Public Relations – Answer Bank


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Kindly Refer a Textbook for studying Public Relations, due to the lack of answers for all the questions.

Define Public Relations? Explain importance and primary functions of public relations in contemporary times with suitable examples.

PR is very important for any brand, and for numerous reasons.

    1. To raise awareness. People trust established brands. One way to make your business known and compete with established brands is to send out your message by a third party such as a popular magazine in your industry, a high-traffic website, a respected influencer or social media superstar.
    1. Build credibility. Unlike advertising, a magazine mention of your product or a product review is not a direct sell so it comes out as a recommendation from a person that could be an authority in your niche like a celebrity beauty blogger with thousands of followers.
    1. Tailors information. Every business has its unique brand message. People adore brands that have a compelling or relatable story so make sure that you carry yours wholeheartedly at every function you go to because it is what makes people remember you.
    1. Helps manage reputation. Having trusted connections in the media is not always about free marketing but also reputation management. In your business journey, you will encounter  dreadful situations like advertising gone wrong or unsatisfied customers lashing out on social media about how bad your product is. In times like these, media connections can help you repair the damage through a press release or similar means.
    1. Helps shape a likable image. Customers love friendly and community-engaged brands. By maintaining a constant presence in your industry or in front your customers’ eyes, you are creating a strong connection with your audience.
    1. Cost-effective. Paying for a magazine spread is not a bad idea if you have the budget for it. However, if you are on a tight budget, having friends in the right places can get you a full feature or an article mention on the same publication without paying loads of cash.
    1. Promote brand values. You can use PR to send out positive messages to your target audience that g the language and ideas that your target customers respond to more positively.
    1. Strengthens community relations. When you make new connections, you are building ties with the local market by attending functions, joining groups, donating time to charity or causes related to your business. Being an active member of a community establishes your credibility with peers, consumers, and editorial contacts.
    1. Boost your niche authority. Getting featured on media outlets may come out as simple to many but for a business owner, the effect could be massively beneficial especially if you are trying to own a niche.
    1. Know your competition up-close and personal. You are not the only one who spends time in making new connections. It’s one way of knowing what your competitors are up to, which gives you clues how to keep up with them.
  1. PR is not free in the sense that it requires time and effort in making new connections. It may seem labor intensive but if your business do this right, it will help your company look more likeable, influential, and successful.

Primary functions

Public relations functions are categorized by the publics with which relationships are established, and to whom appeals are made to understand and/or accept certain policies, procedures, individuals, causes, products or services. Practitioners who perform specialized functions may play a management role, operate as a communications technician, or function in a dual role

  1. Community Relations
    A public relations function consisting of an organization’s planned, active and continuing participation with and within a community to maintain and enhance its environment to the benefit of both the organization and the community. This can involve partnerships, volunteer activities, philanthropic contributions and public participation.
  2. Employee Relations
    Employee Relations Dealing and communicating with the employees of an organization. This can include team building and employee empowerment.
  3. Government Relations
    Dealing and communicating with legislatures and government agencies on behalf of an organization.
  4. Financial Relations
    Dealing and communicating with firms and interest groups within the organization’s industry.
  5. Media Relations
    Dealing and communicating with the news media when seeking publicity or responding to reporters’ questions. It also involves setting up and maintaining a professional and mutually beneficial working relationship with news gatherers and gatekeepers, in part by becoming known as a credible source and as a provider of factual, expert information whether or not that information results in media coverage.
  6. Public Affairs
    Dealing and communicating with government and groups with regard to societal (public) policies, action and legislation. Unlike government relations, where the practitioner works strictly on behalf of an organization, public affairs also is concerned with the effect of public policies, actions and legislation on its public.

Suitable Example

Print Campaigns

Print public relations campaigns typically are comprised of a process in which a public relations representative sends out press releases to various media outlets. These releases promote a company change, a new product or a new service. Members of the media may then use the release to write a story, or they may contact the company for a more in-depth interview. High quality PR agents will have a list of media contacts that can be relied upon to publicize the story. New agents may not have built up their personal contacts in the media yet and may not have as much luck placing stories. 

How PR is different from Propaganda, Public Opinion and Publicity.

Propaganda according to (Jefkins 1998, p. 11) is the means of gaining support for an opinion, creed or belief.

The Propaganda activities are quite different from Public Relations activities. It divides its activities into Band Wagon, Naming, and Curd Stalking. Bandwagon represents the ambition to have many supporters of an idea or activities without considering who they are to be affected by the idea and usually the majority support share few benefits from the ideology. Naming is where the owner of the message tends to maximise his mention in the media to block those competing with him. Only his good works, achievements are aired to the public.  And curd stalking is where the owner of the message exposes weaknesses of the competitor in a nuisance way so that the public should lose the favour of him. Public Relations never behave this way. For example, instead of tarnishing the image of the competitor it does create industrial relations. In addition, PR activities are many like Public Affairs, Government Relations, Community Relations, Employee Relations, Industrial Relations just to mention a few.

Propaganda is as well different from PR because of its aims. Usually, it has primarily negative connotations, but seeks to generate more or less automatic responses to given symbols-it is used by bad guys as well as good guys, (Baran 2002). From this statement, it can be argued that audience can find it difficult to believe the message in propaganda form even if it can be produced by a good guy or even if it can be of goodwill. The public does not legitimise the credibility of the message which has a form of propaganda. This is different from PR whose message has public credibility and bad guys cannot find a way to use it because it depends on sustainable good relations.

Another aspect is the seeking of public response. Propaganda has shown that it seeks an automatic response from the public from its symbols or messages. This can be to avoid the public to realise the motive behind the message before the owner of the message benefits. This does not guarantee mutual understanding and relationship nor benefits but maximisation of self-interest or egoism. PR is utilitarian in nature. Utilitarianism (utilitarian ethics) founded by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), (Oz 2000, p. 08) ‘is a form of Consequentialism that views good behaviour as any behaviour that increases happiness’.

Utilitarianism holds that an action is judged as right, good, or wrong on the basis of its consequences. As a Consequentialist principle, the moral authority that drives utilitarianism is the calculated consequences, or results, of an action, regardless of other principles that determine the means or motivations for taking the action.

It also includes the following tenets to any action or purpose that has to be regarded ethical: An action is morally right if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people affected by it, and An action is morally right if the net benefits over costs are greatest for all affected compared with the net benefits of all other possible choices considered; and 3. An action is morally right if it’s immediate and future direct and indirect benefits are greatest for each individual and if these benefits outweigh the costs and benefits of the other alternatives.

Propaganda indeed may contain a message that is biased, intended for bad actions and only to satisfy the inner selves. For example, the propaganda that went behind changing of Malawi Flag Colours biased government authorities and many have criticized it to be an unethical action which was intended to make government authorities get the advantage of fraud of government monies. Public relations work for mutual understanding whose mission or communication messages guarantee credibility, objectivity and its aim would be to make public understand the services, functions and advantages of changing any organization mission.

Advertising can be understood as ‘any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor’, (Belch and Belch 2004 p. 16).

The concepts are quite different ranging from the communication purpose to their costs.

Advertising aims at disseminating a message through persuasion. This is forcing one to buy a product through both enticement and allurement. PR does not lure. It firstly gives out enough information about a product before a customer come-up with the decision to purchase. The costs of advertising are very expensive than those of PR. For example, the advertising message will incur costs of accounts, creative work, production and media airtime. A Public Relation message is usually covered as media news. For example, a press conference about a new product will be covered by media house as news likewise the press releases in this case placement is usually free.

Further than discussed above, Public Relations and Advertising are different in forms of the level of supplementary; the degree of operation costs;   limitation of practice; the level of effect; and level of creation of organization image.

Public Relations is wide and work for the entire organization that is across the organization departments. It affects the entire organization through internal public (employee) and external (customers, financial lending institution, government departments) relations, corporate strategy formulation, implementation and control consultancy. Advertising, for example, is attached only and encircled to marketing department which takes functions like recruitment and selling of products. Advertising incurs more costs than PR although it is limited to marketing. Public Relations functions are also much common in organizations than advertising functions which are absent in many organizations. For example, Share World Open University has a public relations department but it has no advertising department. This means organizations can survive with public relations functions without advertising as it is true with lawyers, medical doctors, and fire brigade enterprise services. And finally, public relations work much to control litigations, public harm and this creates sustainable relations with the public. Advertising cannot manage to defend or enhance understanding of a business strategy to the public. It can neither control litigation nor control public harm. And it is just expensive to manage an advertising campaign than a public relations campaign. For example, you can place the press release in the news column or bulletin for free but an advert cannot be accommodated.

Marketing is ‘a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others’, (Kotler et al 2009 p. 6). Marketing is about identifying meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest good definitions of marketing is “meeting needs profitably” and the major responsibilities of marketing are to identify, to anticipate and to satisfy customer requirements profitably.

PR and Marketing are different in that PR is for entire organization while marketing is a departmental function. Activities that emerge from PR Department directly affect the entire organization. For example, the success of Financial PR will mean an increase in productivity (increased product output and a number of employees) and growth of marketing function (like export trading). Policies of the organization like in production will change for improvement and maintenance of quality. In short, marketing functions depend on PR successful communication programs.

The plane motive of the two differs as well. Marketing aims at selling the product or services with value or that satisfy customers to identified markets while public relations aim at creating understanding with a sustainable relationship with its publics. With marketing what is greatly important is the selling of products and services to maximise the profits for the organization. Public Relations recognise that the most important aspect of the business is the creation of good, mutual relations and understanding that ensure that both organization objectives are achieved and the public benefits sustainably.

Marketing self-interest motive is to experience the instant benefit from its customers through maximization of revenue realization. For example, soon the product is introduced to the market the provider starts monitoring the product lifecycle progress in which the growth stage is the most desired stage by businesses as it generates more revenue and profits. With public relations, it can educate, inform or create awareness about the organization mission without actually waiting for the instant benefit. For example, a business can employ PR function of educating the market without expecting direct or instant benefit like how MR PRICE textile enterprise did two years before it came to Malawi in 2009.

This is why marketing depends on PR for it to achieve its objectives. For example, (Belch and Belch 2004, p. 566) argue that public relations activities when merging with marketing are designed to support marketing objectives as marketing public relations (MPR) functions. The marketing objectives that may be aided by PR activities include raising awareness, informing and educating, gaining understanding, building trust, giving consumers a reason to buy, and motivating consumer acceptance.  MPR ads value to the integrated marketing program in a number of ways: building market excitement before media advertising breaks; creating advertising news where there is no product news; introducing a product with little or no advertising; providing a value-added customer service; building a brand-to-customer bonds; influencing influential’s; and defending products at risk and giving consumers a reason to buy.

And since PR continuously communicates with its public, it gets an opportunity to understand their needs and wants. No wonder for MPR to succeed, PR may not hesitate to use a social sciences technique in knowing publics social position. Usually, this is by executing a business research is the planning, collecting, analyzing of data relevant to business decision making and the communication of the results of this analysis to the management Guler & Gani (2004).

Publicity results from information being known. This known message or event publicised can be good or bad and usually uncontrollable.

The major differences are slim converging at the level of control and preparation of the message. PR will ensure that the whole organization communicates and passes need to communicate to the public about the new program because this is the corporate strategic issue. And the preparation of the message will follow professional, ethical and legal standards of writing guided by objectives, mission and vision of the organization. Publicity can originate from any angle without control and even with a bad impression. For example, last year there was publicity of Share World Open University at Nyasa Times that exposed its weaknesses from its financial crisis that led to not paying lecturer’s salaries which were low, lack of water at the BT premise, lack of computer lab and adequate books in the library, 45% school fee hike among other weaknesses ( This was bad publicity and it failed to justify why such information was necessary to the public mostly how it could benefit the institution and its publics mutually.

Therefore this is how PR can be differentiated from propaganda, advertising, marketing and publicity.

Explain the functions of Public Relation with suitable examples also state the reasons PR campaign needs CSR?


Public relations functions are categorized by the publics with which relationships are established, and to whom appeals are made to understand and/or accept certain policies, procedures, individuals, causes, products or services. Practitioners who perform specialized functions may play a management role, operate as a communications technician, or function in a dual role

  1. Community Relations
    A public relations function consisting of an organization’s planned, active and continuing participation with and within a community to maintain and enhance its environment to the benefit of both the organization and the community. This can involve partnerships, volunteer activities, philanthropic contributions and public participation.
  2. Employee Relations
    Employee Relations Dealing and communicating with the employees of an organization. This can include team building and employee empowerment.
  3. Government Relations
    Dealing and communicating with legislatures and government agencies on behalf of an organization.
  4. Financial Relations
    Dealing and communicating with firms and interest groups within the organization’s industry.
  5. Media Relations
    Dealing and communicating with the news media when seeking publicity or responding to reporters’ questions. It also involves setting up and maintaining a professional and mutually beneficial working relationship with news gatherers and gatekeepers, in part by becoming known as a credible source and as a provider of factual, expert information whether or not that information results in media coverage.
  6. Public Affairs
    Dealing and communicating with government and groups with regard to societal (public) policies, action and legislation. Unlike government relations, where the practitioner works strictly on behalf of an organization, public affairs also is concerned with the effect of public policies, actions and legislation on its public.

Suitable Example

Print Campaigns

Print public relations campaigns typically are comprised of a process in which a public relations representative sends out press releases to various media outlets. These releases promote a company change, a new product or a new service. Members of the media may then use the release to write a story, or they may contact the company for a more in-depth interview. High quality PR agents will have a list of media contacts that can be relied upon to publicize the story. New agents may not have built up their personal contacts in the media yet and may not have as much luck placing stories.

Why PR campaign needs CSR

(reference can be taken from below answer)

It’s now generally acknowledged that good Corporate Social Responsibility strategy can both help the planet and add real value to a brand. Companies with good reputations often make the biggest contributions to environmental and social causes – think of Google’s reputation as a caring employer, Disney’s partnership with the Make A Wish Foundation, or BMW’s commitment to saving the environment. Despite this, reports suggest only 1/3 of companies use CSR in their PR strategy.

But why should brands be wary of linking PR campaigns to CSR policies?

No doubt many large corporations see CSR initiatives as PR stunts rather than philanthropic work. This kind of thinking has often backfired – many companies have been accused of using CSR as a PR tactic to ‘greenwash’ over past misdemeanours. Enron is a prime example of this. Once a poster child for CSR, the now bankrupt American energy company is a clear case of social responsibility gone wrong. Despite its CSR programme which promoted ethical business and environmental practices, it turned out the company was committing serious fraud, and was complying with absolutely none of its much publicised CSR commitments. This disaster has since overshadowed many CSR initiatives by other companies, which have been criticised as putting forwards more of the same false claims and empty promises.

However, despite this precedent, PR and CSR can get along. An honest and thorough CSR program can play an important role in PR strategy, as many other companies have proved. One example of this is Microsoft; widely recognized as a ‘good’ company, Microsoft’s environmental and social policies have not only increased the sustainability and resilience of the business, but have also played an important role in building its positive reputation. People all over the world have come to associate Microsoft with innovative humanitarian initiatives, like Bill Gates’ vaccination program, Gavi. In the highly competitive tech sector, this can be great way to build a loyal customer base and attract the best talent to the company.

But do you have to be the world’s richest man to have a meaningful CSR campaign? Probably not – there are lots of ways for small businesses to get involved in charity work. Things like sponsoring a local event or team, pro bono work or fundraising can allow small businesses to make a difference in their local community, and raise their profile in the area.

With this in mind, there are clear PR benefits to be gained from promoting a company’s CSR strategy; however, it should be approached with caution. Lessons can be learned from companies like Enron and countless others, who have spent more time promoting their CSR campaigns than actually implementing them. Just look at FIFA – currently caught up in a corruption scandal despite a very flashy website detailing their code of governance ethics, HSBC – who finances companies known to regularly commit human rights violations, despite their commitments to responsible investment, and Gap – who continue to jeopardize the safety of sweat shop workers in Bangladesh, despite a ‘new vision’ in its human rights policy. These kinds of misguided initiatives can only be successful in a PR setting when based on concrete social and environmental achievements, with real results to shout about.

Explain the Role of PR with current examples.

Role of PR/PR Professionals

Almost all large organizations either have a public relations department or outsource their public relations needs to a company. Public relations is seen as a vital part of maintaining the organization’s image and of communicating its message to its customers, investors and the general public. A positive perception of a company or non-profit can increase its sales and improve its bottom line. The functions and key tasks of a public relations specialist can be varied.

Public Image Strategy

Public relations strategists will work with top executives in the organization to craft an overview of how the company wants to be perceived, and how it is going to project a positive image. This can involve focusing in on exactly the right message, and then deciding on the broad outlines of a campaign to disseminate that message.

Outreach Events

Public relations professionals often arrange events to raise the profile of the organization or lend its brand and name to a charitable event that represents the philosophy of the company. Think of a corporation sponsoring a Special Olympics event, or a hospital organizing a health outreach day in its town.

Media Relations

Talking with the media is a core function of public relations departments. Public relations professionals field questions from reporters, arrange for interviews with key individuals in the organization and write press releases to make the media aware of company events or achievements.

Social Media

One emerging function of public relations is to maximize an organization’s positive use of social media to build its image. Managing a Twitter feed, a Facebook page and a YouTube channel are all vital ways to connect with possible new customers or stakeholders. Monitoring public comment about the organization on the Internet can also give PR professional’s early warning of any emerging trends or problems.

Handling Emergencies

Sometimes a company or organization is struck by a disastrous event that ruins its public image. This might be an oil company that has to deal with a high profile spill, or a food company that has a contamination event. Public relations professionals decide how the organization will repair the damage to its image, communicate how it is dealing with the problem and regain control of its message.

Current examples

Print Campaigns

Print public relations campaigns typically are comprised of a process in which a public relations representative sends out press releases to various media outlets. These releases promote a company change, a new product or a new service. Members of the media may then use the release to write a story, or they may contact the company for a more in-depth interview. High quality PR agents will have a list of media contacts that can be relied upon to publicize the story. New agents may not have built up their personal contacts in the media yet and may not have as much luck placing stories.

Radio and Television Campaigns

Radio and television campaigns are similar in essence to print campaigns. Releases and notifications are sent out to programs that are related to what is being promoted. Radio hosts are typically in need of guests and will be open to scheduling a speaker for an interview, particularly if they are an established expert or have an excellent track record in business. National television interviews are more difficult to land, but local media may be interested in doing an interview.

What is New Media Age?  How important is it today in context of PR?

Slightly related to Digital PR. 

The BLUE TEXT will link you to a Document will redirect you to Digital Media Chapter in Seth Publications, it may be of help.

How does new age media helps in crises situation?

Though the four phases discussed above are foundational to a strong crisis strategy, best practices

that integrate social media into the traditional crisis communications framework are essential. Below

we break down 10 things you need to know in order to leverage social media to manage and even

prevent crises:

Implement Policies to Address Potential Vulnerabilities

The ubiquity of social media has blurred traditional boundaries between the personal and the  Professional. As a quick Google search of any employee reveals, the days of maintaining a strict  Separation between life inside and outside of the office are long gone. Developing a company- Wide social media policy that outlines permitted and prohibited conduct will help prevent potential crises from ever taking root by establishing clear guidelines for employee use of social media.

Use Social Media as a Tool for Crisis Monitoring

Social media has long been touted as a space in which listening is as important for brands as talking. With consumers increasingly using social media as a forum to express their dissatisfaction with brands directly, be on the lookout for sensitive issues before they become full-blown crises. In addition, with a greater number of traditional media outlets relying on social platforms to report breaking news, monitoring social media channels is one of the most effective ways to spot a crisis at its earliest stage.

Understand the Response-ability of Social Media

By significantly altering the rate at which information is exchanged and consumed, social media has substantially reduced the window organizations have to respond in moments of crisis. While Facebook has cut down crisis response times to around 12 hours, a crisis on Twitter can take only minutes to spread. Given this new normal, organizational preparedness is crucial. It also means that companies operating within traditional Monday-to-Friday, 9-to-5 schedules need a plan in place to respond if incidents occur after normal business hours.

Establish a Framework for Response

Given the level of contingency that accompanies a crisis, what your organization needs most is a framework for response. Establish in advance who will be in the “war room” as well as which individuals will be making decisions and communicating directives to teams tasked with responding to events on the ground. Most importantly, make sure that all passwords to your social media accounts are readily accessible to the crisis team and in the hands of the responsible parties.

Build a Social Media Crisis Toolkit

From press releases to prepared statements, an effective crisis response toolkit contains  communications templates that organizations can use to instantly shift messaging in the face of a crisis. Make social media a core part of your toolkit with the inclusion of standardized, pre-approved templates for blog posts, tweets, and other social media platforms that are in synch with the rest of your company’s crisis response efforts.

Know Where to Respond

Just as it’s important to know how and when to respond to a crisis, it’s imperative to know where to respond. Responding to a crisis in the format where it first breaks – Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn – is an important step to ensuring that your message reaches your constituents directly. It also demonstrates your company’s willingness to engage with its audiences in those forums where they are most active. Following your initial response, expand your efforts to include all additional communications channels.

Prepare Your Employees in Advance

In traditional crisis communications, making certain that all of your employees, from sales to customer service, are prepared to respond to queries is essential to maintaining a consistent message. In the age of social media, this is more important than ever. With friends and relatives requesting information from employees on their personal social media accounts, all company personnel must be equipped with the proper policies and response procedures well in advance. 

Establish the Proper Tone

Since its inception, social media has long been a space to cultivate an authentic, and at times, more informal voice. However, in the wake of a crisis, it’s easy for informality to be mistaken as insensitivity. Depending on the type of crisis, its impact may be felt in very real ways not only by your core constituents but also by members of the public that extend beyond your customer base. With this in mind, tone of voice should always be developed in relation to the context and situation at hand.

Hit the Automation Kill Switch

Most social media efforts are multi-channel. In order to keep track of and maintain multiple accounts, many companies rely on social media dashboards to automate or schedule their posts. In the event of a crisis, it is absolutely crucial to make sure that all of your social platforms are locked down and brought under the umbrella of crisis communications. Maintaining automated posts that are upbeat or off topic during a crisis will be perceived as insensitive to the needs of your consumers and all affected parties.

Be Honest, Be Transparent

A recent article from The Guardian made the following claim about social media during a crisis: “There is no such thing as too much information. During a disaster or crisis, Twitter and other social media can provide an instant view of conditions on the ground.” Continued transparency and communication will help keep the public informed and updated throughout the duration of a crisis. Even sharing bad news in these moments will be appreciated for its honesty and will help re-establish long-term trust once the crisis abates. The days of maintaining a strict separation between crisis communications and social media are long gone. Given the ways in which social media has fundamentally altered the communications landscape, maintaining a robust crisis management strategy demands the complete integration of social media into the fold. Armed with these 10 best practices, your company will be prepared to anticipate threats and mitigate risks across any communications platform.

PR creates environment for brand activation. Explain the statement with suitable examples.

PR creates environment for brand activation.

Most brands fail to command attention and market equity because they were introduced into the market place with advertising instead of Public Relations. Do you ever imagine putting a horse before the cart? What happens? Do you just imagine building a house without first laying the foundation? An Advertising seems to be used by most companies to introduce new brands. While a hefty advertising budget is needed to maintain a brand, advertising wont get a new brand off the ground or out of the manufacturer’s store.

PR plays a long-term role in creating a positive perception for new brands. We now live in a more communications conscious society where people come across several commercial messages on hourly and daily. For a brand to launch itself into limelight and create a chance in the much saturated marketplace, it must be able to generate and command favourable publicity in the media amongst other things.

Powers of PR in Building Brands

    • PR creates the environment for brand activation, brand exhibition, brand education and brand after sales-services.
    • PR helps to create brand understanding & education and also build customer loyalty to the brand.
    • Most people hardly believe what they see in adverts, but attach more credibility to what is communicated through PR.
    • PR can be effectively used to mitigate and manage brand related crisis.
    • PR shapes opinion, inspire action and change perspectives about brands.
    • PR in a way strategically helps the company to hold on to its brand promise, credibility and consistency.
    • PR is about building perception and managing reputation. It is the bridges that connect brand with builds the relationship and sustain the perception.
    • PR places more emphasis on two way communication, that is, it completes the communication cycle by ensuring feedback from customers to ascertain brand experience and value.
    • PR enforces strong and constructive relationship between the company, brand and customers, suppliers and dealers and to a larger number of interested publics.
  • PR includes a variety of programs to promote and protect a company brand image. It analyses market trends and predict likely consequences to brand image and equity.

PR helps standardize brand promotional activities ensuring their alignment to the company€™s communication policies and reputation. You might agree with me that some brand promotional activities has brought about crisis to the brand and its manufacturer in conclusion, today€™s brands are not built at the expense of the company (manufacturer€™s) reputation and not introduced at the expense of Public Relations. It is worthy to note that before you use PR to introduce your brand, ensure your brand is a ground-breaking brand, novel, unique, new and has a story to tell.

Public Relations for brand activations

PR plays an important role in creating a positive perception for new brands and new products. For a brand to come into the limelight and be successful in the much saturated marketplace, it must be able to generate positive publicity in the media amongst other things.

Powers of PR in Building Brands

* PR creates the environment for brand activation, brand exhibition, brand education and brand after sales-services.

* PR helps to create brand understanding & education and also build customer loyalty to the brand.

* PR shapes opinion, inspire action and change perspectives about brands.

* PR in a way strategically helps the company to hold on to its brand promise, credibility and consistency.


Include Social Sharing With Press Releases

If you need to write a press release, find a way to support and extend the message via social sharing.

Keep in mind that journalists rely heavily on Twitter, Facebook and other platforms to source and research stories. When you share your story socially, you are meeting them where they are instead of interrupting them in their inbox.

Halogen story package

Halogen includes social options for a recent research report.

For example, a story about a charitable contribution would translate very well to video (building up your YouTube channel). Or you can share data via an infographic that fans can pin, tweet and share from your blog or Facebook.

The marketing team at Halogen Software tries to make every story visual and social. The company released an industry report in June 2014 and added social components with a Twitter campaign, an infographic and a blog post.

Does PR influence public opinion? Justify the statement.

It can influence the public so much to the extent that it can manipulate them. PR can choose what to say to the public and the public will react from it. If it is for the company’s own good it will be reflected that way. If it is for the competition’s fall, it can go that way. But not every time though.

The public opinion is dynamic as it changes from time to time in accordance with the circumstances, factors and current events that occur in the general and private public of the organization, as well as in the efforts exerted to seek to change and modify public opinion. This requires patience, perseverance, seriousness and proficiency in preparing the justifications of the other opinion. To modify or change the opinion. Hence the role of public relations in the follow-up of events and what is written or said about the organization, because the discovery of these early rumours far better than leaving them to expand and worsen until they become out of control Out of Control

There are a number of foundations, which public relations can be applied in order to convince public opinion and therefore the possibility of modifying or changing the most important of these are:

  1.  Knowledge: Individuals ignore any idea or point of view unless they have full knowledge of the extent of their impact on their personal needs and aspirations. Therefore, the message must include an explanation and definition of the personal benefit to the public from the idea or point of view
  2. Movement where individuals do not accept a particular idea or point of view, unless the interpretation of how to apply, and clarify the effects on them. Thus, the message must include the means of implementing the idea and the public will ignore it
  3. Trust where individuals enthusiastically accept the views of those who trust them from individuals, organizations or institutes, and therefore the personality of the idea (the man of public relations) has a great impact on the psychology of the public to accept
  4. Clarity where the idea is more acceptable and convincing if it is clear to the public to be contacted, or be addressed and does not involve any ambiguity, ambiguity or conflict
  5. Clarification where the proposal or idea must be clearly defined, so as not to be subject to more than one explanation or interpretation of a particular, and this requires the practitioner of public relations use words and terminology that cannot be tolerated or ambiguity. In general, public relations are aimed at influencing public opinion through one or more of the following methods:

– Change or neutralize unfavourable or hostile views

– Formulation of views that have not yet been formed, or the underlying views, in a manner consistent with the interests of the Organization

– Maintain or maintain favourable views in line with the interests of the Organization

– Promote existing favorable views and increase their strength in favour of the Organization

Define corporate identity? How does it shape corporate image? Give examples.

Please refer the book as well

Corporate Image

Corporate image is the sum total of the perceptions and impressions carried by various publics, about the quality of the products efficiency and services and the behaviour of the organization towards the community at large.  

This image of an organization largely depends on:

  • The way it is regarded by its competitors, shareholders, customers, general public and its employees.
  • The confidence responds in it, by its employees and customers.
  • Reliability of products and services, and its future plans
  • Flexibility of an organisation to adapt to the changing environment
  • Co-ordinate working of the various divisions and chains of a company.
  • Its openness to communicate with public, employees and potential customers.

What is PR campaign? How do you plan your PR campaign? Design a social media campaign for sunsilk.

I do not have answer for this

What is crises communication? Explain the role of PR in crisis communication with the help of latest examples.

I do not have answer for this

Managing uncertainty is essential for PR. Explain the crisis communication plan with suitable example.

When a crisis situation develops, time is of the essence. There’s a saying: “If you’re not quick, you’re not relevant” That’s why companies need to have a crisis communication plan in place BEFORE a potentially hazardous situation arises.

But, what does that mean? What elements should be included in your crisis plan? While there’s no such thing as a “cookie cutter” crisis plan, the following information will help your company begin assembling an effective plan.

Step 1: Establish the Crisis Team.

Before a crisis strikes, think through who needs to have a seat at the table. Consider ALL the aspects of your company — management, operations, internal (including labor relations in union environments) and external communication, customer service, legal. The crisis team could look like this: President of the company, head of communication, legal counsel and heads of the department(s) impacted by the crisis. During the crisis, this team bears the responsibility for making decisions and spearheading communication. In the plan document, include each individual’s name, title, home phone, cell phone and other pertinent contact details.

Step 2: Identify and Prepare the Spokespeople.

A crisis situation should not be the first time a spokesperson speaks to the media. Identify the person who will be the official “voice” of the company should a crisis develop and make sure that person is trained accordingly. (Note that the spokesperson may not be the same in every situation. You may need to train a few spokespeople. Also have a “backup” person identified … just in case.)

Remember that you need to communicate offline and offline. With that in mind, evaluate your online presence and determine what channels can be used to communicate information in real-time — and who should be responsible for sharing updates online. Make sure that person (or people) understands that guidelines for communicating during a crisis are most likely different than guidelines for regular day-to-day interactions.

Step 3: Develop processes and protocols.

What’s the chain of command in a crisis? Who needs to be part of the approval process? If a reporter “scoops” the crisis before the team has been briefed, what’s the correct response? What’s the proper course of action when it appears that a crisis is brewing online? All of these are questions that need to be answered as part of your crisis plan. Having a set of approved procedures in place AHEAD OF TIME is key to responding in a timely manner and protecting the company’s brand. You don’t want to waste time trying to agree on an approval process as people share their disdain for your company via Twitter. Odds are, they’ll mobilize faster than you will — potentially causing significant damage to your brand.

Step 4: Prepare for New Media’s Impact on Crisis Communication

This section could probably be a whole post on its own. Crisis communication today is very different than crisis communication of years past. Everyone with a phone is a roving reporter — able to record video or take photos that may influence how the situation is perceived. Online monitoring during a crisis is critical. You need to know who is saying what and where. And, then you need to be prepared to jump into the conversation to correct facts, answer questions and share the brand’s side of the story and steps taken to fix the situation.

Along those same lines, “new” crisis communication means you shouldn’t solely rely on the news media to disseminate your message. Think about opportunities to leverage multi-media to communicate. If a press conference may be appropriate, can you stream it on UStream? If so, how does that work, and what equipment do you need to purchase? Or, for impromptu statements, can you have a staffer on-hand with a Flip camera, taking footage that can be shared online? As you’re developing processes and procedures, also develop a list of potential communication tools — everything from written statements … to real-time updates via Twitter, Facebook … or multimedia — and “best practices” to leverage those tools in a crisis.

Step 5: Brainstorm Possible Scenarios & Responses. Role Play. Repeat.

Crime. Fire and other natural disasters. Embezzlement. Bankruptcy. Communication perceived as inappropriate. (Speaking of … did you see the anger toward Paul Frank LA last week? Check out the #NotOKatAll hashtag.)

In any business, there are dozens — if not more — of potential crisis situations that could ruin a brand … especially if poor communication makes the situation even worse. Work with your team to identify these potential situations and develop a “response template” in the crisis communication plan. For example, if a major theft occurs, how do you respond? Can you have responses already outlined, with blanks to be filled in based on the situational details? If you’re an apartment community and a rape occurs on your property, what resources can you offer to help residents improve safety?  The more preparation you can do ahead of time, the quicker you’ll be able to respond if a crisis does strike. Conduct crisis “drills” to get the team used to mobilizing quickly and working through the process. These drills should include mock on-camera interviews with the spokespeople, too.

What is crisis communication? How should PR make a crisis communication plan? Give example of company that was successful in solving its crisis through good PR.

Company that was successful in solving its crisis through good PR

Tylenol (Johnson and Johnson)

In the fall of 1982, a murderer added 65 milligrams of cyanide to some Tylenol capsules on store shelves, killing seven people, including three in one family. Johnson & Johnson recalled and destroyed 31 million capsules at a cost of $100 million. The affable CEO, James Burke, appeared in television ads and at news conferences informing consumers of the company’s actions. Tamper-resistant packaging was rapidly introduced, and Tylenol sales swiftly bounced back to near pre-crisis levels

Johnson & Johnson was again struck by a similar crisis in 1986 when a New York woman died on Feb. 8 after taking cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules. Johnson & Johnson was ready. Responding swiftly and smoothly to the new crisis, it immediately and indefinitely canceled all television commercials for Tylenol, established a toll-free telephone hot-line to answer consumer questions and offered refunds or exchanges to customers who had purchased Tylenol capsules. At week’s end, when another bottle of tainted Tylenol was discovered in a store, it took only a matter of minutes for the manufacturer to issue a nationwide warning that people should not use the medication in its capsule form


The Pepsi Corporation faced a crisis in 1993 which started with claims of syringes being found in cans of diet Pepsi. Pepsi urged stores not to remove the product from shelves while it had the cans and the situation investigated. This led to an arrest, which Pepsi made public and then followed with their first video news release, showing the production process to demonstrate that such tampering was impossible within their factories. A second video news release displayed the man arrested. A third video news release showed surveillance from a convenience store where a woman was caught replicating the tampering incident. The company simultaneously publicly worked with the FDA during the crisis. The corporation was completely open with the public throughout, and every employee of Pepsi was kept aware of the details. This made public communications effective throughout the crisis. After the crisis had been resolved, the corporation ran a series of special campaigns designed to thank the public for standing by the corporation, along with coupons for further compensation. This case served as a design for how to handle other crisis situations.

What role PR plays in crisis situation? Explain Nestle Maggi crisis in detail with public relation strategy.

I do not have answer for Crisis Situation

The PR role in crisis management

Typically, the PR department will be informed of possible crises. PR staff will play a role in helping to manage the incident, including

    • Advising on the strategic approach to take
    • Identifying the key audiences to be communicated with
  • Drafting support materials – statements, questions and answers, and briefing documents.

Ideally, the PR department will be involved in three stages:

    • Before the incident has become public – to advise on handling communication
    • As the incident becomes public – handling press and media attention and putting any communication plan into action
  • To support communications following an incident – ongoing communication with key groups about the organisation’s actions, what is being done to ensure the incident does not happen again and so on.

The earlier the PR department is made aware of a potential incident, the better prepared the team can be to manage attention from the press and media and key audiences, including staff.

Supporting the PR department in a crisis

You can play an important role in supporting the PR department in a number of ways:

    • If you become aware of anything which could impact negatively on the reputation of the organisation, it is important to ensure your line manager knows and that the PR department is made aware, as appropriate. Most organisations have a crisis-handling system in place. It is helpful to remember that different people will assess risk differently. It’s much better to over report – the PR department or your PR adviser will be able to assess the PR risk and the steps that should be taken
    • You can act as the ‘eyes’ and ‘ears’ in your department and report any issues that have the potential for damaging reputation
  • Also, certainly with internal communication, if you feel that messages are not being conveyed as effectively as possible, and the responsibility lies with the PR department, then closer working may be helpful.

Explain the concept of dark PR at length. What are the qualities of PR practitioner?

I do not have answer for this

Explain the significance of public relation in an organization and elaborate the causes responsible for the Growth of PR.

I do not have answer for this

What is public relation? Explain the important characteristic of PR.

I do not have answer for this

Explain the functions of PR.

I do not have answer for this

What are the skills required to be professional PR?

I do not have answer for this

What are the various tools used by media professionals?

I do not have answer for this

Explain any three popular media tools.

I do not have answer for this

Elucidate on the different public relation media and non-media tools used by a media house to promote an organization.

I do not have answer for this

Difference between in-house PR and PR agencies. What are the factors kept in mind while choosing the agency?

In an agency, you are constantly viewed as an external member of the team, or in my least favorite term ever, an external “solution”. Even in agencies that pride themselves on getting close to their clients and working to affect change (two terms used constantly internally at Distilled, and I love them), you are still not able to build the close relationships through serendipitous conversations and lunches that happen when inhouse.

Inhouse, you have much more access to those who are able to make decisions. Even if you are a fairly junior member of the team, you will likely still have access, within one or two steps, to the top of the chain in your business unit. The marketing team at HotPads (which has four people including me, and growing) has direct access to Zillow’s CMO, who is my boss. If they wanted, they could directly email her and ask questions (though they normally will go through me and we will approach together). But that access is (usually) much tougher to come by in an agency.

Now that I’m inhouse, I’ve found that I spend less time trying to simply reach the right people, and more time actually building relationships with the right people and getting things done internally.

  • Accountability To Results

Agencies are often brought in to fill a gap or to help out the inhouse team when a problem is out of their ability level or the team is too busy to come up with new ideas. The agency will usually be the one to think big and come up with ideas, and then the inhouse team is left to execute most often (and in my experience, agencies are most successful when their client has a strong inhouse team). Because of this, the agency is often not held to achieving results quickly because of the added steps of delivering work to the client, interpreting it for them, and then relying on the inhouse team to implement.

Working in house, this is not true at all. If I went to my boss and said that it will be at least 6 months before we see a positive impact through my and my team’s work, I’d be laughed at. When inhouse, you are responsible for the results, not just delivering work. You could argue that agencies will not be kept onboard if they are not getting results, but in my experience an agency is rarely let go because of a failure to deliver results.

  • Work/Life Balance

Agencies are known for less of a work/life balance than an inhouse job, and in my experience this is true. Most of my agency friends work at least 60-70 hours per week. I had weeks at Distilled where I worked 80+ regularly, and probably did that at least once per month during my whole time there.

Inhouse life has afforded me more of a work/life balance in my new home of San Francisco. While some of this may be attributed to moving from the 9-8 New York workstyle to the 9-5 San Francisco style, I still see my agency friends in San Francisco working (at times many) more hours than I do.

I’ve credited a lot of this with the difference in how a day at my inhouse gig is from a day at an agency. When managing multiple clients plus team members, the interruptions come fast and furious in an agency. According this Gallup poll from 2006, it takes over 20 minutes to get back on track after an interruption.

Working inhouse, I find I have better planned days, fewer frantic moments of diagnosing issues, and thus I am able to concentrate and get my work done quicker than in an agency. Because of that, I work fewer hours and have more time in my evenings.

This isn’t to say that inhouse life is any less busy. In any given day I’ll be helping other team members with their job, communicating with internal stakeholders, giving SEO recommendations, and chatting with other managers about the office and teams. The difference lies in how frantic the day is and if you could be called upon any second with an issue. That happened all the time in an agency. Inhouse, this happens way less.

Factors to be kept in mind while choosing and PR agency

  1. Strong relationships with business and technology journalists
    Ensure that they have genuinely strong relationships with the relevant technology, business and other media contacts for your business. The agency’s engagement with journalists needs to be personable, positive and trusted. The last thing you want is for a press release, which has taken several hours to write and approve, to be sent and lost amid hundreds of others in a journalist’s bulging inbox. Knowing simple things like what each journalist likes to write about and when they like to receive information is crucial and can mean the difference between securing great coverage or not.2. Experience
    Experience in any industry is important but when choosing a PR agency in a specialised area such as technology, it is paramount that they have relevant experience and know what they’re talking about. Finding out how long have they been in the tech PR industry and how much long term retained business they do can help you to determine just how experienced and successful the agency is.

    3. Knowledge
    In the world of technology PR it is important to have an understanding of the basics of your technology, your business and your market. Having to explain the ins and outs of cloud computing to your account manager, for example, would probably get a little tiresome after a while. So use an agency which can understand and write about your technology but who avoid the use of overly technical language which can alienate journalists and readers with jargon.

    4. Size of agency
    In a large international agency it can be very easy to become a small fish in a very large pond. Smaller agencies often outperform larger agencies as they have the drive, expertise and entrepreneurial passion to succeed and get the best possible results for their clients.

    5. Services offered
    As tech audiences consume a lot of content via digital channels, your approach should take this into account. By choosing an agency who can provide PR services and give a holistic approach integrating digital marketing you can save a considerable amount of time and money. Keeping your keywords up to date mean better SEO and more visibility for your website. This reinforces your messaging to your target audience across all channels.

    So in summary, size does not matter but connections, experience, and knowledge should be considered fundamental decision makers. Keep the above in mind and you’ll be five steps closer to finding the perfect PR agency for your company. If you have any other insights, ideas or suggestions please feel free to leave them in the box below. If you have any questions for us, contact us here.

Reputation is organic and thus ever-changing. Explain this statement with examples and state why reputation is more concern than image.

(Write in your own words)

The reputation of a business is essential to its survival. The trust and confidence of the consumer can have a direct and profound effect on a company’s bottom line. Recently, the importance of reputation has become increasingly apparent, as companies such as BP and Toyota have had to cultivate their responses to crises in order to maintain the reputation and standing of their companies to the world.

In the past, businesses relied on word of mouth by their stakeholders in order to establish, build and maintain their reputations. In this modern age of social networking, websites, and other methods of instant communication, businesses must be conscientious of their reputations on a constant basis and be responsive to any crisis that may have an impact on their reputation.

While an intangible concept, having a good reputation can benefit a business in a multitude of ways including: consumer preference; support for an organization in times of crisis or controversy; and the future value of an organization in the marketplace.

If an organization has a good reputation in the marketplace, consumers may have a preference for that company even if there are similar businesses offering the same products or services for different prices. The reputation of an organization can enable a company to differentiate its product in highly competitive markets, allow it to have premium pricing, and can become the ultimate factor in whether a customer decides to patronize one business over another.

Research shows, for example, that due to an increased demand for healthier foods, organic products, and more environmentally friendly food, companies have begun to distinguish their products through food labelling, and are noticing that consumers are willing to pay a premium price for labels that are considered to have more of a prestigious reputation than others.

Public relations and marketing, public relation and advertising, public relation and publicity.

Do refer the book

Publicity and public relations are often wrongfully considered one and the same. In fact, publicity is just one aspect of public relations.

Publicity concerns a company, organization or individual’s presence in the media. Forms of publicity include news stories, articles and event information. Publicity creates public awareness and attention around a brand, and publicists gain publicity for their clients by promoting.

Unlike public relations, publicity is used solely to attract attention. It differs from PR in the sense that public relations focuses on more than just public attention. The intent in public relations is to accomplish an organization’s stated goals by sending strategic messages to the appropriate audiences in hopes of impacting their knowledge, behaviors or attitudes. In short, PR manages the overall reputation of the client while simultaneously building relationships among all of those who are affected by it. As a management function, PR focuses on building relationships and managing an image.

Although pitching a story, event or the latest development to the media is important in public relations, it isn’t the only aspect of the job. In public relations, publicity is viewed as a way to gain the client media coverage in a cost-efficient and immediate manner. Saying that publicity is the same as public relations ignores the true goals and objectives of each discipline and fails to acknowledge the remaining responsibilities of a PR practitioner.

Explain the tips for writing in social media in order to boost viewer’s engagement and building reputation online. (write any 8-9 points)

The Following Link can also be referred

#1: Add Audio

If audio wasn’t part of your foray into social media, it may be time to embark on a new adventure.

Recording audio entails choosing your message, selecting a program that permits recording and editing, finding a microphone that fits your budget and needs and deciding where to host your finished product.

In some cases you may want to find an application or individual to transcribe the audio files for people who prefer reading.

#2: Beef Up Blogging

There are myriad ways to blog—long-form, short-form (microblogging), image-only and more.

Your regular blog is a good place to write longer-form posts when needed. To get the most out of your efforts, make sure your blog is mobile-friendly. You can test it with Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test.

Social Media Examiner tested on Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test.

Instagram is the perfect platform to showcase shorter posts for a “less is more” approach.

No matter how or where you blog, choose the option that’s right for you and your schedule, then update consistently.

#3: Coax New Life into Old Content

Evergreen content is your friend. Find your most popular posts and those that rank highly and update them as needed. Then reshare them across your social channels to draw new attention to those articles.

Stay up to date on social media changes via SME’s weekly article.

A good way to ensure you have the most up-to-date news is finding reliable sources of information in your industry. For example, check out what’s new with Cindy King’s weekly Social Media Examiner series, “This Week in Social Media.”

#4: Draw on Your Community

It can be difficult to keep up with customer questions, especially if it’s just you trying to answer. Why not let your community help?

GiffGaff encourages users to share information on their forum.

If appropriate for your business, consider creating a forum where more experienced users can assist new visitors.

#5: Encourage Customer Feedback

If you’d like to have more customer feedback on your product or service, give your customers a reason to help you out. Incentives can run the gamut here, and most are simple and straightforward.

The key is to offer customers something of value that fits into your business model. For example, discounts and a chance to win a prize usually serve as great motivators.

Brainstorm a number of offers for the year ahead. See what works and build future incentives around those successes.

#6: Find New Photo Editing Tools

Images are an important part of social media. It can be time-consuming to create or edit original images, but luckily you have many tools at your disposal.

Sites like PicMonkey and Canva let you make edits on your desktop, while apps like Snapseed, over and PicTapGo let you get the job done on the go.

#7: Generate Buzz With Infographics

People have come to love and rely on infographics for explaining information clearly and concisely.

Whether you create one yourself or hire a graphic designer, be sure to include your company’s name and URL. That way your work is attributed to your business as it moves across the social sphere. For example, this infographic from

When bloggers use the infographic, What Infographics Are, the image links back to the creators.

Ask those who share your infographic to link the image back to your site so you’ll enjoy more traffic as well. When you share your infographic on your own site, make sure to include some explanatory text that deep links to previous relevant articles you’ve published.

#8: Harness the Power of Slide Share

Businesses have had a long love affair with slide decks. But what happens after you’re done with them? The presentation you and your team slaved over for weeks doesn’t have to retire to a folder on your hard drive. Upload it to SlideShare!

Once uploaded, you can embed your SlideShare in an article on your blog, share it at a conference or email the link to prospects.

For example, this wonderfully creative Sketch notes slide share presentation was created by Anne McColl on an iPad with the Brushes app, during sessions at SME’s Social Media Marketing World 2014 #smmw14.

#9: Install the Pin It Button

If you want people to share your images, it’s essential to make it easy for them. By installing the Pin It button, users who like images in your post can share them on Pinterest and spread your visual content in a matter of seconds.

The Pin It button makes it easy for users to share your visual content.

#10: Join in the Customer Experience

There’s a very wise saying: “You can’t really understand another person’s experience until you’ve walked a mile in his shoes.”

Have you tried actually using your product or service yourself? Have you dealt with customer service as a customer?

When you look at your business from an outsider’s perspective, you’ll have a better understanding of your customers’ experience and gain important insights into what matters to them. Then you can decide what to do to meet their needs.

#11: Keep Learning

If you’re like most marketers, in the past few years you’ve had to extend your reach into unfamiliar marketing terrain. Social media requires constant learning and mastering new skills.

As you find new ways to engage your audience, you’ll likely need to learn something new. Venture into audio, video, photography, image editing and focused content marketing to take your social media marketing to new levels.

#12: Learn from Millennials

Millennials are digital natives. They’ve grown up in an online world where content is easy to access and is easily available 24/7.

Given their proficiency online, they’ve come to expect certain features on the websites they frequent—clear navigation, fast response times and mobile-friendly options are all important.

Screenshot taken from infographic, Inside the Millennial Mind, created by CEB’s Icon culture Consumer Insights:

In addition, compared to their parents and grandparents, Millennials are typically more willing to share personal information and opinions with businesses they engage with online.

Become familiar with these digital natives’ expectations and behaviors, and build them into your updates, customer service and social media tactics.

#13: Maximize Impact with Visuals

Text and links are important parts of communicating online—they give context and drive traffic. Of course, they can’t work alone. Visual content, especially photos, has quite an impact on audiences. Done well, images allow you to tell your story simply and quickly.

Check out Exposure for a new take on how you can share your visual storytelling.

Sites like Tumblr and Exposure both focus on images. Exposure in particular is a beautiful way to microblog while highlighting your pictures.

#14: Nurture Content Sharing

Whether your social media marketing department is comprised of a single person or a staff of 10, you don’t have to figure out meaningful company content on your own—ask for help from other departments. Who knows the current projects and goals better than the people who work with them daily?

For example, customer service can share success stories or ways they meet customers’ needs. Sales can tell you what was particularly hot this season. Product development can give you updates on new releases.

Tap into those resources as much as possible. Not only will you make your job easier, you’ll be sure to share the most important information.

#15: Offer Added Value

Want to keep your business top of mind and meet customers’ needs? You can do both—and become a trusted resource—by offering added value.

Weight Watchers provides free Help outs to serve their target customers.

For example, offer free webinars, downloadable eBooks, free consultations or discounts to demonstrate the benefits of your products and services, while giving customers immediate assistance with something they’ve already identified an interest in.

#16: Participate in Conversations

If you want to connect with prospects, you have to engage with them. And to do that effectively, you need to know where they’re engaging most frequently on social media.

When you know where your prospects hang out, start connecting with them. If they’re on Twitter, add them to a Twitter list. Add Google+ users to a circle. Reach out to leads on LinkedIn. Read and listen to their content, and comment when you have something to add.

#17: Question Social Ads

Organic reach has experienced a nosedive, especially in the past year. Businesses now have to pay to play. It’s time to assess where to spend your precious ad dollars.

Facebook ads have dominated the scene for a long time, but they aren’t the only game in town these days.

Instagram lets businesses promote posts with sponsored updates.

Don’t dismiss options like Instagram, LinkedIn and SlideShare.

You’ll want to consider a number of factors—potential reach, pros and cons of platforms, price differences, etc. Do your homework to determine the best placement for your social ads.

#18: Ramp up Online Reviews

Reviews significantly influence consumers’ decisions about whom they want to do business with. Are your customers telling others about their experience with your business?

Explore review sites and online listing platforms that are relevant to your business (e.g., TripAdvisor or Yelp) and ask your customers to leave feedback on those sites. Be sure to respond—your response tone and enthusiasm say just as much about you as the reviews.

#19: Share on Instagram

Sharing brand photos and videos on Instagram is a powerful way to capture people’s attention. By using tactics like showcasing products and services, featuring clear calls to action and including popular (and relevant) hashtags, you can quickly improve your presence on Instagram.

#20: Tap into Snapchat

Snapchat, the photo/chat messaging app where photos disappear and chat messages can be cleared or saved, provides an exciting environment for businesses to engage with users, raise awareness and share a story or business announcement.

Is your businesses on Snapchat?

#21: Use Vine

Vine’s short looping videos have won the attention of businesses and fit the bill for a cost-effective and innovative way to promote products and services. To get your own creative juices flowing, check out how other businesses have been using Vine.

#22: Visit Your Social Media Strategy

No matter how long your business has been on social media, it’s always prudent to review your goals, assess your success and make any needed changes. Pulling back from one platform and switching it up on another may be just the thing you need to freshen up your presence and become more effective.

#23: Wrap Your Head around Twitter

Who should you follow on Twitter? Is it better to favorite or retweet? Should you include a hashtag and/or a URL? If you’re not sure, Twitter has suggestions for businesses and a helpful glossary of terms.

Get to know the basics of Twitter.

I suggest learning more about Twitter cards. Consider the benefits of including photos and albums, live video, product details, lead generation and landing page information to your tweets.

#24: experiment

Why pour money and resources into campaigns that aren’t effective? A/B testing (or split testing) is the best way to find out what’s working and what’s not.

You can use Google Analytics to run a test to discover which social media tactics are working best. Then you can run further tests on your most popular platform to see whether images, links or text affect click-throughs and comments. For example, are your Facebook ads doing the best they can?

#25: Yield Results with Geolocation Offers

Many people share their location with retailers. Knowing where your customers are can help you reach users with timely targeted mobile messages.

Marketing Land has an excellent article explaining how customers are using geolocation to find bargains while shopping, find the best place to eat nearby and more.

#26: Zero in on YouTube

Creating brand awareness with quality videos posted on YouTube has been a go-to social marketing tactic for a number of years.

Go the distance with a branded YouTube business channel.

Marketers should keep in mind, though, that YouTube is more than a platform for sharing video footage. It’s just as important to develop a channel that is in keeping with your brand identity (e.g., using consistent imagery, thumbnails, colors and graphics within your video and your channel page design).

As you’re designing your look, be sure to review and adhere to YouTube’s cover specs.

Define corporate identity? How does identity planning shape corporate image? Give examples.

Explain the concept of PR with publicity, propaganda and advertisement

I do not have answer for this

Explain the need for social responsibility of organisation towards different interest group. Give examples.

Responsibility towards Different Interest Groups

The business generally interacts with owners, investors, employees, suppliers’ customers, competitors, government and society. They are called as interest groups because by each, and Livery activity of business, the interest of these groups is affected directly or indirectly. Responsibility of Business towards Different Interest Groups


  • Responsibility towards owners

 Owners are the persons who own the business. They contribute capital and bear the business risks. The primary responsibilities of business towards its owners are to:

    1. Run the business efficiently.
    1. Proper utilization of capital and other resources.
    1. Growth and appreciation of capital.
  1. Regular and fair return on capital invested.
  • Responsibility towards investors

Investors are those who provide finance by way of investment debentures, bonds, deposits, etc. Banks, financial institutions, and investing public are all included in this category. The responsibilities of business towards its investors are:

    1. Ensuring safety of their investment,
    1. Regular payment of interest,
  1. Timely repayment of principal amount.
  • Responsibility towards employees

Business needs employees or workers to work for it. These employees put their best effort for the benefit of the busing it is the prime responsibility of every business to take care of the interest of their employees. If the employees are satisfied and efficient, then only the business can be successful. The responsibilities of business towards its employees include:

    1. Timely and regular payment of wages and salaries.
    1. Proper working conditions and welfare amenities.
    1. Opportunity for better career prospects.
    1. Job security as well as social security like facilities of provident fund group insurance, pension, retirement benefits, etc.
    1. Better living conditions like housing, transport, canteen, cr6ches, etc.
  1. Timely training and development.
  • Responsibility towards suppliers

Suppliers are businessmen who supply raw materials and other items required by manufacturers and traders. Certain suppliers, called distributors, supply finished products to the consumers. The responsibilities of business towards these suppliers are:

    1. Giving regular orders for purchase of goods.
    1. Dealing on fair terms and conditions.
    1. Availing reasonable credit period.
  1. Timely payment of dues.
  • Responsibility towards customers

No business can survive without the support of customers. As a part of the responsibility of business towards them the business should provide the following facilities:

    1. Products and services must be able to take care of the needs of the customers.
    1. Product and services are must be qualitative
    1. There must be regularity in supply of goods and services.
    1. Price of the goods and services should be reasonable and affordable.
    1. All the advantages and disadvantages of products as well as procedure to use the products must be informed do the customers,
    1. There must be proper after-sales service.
    1. Grievances of the consumers, if any, must be settled quickly.
  1. Unfair means like under weighing the product, adulteration, etc. must be avoided.
  • Responsibility towards competitors 

Competitors are the other businessmen, or organizations involved in a similar type of business. Existence of competition helps the business in becoming more dynamic and innovative so as to make itself better than its competitors. It also sometimes encourages the business to indulge in negative activities like resorting to unfair trade practices. The responsibilities of business towards its competitors are

    1. Not to offer exceptionally high sales commission to distributors, agents, etc.
    1. Not to offer to customers heavy discounts and, /or free products in every sale.
  1. Not to defame competitors through false or ambiguous advertisements.
  • Responsibility towards government

Business activities are governed by the rules and regulations framed by the government. The various responsibilities of business towards-government are:

    1. Setting up units as per guidelines of government
    1. Payment of fees, duties and taxes regularly as well as honestly.
    1. Not to indulge in monopolistic and restrictive trade practices.
    1. Conforming to pollution control norms set up by government.
  1. Not to indulge in corruption through bribing and other unlawful activities.
  • Responsibility towards society

A society consists of individuals, groups, organizations, families, etc. They all are the members of the society. They interact with each other and are also dependent on each other in almost all activities. There exists a relationship among them, which may be direct or indirect. Business, being a part of the society, also maintains its relationship with all other members of the society. Thus, it has certain responsibilities towards society, which may be as follows:

    1. to help the weaker and backward sections of the society
    1. to preserve and promote social and cultural values
    1. to generate employment
    1. to protect the environment
    1. to conserve natural resources and wildlife
    1. to promote sports and culture
  1. To provide assistance in the field of developmental research on education, medical science, technology, etc.

What is current PR scenario? How important is social media in PR today? Give one example.

Current PR scenario

India is still a very young and developing PR market as compared to the other developed economies in the world, brimming with a talent pool of fairly young professionals. About 40-50 thousand professionals work in this sector either in PR agencies or form a part of the internal communications team. The demand for PR professionals is increasing with every passing day as many foreign companies are looking at India as an important profit center and even domestic companies are now waking up to the importance of reputation and positive brand communications. Many international PR firms have made beeline into the country and domestic PR firms are expanding & growing or merging with international PR brand.

On the other hand, while there is demand for PR services in India, the reputation of the reputation management profession is heavily tarnished. It is not in the list of top 10 choicest professions for youngsters. Media do not respect PR pros and the feeling is mutual in most cases though both are vital to each other.  Strategies do come out from the caps of top notch agency leads but die out before delivering any significant media visibility. Proactive PR is an ugly looking animal who we don’t even want to touch and are happy doing glorified post man’s job of conveying client initiatives to the media.

Have we ever wondered that, are we ready to take on the humongous growth that will soon enter India benefiting the Indian PR sector, will the clients trust us to manage their reputation or there will be a birth of new set of businesses who will walk away with opportunities meant for us, like it happened with Social Media business? The problem probably lies at the bottom of the pyramid – our own young trainees or junior executives who frontend the client and even the media.

How important is social media today?

Following are some of the facts that highlight the importance of social media.

Characteristics of Social Media: Discussed below are some of the characteristics that make social media so unique.

    • Social media is easily accessible and it’s also the meeting point of today’s internet savvy audience.
    • Major portion of younger generation, teenagers and middle aged people, are major percentage of the total social media user population.
    • Social media opens possibilities of direct access to clients without any third party intervention.
    • Advertising through social media is pretty cost friendly as compared to costs incurred by print, TV or other traditional media.
  • Social media also helps in search engine optimization and increase in rankings of any company websites.

What are the various publics in PR and its importance?

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What are the factors considered for organising a successful press conference?

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Design a press release

(Sample of a press release)

   For immediate release: 5th September 2017


The snack company continues to expand and is now introducing fresh Khakhras made by unskilled/semi-skilled women in an attempt to employ and empower them.

Mumbai, 5th September 2017 – Annapurna, known for its best quality snacks has ventured into new project. The company continues to expand aggressively and this time has up with a wide range of khakhras.

Annapurna Khakhra is crispy, crunchy flat bread, most popular in Gujarat. It is a terrific Tea Time snack which can be eaten as it is or with a dip, it can also be topped with stuff and eaten as a chat. The highlight of Annapurna Company has always been their great sense of social responsibility. It gives employment to rural and urban unskilled and Semi-skilled women. All their products have qualities of fresh, homemade snacks due to utmost care taken by the women while preparing them. It is available in flavours like- Pudina, methi, diet khakhra, Pani Puri, teekha khakra, chatpata, plain, cheese, cheese chilly, achari khakhra, Punjabi and Jain Khakhra. It is extensively available online via Annapurna’s web site at

Harshal Rajani, Director of Annapurna Namkeen said “Our aim at Annapurna is not just to make profits but also to empower the less empowered women by skilling them and making them efficient enough to carry out the factory operations smoothly. This gives them a sense of Independence and identity. You all know in Society like ours’ how important it is for a women to be financially independent. We at Annapurana, strive to do exactly this”.

“With our new range of Khakhras we aim to delight the taste buds of people and take this Gujarati snacking wonder to different corners of India where this snack isn’t popular along with our continuous endeavours to empower the women.” Added Rajani.

For more details regarding the product please visit


About Annapurna-

Annapurna Namkeen, is company which provides wide range of Indian Snacks like Papads, Parathas, and pickles and has now come up with Gujarat’s favourite – Khakhras. It is Gujarat based company and has now opened branches in Rajasthan and Maharashtra. Its employment demographics are 80% female and 20% male. Annapurna provides employment opportunity to 20,000 women from both urban and rural areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.

Press Contact

Name: Julia Doe

Mobile: +91 8123654987

Email: [email protected]

Press Kit:

What is public relation? Who are the stakeholders?

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Why is internal PR important? How it is done? What is internal communication?

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What is external PR?

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What are the factors that have contributed to the growth of PR?

Factors that have contributed to the development of modern public relations.

Attempt a write up on how public relations has evolved over the ages several factors contributed to the development of modern public relations. Starting with the United States, the American Revolution and the civil war and the transition from an agricultural to an industrial society have close links with the development of moder public relations. As Cutlip Centre and Broom have observed, today’s patterns of public relations practice were shaped by innovations in mobilizing public opinion developed by Adams and his fellow revolutionaries. The industrial revolution and its attendant changes in social relations, created challenges in the relationship between businesses, government and the people. The industrial revolution brought about the birth of mass media and modern public relations which were natural outgrowths of the monumental changes in that era. Through the use of mass media governments and organisation were able to communicate with relevant publics (groups) essential to their success. Seitel (2001) has observed that the confluence of four factors aid the development of modern public relations. Let us examine these factors in detail.

The Growth of Large Institutions

The industrial revolution resulted in the emergence of big companies. Massive developments in industry, rail-roads and utilities in America’s post-civil war led to the rise of powerful monopolies the concentration of wealth and power and roughshod tactics of the robber barons brought a wave of protests and reforms in the 1900s. Contemporary public relations emerged out of the melee of the opposing forces in this period of America’s growth. Following the brutal massacre of protesting workers of the Carnegie-Frick Steel Company Plant in Pennsylvania in 1892 and its attendant aftermath, industry owners began to realize that for continued success, they have to curt favourable public opinion, both among their workers and the general public.  According to Cutlip, Centre and Broom, “much of public relations history is woven into the unending struggle between employer and employees.

There was the need to counter the activities of the crusading, “muck racking journalists” who made it as national duty to expose the exploitation and scandalous business activities of the robber barons. As Reqier observed, muckraking was the inevitable result of decades of indifference to the allegations and immoralities attendant upon the industrial development of America. Business of every size came to recognize that aggressive communication of corporate products and positions can help win public receptivity and support and ward off government intrusion. Change, conflict and confrontation among interest groups in society.

Disenchantment with big institutions peaked in the 1960’s. It has been said that the conflict during this period between private economic institutions, especially large corporations and various disenfranchised elements of society arose from longstanding grievances. One commentator had suggested that “their rebellion was born out of the desperation of those who has nothing to lose”.  Social activists of every kind began to challenge the legitimacy of large institutions It was also the period when women began to mobilize for equal rights in the workplace and elsewhere. Ralph Nader’s consumerist movement was also active during this period. These conflicts and attendant changes meant that large institutions would desperately need professional communication help.

Heightened Public Awareness

The government regulatory interventions in the form of affirmative action forced business organizations to contribute to charities. In consequence, managers began to consider community relations a first-line responsibility. The policy of confrontation was abandoned by business corporations in favour of a policy of compromise and conciliation. A new policy of social responsibility evolved as corporations came to realize that their reputations are a valuable asset to be protected, conserved, defended, nurtured and enhanced at all times.

Global Expansion of Democracy

With the expansion of democracy worldwide, there was need for effective communication with the activities of civil rights groups worldwide like the Human  Rights Watch in defence of the hitherto marginalized the public relations challenge has grown in intensity. As a result of the increasing importance of persuasion and consensus in the era of globalization public relations became an integral part of the democratic process.

Growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web

The technological innovations and revolution in communication has contributed to the growth of public relations. The advent of radio and television in the first half of the 20th century revolutionized communication and social interactions. Revolutions in satellite and computer technology in the later part of the 20th century has changed the way people communicate and the emergence of the internet and world wide web have radically intensified the spread of communication even further. The impact of the web on public relations practice has been phenomenal. E-Mail now dominates internal communications high-tech public relations firms is now a common phenomenon to meet the challenge of communicating with the diverse publics.

The technological revolutions and innovations in communication has contributed to the growth in social advocacy. Civil rights groups, pressure groups, and other forms of advocacy for rights of the vulnerable members of society and minority groups have led to an increase in the use of public relations.

What is PRSI? What are the main functions?

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How does in-house PR help?

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In house PR department and PR agency

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Factors to be kept in mind while choosing the agency?

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What are the disadvantages of outsourcing to PR agency?

Risk of exposing confidential data: When an organization outsources HR, Payroll and Recruitment services, it involves a risk if exposing confidential company information to a third-party

Synchronizing the deliverables: In case you do not choose a right partner for outsourcing, some of the common problem areas include stretched delivery time frames, sub-standard quality output and inappropriate categorization of responsibilities. At times it is easier to regulate these factors inside an organization rather than with an outsourced partner

Hidden costs: Although outsourcing most of the times is cost-effective at times the hidden costs involved in signing a contract while signing a contract across international boundaries may pose a serious threat

Lack of customer focus: An outsourced vendor may be catering to the expertise-needs of multiple organizations at a time. In such situations vendors may lack complete focus on your organization’s tasks

With all these pros and cons of outsourcing to be considered before actually approaching a service provider, it is always advisable to specifically determine the importance of the tasks which are to be outsourced. It is always beneficial for an organization to consider the advantages and disadvantages of offshoring before actually outsourcing it.

PR and marketing have symbolic relationship. Explain.

The recent trend is to emphasize the similarities between marketing and public relations and to have them become increasingly intertwined in the workplace. But, until 30 years ago, public relations and marketing were usually considered totally separate disciplines.

Both marketing and public relations went through such dramatic growth and evolution during the first half of the twentieth century that at least one business historian has referred to this period as their “teen-age years.” They both experienced surprising growth spurts and, as they gained increasing influence in the business world, they experimented with new strategies and frequently flexed their muscles as they adjusted to what they were becoming and tried to project a positive and confident self-image.

As marketing and public relations expanded their spheres of activities and as they became more aggressive in communicating with more and more and ever-larger publics, they often ended up talking to the same publics, and they sometimes used the same techniques to do it. But, even when their actions appeared to be similar to outsiders such as the consuming public, the practitioners themselves knew that their two disciplines were conceptually very different. Many took pride in these distinctions and were quick to explain them to anyone who asked. Ray Simon, for instance, expressed them very concisely in his second edition of Public Relations: Concepts and Practices when he wrote:

“Marketing and public relations … both are major external functions of the firm and both share a common ground in regard to product publicity and consumer relations. At the same time, however, they operate on different levels and from different perspectives and perceptions.

The traditional view … is that marketing exists to sense, serve, and satisfy customer needs at a profit.

Public relations exists to produce goodwill in the company’s various publics so that the publics do not interfere in the firm’s profit-making ability.”

The majority of public relations practitioners and marketers alike would have accepted this distinction without too much quibbling. And, if asked to highlight the differences between their professions, marketers and public relations practitioners would have probably come up with something like the following table.

Marketing Public relations
Marketing promotes the transfer of goods and services from the producer and provider to the consumer. Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other.
Marketing’s immediate goal is sales. Public relations’ immediate goal is mutual understanding or positioning of the organization with its publics.
Marketing’s implicit goal is profit. Public relations’ implicit goal is positive perceptions and predispositions.
Marketing’s measure of success is the number of sales and/or the revenue it generates. Public relations’ measure of success is expressed public opinion or other evidence of public support.

What is CSR? How is it practiced in companies?

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What is ethics? Why is it important in PR?

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Importance of ethics in PR

Ethics determine the reputation of not only yourself, but also the business or corporation you work for.

Ethics can be a gray area for most people and companies, because not everyone sees eye-to-eye on certain subjects. This is because ethics are based on personal morals, and can be different for every person. You get your morals from how you were raised and brought up into this world; from your family and friends, to your community and neighbours. For these reasons, ethics is a tough subject to discuss to a company, and even harder to implement cleanly. Each company has its own code to abide by, as there is no set code for every single practice out there. There are, however, the codes of ethics set in place by the Public Relations Society of America and the Public Relations Student Society of America that all members must follow.

Two of the many different principles that will improve your ethics-based decisions are integrity and transparency. Having more ethically-based decisions strengthens your reputation with the general public.


Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral values. Lying and even telling half of the truth will get people mad if they find out. You must be honest with everything you say and tell the whole truth, no matter the consequence.


Transparency is the ability to let the public see exactly what is happening in your organization and not hiding anything from them. If the public thinks you are holding secrets and have different plans than what is stated, then they can never trust you.

These principles will not only increase the ethical practice in the public relations, but also increase the tolerance from the general public and their trust in you and the company (The Importance of Ethics and Professionalism in PR).

What are the objectives of PR? What are the qualities PR should have?

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How does one plan a PR strategy?

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Steps to handle a crisis?

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Plan innovative press conference for trailer launch f latest T.V series, book or movie.

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How does new media age help in crisis?

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Write a note on non-media tools

Notes on seminars, exhibition, sponsorship and others

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What is difference between public relation and publicity? How publicity plays its role in PR

Publicity is very different from PR. They’re related, but different in their execution, objectives and value to your brand and organization.

Publicity is about getting coverage for yourself. It’s about pushing your story, your agenda to the masses. It’s not necessarily a bad thing. Publicity for a political candidate is critical. For a new movie or TV show, important. But publicity is mostly about me, not you.

Effective PR is about telling stories – unique, compelling stories that attract people to you. PR isn’t about you, it’s about the broader connections, trends, innovation and value being created in the ecosystem in which you work and operate.

Successful PR can be as much if not more about your customers and partners as it is about you. Your role as the implied enabler of success, your role as the originator and owner of the story, gives you the credibility and leadership you need to further your own agenda in a more authentic way.

Again, both are fine and in many cases both can be leveraged in parallel. Just make sure you understand which is which as you plan and execute.

How publicity plays its role in PR

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Difference between press release and press conference

Differentiate between press conference and press release

    •       Press Conference: Press conference can be given by any person, local to elite people; who includes people of show biz to any political party and commercial organizations to promote their products, as if someone wants to share his views and statement about any topic and issues in front of media (reporters).
    •        Press conference can be organized by more than one person.
    •       Sometimes only questions asked but sometimes only statement is given, and when only statement is happen, it’s called “Photo Opportunity”.
    •       It should be inform a day before conference but sometime they held on the spot when reporters gather around to any reviews maker.
    •       The press club charges the amount for press conference all over the world.
    •        A brochure of the conference distribute among all the reporters, which consists on a page or more than one page.
  •       The distributed brochure, inquires by all reporters, and after inquiring them, reporters ask questions according the topic, for which the press conference is held.
    •        Press Release: It is a written and recorded views and statement given directed to the media to announce or published it. The news which seemingly worthy.
    •        It is given through e-mailed, faxed and phone call to the assigned editors of newspaper, magazine, news websites and on news channel.
    •        It is consists on basic information, which help reporter to produce their story; like who, how, when, where, and most important why.
    •        It outlined the major facts of story, and should be quoted.
    •        The headline should be consisting on a line and authentic way, so that reader and journalist know the story before reading it further.
  •        Below the headline, there should be summary which consist on a half paragraph, it should captivate the attention of the reader, to read it more.

Differentiate between PR and Branding

Branding focuses on creating an identity for a company and its maintenance. Branding is how the story behind the company, the name of the company, logo and other entities come together in one centralized and recognizable way—like a theme. Think of McDonald’s: although its fast food, the brand story sells the idea of the “Golden Arches” and all things idealistically and culturally “American.”

PR focuses on the management of a brand’s relationships… and it is a full time job. For brands (and individuals for that matter), public relations nightmares have a tendency to bubble up quickly, especially with how fast news travels over social media channels.

Purpose of Marketing Public Relations

According to the Public Relations Society of America, the main purpose of marketing public relations (PR) is to help organizations and the public adapt to each other. The “public” may be comprised of company stakeholders, customers or clients, employees, local communities, and other target audience members. Basically, this means that PR is used to build and maintain a company’s reputation. Marketing gurus use press releases to announce new company initiatives, new hires and other newsworthy items.

Purpose of Branding

Your company brand is what customers think of when they hear your company name or see your company products. Branding includes the actual company name, logo and slogan. Branding is how your product or service is positioned in the market. For example, some companies have been built on the brand of safety, while others thrive with branding that focuses on great customer service. Brand recognition and Internet presence are both affected by your initial branding efforts


Public Relations, PR or communications focuses on persuasion, reputation and publicity. Have you ever wondered why some newspaper articles about a certain business are glowing or how public figures can always make amazing speeches that deliver a message clearly and leave people feeling good? That is all thanks to the amazing writing of their PR team. A large business can also separate out internal and external communications. Internal communications are important to keep employees engaged and invested, as they are fully aware of what is happening, what the goals are and what behaviour is expected of them within a company.


The holy grail of our industry is establishing a strong brand. Branding is how your customer feels about your company and product. When you think of a Ferrari, regardless of knowing whether it has been well built, you just know it’s going to an amazing car. Branding is the process of building assets, imagery, a unique position in the market and creating a customer expectation of what they will get every time they use your company. To establish a strong brand, you need to use all the previous three tactics as well as using strong design and strategy. This is best done in partnership with a strong experienced marketing agency, such as JFM.

Luckily, you don’t need to be an expert on these disciplines or how to execute them. JFM Marketing and Design are specialists in all of these areas and can help you tailor the right solution for your business.

Types of corporate image advertising.

Marketers seek attainment of corporate advertising’s objectives by implementing Exhibit 17-15 Tyco uses image, advocacy, or cause-related advertising. Each form is designed to achieve spe- image advertising to avoid cific goals. confusion

Image Advertising One form of corporate advertising is devoted to promoting the organization’s overall image. Image advertising may accomplish a number of objectives, including creating goodwill both internally and externally, creating a position for the company, and generating resources, both human and financial. A number of methods are used:

  1. General image or positioning ads. Ads are often designed to create an image of the firm in the public mind. The exhibit shows how Tyco is attempting to create an image of itself as a market leader and health care expert, not a toy company. A number of companies have created new names—for example, Accenture, Verizon, and Allianz—in an attempt to create a new image.

Other companies and organizations have used image advertising to attempt to change an existing image. The American Medical Association (AMA), responding to its less-than-positive image among many Americans who perceived doctors negatively, ran a series of ads portraying doctors in a more sensitive light. It spent over $1.75 million to highlight the caring, sharing, and sensitive side of AMA members.31 Penthouse magazine attempted to change its image with advertisers by running ads in trade magazines that showed Penthouse was not just a magazine with pictures of nude females. The ad for America’s pharmaceutical companies (Exhibit 17-16) casts the industry in a very favourable light. In 2002 Philip Morris Company, Inc., shareholders voted to change the company’s name to Altria Group, Inc. Altria is derived from the Latin word meaning to “reach higher.” Philip Morris CEO, Geoffrey Bible, said that the name was being changed to reflect the fact that the company was no longer just a cigarette company and that the new name better reflects its diversity. Others contend the move was an attempt to disassociate itself from the negative image of cigarettes.

  1. Sponsorships. A firm often runs corporate image advertising on TV programs or specials. For example, the Hallmark or IBM specials and documentaries on network TV and Mobil and Gulf Oil program sponsorships on public TV are designed to promote the corporation as a good citizen. By associating itself with high-quality or educational programming, the firm hopes for a carryover effect that benefits its own image.

Other examples of sponsorships include those run by Outback Steak House (LUPUS), Providian Financial (children and youth), McDonald’s (UNICEF), and GM (Make-A-Wish). Exhibit 17-17 shows KitchenAid’s sponsorship of the fight against breast cancer.

Visa considers sponsorships an important part of its integrated marketing communications. It has sponsored the Olympics, the U.S. decathlon team, U.S. basketball’s dream team, the U.S. Gymnastics Federation, the U.S. Open Tennis Championships, and Major League Baseball‘s All-Star game. According to John Bennett, senior VP for international marketing communications, the sponsorships are designed to fulfil specific business objectives while providing support for the recipients.32 Figure 17-6 shows a few of the companies that decided an Olympic sponsorship would be good for them.

  1. Generating financial support. Some corporate advertising is designed to generate investments in the corporation. By creating a more favourable image, the firm makes itself attractive to potential stock purchasers and investors. More investments mean more working capital, more monies for research and development, and so on. In this instance, corporate image advertising is almost attempting to make a sale; the product is the firm.

While there is no concrete evidence that corporate image advertising leads directly to increased investment, at least one study shows a correlation between the price of stock and the amount of corporate advertising done.33 Firms that spend more on corporate advertising also tend to have higher-priced stocks (though a direct relationship is very difficult to substantiate).

This thing called image is not unidimensional. Many factors affect it. The most admired firms did not gain their positions merely by publicity and word of mouth (nor, we guess, did the least admired).

A positive corporate image cannot be created just from a few advertisements. Quality of products and services, innovation, sound financial practices, good corporate citizenship, and wise marketing are just a few of the factors that contribute to overall image. In addition, the type of product marketed and emotional appeal also contribute. The survey mentioned above demonstrated that profits and stock performances had little to do with reputation and that once a reputation is acquired, it has lasting power. A study conducted by Harris Interactive and the Reputation Institute showed that companies are ranked differently on key corporate attributes including emotional appeal, social responsibility, workplace environment, and vision and leadership.

Public of PR

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Function of public relation

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Factors to be kept in mind while planning a PR campaign

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PR and sales promotion

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Sales Promotion

Meaning and Definition:

Sales promotion refers to ‘those marketing activities that stimulate consumer shows and expositions.

Purchasing and dealer effectiveness such as displays, demonstration and various non- recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine.” According to A.H.R. Delens: “Sales promotion means any steps that are taken for the purpose of obtaining an increasing sale. Often this term refers specially to selling efforts that are designed to supplement personal selling and advertising and by co-ordination helps them to become more effective.”

In the words of Roger A. Strong, “Sales promotion includes all forms of sponsored communication apart from activities associated with personal selling. It, thus includes trade shows and exhibits, combining, sampling, premiums, trade, allowances, sales and dealer incentives, set of packs, consumer education and demonstration activities, rebates, bonus, packs, point of purchase material and direct mail.”

Importance of Sales Promotion:

The importance of sales promotion has increased tremendously in the modern times. Lakhs of rupees are being spent on sales promotional activities to attract the consumers in our country and also in other countries of the world.

Some large companies have also begun to appoint sales promotion managers to handle miscellaneous promotional tools. All these facts show that the importance of sales promotion activities is increasing at a faster rate.

Spin and Lobbying


Lobbying is a controversial and often misunderstood activity. Protected by the First Amendment and upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, in its most simple form lobbying is informing government officials as to what a group of citizens wants. This is a fundamental part of democratic government. Since corporations in the U.S. are considered to have some rights of citizenship, they also can engage in this dialogue.


The purpose of lobbying is to communicate with the government about a group’s desires. Government is shaped more generally by voting, which installs people with certain ideologies into lawmaking positions. Lobbying is more specific. It allows government officials to understand which issues the taxpayers in their jurisdiction are interested in, and allows the group to express opinions on individual, timely topics.

Lobbying offers companies the chance to procure information from politics which is an important and necessary basis for their own business decisions. Business is part of society and ‘politics for the people’ is inconceivable without ‘politics with business’. In the same way, business relies on attractive economic conditions and has a vested interest in the abolition of unnecessary regulation. ‘Business without politics’ is thus also out of the question.

Such interdependence renders the regular, complementary exchange of views and perspectives necessary, yet business representatives and economists regularly criticise politics’ or politicians’ competency in business affairs. Politicians’ lack of expertise produces political results far from ideal in business terms; political aims and beliefs are not based on realistic working assumptions-  that is the tenor of criticism. This view is both right and wrong. Communication between business and politics is often clearly at cross purposes; politics, too, often loudly expresses a lack of sympathy for demands from business circles. It is also true that political processes and decisions do not follow purely cost-benefit calculations: they are the products of compromises which can only be understood in the context of the political process. Many political results are from an economic perspective only ‘second-best solutions’, often shaped by the principle of basic consensus a far cry from the ideal of economic efficiency criteria. Yet these precise characteristics are the main constituent of politics. The criticism of insufficient political competency in business matters is unfounded.


Spin, in the context of public relations (PR), marketing and journalism, is the selective assembly of fact and the shaping of nuance to support a particular view of a story.

Spin is considered one form of propaganda. To spin something is to communicate it in a way that changes the way people are likely to perceive it. As such, spin is intentionally misleading and can, in fact, give the opposite impression to what would naturally occur. Outright lies cannot be considered spin. However, inconvenient but relevant truths are often omitted in the process and less relevant but true details emphasized.

Spin is often used for corporate reputation management and has long been used to market products. Vendors use cloud washing, for example, to take advantage of the cloud trend by associating their products with it — even though the justification may be nothing more than the fact that some element of the product relies on the Internet. Similarly, greenwashing is used to make a product or company appear to be more environmentally-friendly than is the case.

PR and Publicity

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Media Kit/Press Kit

A media kit is a document containing information about your business, product or event. They are mainly used at events and for launches as a package of information for journalists to help them write their story.

The point of a media kit is to catch the eye of a journalist and make them want to write an article or do an interview. It should be a one-stop shop for all of the information journalists need.

In the past a media kit was often presented in a cardboard folder, but now thanks to the digital revolution, most media kits are in PDF format and can be downloaded from your website or attached to an email.

What should your media kit contain?

Depending on your business or the reason why you are using a media kit, this list may change. But there are a few basic items which should always be included to make sure your media kit is effective as possible.

Contact details: Include the contact details of the person who can be interviewed, a PR contact or anyone else of relevance.

Information about the company/person: Include a succinct bio to help the journalist and share interesting information they would need to research. Try not to make it more than three paragraphs for each person.

A media release: Journalists will want to know what is going on and have some details about the event. Your media release should include quotes from the person who is available for interview.

Images: Make sure you put some images in your media kit that journalists can use for their stories. Most journalists require high-resolution images, but if there isn’t enough space put them on as low-resolution and let the journalists know they can contact you for high-resolution if needed.

Internal communication

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Opinion leaders

Opinion leaders are a crucial target for any public relations program. Why? Because they have the ability to influence other people’s actions through interpersonal contact.  The challenge for PR professionals is identifying these opinion leaders so they can build their understanding of and support for their organizations, enabling them to be advocates for those organizations and their actions.

Opinion leaders are in a position to influence other people’s actions because they:

–are respected.

–have a view that carries weight in a community.

–are catalysts for the formation of public opinion.

–are highly interested in an issue or issues.

–are better informed than the average person.

–are believed to have more knowledge of a subject or issue.

–are avid consumers of mass media.

–are interpreters of media content.

–actively search out information on a subject.

–like to let their opinions be known

–actively share information.

Opinion leaders are a vital element of the diffusion process or two-step flow decision-making process that is based on a 1944 study by sociologists Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet. In “The People’s Choice” they analyzed voter decision-making during President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1940 re-election campaign.

Their study showed media information did not get directly to target audiences and influence their behavior. It first reached opinion leaders, who evaluated it, then shared it with others in their social circles. The study showed only 5 percent of the voters were affected by direct exposure to media messages.

Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz introduced the two-step flow theory of communication in “Personal Influence” in 1955. One of the key services opinion leaders provide, said fellow scholar Herbert Menzel, is that they interpret media messages for audiences who are confused by the flood of information they receive daily from the media.

More evidence of the role of opinion leaders came in 1959 when Iowa State University researchers Joe Bohlen and George Beal explained the five steps of decision-making they saw farmers go through in the adoption of a new kind of hybrid corn.

    • Awareness
    • Information or Interest
    • Evaluation
    • Trial
    • Adoption
  • Reinforcement (added by later researchers)

It is called two-step flow because media play an important role in the first two stages (awareness and information or interest). They play a less significant role in the last three stages, where opinion leaders and interpersonal communication take over as key elements that lead to behavior.

Media pitch/pitch note

Media pitching is one of the best ways to entice journalists to tell your business’ story.

Media pitches offer a brief and compelling explanation of a particular issue, news angle or exclusive story and put forward a representative from your business to be interviewed on the topic.

A media pitch effectively sells a story idea to the journalist.

Media pitches are often in the form of an email, though can be pitched over the phone as well.

Journalists can receive hundreds of media pitches a day. It is critical that you take the time and care to craft a media pitch which is engaging and relevant to the journalist and publication. This will increase the chance of your pitch landing.

The following golden rules will help you craft a great pitch and improve your chances of securing an interview with a relevant publication.

Target a specific audience

It is important to define your target audience and look into publications that best cater to this group. Your pitch should then be tailored to the publication you want to send it to. Consider what your target audience are interested in and adapt your pitch accordingly.

Understand your business

To craft a great pitch you have to have an in depth understanding of your business and what makes it interesting to your target audience and to the journalist. It is important to become an expert on the subject matter you are pitching in order to inform the content of your pitches, but also so you can answer questions from journalists on the spot.

Do your research

Research is one of the most important tools to use when creating and sending out media pitches. It is important that you conduct research into publications including the format, target audience, frequency and readership.

You should also research specific journalists, what they write about and their reporting styles. Read the journalist’s articles and check out their social media channels. Sending a generic pitch will not be appealing to a journalist, it must be targeted.

Pitch newsworthy information

Before sending your pitch, ensure that you have a unique, relevant and newsworthy angle. It is important to make your media pitch about a story angle or idea, rather than simply sharing information about your company. Stay on top of what’s happening in your industry and the industries you are trying to target, as often this can lead to new and interesting story ideas.

If you are unsure of what angle is most interesting or relevant, the following ideas can be tailored to suit any business:

    • Business milestones, i.e. anniversaries
    • Evergreen stories, such as Christmas, New Year’s Day or Mother’s Day.
    • Award wins
  • Human interest – which could include looking at the stories behind your business

Evolution of PR

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Corporate Reputation

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Content writing/content development for PR

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Public relation society of America

The formal practice of what is now commonly referred to as “public relations” dates to the early 20th century. In the relatively brief period leading up to today, public relations has been defined in many different ways, the definition often evolving alongside public relations’ changing roles and technological advances.

The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) is a nonprofit trade association for public relations professionals headquartered in New York City. It was founded in 1947 by combining the American Council on Public Relations and the National Association of Public Relations Councils. That year it had its first annual conference and award ceremony. In the 1950s and 1960s, the society created its code of conduct, accreditation program and a student society called the Public Relations Student Society of America. In the 1970s and 1980s, its membership attained a stronger female demographic and the society had its first female Presidents. PRSA created a definition of public relations in 1982, which was updated with a crowd-sourced version in 2011.

PRSA is governed by a Leadership Assembly that consists of delegates representing its membership, a board of directors and various committees and task forces. Positions are elected and served on a volunteer basis. PRSA hosts an accreditation program, industry awards, networking events and a code of conduct. PRSA also advocates on behalf of the public relations industry for changes in education and for the credibility of the profession.

ADVOCACY We serve the public interest by acting as responsible advocates for those we represent. We provide a voice in the marketplace of ideas, facts, and viewpoints to aid informed public debate.

HONESTY We adhere to the highest standards of accuracy and truth in advancing the interests of those we represent and in communicating with the public.

EXPERTISE We acquire and responsibly use specialized knowledge and experience. We advance the profession through continued professional development, research, and education. We build mutual understanding, credibility, and relationships among a wide array of institutions and audiences.

INDEPENDENCE We provide objective counsel to those we represent. We are accountable for our actions.

LOYALTY We are faithful to those we represent, while honoring our obligation to serve the public interest.

FAIRNESS We deal fairly with clients, employers, competitors, peers, vendors, the media, and the general public. We respect all opinions and support the right of free expression.

Ethics in PR

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NGO Activism and PR

Nonprofit or not-for-profit groups are those that exist in order to educate, fund research, advocate, or lobby on behalf of a public cause or initiative. Oftentimes, Nonprofit groups are those with an educational mission existing on behalf of the public interest. For instance, the Cancer Research Foundation of America educates consumers about what food products to eat to increase healthiness and lessen Cancer Risk.

Public relations efforts on behalf of nonprofits generally involve disseminating public information, persuading publics to adopt the ideas of the organization through the use of Press Agentry and asymmetrical public relations, and the use of symmetrical public relations to increase donor funding and governmental funding of the initiative.

Nonprofit public relations may exist for educational purposes, to promote an idea or cause, or to raise funds for research on an issue or problem. A well-known example would be the many cancer research foundations that exist to raise awareness about cancer and its risk factors, educate the public about preventive measures, lobby the government for further funding of cancer research, and occasionally provide grants for cancer study. Much of nonprofit public relations includes lobbying the government through educating legislators about the problem, ongoing research initiatives, and how the government can increase support for both funding and preventive measures.

Nonprofit public relations often relies heavily on member relations, meaning that it seeks to maintain and develop relationships with supportive publics who can distribute the organization’s message, and often pay a membership fee to assist in providing an operational budget for the nonprofit. Member relations is often conducted through the use of Internet WebSites, Magazines, Newsletters, and special events. Fund-raising or development is the final, vital part of nonprofit public relations. Development is tasked with raising funds from both large fund donors, writing grants for governmental support, and conducting fund-raising with smaller, private donors.

Investor Relations and PR

The Transition, a company makes from a privately held entity to a publicly traded one can be a shock. Strong coordination of the company’s image can assist in making a seamless transition from the private to public sector by capturing the interest of investors and industry experts. To do that an entrepreneur needs to work with the investor relations and public relations teams. But will they work with each other?

In an ideal world, the two teams would work in harmony, bringing together the perfect blend of brand awareness, product value and differentiation for customers and investors. Yet in today’s quarterly driven economy, the investor relations and public relations teams seldom communicate. This is especially true for small-cap companies. Here are ways to forge closer lines of communication: 

Defining roles. The investor relations and public relations teams are both responsible for promoting the company though they rarely work together as they report to different corporate officers. The investor relations team reports to the CFO, who is responsible for communicating the finances of the company to financial analysts, investors and shareholders. The public relations team reports to the chief marketing officer and is charged with promoting the company’s products and services to industry analysts, media, customers, partners, prospects, and depending on the size of the organization, employees. The only crossover is with the CEO, who maintains communication with both groups. As workloads have increased and resources diminished, both teams have focused on the tasks at hand without any thought of each other. Ideally a dialogue between the two groups could potentially strengthen and clarify a company’s message while increasing visibility, resulting in more sales and stronger partnerships. Here are several quick and easy ways both teams can benefit from closer coordination:

  • Coverage success. Public relations success is measured by the number and quality of articles secured for the company. Often these pieces are not seen by investor relations staffers until they search the company website to determine what coverage has been obtained in the last quarter (assuming the website has been kept up-to-date). Since the PR team disseminates coverage wins to the marketing team, it would be simple enough to include investor relations staff on the communication thread.
  • Tracking trends. The PR team monitors the latest industry trends and leverages them to position company experts as thought leaders with the media. The investor relations staff is often buffeted by news items that cause investors to demand how the company plans to address a new trend or a perceived weakness in a current product offering. If the PR team advised the investor relations staff of the trends and sent factoids and quotes from team experts ahead of time, the latter staff could respond confidently to shareholder calls following an industry event. By keeping one another in the loop with questions and advisement, the two groups could take each trend in stride.
  • Sharing timelines. Both groups maintain timelines of upcoming activities. For PR staffers, the focus is on press releases, trade shows, presentations at events and awards. Investor relations personnel looks toward quarterly results, scripting earnings calls and end-of-year 10K releases. Each group could benefit by knowing the other’s key dates to ensure content under development is available for multiple purposes. Investor-relations staffers would use the materials that the PR team provides. This would enables investor-relations staffers to pick and chose items that would be of interest to their key audiences. The quality of communication would generate greater interest from prospects and investors and reduce redundant effort expended by both teams. The goal should always be to decrease uncertainty while building credibility and trust through consistent messaging. By working together, the two groups could create a solid basis for growth opportunities, including identifying issues and events of interest to potential sales contacts and ultimately resulting in an increase of leads, sales and cash flow. 

Community Relations

In today’s environment of public suspicion, gaining and maintaining public consent to operate has become an on-going, top management concern for most businesses and large organizations. Community relationships are effectively maintained primarily through engagement with various publics and audiences within the community and your organization.

Community relations is the function that evaluates public attitudes, identities the mission of an organization with the public interest and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.

By definition, community relations, an essential function of any successful business, refers to the various methods companies use to establish and maintain a mutually beneficial relationship with the communities in which they operate.

The underlying principal of community relations is that when a company accepts its role and responsibility as a good corporate citizen and takes an active interest in the well-being of its community, then in return, it gains a number of long-term benefits in terms of community support, loyalty and good will.

A comprehensive and strategic community relations program can help virtually any organization – whether large or small, for- or non-profit – achieve increased visibility and a wide variety of other benefits.

Impression Management Techniques in PR

Impression Management is not just the art or techniques used to glorify the image of the company but also sustatining the corporate reputation for perpetual succession in even and odd times.Verbal Self Presentation skills of individuals are used to project in iorder to impress others. The following are the techniques used by the organisations in various proportions:

  • Self Description : A person/company who makes statements describing personal characteristics like traits, abilities, emotions, opinion and lifestyle.
  • Confirmity : In accordance or in agreement. It is agreewing with someone else’s opinion or accepting others behaviour in order to gain other’s approval
  • Accounts : It includes excuses, justificcations or others explanations of an embarassing situation creating an event aimed at minimising the severity of the same.
  • Apologies : Admitting and expressing responsibility for anm undesirable act is a good sign of image building. It takes form of expression of regret for having done something wrong or so.
  • Acclaiming : Explanation of successful events by someone in order to maximise the credit accomplishments
  • Flattery : It refers to praising or showing or describing  in a better way and putting efforts to make one self appear likeable
  • Flavours : To do or give something or create dependence. It is a kind of an obligation through an implied one to set an impression

PR for an Individual

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PR for an organization

Almost all large organizations either have a public relations department or outsource their public relations needs to a company. Public relations is seen as a vital part of maintaining the organization’s image and of communicating its message to its customers, investors and the general public. A positive perception of a company or non-profit can increase its sales and improve its bottom line. The functions and key tasks of a public relations specialist can be varied.

Public Image Strategy

Public relations strategists will work with top executives in the organization to craft an overview of how the company wants to be perceived, and how it is going to project a positive image. This can involve focusing in on exactly the right message, and then deciding on the broad outlines of a campaign to disseminate that message.

Outreach Events

Public relations professionals often arrange events to raise the profile of the organization or lend its brand and name to a charitable event that represents the philosophy of the company. Think of a corporation sponsoring a Special Olympics event, or a hospital organizing a health outreach day in its town.

Media Relations

Talking with the media is a core function of public relations departments. Public relations professionals field questions from reporters, arrange for interviews with key individuals in the organization and write press releases to make the media aware of company events or achievements.

Social Media

One emerging function of public relations is to maximize an organization’s positive use of social media to build its image. Managing a Twitter feed, a Facebook page and a YouTube channel are all vital ways to connect with possible new customers or stakeholders. Monitoring public comment about the organization on the Internet can also give PR professionals early warning of any emerging trends or problems.

Handling Emergencies

Sometimes a company or organization is struck by a disastrous event that ruins its public image. This might be an oil company that has to deal with a high profile spill, or a food company that has a contamination event. Public relations professionals decide how the organization will repair the damage to its image, communicate how it is dealing with the problem and regain control of its message.

7 thoughts on “Public Relations – Answer Bank”

  1. Someone necessarily assist to make critically articles I would state. This is the very first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I amazed with the analysis you made to create this particular put up incredible. Great process!

  2. This is quite helpful for us…but the way you gave us this answer bank it seems more tough then a textbook…very long ans no short ans…. difficult meaning of words etc….pls make note which is easy to understand and short in size..thank you

    • Answers are often bigger for more clarity. If you read the initial paragraphs you can understand the entire answer as well.
      If you feel the answers are bad or weak, you can refer a textbook or provide suggestions.
      I will definitely try to improvise the PR Answer Bank

  3. I have studied from siped for all my subjects, it’s really helpful.
    No offence but PR notes are quite weak and make me feel I haven’t studied. Kindly update for the next batch.
    Thankyou for all this handy. Means so much to the students to know the kind of questions rather than only the answers.

    • Yes I do realise that PR Notes were a little off. I made them in a hurry since the exams were nearing up. I will surely try to improve

  4. I have studied from siped for all my subjects, it’s really helpful.
    No offence but PR notes are quite weak and make me feel I haven’t studied. Kindly update for the next batch.
    Thankyou for all this handy. Means so much to the students to know the kind of questions that can come rather than knowing only the answers.


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