularly controversial and resulted in him being tilted as anti-patriotic by some.

Overall media and television reporting during this first Gulf War has received several criticisms . People like Columbia’s professor Douglas Kellner have argued that the media framed the war as an exciting narrative, turning it into a kind of dramatic, patriotic spectacle and that the anchors of the major American TV networks such as CBS presented a view that seemed to identify solely with the American Military point of view.

In the book The Persian Gulf TV War he has also argued that television networks and other media did not provide a balanced account of the events because this did not further the business interests of commercial networks.

General Norman Schwarzkopf referred to the driver of a vehicle in a famous news conference during Gulf War on January 30, 1991 as “The luckiest man in Iraq”. He showed a video of a laser-guided bomb destroying a bridge just after the vehicle had driven over it.


CNN was the first major network to break the news of the September 11 attacks in 2001. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event. She broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time and said:

This just in. You are looking at obviously a very disturbing live shot there. That is the World Trade Center, and we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story, obviously calling our sources and trying to figure out exactly what happened, but clearly something relatively devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan. That is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center.

Daryn Kagan and Leon Harris were live on the air just after 9:00 a.m. Eastern Time as the second plane hit the South Tower of the World Trade Center and through an interview with CNN correspondent David Ensor, reported the news that U.S. officials determined “that this is a terrorist act.”

Later, Aaron Brown and Judy Woodruff anchored through the day and night as the attacks unfolded, winning an Edward R. Murrow award for the network. Brown had just joined CNN from ABC to serve as the breaking news anchor.

Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president for finance and administration, was the first network employee on the air in New York City. Coincidentally, Paula Zahn, who assisted in the coverage, began working as a CNN reporter on the day that the attacks occurred (Zahn mentioned this fact on a 2005 episode of Jeopardy!, in which she appeared as a guest clue presenter).

Amongst the criticisms levied against CNN, as well as the other major U.S. news channels, is the charge that CNN took a lenient approach to the Bush administration, particularly after the September 11 attacks.

At the 2002 Newsworld Asia conference held in Singapore, the executive vice-president and general manager of CNN International, was quoted as saying: “Anyone who claims the US media didn’t censor itself is kidding you. It wasn’t a matter of government pressure but a reluctance to criticize anything in a war that was obviously supported by the vast majority of the people. And this isn’t just a CNN issue – every journalist who was in any way involved in 9/11 is partly responsible.”


Compare between Cable TV, DTH & Terrestrial Television station

Text and the Table

Television is everyone’s best partner for entertainment and information. Since the days of 1950s when black and white transmission received from Yagi antenna, there are continuous improvements in the quality of reception. Changing face of analog to digital signal is also on the final verge.

Analog and digital signal should not be confused with methods of transmission. Methods of communication are analogous to travelling by car, air, metro or else. Traveler inside can be analog or digital.

At present we receive signal either through an antenna, Dish or cable so let us draw systematically.


Cable TV


Receiving methods

Cheapest in case of analog (Just need Yagi antenna) .In case of Digital signal, Antenna and decoder will be required. Analog – Just direct connect to TV, but in case of digital, setup box is required. In both the cases physical cable lying increases the burden. A small dish antenna and decoder are required.

Receiving cost

Analog – Lowest

Digital – comparable to DTH, Cable

Analog – Cable laying

Digital – additional decoder

DTH – Dish + decoder


In case of analog, quality depends on signal strength.

Digital – good

Analog – Quality depends on cable and other losses.

Digital – if available , quality is good

It is in digital mode only so if available , quality is good


Terrestrial TV signal are one directional by nature so interactivity is not part of this. If mobile communication converges with TV, then it has huge potential. Cable Signal has potential to incorporate bi-directional communication so interactivity can be easily achieved. Satellite transmission is also one direction so information can’t be interactive on the same communication channel.


Less number of channel More than 200 channels are available More than 200 channels are available

Depend up the plan choose

Terrestrial Transmission

It is the oldest method and seems less attractive in the present scenario. At present most of the terrestrial transmissions are analog that will be converted into digital in the forthcoming years. Terrestrial Transmitters have limited coverage for certain amount of radiating power so its slightly costly affair to make available terrestrial signal over a large region with multiple transmitters.

Cable TV

It is the older method than DTH and started from the small service providers which are later taken over by the large firms and now cable distribution is also an organized business. There are several developments in the Cable TV distribution.

A cable may be copper or fiber but advantage lies in the availability of higher bandwidth in the confined medium.

  • No doubt, distribution of cable up to individual terminal is most unattractive part of Cable signal distribution.
  • In a cable TV system various signal inputs are received at the MSO (Multi System Operator) end with the help of PDA (Parabolic Dish Antenna). These signals then multiplexed at MSO end and then transmitted to the customer via coaxial cable. On this distribution of multiplexed signal it is amplified at various locations.
  • The cable distribution network is managed by various distributors which is authorised by the MSO. At present most of the cable TV signal distribution is in analog form which is expected to be in digital form in near future. So it is very likely to be infected by noise. So at the consumer end the analog signal quality is not up to the mark.
  • Also at various places people try to steal the signal by simply hooking the cable. This also led to more noise on the signal and ultimately the user suffers.
  • Now with the introduction of Digital Cable TV the user get crystal clear video and stereo quality of sound. So the quality of picture and sound is much more improved in Digital Cable TV transmission as compared to the Analog Cable TV transmission.
  • In Digital TV user need to install a Set Top Box (STB) to get the digital signal. The Digital Cable TV distribution is very much similar to that of the Analog one except the signal is encoded into digital before it is transmitted over the network. At the receiving end a STB is required to decode the signal before fed to the TV Box. There are various advantages of Digital TV over the Analog Cable TV system.
  • The most important is the quality video and stereo quality sound comparable to that of the DTH signal.

DTH (Direct to Home)

This has been popular for the few years. It has the advantage of signal availability over a wide region through satellite. In DTH TV the signal is received via satellite with the help of an antennaInstalled at the customer premises. The usual size of disk ranges from 18 to 24 inches.

  • One important aspect of DTH system is that it requires a clear line of sight to the satellite from which the signal is received. In DTH the frequency band used is Ku Band (10 GHz to 12.5 GHz). Signal received from disk antenna is fed to the STB through RG-6 coaxial cable.
  • The signal received by the disk antenna is in the encoded form which is further decoded and fed to the TV set.
  • To work satisfactorily, the STB require certain quality level of signal which is fine tuned at the time of dish installation with the help of signal meter.
  • The content on DTH is in control of the broadcaster, so user need to pay and view the channel/bouquets as per their requirements.
  • The main advantage of DTH service is that the user get TV signal for 24×7 without any interruption because there is no intermediate mediator between the user and the broadcaster.
  • In rainy season the DTH signal is affected due to poor signal strength caused by the rain drops. The DTH signal can be received at any location like apartment and town villages.

Compare Electronic News Gathering (ENG) & Electronic Field Production (EFP).

There are two common terms thrown around when putting together a video production: “ENG” and “EFP.” Both refer to the logistics of building your film crew, managing a shoot, and the purpose of the video as a whole.

ENG stands for Electronic News Gathering.

As the name would suggest, it’s a style of shooting pioneered by news crews that need to set up and tear down quickly, be very mobile, turn around and edit & deliver the video quickly. This usually consists of a crew of 1 to 3 people, and in terms of actual news, may involve a mobile production van. [hint: remember the bhai bhai bhai video?]

EFP stands for Electronic Field Production.

This is a broader term for a shoot that requires more time & finesse and a larger crew. The goal here is quality over speed & mobility. There tends to be a greater variety with the structure of an EFP crew, since the fundamental difference to ENG is that the crew isn’t very mobile. As such, a sports broadcast can be considered EFP, and so can a film crew – even though they deal with completely different equipment.

The lines between EFP and ENG aren’t always set in stone. One could imagine how shooting a documentary could teeter in and out of “ENG” and “EFP”. A news production can land pretty firmly in what we’d call EFP, where a reporter does a sit-down interview with a more complex setup than run-and-gun ENG. As such, you’ll commonly find people using these terms as a starting point for discussing project logistics, something like, “Let’s do more of an ENG style.” In the end, what they end up doing may not actually be proper “ENG.”

What are the characteristic of Television as a medium?

Audio Visual Medium

While radio has sound, television content includes both sound and visuals. This audio visual character of television makes it a magic medium which allows us to watch the world from our drawing rooms. This powerful visual nature helps television to create vivid impressions in our minds which in turn leads to emotional involvement. The audio visual quality also makes television images more memorable.

Domestic Medium

To watch television, we need not leave your drawing room. No need of going to the movie theater or buying tickets. We can watch television in the comfort of our home with our family. This is why television is generally regarded as a domestic medium. It provides entertainment and information right inside our homes and has become an integral part of our everyday lives. It can actually pattern our daily activities. Even our family makes it a point to watch their favorite serial at a particular time and adjust dinner timings accordingly. This domestic nature of television influences the content also. We have noticed that a newspaper report has an impersonal tone, whereas the television anchor addresses us directly.  The domestic nature of television makes it an intimate medium. This makes the viewers experience a sense of closeness to the Television.

Live Medium

The important characteristic of television is that it is capable of being a live medium. This is because the live nature of television allows it to transmit visuals and information almost instantly. The visuals of an earthquake in Indonesia can reach our television set in almost no time. This capacity of the medium makes it ideal for transmitting live visuals of news and sports events. If we are watching a cricket match in a television channel, we can almost instantly see the wicket hit by our favourite player. On the  Television allows you to witness events which happen thousands of miles away.

Mass Medium

All of us know that there are a large number of people who cannot read or write.

Such people may not be able to read a newspaper, but they can watch television.

Anyone with a television receiver can access the information shown on television.

This makes it an ideal medium to transmit messages to a large audience. In a country like ours, with a huge illiterate population, this characteristic of television

Makes it an ideal instrument for transmitting social messages. Television also has a very wide output, range and reach. It is truly a mass medium.

Transitory Medium

Television programmes are not easy to be recorded by viewers. It may be practically impossible to record every programme which appears on your television. Therefore, television is generally identified as a transitory medium.

Expensive Medium

There is need to large amount of machinery and expertise needed to run a television station. We can write articles and stories and draw our own pictures. All we need will be paper, pen, drawing instruments and time. However, a television programme can never be made this. However, a television programme can never be made this easily. It requires lots of money, machinery and experienced people. Broadcast media in general and television in particular involves complex technology and organization. We will need crores of rupees to start a television station.

Explain the Role of Key personnel in Television Production

Key personnel are employees who fill top management positions in production houses, companies, businesses, nonprofits and organizations, regardless of size industry, and place. They make significant contributions to decisions about company direction, provide leadership, and provide expertise in their assigned positions. They are the people who have the authority, and they are the ones who responsible, they are experts who know how to control the activities, and situations.


  • Director acts as a communicator, co-ordinator between the producer and others
  • A key personnel controls the overall flow of shooting in the Production Process
  • They make the actors act according to the necessity and demand of the character
  • They ensure, and also make the actors act according to the demand of the role
  • The Director is resonsible for sculpting and scheduling the content progression designed to attract viewers
  • It is also the duty of the Directors, to coordinate with music-directors, ssist producers, general managers, etc. And Especially with the Programme Editors, to make sure the Program is Interesting, Appealing and Prompt


  • A Producer is almost the heartbeat of the entire programme production
  • It is the Producer who invests the money and produces the entire programme
  • All the Profits or the Losses, go to the company
  • Budgeting, Scheduling, Finalizing the Directors, Ensuring the TRP, Acquiring Sponsorers, etc. is the work of the Producer
  • He is involved in hiring the talent and technical expertise on which the service draws

Assistant Producer

  • He has to check, keep track of all minute things.
  • Looks after the arrangement of the screenplay, set arrangement, scheduling of actors, dates of shoots, etc.
  • Assist the Producer, get work done by everyone
  • Try to minimize the cost for the channel, by prompt shooting, proper camera, good studio, and professional actors and anchors, etc.


  • He is the person who maes the programme more interesting
  • Adds sound and visual effects
  • If a progamme shooting is slow and dull he manages to increase the pace of a programme
  • Cuts, adds the necessary part on a tape and build up a whole show
  • They are the professionals who carefully select and arrange seperate visuals to further a project’s continuity, pacing, and meaning
  • They transfer digitally coded segments on to a “Master Tape”

Floor Manager

  • He is working on “set”
  • He conveys the message of a irector to the other people on set
  • He wears ear phones to receive directions from the directors and producers
  • He directs the cameraman, light man on the set.

Discuss the various visual effects used for Television programs.

Now many sources say that this is the one. However seeing the recent changes I think not. But lets stick to Sasural Simar Ka Level. And Answer this. If you are worried about Green Screen and stuff not being included, well so was I. But that comes in CGI. I will require some help with this, if you can, then Call Me Baby.


The image gets dissolved on the screen

Fade in and Fade Out

One image on the screen fades out and the second appears

Super Imposition

One image is imposed on another. Two images are visible at same time.


This effect wipes out the image on the screen with a vertical line


This effect shows the flashback story


This effect suggests a development in the film. Further suggesting something has taken place. It can be used to skip time, by showing certain parts in the timeline, in a creative manner.

Discuss the history & development of Doordarshan in India

Doordarshan (abbreviated in English as DD) is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati. It is one of India’s largest broadcasting organisations in terms of studio and transmitter infrastructure, having been established on 15 September 1959. It also broadcasts on digital terrestrial transmitters. DD provides television, radio, online and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional India, as well as overseas, through the Indian Network and Radio India.


Doordarshan had a modest beginning as an experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959, with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. Regular daily transmission started in 1965 as a part of All India Radio. Doordarshan began a five-minute news bulletin in the same year. Pratima Puri was the first newsreader. Salma Sultan joined Doordarshan in 1967, and later became a news anchor. The television service was extended to Bombay (now Mumbai) and Amritsar in 1972.

Up until 1975, only seven Indian cities had a television service and Doordarshan remained the sole provider of television in India. Television services were separated from radio on 1 April 1976. Each office of All India Radio and Doordarshan was placed under the management of two separate Director Generals in New Delhi.

Finally, in 1982, Doordarshan took shape as a National Broadcaster. Krishi Darshan was the first program telecast on Doordarshan. It commenced on 26 January 1967 and is one of the longest running programs on Indian television.

National telecasts were introduced in 1982. In the same year, colour TV was introduced to India with the live telecast of the Independence Day speech by the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, on 15 August 1982. This was followed by the 1982 Asian Games held in Delhi. Now more than 90 percent of the Indian population can receive Doordarshan (DD National) programmes through a network of nearly 1,400 terrestrial transmitters. There are about 46 Doordarshan studios producing TV programmes.

For the 2012 Summer Olympics, live telecasts of the opening and closing ceremonies of the games were broadcast on its national channel. DD Sports provided round-the-clock coverage of sport events

On 17 November 2014, Doordarshan relaunched with a new theme of pink and purple, accompanied by a new punchline, Desh Ka Apna Channel, meaning “the country’s own channel”. It was announced by Vijayalaxmi Chhabra, Director General of Doordarshan.


Compare between Documentary & Docudrama in Television. Give examples.

Basic Difference.


  • It is non fiction based on true historical, scientific and geographical events.
  • Every action or event in the movie in nothing but the renaction of what has happened


  • It is fiction these are movie in which past events that have happened are taken as a content in the movie and then edited as per wish.
  • Events are not true and content is partly man-made and half is true


Chotta Bheem <3. Its like the Series of GoT with more Drama and Saxophones.

Documentary with drama. It is a television programme based on true events like documentary but they are presented in a dramatized form. Ibased on historical events and typically presenting factual bits and pieces, is first and foremost a dramatic story. It does not have to be entirely factual, and it assumes a certain amount of dramatic license to change and/or make up events in order to increase the appeal of the story.

Most of the crime serials on television today are examples of docudrama, where the reality is presented in a semi fictionaly way. The actual historical facts are used in a story. Somethimes they are shot at tht actual historical locations. But the sets are reconstructed.

They are twisted and fabricated, to fit an audience, and to glorify/focus on a particular prspective

2001, Haqeequat was one of the most popular docudrama on Indian Television. Haqeequat was the docudrama series that aired on Sahara One channel which was based on the human rights violation either by police, or common man against the common man. Recently Mr. Shyam Benegal who earlier made the class Bharat Ek Khoj  has announed docudrama on Making of the Constitution


A non-fiction film that re-enacts, comments on or just generally retells history. It is entirely factual, even though it may also state opinions about the facts it presents.

A work, such as a film or a TV Programme, presenting political, social, or historical subject matter in a factual and informative manner and often consisting of actual news films or interviews accompanied by narration is a Documentary

Documentaries are different from feature films. A documentary film provides objective information about a subject. They arr always factual and informative whereas feature films are entertaining and full of fictional matter.

Feature films are usually of a 2 Hour Duration but documentaries are of half an hour duration, sometimes more. In a documentary, the stress is on portraying real people and real situation rather than music and dialogues.

Symphany of Life, Wonder of Work, India, Rabindranath Tagore, Jagdish Chandra Bose, Salaam Bombay are few of the examples

Discuss the impact of Television on society with examples

The television has become one item of a family’s existence to such an extent that, now it cannot be brushed aside at this stage. It is a part of every home whether it is in an urban locality or the rural.

This mechanism has done a lot of service to man in every sphere of life. It helps educate young people, it provides entertainment sitting in the comfort of the home, and, above all, it tells all about things happening in and out of the country, throughout the world.

All this is wonderful and a great service to man but, at the same time, it also has a negative side to it, a negative impact on the society of the times. People have got so very engrossed in this TV and its wide variety of programmes that, no one, yes no one has any time to spare for even his next-door neighbor, leave aside the society at large.

When a TV programme is to be aired, people of all hues and colors get glued to their sitting rooms, no matter what may occur around them. They become absolutely unaware of their surroundings and are completely lost into the world of the television. This attitude makes them in turn, unsocial and confined to their homes unmindful of what goes on next door.

We rarely go to a party or a get together where people are not heard talking of having missed a television programme, and sulking for it. So much so that, programmes like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata made people even leave important appointments for, after all how could they afford to miss a serial.

With this change, socializing is becoming a rare pleasure, as all pleasures and entertainments are found at the foot of the ‘Idiot Box’. This is a very bad impact of the TV on the social lives of our people. Besides the adults, even children prefer to watch a programme on the TV. Rather than enjoy a game of football or cricket.

This makes the children also bereft of their valuable sports, the exercise it involves, and the meeting with their peer group on the games field.

Thus this TV has a negative impact on both adults and children alike, in making them unsocial. My personal view is that, if we are not able to strike a balance between TV viewing and socializing, that day is not far when society as a whole, will be a lost entity and non-existent.

Everyone will live by himself, for himself just like the living beings of the animal world. We will that day not believe in the definition that man is a social animal, and, that day we may have to be satisfied by saying that man is just another animal and not a social animal.

Positive effect of TV on Society:

1.Provide New Information: Today TV is the reservoir of information. It gives us information about the nation, world, science, finance and sports etc. There are channels for the kids for example CN, Pogo etc which entertain our children. Some channels are informative for example Discovery, National Geographic etc by watching these channels we can get valuable geographical knowledge, history knowledge and knowledge about plants and animals. Today we can get information about sensex and other business related information on our televisions. Some channels are only for the entertainment of the viewers where they can watch movies and songs.

2.Spreading Cognizance: TV also helps in spreading awareness among people. Due to which there is decrease in dowry system, child marriage (Bal Vivah) etc. From TV people get information that all these practices are legal offense. TV also helped in spreading the awareness about the education in the society. Nowadays people understand the importance of education to their children.

TV disseminates information relating to health issues, which in turn helps in decrease in polio patient, TB patient and the population of the country. Today people are getting information related to diseases and there causes from the TV. Yoga also becomes popular among people through the TV. Now people can watch different yoga’s posture through their TV and can practice at home. There are some programs which gives information related to proper diet to remain healthy and fit.

3.Grooming New Talents: TV also helps in providing platform to new talents. Today there are hundred’s of reality shows on TV , where one can show his/her talent in front of millions of people. Baba Ramdev is popular in people through TV as so many people watch him through Astha channel. There are so many singing and dance reality shows, where children as well as youngsters can exhibit their talent.

4.Globalization of Culture: TV assisted in globalization of culture. Due to which people comes to know the culture of other people. Now Bhangra is not only famous in Punjab but in other parts of country also. Today Yoga is not only practices in India but in other nation also. It also helped in spreading the western culture in our Indian society. All these facts facilitate in increasing tourism and in the growth of country’s economy.

Negative effects of TV:

As the television has positive effects on our society, it also has some negative effects. Some of these effects are discussed here:

1.Due to watching so much TV there is loss in children’s concentration. They watch TV for many hours, so due to emission of radiations continuously affect there eyes and mind. Nowadays children have become more aggressive by watching some television programs, due to which they sometimes indulge in illegal activities.

2.Today youths are more influenced by western culture. Fashion is increasing between them rapidly. They want to look like their favorite film actor or actress instead of their financial capabilities. Sometimes they indulge in wrong activities to fulfill their requirements. This in turn leads to increase in crime in our society.

3.TV also affected the food habits of people. They are more attractive toward junk food. Many youth prefers to take junk food and cold drinks. They watch the film actors or actresses doing cold drink, junk food ads on TV, so they think that there is not anything wrong in doing all this.

4.Due to TV there is loss in our moral values. Some channels show programs which are full of obscenity. These programs tarnished our culture and moral values.

5.People interaction with other has decreased due to TV. Now people prefer to watch TV in their free time instead of interacting with their friends or relatives.

Additional Questions

1 thought on “Radio and Television – Answer Bank”

  1. Nice read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing some research on that. And he actually bought me lunch as I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!


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