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Mass Media Research – Answer Bank

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Table of Contents

Explain what the central tendency of Data.

Calculate mode, mean, median, and Range of the following 15, 20, 21, 20, 36, 15, 25, 15.

Measures of central tendency are considered as the typical value for the entire data. It is the single value that describes the characteristics of the entire group. Measures of central tendency (or statistical averages) tell us the point about which items have a tendency to cluster. Such a measure is considered as the most representative figure for the entire mass of data. Measure of central tendency is also known as statistical average. Mean, median and mode are the most popular averages. Mean, also known as arithmetic average, is the most  common measure of central tendency and may be defined as the value which we get by dividing the total of the values of various given items in a series by the total number of items. we can work it out as under:

Mean

The average of all the data in a set. Mean is the most common measure of statistical average. It is also known as arithmetic average. We can define the mean as the value which obtained by dividing the total values of all the items in a series by the total number of items.

Median

The value in a set which is most close to the middle of a range. Median can be defined as the value of the item which divides the series into two equal parts; one half contains values less than the median and the other half contains values greater than it i.e., median is the value of the middle item of the series when it is arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude.

Median (M) = Size of N+1th item
___________________
2

Median is the number in the middle of a set of given numbers. If there is an even number of numbers in the set, then the median calculates the average of two numbers in the middle. The median measures central tendency which is the location of the center of a group of numbers in a statistical distribution. Median is the simplest measurement if tendency and its value can be located graphically.

The most valuable point in the median is that it can be used with qualitative data where the numerical measurements are not available, but where the object could rank in same order. But this Is not frequently used in sampling statistics because compared with arithmetic average it is less reliable.

Mode

The value which occurs most frequently in a data set. Mode is the value which occurs more frequently in a distribution. A.M. Tuttle defines mode as the value which has the greatest frequency density in its immediate neighborhood. In general, mode is the size of the items which has the maximum frequency.

Mean: The sum of these 8 values is 167, so the mean is 167/8 = 20.875.

Median: The Median is the score found at the exact middle of the set of values. There are 8 scores and score #4 and #5 represent the halfway point. Since both of these scores are 20, the median is 20.

Mode: The mode is the most frequently occurring value in the set of scores. The most frequently occurring value is the mode. In our example, the value 15 occurs three times and is the mode.

Range : The range is simply the highest value minus the lowest value. In our example distribution, the high value is 36 and the low is 15, so the range is 36 – 15 = 21.


Explain what is Standard Deviation, Skewness and Kurtosis

Answer is kinda extra, because it was tough to find.

Standard Deviation: a quantity expressing by how much the members of a group differ from the mean value for the group. The Standard Deviation is a more accurate and detailed estimate of dispersion because an outlier can greatly exaggerate the range (as was true in this example where the single outlier value of 36 stands apart from the rest of the values.

Skew, or skewness, can be mathematically defined as the averaged cubed deviation from the mean divided by the standard deviation cubed. If the result of the computation is greater than zero, the distribution is positively skewed. If it’s less than zero, it’s negatively skewed and equal to zero means it’s symmetric. For interpretation and analysis, focus on downside risk. Negatively skewed distributions have what statisticians call a long left tail (refer to graphs on previous page), which for investors can mean a greater chance of extremely negative outcomes. Positive skew would mean frequent small negative outcomes, and extremely bad scenarios are not as likely.

A non symmetrical or skewed distribution occurs when one side of the distribution does not mirror the other. Applied to investment returns, nonsymmetrical distributions are generally described as being either positively skewed (meaning frequent small losses and a few extreme gains) or negatively skewed (meaning frequent small gains and a few extreme losses).

Skewness

The first thing you usually notice about a distribution’s shape is whether it has one mode (peak) or more than one. If it’s unimodal (has just one peak), like most data sets, the next thing you notice is whether it’s symmetric or skewed to one side. If the bulk of the data is at the left and the right tail is longer, we say that the distribution is skewed right or positively skewed; if the peak is toward the right and the left tail is longer, we say that the distribution is skewed left or negatively skewed. Look at the two graphs below.

They both have μ = 0.6923 and σ = 0.1685, but their shapes are different.

The first one is moderately skewed left: the left tail is longer and most of the distribution is at the right. By contrast, the second distribution is moderately skewed right: its right tail is longer and most of the distribution is at the left. You can get a general impression of skewness by drawing a histogram, but there are also some common numerical measures of skewness. Some authors favor one, some favor another.

Kurtosis

Kurtosis refers to the degree of peak in a distribution. More peak than normal (leptokurtic) means that a distribution also has fatter tails and that there are more chances of extreme outcomes compared to a normal distribution.

The kurtosis formula measures the degree of peak. Kurtosis equals three for a normal distribution; excess kurtosis calculates and expresses kurtosis above or below 3.

If a distribution is symmetric, the next question is about the central peak: is it high and sharp, or short and broad? You can get some idea of this from the histogram, but a numerical measure is more precise.

The height and sharpness of the peak relative to the rest of the data are measured by a number called kurtosis. Higher values indicate a higher, sharper peak; lower values indicate a lower, less distinct peak. This occurs because, as Wikipedia’s article on kurtosis explains, higher kurtosis means more of the variability is due to a few extreme differences from the mean, rather than a lot of modest differences from the mean.

Balanda and MacGillivray say the same thing in another way: increasing kurtosis is associated with the “movement of probability mass from the shoulders of a distribution into its center and tails.” (Kevin P. Balanda and H.L. MacGillivray. “Kurtosis: A Critical Review”. The American Statistician 42:2 [May 1988], pp 111–119, drawn to my attention by Karl Ove Hufthammer)

You may remember that the mean and standard deviation have the same units as the original data, and the variance has the square of those units. However, the kurtosis has no units: it’s a pure number, like a z-score. The reference standard is a normal distribution, which has a kurtosis of 3. In token of this, often the excess kurtosis is presented: excess kurtosis is simply kurtosis−3. For example, the “kurtosis” reported by Excel is actually the excess kurtosis.

    • A normal distribution has kurtosis exactly 3 (excess kurtosis exactly 0). Any distribution with kurtosis ≈3 (excess ≈0) is called mesokurtic.
    • A distribution with kurtosis <3 (excess kurtosis <0) is called platykurtic. Compared to a normal distribution, its central peak is lower and broader, and its tails are shorter and thinner.
  • A distribution with kurtosis >3 (excess kurtosis >0) is called leptokurtic. Compared to a normal distribution, its central peak is higher and sharper, and its tails are longer and fatter.

What is Research? Why it’s importance and role in the field of Mass Media.

The word research is derived from the French word recherché which means to search closely. Research in common phrasing refers to a search for knowledge. It is a systematic enquiry seeking facts through objectives verifiable methods in order to discover the relationship among them and to presume broad principles or laws from them. The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. Research is defined as a careful investigation if inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

Need for Research

Helps to solve social problems – Social science research studies the problems of the society and also suggest remedial measures.

Useful to different sections of the society research is useful to students, politicians, academicians, literary men and other intellectuals. It provides knowledge and understanding to the related subjects.

It is helpful to industrial concerns – Different types of research are conducted by business concern such as marketing research, operation research, motivation research, etc. All these researches help the management to take suitable decisions at correct time.

It acts as a basis for governmental policies – Research is conducted before introducing the policies of the government. For example, before preparing the budget an economic survey will be conducted. The problems related with different sections of the society, like service class, businessman, farmers, students etc. can be studied with the help of research. This will help to implement paper policies and programmes.


Role of Mass Media Research

There are different versions of this answer, the one in italics and the other below. Please decide. I don’t know. Thank you to a friend who pointed this out

The current Media Industry uses Different types of Research such as Audience Research, Market Research and Production Research.

The Purpose of Audience Research is for the broadcasting company to find out information about the audience. This can be done by finding of Demographic Information of the viewer, whose purpose is to find out the target audience.

The Media industry makes use of a lot of Production Research in many of its programmings and the purpose of Production Research can be used to determine what can be talked about and what should he refrained from airing.

Media Industry uses Primary Data and Secondary Data. Primary Data is normally collected from the first source like a focus group, which is collected to find out about the viewing audience. Secondary data can be found by using the Internet and other information sources. This data can be interpreted by the producer or broadcasting company. Broadcasting companies also use questionnaires and sampling to hear from the audience about what they feel about their programming.

There are three types of data used in media industry which are quantitative, qualitative and voluntary data. Quantitative data can be shown by numbers, for example, sampling and auditing.

Qualitative data can be shown in images, graphs, histograms and charts and tables. Voluntary data is collected from the audience themselves in the form of feedback.

There isn’t any area in Mass media that doesn’t conduct or use research. Research is the only area in mass media that relates it to everything. Every time we rise a “who, what, when, where, why, how questions we have developed an investigative question.

For example why do people choose to watch one television program over another, how internet affected readership of newspapers, what type of articles are most popular in magazines, when is the best time to broadcast a youth related programme. Research helps provide answer to these questions. Most importantly, it is a valid way of obtaining accurate information. Research is scientific therefore it is verifiable, objective, empirical, systematic, cumulative and logical.

As mentioned earlier there isn’t any area in Mass Media which doesn’t use research, we shall further discuss about the use of research in different media forms:

  1. Electronic Media: Electronic media research studies today fall into two main categories: ratings and non ratings research. The data for ratings surveys are currently gathered by two methods: diaries and electronic meters (commonly called people meters). There are many types of non ratings research used by the electronic media. This type of research provides information about what the audience likes and dislikes analyses of different types of programming, demographic and lifestyle information about the audience.
  1. Print Media: While there are many types of research conducted by the print media, these are the types of research that have gained most attention in the past several years:
    1. Readership: the most widely used of all print research procedures including research in areas such as reader profiles, item-selection studies, reader-nonreader studies, editor-reader comparisons, and psychographic and lifestyle segmentation studies.
    1. Circulation: research about who reads the newspaper or magazine, how can circulation be increased, and what the readers want to have included in their newspaper or magazine.
    1. Management: research concerning goal setting by management, employee job satisfaction, and effects of competition and ownership on newspaper content and quality.
    1. Online media usage: research concerning the Internet and how it affects newspaper and magazine reading.
  1. Advertising and Public Relations: Just as with the other media, research in advertising and public relations includes a variety of topic, some of which include:
    1. Copy Testing:  it is the research on the effectiveness of advertising.
    1. Reach and frequency: how many people are exposed to advertising?
    1. Internet-related: research on how the Internet affects advertising and public relations.
    1. Campaign assessment: research on the success of an advertising campaign.
    1. Public relations: applied, basic, and introspective research to examine specific practical issues.
    1. Public relations audit: a comprehensive study of the public relations position of an organization.
    1. Social audit: a small-scale monitoring program to measure how well a company is living up to its public responsibilities.
  1. Internet: The Internet has quickly become a mass medium, and it is changing every day.

However, one thing is certain about the Internet, and that is it will provide a countless number of research possibilities for mass media researchers. Consider some of the possibilities:

    1. Online research: respondents answer questions using Internet-based questionnaires.
    1. Website research: what makes a good website? How can more people be attracted to a website?
    1. Music testing: radio stations and music companies test short segments (hooks) of songs.
  1. Advertising testing: respondents provide reactions to audio, video, and print advertising.

Mass Media is a commercial industry. Like any other business, its primary motive is to get the highest numbers. The numbers may refer to sales, profit or audience. Therefore, one important factor of media research is it helps them attain the goal. It involves a 3 step process. Firstly, find what the people want and then give it to them. Lastly, let them know that you gave it to them. Researches help find what people want, also they find out what is the best way to give it to them and also they find the best means for advertising the program. Thus, Research is included in every step of the process.

Research thus aids decision making. Regardless of the area that we are involved in mass media, we will be involved in mass media research. There is no area of mass media that hasn’t been affected by research. Research is an integral part of mass media because it results in better and accurate reporting which ultimately results in better decisions.


Explain the step to step process of conducting a Research.

Selection of a problem

The main aim of the research is to find some practical solution to the concerned problem. Hence, before the research starts, the researcher must know what the problem is and why a solution is wanted. The proper selection of the problem will helps the researcher to complete his work within the time period. Before selecting a problem, the researcher has to consider the factors like the significance of the topic, availability of the resources, especially the time limit, relevant idea etc.

Formulation of the Problem

The transformation of the selected problem into a scientific research question is the formulation of the research problem. Proper formulation clarifies the problem and provides a sense of direction to research. Here, the researcher has to portrait more specific statements instead of general and vague one and to broaden a narrow specific question into a broader significant problem. In this stage, the researcher should have to give a specific title to the problem.

Extensive Literature Survey

Once the problem is formulated, the researcher has to write a brief summary of the proposed. For this purpose he has to conduct an extensive survey related with his problem. He could use the abstraction and indexing of journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc. depending on the nature of the problem. He should go thoroughly through the earlier studies conducted in the related topics. Review of such studies will help him to formulate a satisfactory structure for his project.

Developing the Hypothesis

Hypothesis is an assumption or principle made in order to draw the logical conclusion. This is considered as the crucial stage of research as hypotheses gives direction to the research. There may be one or more or several hypothesis for the same study. These hypotheses are predictions and it has to be tested. It also indicates the type of data required and the type of methods of data to be used. The formulation of the hypothesis depends on factors such as availability of data, and material including related studies, relevancy in the subject, and counsel of experts etc.

Research Design

In this stage, the researcher has to make a conceptual structure of the research that he should be conducted. Good planning is needed for the successful completion if the project. This plan of study is called as the research design. The function of the research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. It depends on the purpose of research. The purpose of research can be grouped into the following categories – exploration, description, diagnosis and experimentation. The exploratory study focuses on the formulation of a problem for developing hypothesis and emphasize on the discovery of ideas. The descriptive study brings out the characteristics of a particular group or situation. In the diagnostic study, a particular variable is related with other variables.. it determines the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else. The experimental study aims to test the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables.

Determining Sample Design

A sample design is a definite plan determined before any data is actually collected for obtaining a sample from a Universe or population. The researcher must decide the sample design to be used for the research purposes by considering the nature of research and other factors. It determines the way of selecting sample required for study.

Data Collection

It may be called as the basis of research as all research works needs. The data can be collected in different ways. It may be from primary source like observation, interview, questionnaire etc. the secondary data or information may be collected from published and unpublished sources like diaries, memories, radio, TV, journals etc.

Execution of Project

It is one of the most important steps in research process. If the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines, the data collected would be adequate, dependable and sufficient. The researched should see that the project is executed in proper way. If data is collected through interview, proper training should be given to interviewer. If the researcher is conducting a survey, he has to ensure that the survey is under statistical control so that the collected information is in accordance with the pre-defined standard or accuracy.

Data Analysis

The data analysis includes a number of operations like establishment of categories, the application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and making inferences. Researcher should classify the raw data into some purposeful and usable categories. Coding operation is done at this stage through which the categories of data are transferred into symbols that may be tabulated and counted. In tabulation, large volume of data collected is condensed to few groups and tables for further analysis. After tabulation, data analysis is to be done on the basis of various percentages, coefficients etc. There are several methods for data analysis and the researcher should choose the appropriate method. It can be decided even before collection of data. Various types of statistical technical can be used for analyzing the data.

Hypothesis Testing

After the data analysis, the next step is to test the hypothesis which is formulated earlier. The researcher has to find whether the analyzed data supports the hypothesis or not. Statistical tests like Chi square test, F test, T test etc. can be used for this purpose. Once the hypothesis is tested with the help of evidence, it becomes a thesis. It gives direction to research.

Generalization and Interpretation

Once the hypothesis is tested, it may be elevated to generalization. That means a theory can be build out of it. But if there is no hypothesis, the findings of their research should be explained on the basis of certain theory; which is known as the interpretation.

Preparation of the Report or the Thesis

The last step of the research is to prepare a report of the research. The report should deal with what e has done to study the concerned problem. The thesis can be divided into three sections; the preliminaries, the text and the reference materials.

  1. Preliminary stage – the following sequence is generally accepted for the preliminary pages.
    1. Title page
    1. Preface with acknowledgements
    1. Table of contents
    1. List of tables
  1. List of figures or graphs
  1. The Text – it contains the following parts:
    1. Introduction
    1. Review of literature
    1. Hypothesis
    1. Methodology
    1. Presentation of results
  1. Conclusions
  1.  End Matter – The end matter contains the following:
    1. Bibliography – list of books, journals, reports etc.
    1. Appendices – it will give extra information about the technical terms and support the technical data
  1. Index


Enumerate the different types of Sampling Techniques.

Probability Sampling

This is the purest form of sampling. Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected in the probability sampling. The sample nits are drawn without showing any regard to the character of the universe. It is also known as random sampling. The two types of random sampling used in research process are:

    1. Simple random sampling – In this method, every item of the universe or population has equal chance of being selected. The main principle behind random sampling is that the personal factor is eliminated in the selection of the sample. The researcher is not exercising his direction in the selection of items. To ensure randomness of selection the investigation may follow lottery method or random number method. In the lottery method, sample is selected by drawing lot from population or universe. All items of universe are represented in small chits and samples are picked from these with the help of a blindfolded person. Random number method uses the random number tables to select samples from the universe.
    1. Restricted random sampling – this kind of sampling is used to increase the efficiency of sampling technique. It is usually adopted when the sample size is large. This method consists of systematic sampling, cluster sampling, multistage cluster sampling, stratified sampling and random route sampling.
    1. Systematic sampling – it is a method of ordering of the universe; if a complete list of population is available. The ordering may be in alphabetical, numerical, geographical or any other basis. This is the method in which every Kth item i.e. the sampling interval is selected to represent a population.
    1. Cluster Sampling – In this method, the population or universe is divided in two number of clusters and each cluster has an equal chance if being drawn. The cluster may be village ward, geographical unit, social unit, any product etc. after forming clusters, a few sample clusters are selected and it is called as the primary sampling units.
    1. Multi stage cluster sampling – this is a further development of the principle of cluster sampling. This type of sampling is mostly used in national surveys; in first stage the initial clusters are randomly selected. Then in the second stage, the random sample is set up within the selected sampling units and is known as multistage cluster sampling.
    1. Stratified sampling – In this method, the entire population is divided or subdivided into groups on the basis of homogeneity. These groups can be termed as strata. Within each stratum, a simple random sample or systematic sample is selected. Geographical, sociological, demographic and economic characters are used for classifying the universe into strata. There are two types of stratified sampling – proportionate and disproportionate. Proportionate is the sample unit which is proportionate to the size of sampling unit. In disproportionate the sample unit is not related to the target population.
  1. Random route sampling – this method is used in market research surveys. Mainly for sampling households, shops, garages and other premises in urban areas. Address is selected randomly from sampling frame as a starting point. Interviewers then give instructions to identify further address by taking alternate left and right hand turns at road junctions and calling at every nth address.

Non Probability Sampling

Probability sampling method is not suitable for all research studies. If there is not a complete sampling frame available for certain groups of the population or the list of the person to be studied, probability sampling is difficult and inappropriate to use. In such situations, non probability sampling is the most appropriate one. It does not give any reassurance whether every element has chance of being included in the same sample.

The important non probability methods are:

    1. Accidental sampling – in this method the researcher simply contacts and picks up those entire people who are most conveniently available or who accidentally come in his contact during a certain period of time. He selects the sample in this way till total sample reaches a design size. The most important advantage of accidental sampling is that it is quick and economical.
    1. Quota sampling – in this method quotas are set up by the researcher according to some specific characteristics. For example, to study 100 BMM students from 500 students in ten institutions, the researcher can make the quota of 10 students from each institution, out of which will be five boys and five girls. The choice of respondents is left to the interviewer. The nature and type of research determines the quotas. Quotas can also be fixed according to their population.
    1. Purpose sampling – in this method the researcher select the samples subjectively. He tries to obtain sample that appears to him to be representative of the population and will usually try to ensure that a range from one extreme to the other is included. The sample selected in this method is considered as having similar characteristics to the people in the designed research population. For instance, the marketing researchers select test market cities because they are viewed as typical cities with demographic profile closely matching the national profile. This is the idea behind conducting the exit poll in selected metropolitan cities.
  1. Snowball sampling – this is another kind of sampling method which is used to reach research populations that are difficult to find. Here, the researcher begins the research with few respondents who are known and available to him. We could ask them whether they know anyone with the same characteristics that we are looking for in our research and this process is continues until adequate number of persons is interviewed or until more respondents are discovered. It has been used for studies of deviant behavior. For example, to study the unemployed the researcher may find those cases that he knows and ask them if they could be given additional names and so on. The main advantage of the snowball sampling is it reduces sample sizes and the low costs.


Explain probability and non probability methods of Sampling

Probability Sampling

This is the purest form of sampling. Each member of the population has an equal chance  of being selected in the probability sampling. The sample nits are drawn without showing any regard to the character of the universe. It is also known as random sampling. The two types of random sampling used in research process are:

    1. Simple random sampling – In this method, every item of the universe or population has equal chance of being selected. The main principle behind random sampling is that the personal factor is eliminated in the selection of the sample. The researcher is not exercising his direction in the selection of items. To ensure randomness of selection the investigation may follow lottery method or random number method. In the lottery method, sample is selected by drawing lot from population or universe. All items of universe are represented in small chits and samples are picked from these with the help of a blindfolded person. Random number method uses the random number tables to select samples from the universe.
    1. Restricted random sampling – this kind of sampling is used to increase the efficiency of sampling technique. It is usually adopted when the sample size is large. This method consists of systematic sampling, cluster sampling, multi stage cluster sampling, stratified sampling and random route sampling.
    1. Systematic sampling – it is a method of ordering of the universe; if a complete list of population is available. The ordering may be in alphabetical, numerical, geographical or any other basis. This is the method in which every Kth item i.e. the sampling interval is selected to represent a population.
    1. Cluster sampling – In this method, the population or universe is divided in two number of clusters and each cluster has an equal chance if being drawn. The cluster may be village ward, geographical unit, social unit, any product etc. after forming clusters, a few sample clusters are selected and it is called as the primary sampling units.
    1. Multi stage cluster sampling – this is a further development of the principle of cluster sampling. This type of sampling is mostly used in national surveys; in first stage the initial clusters are randomly selected. Then in the second stage, the random sample is set up within the selected sampling units and is known as multistage cluster sampling.
    1. Stratified sampling – In this method, the entire population is divided or subdivided into groups on the basis of homogeneity. These groups can be termed as strata. Within each stratum, a simple random sample or systematic sample is selected. Geographical, sociological, demographic and economic characters are used for classifying the universe into strata. There are two types of stratified sampling – proportionate and disproportionate. Proportionate is the sample unit which is proportionate to the size of sampling unit. In disproportionate the sample unit is not related to the target population.
  1. Random route sampling – this method is used in market research surveys. Mainly for sampling households, shops, garages and other premises in urban areas. Address is selected randomly from sampling frame as a starting point. Interviewers then give instructions to identify further address by taking alternate left and right hand turns at road junctions and calling at every nth address.

Non Probability Sampling

Probability sampling method is not suitable for all research studies. If there is not a complete sampling frame available for certain groups of the population or the list of the person to be studied, probability sampling is difficult and inappropriate to use. In such situations, non probability sampling is the most appropriate one. It does not give any reassurance whether every element has chance of being included in the same sample. The important non probability methods are:

    1. Accidental sampling – in this method the researcher simply contacts and picks up those entire people who are most conveniently available or who accidentally come in his contact during a certain period of time. He selects the sample in this way till total sample reaches a design size. The most important advantage of accidental sampling is that it is quick and economical.
    1. Quota sampling – in this method quotas are set up by the researcher according to some specific characteristics. For example, to study 100 BMM students from 500 students in ten institutions, the researcher can make the quota of 10 students from each institution, out of which will be five boys and five girls. The choice of respondents is left to the interviewer. The nature and type of research determines the quotas. Quotas can also be fixed according to their population.
    1. Purpose sampling – in this method the researcher select the samples subjectively. He tries to obtain sample that appears to him to be representative of the population and will usually try to ensure that a range from one extreme to the other is included. The sample selected in this method is considered as having similar characteristics to the people in the designed research population. For instance, the marketing researchers select test market cities because they are viewed as typical cities with demographic profile closely matching the national profile. This is the idea behind conducting the exit poll in selected metropolitan cities.
  1. Snowball sampling – this is another kind of sampling method which is used to reach research populations that are difficult to find. Here, the researcher begins the research with few respondents who are known and available to him. We could ask them whether they know anyone with the same characteristics that we are looking for in our research and this process is continues until adequate number of persons is interviewed or until more respondents are discovered. It has been used for studies of deviant behavior. For example, to study the unemployed the researcher may find those cases that he knows and ask them if they could be given additional names and so on. The main advantage of the snowball sampling is it reduces sample sizes and the low costs.


Explain the Structure of Research Report in Brief.

Generally a research report is presented either in a form of a dissertation or in the form of a thesis. The design of a research report indicates what exactly the report should possess. A comprehensive format of the research report should contain three parts:

    1. The preliminary pages
    1. The text
  1. The reference materials

Preliminary Pages

The preliminaries consist of following components in the sequential order:

  1. Title Page – it is the first page of the report. The following statements are required in a title page, even though its format may differ from one institution to the other.
    1. Title of research topic
    1. Statement emphasizing the relationship of the report with specified degree
    1. Name and designation of the guide
    1. Name of the candidate
    1. Name of the institution which the thesis is being submitted
  1. Month and year to which the thesis is being submitted
    1. Acknowledgement and Preface – the preface emphasis the purpose of conducting the research study, a brief resume of its background, methodology applied for it, scope and general nature of that particular topic. He could grant his acknowledgement in the preface, if he wants. Moreover, if the researcher likes to discuss the significance and nature of the research in the introductory chapter, he can skip the preface page and use it only for acknowledgement. But the best practice is to write the preface and acknowledgement separately. Acknowledgement, on the other hand, is generally aims, to show gratitude to those who have helped him in his research study, including guidance and assistance and providing funds.
    1. Table of Contents – the table of contents gives an outline of the content of the research report in a sequential order. It contains list of chapter titles followed by starting page number of each chapter.
  1. List of Tables and Figures – under this, all tables and figures like maps, drawings, graphs, charts, diagrams etc. are included. For photographs, the term plates are used.

The Text

The text consists of the content in a thesis or dissection. It is the most important part of the thesis. It provides an outline of the research report along with all details. In this section, the researcher presents the facts and the basic principles of his argument. The text usually consists of an introduction, main body and conclusion.

  1. Introduction – in this, the researcher introduces the research study by highlighting its special features in two or four paragraphs or pages. He should describe briefly the background information about the problem and the objective of the study. Usually, the introductory part contains the following:
    1. A lucid, complete and concise statement of the problem being investigated
    1. An explanation of the scope of the research
    1. The purpose of research and its importance
    1. A preview of the organization of the thesis
    1. A resume of the historical background and present importance of the problem
    1. A briefing about the data source, technique used for data analysis and technical terminologies used in study
    1. A brief statement with regard to the research methodology adopted
  1. A statement, mentioning the limitations of the project
    1. Main body – this is the soul of the research report and of course, the largest section of the report. It constitutes all the chapters and the number and length will depend on the nature of the research and the evidence to be presented. The data is critically analyzed and interpreted through textual situation and tabular and graphic devices. The data should be described fully, analyzed in detail and the evidence result from the analysis should be presented. Every bit of evidence should be supported by logical reasoning and empirical facts. Contents should be organized systematically and presented under appropriate headings. Because of the diversity of the research subject, it is difficult to define a particular direction for organizing the main body.
  1. Conclusion – this is the last and vital part of the text of the report. It consists of the summary, generalizations, suggestions and recommendations. It should clearly mention which of the research objectives have been achieved and which remains unanswered. The conclusion should contain discussion of limits of the research in terms research method and specific research instruments used, theoretical framework used, data analyzed and assumptions made.

Reference Material

This generally contains bibliography, appendices and index.

    1. Bibliography – bibliography is the list of books or publications referred by the researcher to collect information for the preparation of research report. It should also contain all those works which the researcher has consulted. It should be arranged alphabetically and may be divided into three parts, the first part may contain the name of the books and pamphlets, the second part may contain the names of the magazines and newspaper articles and the third part may contain the web id. The primary of a bibliography is to guide the reader to find the exact item which the researcher has consulted.
    1. Appendices – the additional or supplementary materials which could not be included in the main text will come under the heading Appendix or Appendices. In research report, some relevant evidence or explanation in the body of the text clutter it up, rendering the text more difficult to read. Such explanations or evidences can be put to an appendix. This helps to the interested reader to refer the appendix for further details. Thus the appendices are useful for placing cumbersome materials which will break the continuity of the main text. It may also include copy of the questionnaire and the interview schedule used for data collection, instructions, to the field of workers, statistical tests etc.
  1. Index – index is an alphabetical arrangement of names, places and topics along with the number of pages they are mentioned or discussed in the report. The index may either be subject index or author index. This is mostly used in publications, technical manuscripts or the report intended as a work of reference.

Discuss the various projective techniques used while conducting a research.

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Write a note on different scales used for measuring Attitudes.

    1. Rating scale – rating scales can be applicable for measuring attitudes and the intensity of the attitudes. It is a qualitative description of limited number of aspects of an object under study. In the rating scales, we could judge properties of objects in definite terms against some particular criteria; and without reference to other similar objects. We could use the forms such as ‘like-dislike’, ‘excellent-good’, ‘average below’, ‘average-above’, ‘strongly-agree’, ‘strongly-disagree’, and so on. There is no hard and fast rule for using point scales, like two point scales, three point scales, four point scales. Generally, three to five point scales are used because the more points on a scale provide a chance for greater sensitivity of measurement.
    1. Semantic scale – this type of scale makes extensive use of words rather than numbers. Respondents describe their feelings about the products or brands on scales with semantic labels. When bipolar adjectives are used at the end points of the scales, these are termed as semantic differential scale.
  1. Likert scale – a Likert scale is what is termed as summated instrument scale. That means, the items making up a Likert scale are summed to produce a total score. Infact, a Likert scale is composite of itemized scales. It comprises of a number of statements which express either positive or negative attitude towards the given object. The respondent has to express his attitude, with each statement. Each response is given a numerical score to measure the respondent’s degree of attitude. The overall score represent the respondent’s position on the continuum of positive-negative approach towards an issue. In Likert scale, the respondent is asked to respond to each of the statement in terms of several degrees; for instance (a) strongly agree (b) agree (c)neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree. Each point on the scale carries a score, the least favorable point may carry the least score and the most favorable one may score 5 for a five point scale.

Advantages of Likert scale are:

    1. Simple and easy to construct
    1. More reliable
    1. Easily used in respondent centered and stimulus centered studies
  1. Allows the use of statements that is noticeably related to the attitude being studied
    1. Itemized Rating Scale – in this, respondents are provided with a scale having numbers or brief description associated with each category. Then the respondents are asked to select one of the limited numbers of categories, ordered in terms of scale position which describes the product, brand and company or product attribute being studied. It provides flexibility to use as many points in the scale as considered necessary.
  1. Cumulative Scale – this scale also consists of series of statements to which a respondent expresses his agreement or disagreement. The individual score is calculated by counting the number of statements he answers favorable. We could use ‘X’ for agree and ‘—‘for disagree. The Scalogram Analysis developed by Louis Guttman is popularly used for analyzing cumulative scales. Scalogram analysis refers to the procedures for determining whether a list of items forms a unidimensional scale.

    If the responses fall into a pattern in which endorsement of the item reflecting the extreme position results also in endorsing all items which are less extreme, we could say that the scale is unidimensional. Under this technique the respondents are asked to indicate the respect of each item whether they agree or disagree with it.

Advantages of cumulative scale are:

    1. A single dimension of attitude is being measured
    1. Subjective judgement is not allowed
    1. Requires a small number of items for analysis
    1. Simple process and easy to administer
  1. Appropriate for personal, telephone or mail survey


Explain the role of Research in Advertising.

The advertising research mostly put an effort to finding out how he targeted audience or prospective customers would respond to a particular advertisement. Globalization, wide range of new media technologies, increased competition, mass markets etc makes the advertisement research as a primary management tool for the marketers. Advertising research is an essential part of marketing research.

It lays stress on the audiences, advertised messages, media and pre-test and post-test procedures. Advertising research reveals the reactions of targeted markets and is useful for evaluating the effectiveness of advertising during the strategic and evaluative stages of campaign. Advertising research fills the void between what should happen in a market and what actually happens.

The ultimate aim of media research is to find whether the media audiences match the characteristic of advertiser’s target audience and its efficiency to reach the target audience. Two important terms used in media research are reach and frequency. Reach is the percentage of different homes or people exposed to a message at least once during a specific period of time. It is the percentage of unduplicated audience and is not a guess work. For example, 4 of a possible 10 households are exposed to an advertisement, then the reach is 4 of 10 i.e. 40%. Frequency refers to the number of exposure to the same message that each household receives.

The reach estimate is based only on a singly exposure, while, the frequency estimates the number of times the exposure is expected to happen. The advertiser prefers to use the average frequency of exposure, which shows the percentage of audience reached at the level of repetition. Another concept closely related to reach and frequency is gross rating points (GRP). It is a unit of audience measurement used in the audio visual media based on reach or coverage of an advertisement. It is the sum total exposure potential expressed as a percentage of the audience population.

Audience analysis is the most commonly used studies in print and electronic media research. The audience size of the newspaper or magazine is commonly measured in terms of number of copies distributed per issue. The print media has developed a standardized method of measuring circulation and have instituted an organization, the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC), to verify that a publication actually distributes the number of copies per issue that it claims.

Three techniques are used to measure readership. The first one is the unaided recall method, in which respondents are asked whether they have read any newspaper or magazine in the past month or other time period. If the response is positive, they are asked to specify the magazine or newspaper they read. When a publication is named, the interviewer attempts to verify reading by asking questions about the contents of the publications.

The second technique is aided recall. In this method, the interviewer names several publications and asks whether the respondent has read any of them lately. Each time the respondent claims to have read the publication, the interviewer asks whether he or she remembers seeing most recent copy. The respondent may be asked to recall anything that was seen or read in that particular issue otherwise, respondents are shown the front page or the cover of a publication with the name blacked out and is asked whether they remember reading that particular issue. The process is called masked recall.

The third recall technique is called the recognition method. It entails showing respondents the logo or cover of publication. For each publication the respondent has seen or read the interviewer produces a copy and the respondent leafs through it to identify the articles or stories he or she recognizes. All respondents who definitely remember reading the publication are counted in its audience. To check the accuracy of the respondent’s memory, dummy article may be inserted into the interviewers’ copy of the publication. Many advertising researchers consider the recognition technique to be the most accurate predictors of readership scores.


Explain Content Analysis. Enumerate step by step procedure to conduct Content Analysis.

Content Analysis grew in the middle part of 20th century to become part of larger and theoretically based projects of social and political analysis. The method was increasingly integrated into larger research efforts involving not only the analysis of media content but also other methods of inquiry like surveys, experiment, observations etc.

Content analysis also grew to become an important component in the armory of studies of international media flows, and about cultural imperialism, development communication, globalization and also concerns about New World Information and Communication Order. Content analysis is defined as a method of studying and analyzing communication in a systematic, objective and quantitative manner for the purpose of measuring variables.

Steps in content analysis

    1. Formulate the research questions or hypothesis – the content analysis should be guided by well formulated research questions or hypothesis. The research question can be generated from an existing theory, prior research, practical problems, changing social conditions etc. well defined research questions or hypothesis leads to the development of accurate and sensitive content categories, which in turn helps to produce data that are more valuable.
    1. Defining the universe – Usually, two dimensions are used to define the universe in content analysis, the topic area and the time period. For example, a research which considers “the kind of TV commercials broadcast in primetime in News Channels in Mumbai City form October 1, 2008 to December 30, 2008.
    1. Selecting a sample – After defining the universe, the researcher has to select a sample. In mass media research, the content analysis typically consisted of two stages: the first stage is to take sampling of content sources and the second stage is to select the dates. For example, a researcher planned to examine the treatment of Presidential Election of America, 2008 in Indian dailies. First he needs to sample from the total newspapers published each day. The researcher has to decide to focus primarily on the English news dailies covering the story and opt to analyze only the leading circulation newspapers in the 10-15 largest Indian cities. The investigator may wish to stratify the sample by circulation size and sample from within the strata composed of big city newspapers, medium city newspapers and small city newspapers. After determining the content source, the researcher has to select the dates. The time period is determined by the goal of the project.
    1. Selecting a unit of analysis – To select a unit of analysis is one of the most important steps in process. It is the smallest element of a content analysis. In written content, the unit of analysis may be single word or symbol, a theme, or an entire article or story. In audio visual analysis, it may be characters, acts or the entire program.
    1. Constructing the content categories – Particular studies have been productive to the extent that the categories were clearly formulated and well adapted to the problem and the content. All category systems should be mutually exclusive, exhaustive and reliable. Commonsense, pretesting, practices with the coding system etc are some valuable factors which helps the researcher to construct a category system. Too many categories will limit the generalization as only a small percentage falls into each category. But researchers recommend that too many initial categories are preferable to too few.
    1. Establishing a quantification system – At this stage, the data measurement in content analysis usually involves three levels nominal, interval and ratio data. At the nominal level, the researcher simply counts the frequency of occurrence of the units of each category. The content in the advertisements, the topic of programs or primetime television broadcast, the theme of newspaper editorial etc. can be quantified by means of nominal measurement. In the interval level, we could develop scales for coders to use to rate certain attributes of characters or situations. It will help to give more depth, texture and subjectivity to the content analysis. If the measurement in the media research is applied to space and time, it will come under the ratio level.
    1. Training coders and doing a pilot study – this is the most time consuming step in content analysis. Coding is the process of placing a unit of analysis into a content category and those who are doing this are called coders. Proper training of coders will help to get more reliable results. The adequate training must make the coders familiar with the study’s mechanics and peculiarities. Several lengthy training sessions are used to revise, definitions, clarify category boundaries and revamp coding sheets until the coders are comfortable with materials and procedures. Usually the pilot study is done to check inter coder reliability with a fresh set of coders. It is considered that the inter coder reliability might be artificially high for these fresh set of coders.
    1. Coding the content – standardized coding sheets are used for coding the content. It will help the coders to classify the data by placing check marks or slashes in predetermined spaces. If the information about the code data mentioned at the top of the card, it enables the researcher to quickly sort the information into categories.
    1. Analyzing the data – the statistical methods such as percentages, means, modes and medians are appropriate for content analysis. The Chi square test is the most commonly used because content analysis data tend to be nominal in form. If the data meets requirements of interval or ratio levels, then T test or ANOVA may be appropriate.
  1. Interpreting the result – this is the last step in content analysis. The interpretation will be evident only if the researcher is testing a definite hypothesis concerning the relationship between variables.


Discuss different methods of Primary Data Collection

Observation

Observation is the most popular method of data collection. If the observation is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to check and controls on validity and reliability, then it becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection in research process. It is thus, a systematic and careful watching of facts as they occur in course of nature. It involves watching test subjects without interacting with them. In other words, observation implies use of eyes rather than of ears and voice.

Types of Observation

    1. Direct and indirect observation – In direct observation, the observer is physically present and personally monitors the particular situation. It allows the observer to react to and report mild aspects of events and behavior as they occur. Direct observation helps him to concentrate on unexpected events if any occur. Information overload, observer’s weakness, boredom and destructive events can reduce the accuracy and completeness of such events. If the observation is carried on with the help of some recording done by photographic or electronic means, it is termed as indirect observation. This is a permanent record that can be reanalyzed to find many different aspects of an event.
    1. Simple and systematic observation – the observation used to collect data at the exploratory stage is known as simple observation. The observation which employs standardized procedures, training to observer’s schedule for recording and other devices to control the observer and the subject is called as systematic observation.
    1. Casual and scientific observation – the observation without any previous preparation is the casual observation. The researcher observes things as a matter of chance i.e. the right thing at the right time and in the right place. If the observation is done with the help of certain measurement tools, it is called the scientific observation.
    1. Subjective and objective observation – every act of observation consist of two components the object and the subject. If one observes one’s own immediate experience it is termed as subjective observation. If the observer observes things which are not related with him is called objective observation.
  1. Structured and unstructured observation – structured observation consists of careful definition of the units to be observed, information to be recorded, selection of relevant data for observation and standardization of conditions of observations. This kind of observation records only the listed behavior in the form. It is used in studies which provide systematic observation or to these causal hypotheses. It is appropriate in descriptive studies. In unstructured observation the conditions mentioned in the structured are not standardized. It is flexible in character and this kind of observation is used in exploratory studies.

Advantages of Observation

    1. Simple and non technical and the researcher require less training.
    1. Basis of formulating hypothesis.
    1. Provides more accurate and reliable data.
  1. The researcher is gathering observed information rather than data relating to intentions or preferences.

Disadvantages of Observation

    1. This method does not examine motives or feelings towards a particular behavior.
    1. The findings are limited to those observed.
    1. Opinions and attitudes cannot be gathered by observation.
  1. It is a long term process.

Questionnaire

A questionnaire is a tool for obtaining answers to questions by using a form which the respondent fills by himself. It consists of a number of questions which is systematically compiled and organized in a set of forms. It is mostly used to gather information from widely scattered sources. The main purpose of questionnaire is to collect the information from the respondents who are scattered in a vast area and to achieve in collecting reliable and dependable data.

Types of Questionnaire

    1. Structured and unstructured questionnaire – the questionnaire which consists contains definite concrete and direct questions is known as structured questionnaires. This kind of questionnaire is used to initiate a formal enquiry and also to supplement and check the previously accumulated data. A non structured questionnaire is used as an interview guide. The researcher is free to arrange the form or statements of the questionnaire. It may consist of partially completed questions or statements. The main advantage of this method is its flexibility.
    1. Open questionnaire – in this the respondents are free to express their views or ideas as it is open end or unrestricted type of questionnaire. It probably provides a greater depth of response and is used where new facts are to be revealed. The main drawback of this type is that it is difficult to interpret, tabulate and summarize in the research report.
    1. Closed questionnaire – the respondent cannot express his own judgment in the closed questionnaire. It contains questions that call for short check response like marking yes or no answers or choose answer from a set of provided responses. It is more objective and easy to tabulate and analyze. Moreover, it is easy to fill out, takes less time and more acceptable and convenient to the respondent.
  1. Mixed questions – it consists of both open and close ended questionnaire. This method is very useful in social research.

Advantages of Questionnaire

    1. It is more economical
    1. The respondents gets enough time to answer the questions
    1. It can be conveniently reached to respondents who are not easily accessible
  1. The result should be dependable and reliable

Disadvantages of Questionnaire

    1. Cannot be used with illiterates
    1. The proportion of return is very low
    1. There is a chance of misinterpretation of the question
  1. It involves uncertainty about the response

Schedule

A schedule is a set of questions or blank table which is to be filled by the research workers after getting information from the respondents. The main difference between questionnaire and schedule is that in a schedule, the investigator himself presents the questions to the individuals whose responses are required. It may contain two types of questions, direct questions and form of a table. Schedule is the name usually applied to a set of questions which are asked and filled by the interviewer, in face-to-face situation with another.

Types of Schedule

    1. Document schedule – the schedules used to obtain data from case histories, documents, official record etc. come under the document schedules. It is an easy method for collecting preliminary data.
    1. Observation schedule – this schedule is used to record observation of the researcher under specific condition. He can observe and record the activities or responses of an individual or a group. It is mainly used to verify information.
    1. Rating schedule – these are mainly used in sociological or psychological research to assess the attitudes, opinions, preferences, inhibitions etc. In this type, the above mentioned qualities will be rated on the basis of different ranks or measures.
    1. Interview schedule – these schedules are used during interviews to gather information. The interviewer has to ask some specific and standard questions and he has to fill up all the information obtained in the schedule.
  1. Evaluation schedule – this is used to gather information about specialized agencies or institutions. They help to study their immediate problems. Mostly, sociological and psychological research uses the evaluation schedule. The form and size of the schedule is based on the nature and complexity of the problem faced by the institution.

Advantages of Schedule

    1. It can be used in the cases where the respondents are illiterate
    1. The percentage of response is much higher in this method.
  1. The information received through schedule is more reliable and dependable

Disadvantage of Schedule

    1. It is an expensive method and requires well trained field workers to collect data
  1. The efficiency of the collected data depends upon the efficiency of the enumerators.

Interview

Interview is one of the most important powerful methods of data collection in research. It is a kind of verbal technique for the collection of data. It is a direct method of enquiry. It is noted that interview is not only spoken words but also gestures, facial expressions, voice modulations etc.  The main purpose of interview as a research method is to gather data extensively and intensively.

Types of Interview

According to the number of interviewee –

  1. Individual interview – In this type of interview only one person is interviewed. The personal interview helps to collect the confidential personal aspects of an individual. Also, it establishes an interpersonal contact between the interviewer and interviewee.
  2. Group interview – this method is used for gathering the information by interviewing two or more persons simultaneously.

According to Purpose:

    1. Diagnostic interview – this type of interview is used to diagnose the cause of disease or the cause of some abnormalities. An apt example of this is the preliminary interview help with the patient in clinical psychology.
    1. Treatment interview – this interview is carried out to make the patient aware of the cause of their illness and advices them to change the faulty lifestyle.
  1. Research interview – interviews which are conducted to gather information related to a particular problem is called research interview.

Based on subject matter:

    1. Qualitative interview – it deals with certain complex, serious non quantifiable matter. This type of interview tries to explore the cause of some events.
    1. Quantitative interview – in this certain facts are gathered about a large number of persons. Eg – census interview
  1. Mixed interview – here, both qualitative and quantitative types of data are required.

Based on the nature of approach:

    1. Structured interview – a complete set of well defined questions and a highly standardized technique of recordings are used in structured interview. The interviewer has to act according to the written instructions given in the schedule.
  1. Unstructured interview – in this, interviewer does not follow pre planned list of questions. Here, the interviewer acts as a catalyst by encouraging the interviewee to tell about his experiences.

Based on period of contact:

    1. Short contact interview – for filling up a schedule or questionnaire, a single sitting of small duration is required. A short contact interview is the best method for this situation.
  1. Prolonged contact interview – this type of interview is used to collect information from a person or a group by conducting prolonged interviews.

Advantages of interview

    1. Information collected is reliable as it is received personally.
    1. Helps to study abstract factors like attitudes, feelings, opinions etc.
    1. Highly flexible.
  1. Eliminates personal barriers and gives opportunities to study the the immediate reaction of the interviewee.

Disadvantage of interview

    1. Time consuming and costly
    1. Results depend on the interviewing skills of the interviewer.
  1. Not objective and scientific

Describe in detail the different types of research designs that can be adopted for a study

We can analyze different research designs on the basis of different types of studies such as exploratory study, descriptive study, diagnostic study and experimental study.

Exploratory study – It aims to discover the facts and insights of the problems. It helps to formulate a more precise problem or to develop a working hypothesis for research. So the research design in this type must be flexible i.e. it must provide opportunity for considering different aspects of the problem. Generally, exploratory design must consist of three methods:

    1. Survey of literature – it is considered as the most simple and important method of formulating an exact research problem or developing hypothesis. The researcher can review or evaluate an earlier stated hypothesis. All the literature related to the problem selected is to be reviewed thoroughly. It will help us to find how the problem under study relates to previous research studies.
    1. Experience survey – this survey is used to get an insight of the problem by getting the opinion from the experienced people of the concerned subject. The main aim of this survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem.
  1. Case study – a method of collecting information about an individual, family or a group is called a case study. It deals with every aspect of a unit and studies it intensively. It is helpful to study the complex behavioral patterns of a particular group. This may be helpful in gaining experience, discovery of new facts and formulation of valid hypothesis.

Descriptive study – this is concerned with projecting the exact characteristics of a particular group or situation. Also, it may be concerned with the attitude or views towards any of the particular problem. Most of the social researchers come under this category. The research design for these studies must be carefully planned to eliminate the subjective bias. The primary step in constructing a research design is to decide the objectives in detail. It involves the following steps:

    1. Formulating the objectives of study
    1. Planning the data collection method
    1. Sampling design data collection
    1. Data collection
  1. Analysis of data

Experimental studies – this is regarded with making experiments to find out the cause-effect relationship of the particular phenomenon. The main purpose of experimental hypothesis is to test a casual hypothesis. There are three principles of experimental designs:

    1. Principle of replication – according to this principle, the experiment should be repeated more than once; so that the statistical accuracy of the experiment will be increased.
    1. The principle of randomization – the principle indicates that we should plan the experiment in such a way that the variations caused by extraneous factors by randomization. Through the application of this principle the researcher can have a better estimate of the experimental error.
  1. Principle of local control – according to this principle the extraneous factor, the known source of variability is made to vary deliberately over as wide a range as necessary and this need to be done in such a way that the variability it causes can be measured and hence eliminated from the experimental error. This means, we should plan the experiment to perform a two way analysis of variance, in which the total variability of the data is divided into three components attributed to treatments, extraneous factors and experimental error.

Types of Experimental Design

Informal  experimental design – it is classified into the following:

    1. Before and after without control design – If the design consist a single test are or group; it will come under this category. The dependant variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment and is measured again after the treatment has been introduced. The effect of the treatment is counted by the differences between the level of phenomenon after the treatment and the level of phenomenon before the treatment.
    1. After only with control design – this design includes two groups or areas, test area and control area, and treatment is introduced only into the test area. The dependent variable is measured on both the areas at the same time and the treatment effect is obtained by subtracting value of the dependent variable in control area from its value in the test are.
  1. Before and after with control design – in this design two groups are selected and the dependent variable is measured in both areas for an identical time period, before the treatment has been introduced. The treatment is introduced into the test area only and after the introduction of the treatment, the dependent variable should be measured in both at the same time period. The treatment effect would be equal to the differences between the change in dependant variable in the control area and the change in dependent variable in test area.

Formal experimental design:

  1. Completely randomized design – this design consist of two principles of experimental  design viz. The principle of replication and the principle of randomization. In this the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental treatments. This design is mostly used in the experimental areas happen to be homogeneous.

Enumerate the Direct Effects of the Mass Media.

Media Effects Researches are a kind of mass communication research. The media effects research deals with the study of media effects on the audience of the various demographic profile. These studies help us to find out what kind of responses the targeted audience deliver, and how can we alter the media vehicle and message to create a favourable impact on the masses.  The media effects refer to the theories about the ways the mass media affect how their audience think and behave.

  1. Political Effects – The two theories, agenda setting theory and the spiral of silence are the basic behind the political effects of mass media. According to agenda setting theory, the media influences the importance that people give to public issues. The spiral of silence studies the effects of media on public opinions. The mass media is quite often used to promote the political interests of political groups. Image building exercises, poll campaigns, exposure of sleaze in political parties are some of the various facts of such effects.

  1. Individual effects of the media: There are six types of mass media effects on individuals, which is based on the dependency theory. According to the dependency theory, the mass media can have the following effects on individuals.

  1. Intellectual Effect: This individual media effects is based on the self-understanding effect of dependency theory. People use the media to develop their knowledge and understanding. Thus, the media helps them to grow in intellectual terms that is, in terms of education, creativity, information, current affairs, etc.
  2. Globalization Effect: Based on the social understanding effect of the dependency theory. People learn more about the world, especially about the races, economy religions, politics and cultures of the world. Example: Knowledge about political developments, economic developments, ecology, environment and other societies.
  3. Commercial Effect: The Action orientation effect of the dependency theory, people buy and sell goods, ideas and concepts to and from other people. Firms also indulge in similar processes. The mass media helps the economic development of nation through the effect of Ad world, propaganda and public relation. Example: Transnational corporations sell their goods across all the continents of the world due to their promotional and campaigns.
  4. Social Effects: The Interaction orientation effect of dependency theory, people define their behaviour patterns according to the media exposure they get from various mass media vehicles. Example: People socialize and interact with their family members, friends, colleagues and strangers according to the norms defined by the media.
  5. Solo Entertainment Effect: The Solitary play effect of the dependency theory; when a person is alone, he uses the media to entertain himself and the loneliness enables him to indulge in such acts as may not be possible to accomplish when he is moving in a group. The media affects his entertainment activities. Example: A person spending his weekend by enjoying a movie on his laptop.
  6. Group Entertainment Effect: The Social play effect of the dependency theory; the behavioural manner of an individual in a family setting is different from his friends circle. They shows quite different behavioural patterns in defined groups. The people are using the media to entertain themselves in such group also.

Contingent Effect Of The Mass Media:

  1. Violence: Media violence is the witchcraft of our society. Television, magazines, cinema and internet are the most effective vehicle of media violence nowadays. This violence includes physical duels, act of crime, a blunt refusal to obey the law and challenges posed to the established system of governance. Media violence can be both physical and mental. The acts of fight, war, robbery, hooliganism, arson etc, affect the minds of the audience in the physical sense.
  2. Sexual content: There are two types of consequence have been reported because of viewing of pornographic material, change in perceptual and behavioural consequence.
  3. Horror: The media use horror to tingle the innate fears of readers or viewers. When people become scared at a movie, their arousal system kicks into high gear. The heart rate and blood pressure increase.
  4. Disasters: Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss and destruction and devastation of life and property. Media throughout the world play a vital role in educating the public about disasters, warning of hazards, gathering and transmitting information about affected areas, alerting government officials, relief organization and the public to specific needs. Timely accurate and sensitive communication can educate, warn, inform and empower people to take practical steps to protect themselves from natural hazards.
  5. Love And Romance: The media extensively using these topics to attract the audience. The teenagers are the most easily identifiable markets for love stories, novels and romantic soap operas. The impact of this is so great that is usually crosses the limits of sanity and makes the young audiences hysterical.

According to dependency theory mass media can have the following effects on individuals:

    1. Self understanding- people depend upon media to grow in intellectual terms.
    1. Social understanding- people depend upon media to learn about world and their community.
    1. Action orientation- people depend upon media to decide what to buy and how to act.
    1. Interaction orientation- people depend upon media to decide how they would behave with others.
    1. Solitary play- people depend upon media to entertain themselves when they are alone.
    1. Social play – people depend upon media to entertain themselves when they are in groups. Acc to present media scenario we would classify individual effects of media as follows:
    1. Intellectual effect- this is based on the self understanding effect of the dependency theory. People use media to develop their knowledge and understanding.
    1. Globalization effect- based on social understanding effect, people learn more about the world, especially about the races, economy, religions, polity and the cultures of the world.
    1. Commercial effects- based on the action orientation effect, people buy and sell goods, ideas and concepts to and from other people. Forms also indulge in similar processes. Mass media helps the economic development of nation.
    1. Social effect- based on the interaction orientation effect, people define their behavior patterns acc to the media exposure they get from various mass media vehicles.
    1. Solo entertainment effect- based on the solitary play effect, when a person is alone he uses media to entertain himself and the loneliness enables him to indulge in such acts as may not be possible to accomplish when he is moving in a group.
  1. Group entertainment effect- based on social play affect, the behavioral manner of an individual in a family setting is different from his friend circle. This show quite different behavioural patterns in defined groups because of the media they use to entertain themselves.

Explain the scope of Mass Media Research.

This is the only piece… the only whole.. Which I found, I did not even change the font.

Just try and understand, no biggie…. Just do

Media research includes a whole range of study about the development of media, their achievements and effects. It includes the methods used in collecting and analyzing information with regard to newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, Cinema or other mass media. It also concerns with an expanded discussion of the scientific methods of research. The scope of mass media research can be applied in following four categories:

  1. Research in public relation
  2. Research in media effect
  3. Research in print media
  4. Research in advertising
  5. Research in electronic media

1. Research in public relations:

Public relation is a practice of managing the communication between an organization and its publics. Edward Louis Bernays define public relations as “a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interests of an organizations followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. The essential functions of public relations include research, planning, communication dialogue, action and evaluation. Research is vital function in the process of public relations. It provides the initial information necessary to plan public relations actions and to evaluate its effectiveness. Management demands hard facts, not intuition or guesswork. Public relation research serves three functions. They are:

  1. They confirms the assumptions and intuitions about the state of public opinion on an issue, a product or company.
  2. They clarify questions on which limited information is available on which apparently contradictory data are to be found
  3. They reorients our thinking and conceptualization on a public relation problems

Research in public relation takes place at all phases of the public relation process. The most meaningful way to conduct public relation research is to examine the various ways research is used in the public relation process. For this purpose, the public relation process can be divided into four steps:

  1. Defining public relation problems: It includes environmental monitoring programs, public relation audits, communication audits, social audits.
  2. Planning public relation program
  3. Implementing public relation program:
  4. Evaluating the program

2. Research in Media Effects:

Media effects researches are a kind of mass communication research. The media effects research deals the study of media effects on the audience of various demographic profile. These studies help us to find out what kind of responses the targeted audience deliver, and how can we alter the media vehicle and message to create a favourable impacts on the masses.  The media effects refers to the theories about the ways the mass media affect how their audience think and behave. They are four types of media effects they are:

  1. Micro and macro level effects: The micro level effects involve effects on individual media consumers. For example: studies were conducted to find out audiences reaction to horror movies. The macro-level effects examines the effects of media on large communities. The research conclusions were drawn and generalized based on the given community. For example: studies were conducted to find out effects of horror movies on audience.
  2. Content specific and general effects: In content specific effect, the researcher asks whether the effects have reunited due to the media by giving any consideration to content. The general effects deals how the media would bring about general effects.
  3. Attitudinal versus behavioural versus cognitive changes: Some effects are peculiar in the sense that they change attitude of people. However, attitude change does not always change the behaviour of a person sometimes, cognitive changes could also be worth to study.
  4. Alteration versus stabilization: Most of the researchers estimate that the media could change public opinion. Thus, alternation could be one field of study and other researches opine that media effects relate to how media messages reinforce the status quo and exert force for effecting stability

Strengths of Mass media effects research:

  1. It is helpful to determine the harmful effects of the media on all sections of the society that ought to be protected from violence, horror, pornography etc
  2. It makes government aware of and responsible for media regulation in the country
  3. It provide new knowledge and helps the researcher to create new theories
  4. It helps the media barons alter the programmes and techniques so that the needs of the market niches could be satisfied.

Limitations of mass media effect research:

  1. Most of the researchers conduct tests in controlled environment. However , the results may not be applicable to real-life situations
  2. This type of research is very costly
  3. The lack of electronic gadget to support research effects is another drawback

3. Research in Print media research:

The print media research focuses more on practical application. The mass media research begins with the print media like magazines and newspapers. The research methodology used for print media is same as those used in other areas of research. Most of the early print media research was qualitative. The arrival of online newspaper and magazines has prompted a busy new research area as traditional newspaper and magazines try to assess the competition from the internet and examine how online version relate to the traditional paper form. There are six types of research studies carried out in the print media they are:

  1. Readership research: This type of research started in United States immediately after the World War II and it was developed by George Gallup organization. They conduct a personal interview in which the respondents are asked to identify the article they had read from a selected newspaper. The readership research is important in newspaper industry as it helps to get the detailed information about the readers and accordingly they could change the content of a publication. Research into newspaper readership contains five types. They are: find

Item selection studies: It is used to determine who reads specific parts of the newspapers. The researcher shows a copy of a newspaper to the reader to find out which stories he/she remembers. The researcher selects some particular items for which readership data are to be gathered and ask the readers about that item only. Example: tracking study of a particular news story may reveal that 48% of the subjects had read the headline, 22% the text and 30% the cutline.

User and gratification studies: It is used to determine the motives that lead to newspaper reading and the personal and psychological rewards that results from it. Example: I read the newspaper because it is an habit/relaxation.

Reader’s profile: It gives a demographic summary of the readers of a publication. These data can be used to focus the content of the publication, prepare advertising campaign and increase subscription.

Editor reader comparison: Here, researcher questions a group of editors about some topics and these answers are compared with those of their readers to find out whether there is any kind of similarity between their opinions.

Reader-Non-reader studies: It tries to find out the reasons why people do not read the newspaper. It can be conducted by personal, telephone or mail interviews with public.

  1. Circulation research: It refers to number of copies of a magazines or newspaper sold through paid subscriptions and other sales by mail or single copies. It focuses on the demand of print media in different markets and its delivery and pricing systems.
  2. Newspaper management research: It is used to study newspaper management are the same as those used to study any business activity. The key topics that attracted the researcher attention is the management research are goal setting by management, organizational structure, employee job satisfaction and effects of competition and ownership on newspaper content and quality.
  3. Website usability research: It is a method by which users of a product or services are asked to perform certain tasks in an effort to measure the product or services ease of use, its easy time, and the users’ perception of the experience. With respect to newspaper and magazines, usability research deals with the usefulness and convenience of a publications website.
  4. Research in Advertising: Advertising research means “the systematic gathering, recording and analysis of the data dealing with the effectiveness of advertisement”. It is conducted to find how the targeted audience or prospective customers would respond to a particular advertisement. It reveals the reactions of targeted markets and is useful for evaluating the effectiveness of advertising during the strategic and evaluative stages of a campaign. There are two functional research areas in advertising such as:
  5. Copy research: it refers to research that helps to develop effective advertisements and then determines which of several advertisements is the most effective. It take place at every state of the advertising process.
  6. Media research: The ultimate aim of media research is to find whether the media audience match the characteristics of advertisers target audience and its efficiency to reach the target audience. There are mainly three types of media audiences being studied. They are:
  •       Broadcast audiences
  •       Print media audiences
  •       Internet audiences

5. Research in Electronic Media:

It is an important management tool for successful manager for several decades because managers need to know what their target audience wants. There are many types of researchers in the electronic media who provide the quality information that is needed.

A.Rating research:

Nielsen Media research: It is located in Northbrook, founded in 1945 and it is the world’s largest market research company. It involved in television ratings in several countries throughout the world, and includes ratings and research for “national broadcast and table networks, regional networks, syndicators, television stations, local cable TV systems, satellite distributors, advertising agencies and advertisers, program producers, station representatives and buying services”. Nielsen media research uses two types of data collection methods: Diaries and Electronic meters.

  1. Non-rating research:
  2. 1. Program testing: Program testing provides information about the script, characterizations, character relationships, settings, cinematic approach and overall appeal.
  3. Music research: It provide the radio stations listeners which music they like to hear and to avoid the songs that they do not like or are tired of hearing. They use two primary research procedures a. Auditorium music testing b. Callout research testing
  4. Program research and consultation: Several companies conduct mass media research. Although each company specializes in specific areas of broadcasting and uses different procedures, they all have a common goal; to provide management with data to use in decision making.
  5. Performer Q: Producers and directors in broadcasting naturally want to have an indication of the popularity of various performers and entertainers. Example: Which performer should be used to give the show the greatest appeal?
  6. 5. Focus group: It used to develop questionnaires for further research and to provide preliminary information on a variety of topics, such as format and programming changes, personalities, station images and lifestyle characteristics of the audience. Data is the last category are particularly useful when the focus group consists of a specific demographic segment.


Elaborate the role of research in media.

There isn’t any area in Mass media that doesn’t conduct or use research. Research is the only area in mass media that relates it to everything. Every time we raise a “who, what, when, where, why, how questions we have developed an investigative question.

For example why do people choose to watch one television program over another, how internet affected readership of newspapers, what type of articles are most popular in magazines, when is the best time to broadcast a youth related programme. Research helps provide answer to these questions. Most importantly, it is a valid way of obtaining accurate information. Research is scientific therefore it is verifiable, objective, empirical, systematic, cumulative and logical.

As mentioned earlier there isn’t any area in Mass Media which doesn’t use research, we shall further discuss about the use of research in different media forms:

Electronic Media: Electronic media research studies today fall into two main categories: ratings and non ratings research. The data for ratings surveys are currently gathered by two methods: diaries and electronic meters (commonly called people meters). There are many types of non ratings research used by the electronic media. This type of research provides information about what the audience likes and dislikes analyses of different types of programming, demographic and lifestyle information about the audience.

Print Media: While there are many types of research conducted by the print media, these are the types of research that have gained most attention in the past several years:

    1. Readership: the most widely used of all print research procedures including research in areas such as reader profiles, item-selection studies, reader-nonreader studies, editor-reader comparisons, and psychographic and lifestyle segmentation studies.
    1. Circulation: research about who reads the newspaper or magazine, how can circulation be increased, and what the readers want to have included in their newspaper or magazine.
    1. Management: research concerning goal setting by management, employee job satisfaction, and effects of competition and ownership on newspaper content and quality.
    1. Readability: research on all the elements and their interactions that affect the success of a piece of printed material.
    1. Online media usage: research concerning the Internet and how it affects newspaper and magazine reading.
  1. Advertising and Public Relations: Just as with the other media, research in advertising and public relations includes a variety of topic, some of which include:

Copy Testing: research on the effectiveness of advertising.

  1. Reach and frequency: how many people are exposed to advertising?
  2. Internet-related: research on how the Internet affects advertising and public relations.
  3. Campaign assessment: research on the success of an advertising campaign.
  4. Public relations: applied, basic, and introspective research to examine specific practical issues.
  5. Public relations audit: a comprehensive study of the public relations position of an organization.
  6. Social audit: a small-scale monitoring program to measure how well a company is living up to its public responsibilities.
  7. Internet: The Internet has quickly become a mass medium, and it is changing every day. However, one thing is certain about the Internet, and that is it will provide a countless number of research possibilities for mass media researchers. Consider some of the possibilities:

Online research: respondents answer questions using Internet-based questionnaires.

  1. Web site research: what makes a good website? How can more people be attracted to a website?
  2. Music testing: radio stations and music companies test short segments (hooks) of songs.
  3. Advertising testing: respondents provide reactions to audio, video, and print advertising.

Mass Media is a commercial industry. Like any other business, its primary motive is to get the highest numbers. The numbers may refer to sales, profit or audience. Therefore, one important factor of media research is it helps them attain the goal. It involves a 3 step process. Firstly, find what the people want and then give it to them. Lastly, let them know that you gave it to them. Researches help find what people want, also they find out what is the best way to give it to them and also they find the best means for advertising the program. Thus research is included in every step of the process.

Research thus aids decision making. Regardless of the area that we are involved in mass media, we will be involved in mass media research. There is no area of mass media that hasn’t been affected by research. Research is an integral part of mass media because it results in better and accurate reporting which ultimately results in better decisions.


Explain the various types of primary data collection methods available to a researcher.

Observation

Observation is the most popular method of data collection. If the observation is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to check and controls on validity and reliability, then it becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection in research process. It is thus, a systematic and careful watching of facts as they occur in course of nature. It involves watching test subjects without interacting with them. In other words, observation implies use of eyes rather than of ears and voice.

Types of observation

    1. Direct and indirect observation – In direct observation, the observer is physically present and personally monitors the particular situation. It allows the observer to react to and report mild aspects of events and behavior as they occur. Direct observation helps him to concentrate on unexpected events if any occur. Information overload, observer’s weakness, boredom and distractive events can reduce the accuracy and completeness of such events. If the observation is carried on with the help of some recording done by photographic or electronic means, it is termed as indirect observation. This is a permanent record that can be reanalyzed to find many different aspects of an event.
    1. Simple and systematic observation – the observation used to collect data at the exploratory stage is known as simple observation. The observation which employs standardized procedures, training to observer’s schedule for recording and other devices to control the observer and the subject is called as systematic observation.
    1. Casual and scientific observation – the observation without any previous preparation is the casual observation. The researcher observes things as a matter of chance i.e. the right thing at the right time and in the right place. If the observation is done with the help of certain measurement tools, it is called the scientific observation.
    1. Subjective and objective observation – every act of observation consist of two components the object and the subject. If one observes one’s own immediate experience it is termed as subjective observation. If the observer observes things which are not related with him is called objective observation.
  1. Structured and unstructured observation – structured observation consists of careful definition of the units to be observed, information to be recorded, selection of relevant data for observation and standardization of conditions of observations. This kind of observation records only the listed behavior in the form. It is used in studies which provide systematic observation or to these causal hypotheses. It is appropriate in descriptive studies. In unstructured observation the conditions mentioned in the structured are not standardized. It is flexible in character and this kind of observation is used in exploratory studies.

Advantages of observation

    1. Simple and non technical and the researcher requires less training.
    1. Basis of formulating hypothesis.
    1. Provides more accurate and reliable data.
  1. The researcher is gathering observed information rather than data relating to intentions or preferences.

Disadvantages of observation

    1. This method does not examine motives or feelings towards a particular behavior.
    1. The findings are limited to those observed.
    1. Opinions and attitudes cannot be gathered by observation.
  1. It is a long term process.

Questionnaire

A questionnaire is a tool for obtaining answers to questions by using a form which the respondent fills by himself. It consists a number of questions which is systematically compiled and organized in a set of forms. It is mostly used to gather information from widely scattered sources. The main purpose of questionnaire is to collect the information from the respondents who are scattered in a vast area and to achieve in collecting reliable and dependable data.

Types of questionnaire

    1. Structured and unstructured questionnaire – the questionnaire which consists contains definite concrete and direct questions is known as structured questionnaires. This kind of questionnaire is used to initiate a formal enquiry and also to supplement and check the previously accumulated data. A non structured questionnaire is used as an interview guide. The researcher is free to arrange the form or statements of the questionnaire. It may consist of partially completed questions or statements. The main advantage of this method is its flexibility.
    1. Open questionnaire – in this the respondents are free to express their views or ideas as it is open end or unrestricted type of questionnaire. It probably provides a greater depth of response and is used where new facts are to be revealed. The main drawback of this type is that it is difficult to interpret, tabulate and summarise in the research report.
    1. Closed questionnaire – the respondent cannot express his own judgement in the closed questionnaire. It contains questions that call for short check response like marking yes or no answers or choose answer from a set of provided responses. It is more objective and easy to tabulate and analyze. Moreover, it is easy to fill out, takes less time and more acceptable and convenient ot the respondent.
  1. Mixed questions – it consists of both open and close ended questionnaire. This method is very useful in social research.

Advantages of questionnaire

    1. It is more economical
    1. The respondents gets enough time to answer the questions
    1. It can be conveniently reached to respondents who are not easily accessible
  1. The result should be dependable and reliable

Disadvantages of questionnaire

    1. Cannot be used with illiterates
    1. The proportion of return is very low
    1. There is a chance of misinterpretation of the question
  1. It involves uncertainty about the response

Schedule

A schedule is a set of questions or blank table which are to be filled by the research workers after getting information from the respondents. The main difference between questionnaire and schedule is that in a schedule, the investigator himself presents the questions to the individuals whose responses are required. It may contain two types of questions, direct questions and form of a table. Schedule is the name usually applied to a set of questions which are asked and filled by the interviewer, in face-to-face situation with another.

Types of schedule

    1. Document schedule – the schedules used to obtain data from case histories, documents, official record etc. come under the document schedules. It is an easy method for collecting preliminary data.
    1. Observation schedule – this schedule is used to record observation of the researcher under specific condition. He can observe and record the activities or responses of an individual or a group. It is mainly used to verify information.
    1. Rating schedule – these are mainly used in sociological or psychological research to assess the attitudes, opinions, preferences, inhibitions etc. In this type, the above mentioned qualities will be rated on the basis of different ranks or measures.
    1. Interview schedule – these schedules are used during interviews to gather information. The interviewer has to ask some specific and standard questions and he has to fill up all the information obtained in the schedule.
  1. Evaluation schedule – this is used to gather information about specialized agencies or institutions. They help to study their immediate problems. Mostly, sociological and psychological research use the evaluation schedule. The form and size of the schedule is based on the nature and complexity of the problem faced by the institution.

Advantages of Schedule

    1. It can be used in the cases where the respondents are illiterate
    1. The percentage of response is much higher in this method.
  1. The information received through schedule is more reliable and dependable

Disadvantage of schedule

    1. It is an expensive method and requires well trained field workers to collect data
  1. The efficiency of the collected data depends upon the efficiency of the enumerators.

Interview

Interview is one of the most important powerful method of data collection in research. It is a kind of verbal technique for the collection of data. It is a direct method of enquiry. It is noted that interview is not only spoken words but also gestures, facial expressions, voice modulations etc.  the main purpose of interview as a research method, is to gather data extensively and intensively.

Types of interview

According to the number of interviewee –

  1. Individual interview – In this type of interview only one person is interviewed. The personal interview helps to collect the confidential personal aspects of an individual. Also, it establishes an inter personal contact between the interviewer and interviewee.
  2. Group interview – this method is used for gathering the information by interviewing two or more persons simultaneously.

According to purpose:

1.Diagnostic interview – this type of  interview is used to diagnose the cause of disease or the cause of some abnormalities. An apt example of this is the preliminary interview help with the patient in clinical psychology.

  1. Treatment interview – this interview is carried out to make the patient aware of the cause of their illness and advices them to change the faulty lifestyle.
  2. Research interview – interviews which are conducted to gather information related to a particular problem is called research interview.

Based on subject matter:

    1. Qualitative interview – it deals with certain complex, serious non quantifiable matter. This type of interview tries to explore the cause of some events.
    1. Quantitative interview – in this certain facts are gathered about a large number of persons. Eg – census interview
  1. Mixed interview – here, both qualitative and quantitative types of data are required.

Based on the nature of approach:

    1. Structured interview – a complete set of well defined questions and a highly standardized technique of recordings are used in structured interview. The interviewer has to act according to the written instructions given in the schedule.
  1. Unstructured interview – in this, interviewer does not follow pre planned list of questions. Here, the interviewer acts as a catalyst by encouraging the interviewee to tell about his experiences.

Based on period of contact:

    1. Short contact interview – for filling up a schedule or questionnaire, a single sitting of small duration is required. A short contact interview is the best method for this situation.
  1. Prolonged contact interview – this type of interview is used to collect information from a person or a group by conducting prolonged interviews.

Advantages of interview

    1. Information collected is reliable as it is received personally.
    1. Helps to study abstract factors like attitudes, feelings, opinions etc.
    1. Highly flexible.
  1. Eliminates personal barriers and gives opportunities to study the the immediate reaction of the interviewee.

Disadvantage of interview

    1. Time consuming and costly
    1. Results depend on the interviewing skills of the interviewer.
  1. Not objective and scientific

Explain the different types of secondary data collection methods available to a researcher.

The data which has already been collected, dabulated and presented by someone else is called as secondary data. Economic surveys and reviews published by the govt departments, books, journals, senses, data, research reports etc are the examples of secondary data. The secondary data may either be external and internal in character.

    1. Internal secondary data- the data that already exists within the organization which is used for research is internal secondary data. This means that the data is generated from the activities within a form. For eg: sales record, budget, previous market, etc.
  1. External secondary data: it is the data which collected from outside the organization or unit. It maybe published or unpublished. The documents published by the journal, newspapers, commercial agencies, diaries, letters etc are some examples of external source of secondary data.

If the researcher is using secondary data, he must be very careful. Occasionally, it may be unsuitable or inadequate in the context of the problem which the researcher wants to study. So he must make an in depth analysis of the available data to find out whether it is applicable for him or not.

Importance of secondary data:

    1. It helps the researcher to complete the project punctually, as he cannot spend more time in data collection
    1. It helps the researcher to formulate the hypothesis.
    1. It is also useful to test the formulated hypothesis.
    1. The secondary data helps the researcher to find the gap in the concerned area of the study.
    1. It can be used as a basis for comparison with the primary data that the researcher has just collected.
  1. It provides supportive information for the research. It gives an insight to the total situation study.

Primary data collection is more authentic than secondary data. State your views with respect to the given statement.

This is a personal response question, but here are points to elaborate on

BASIS FOR COMPARISON PRIMARY DATA SECONDARY DATA
Meaning Primary data refers to the first hand data gathered by the researcher himself. Secondary data means data collected by someone else earlier.
Data Real time data Past data
Process Very involved Quick and easy
Source Surveys, observations, experiments, questionnaire, personal interview, etc. Government publications, websites, books, journal articles, internal records etc.
Cost effectiveness Expensive Economical
Collection time Long Short
Specific Always specific to the researcher’s needs. May or may not be specific to the researcher’s need.
Available in Crude form Refined form
Accuracy and Reliability More Relatively less

Key Differences Between Primary and Secondary Data

The fundamental differences between primary and secondary data are discussed in the following points:

    • The term primary data refers to the data originated by the researcher for the first time. Secondary data is the already existing data, collected by the investigator agencies and organisations earlier.
    • Primary data is a real-time data whereas secondary data is one which relates to the past.
    • Primary data is collected for addressing the problem at hand while secondary data is collected for purposes other than the problem at hand.
    • Primary data collection is a very involved process. On the other hand, secondary data collection process is rapid and easy.
    • Primary data collection sources include surveys, observations, experiments, questionnaire, personal interview, etc. On the contrary, secondary data collection sources are government publications, websites, books, journal articles, internal records etc.
    • Primary data collection requires a large amount of resources like time, cost and manpower. Conversely, secondary data is relatively inexpensive and quickly available.
    • Primary data is always specific to the researcher’s needs, and he controls the quality of research. In contrast, secondary data is neither specific to the researcher’s need, nor he has control over the data quality.
    • Primary data is available in the raw form whereas secondary data is the refined form of primary data. It can also be said that secondary data is obtained when statistical methods are applied to the primary data.
  • Data collected through primary sources are more reliable and accurate as compared to the secondary sources.

What is literature review? Highlight the role of literature review in the Research Process.

A literature review is a text of a scholarly paper, which includes the current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and do not report new or original experimental work. Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such reviews are found in academic journals, and are not to be confused with book reviews that may also appear in the same publication. Literature reviews are a basis for research in nearly every academic field.

 A narrow-scope literature review may be included as part of a peer-reviewed journal article presenting new research, serving to situate the current study within the body of the relevant literature and to provide context for the reader. In such a case, the review usually precedes the methodology and results sections of the work.

Producing a literature review may also be part of graduate and post-graduate student work, including in the preparation of a thesis, dissertation, or a journal article. Literature reviews are also common in a research proposal or prospectus (the document that is approved before a student formally begins a dissertation or thesis).

The purpose of a literature review is to:

    1. Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied.
    1. Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration.
    1. Identify new ways to interpret prior research.
    1. Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature.
    1. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.
    1. Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort.
    1. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research.
    1. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature 
  1. Doing a careful and thorough literature review is essential when you write about research at any level. It is basic homework that is assumed to have been done vigilantly, and a given fact in all research papers. By providing one, usually offered in your introduction before you reach your thesis statement, you are telling your reader that you have not neglected the basics of research.

It not only surveys what research has been done in the past on your topic, but it also appraises, encapsulates, compares and contrasts, and correlates various scholarly books, research articles, and other relevant sources that are directly related to your current research.

Given the fundamental nature of providing one, your research paper will be not considered seriously if it is lacking one at the beginning of your paper.

  1. It Creates a Rapport with Your Audience

A literature review helps you create a sense of rapport with your audience or readers so they can trust that you have done your homework. As a result, they can give you credit for your due diligence: you have done your fact-finding and fact-checking mission, one of the initial steps of any research writing.

As a student, you may not be an expert in a given field; however, by listing a thorough review in your research paper, you are telling the audience, in essence, that you know what you are talking about. As a result, the more books, articles, and other sources you can list in the literature review, the more trustworthy your scholarship and expertise will be. Depending on the nature of your research paper, each entry can be long or short.

For example, if you are writing a doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, the entries can be longer than the ones in a term paper. The key is to stick to the gist of the sources as you synthesize the source in the review: its thesis, research methods, findings, issues, and further discussions mentioned in the source.

  1. It Helps You Avoid Incidental Plagiarism

Imagine this scenario. You have written a research paper, an original paper in your area of specialization, without a literature review. When you are about to publish the paper, you soon learn that someone has already published a paper on a topic very similar to yours. Of course, you have not plagiarized anything from that publication; however, if and when you publish your work, people will be suspicious of your authenticity.

They will ask further about the significance of repeating similar research. In short, you could have utilized the time, money, and other resources you have wasted on your research on something else. Had you prepared a literature review at the onset of your research, you could have easily avoided such mishap. During the compilation of your review, you could have noticed how someone else has done similar research on your topic. By knowing this fact, you can tailor or tweak your own research in such a way that it is not a mere rehashing of someone else’s original or old idea.

  1. It Sharpens Your Research Focus

As you assemble outside sources, you will condense, evaluate, synthesize, and paraphrase the gist of outside sources in your own words. Through this process of winnowing, you will be able to place the relevance of your research in the larger context of what others researchers have already done on your topic in the past (See Reference 1).

The literature review will help you compare and contrast what you are doing in the historical context of the research as well as how your research is different or original from what others have done, helping you rationalize why you need to do this particular research

Perhaps you are using a new or different research method which has not been available before, allowing you to collect the data more accurately or conduct an experiment that is more precise and exact thanks to many innovations of modern technology. Thus, it is essential in helping you shape and guide your research in the direction you may not have thought of by offering insights and different perspectives on the research topic.


Write a note on Projective Techniques as a method of data collection.

I knoeweth not


Explain the application and benefits of any three attitude measuring scales

    1. Rating scale – rating scales can be applicable for measuring attitudes and the intensity of the attitudes. It is a qualitative description of limited number of aspects of an object under study. In the rating scales, we could judge properties of objects in definite terms against some particular criteria; and without reference to other similar objects. We could use the forms such as ‘like-dislike’, ‘excellent-good’, ‘average-below’, ‘average-above’, ‘strongly-agree’, ‘strongly-disagree’, and so on. There is no hard and fast rule for using point scales, like two point scales, three point scales, four point scales. Generally, three to five point scales are used because the more points on a scale provides a chance for greater sensitivity of measurement.
    1. Semantic scale – this type of scale makes extensive use of words rather than numbers. Respondents describe their feelings about the products or brands on scales with semantic labels. When bipolar adjectives are used at the end points of the scales, these are termed as semantic differential scale.
  1. Likert scale – a Likert scale is what is termed as summated instrument scale. That means, the items making up a Likert scale are summed to produce a total score. Infact, a Likert scale is composite of itemized scales. It comprises of a number of statements which express either positive or negative attitude towards the given object. The respondent has to express his attitude, with each statement. Each response is given a numerical score to measure the respondent’s degree of attitude. The overall score represent the respondent’s position on the continuum of positive-negative approach towards an issue. In Likert scale, the respondent is asked to respond to each of the statement in terms of several degrees; for instance (a) strongly agree (b) agree (c)neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree. Each point on the scale carries a score, the least favourable point may carry the least score and the most favourable one may score 5 for a five point scale.

Advantages of Likert scale are:

    1. Simple and easy to construct
    1. More reliable
    1. Easily used in respondent centered and stimulus centered studies
  1. Allows the use of statements that is noticeably related to the attitude being studied

  1. Itemized rating scale – in this, respondents are provided with a scale having numbers or brief description associated with each category. Then the respondents are asked to select one of the limited numbers of categories, ordered in terms of scale position which describes the product, brand and company or product attribute being studied. It provides flexibility to use as many points in the scale as considered necessary.
  2. Cumulative scale – this scale also consists of series of statements to which a respondent expresses his agreement or disagreement. The individual score is calculated by counting the number of statements he answers favorable. We could use ‘X’ for agree and ‘—‘for disagree. The Scalogram Analysis developed by Louis Guttman is popularly used for analyzing cumulative scales. Scalogram analysis refers to the procedures for determining whether a list of items forms a unidimensional scale. If the responses fall into a pattern in which endorsement of the item reflecting the extreme position results also in endorsing all items which are less extreme, we could say that the scales unidimensional. Under this technique the respondents are asked to indicate the respect of each item whether they agree or disagree with it.

Advantages of cumulative scale are:

    1. A single dimension of attitude is being measured
    1. Subjective judgement is not allowed
    1. Requires a small number of items for analysis
    1. Simple process and easy to administer
  1. Appropriate for personal, telephone or mail survey

What is Hypothesis? Write a note on different types of Hypothesis.

A hypothesis is simply an assumption or supposition to be proved. At initial stage, it may be an imagined idea or mere guess. Moreover, a research hypothesis is a predictive statement, capable of being tested by scientific methods, that relates an independent variable to some dependent variable. According to Webster, hypothesis is a proposition, condition or principle which is assumed, perhaps without belief, in order to draw out its logical consequences and by this method to test its accord with facts which are known or may be determined.

Types of hypothesis

    1. Crude – it is a very low order of abstraction. Largely, it indicated the kind of data to be gathered and does not vary the lead to any higher theoretical research in the nature of a law or a theory. The descriptive method of research is an apt example of this type.
  1. Refined – this type is more significant in research. The degree of significance depending on the level of abstraction underlying the hypothesis. There are three different levels of abstraction in the refined type:
    1. At the lowest level of abstraction the hypothesis states that the existence of certain empirical uniformities are common in sociological research.
    1. A complex ideal type of hypothesis is at the higher level of abstraction. These hypothesis aim at testing whether logically derived relationships between uniformities are obtained.  This level of hypothesis moves beyond the level of anticipating a simple empirical uniformity by creating a complex referent in society.
  1. The highest level if abstraction is concerned with the relation of analytic variables. Such hypotheses are statements about how changes in one property will affect the other.

Hypothesis may be further classified into the following:

    1. Descriptive hypothesis – these are propositions that typically state the existence, size, form or distribution of some variable. Also, it describes the cause-effect relationship of a phenomenon.
    1. Relational hypothesis – if a statement describes the relationship between two variables, it is called a relational hypothesis. Otherwise, when a relationship between variables can be directly and more accurately observed, the linkage may state that A causes B or that B causes A.
    1. Explanatory hypothesis – these are propositions which strongly imply or state the existence of or a change in one variable causes or leads to an effect on another variable. The first variable is typically called the independent variable and the latter is called the dependant variable.
  1. Null hypothesis – when a hypothesis is stated negatively, it is called a null hypothesis. The objective of this hypothesis is to avoid the personal ias of the investigator in the matter of collection of data. A null hypothesis is used to collect additional support for the known hypothesis.

Explain Qualitative Research and its features in detail.

A: Qualitative research is a type of social science research that collects and works with non-numerical data and that seeks to interpret meaning from these data that help us understand social life through the study of targeted populations or places. People often frame it in opposition to quantitative research, which uses numerical data to identify large-scale trends and employs statistical operations to determine causal and correlative relationships between variables.

Within sociology, qualitative research is typically focused on the micro-level of social interaction that composes everyday life, whereas quantitative research typically focuses on macro-level trends and phenomena.

Methods of qualitative research include observation and immersion, interviews, open-ended surveys, focus groups, content analysis of visual and textual materials, and oral history. 

The Purpose of Qualitative Research

Qualitative research has a long history in sociology and has been used within it for as long as the field itself has existed. This type of research has long appealed to social scientists because it allows the research to investigate the meanings that people attribute to their behavior, actions, and interactions with others. While quantitative research is useful for identifying relationships between variables, like, for example, the connection between poverty and racial hate, it is qualitative research that can illuminate why this connection exists by going directly to the source — the people themselves.

Qualitative research is designed to reveal the meaning that informs the action or outcomes that are typically measured by quantitative research. So, qualitative researchers investigate meanings, interpretations, symbols, and the processes and relations of social life. What this type of research produces is descriptive data that the researcher must then interpret using rigorous and systematic methods of transcribing, coding, and analysis of trends and themes.

Because its focus is everyday life and people’s experiences, qualitative research lends itself well to creating new theories using the inductive method, which can then be tested with further research.

The Design

    1. Naturalistic — refers to studying real-world situations as they unfold naturally; non manipulative and non controlling; the researcher is open to whatever emerges [i.e., there is a lack of predetermined constraints on findings].
    1. Emergent — acceptance of adapting inquiry as understanding deepens and/or situations change; the researcher avoids rigid designs that eliminate responding to opportunities to pursue new paths of discovery as they emerge.
  1. Purposeful — cases for study [e.g., people, organizations, communities, cultures, events, critical incidents] are selected because they are “information rich” and illuminative. That is, they offer useful manifestations of the phenomenon of interest; sampling is aimed at insight about the phenomenon, not empirical generalization derived from a sample and applied to a population.

The Collection of Data

    1. Data — observations yield a detailed, “thick description” [in-depth understanding]; interviews capture direct quotations about people’s personal perspectives and lived experiences; often derived from carefully conducted case studies and review of material culture.
    1. Personal experience and engagement — researcher has direct contact with and gets close to the people, situation, and phenomenon under investigation; the researcher’s personal experiences and insights are an important part of the inquiry and critical to understanding the phenomenon.
    1. Empathic neutrality — an empathic stance in working with study respondents seeks vicarious understanding without judgment [neutrality] by showing openness, sensitivity, respect, awareness, and responsiveness; in observation, it means being fully present [mindfulness].
  1. Dynamic systems — there is attention to process; assumes change is ongoing, whether the focus is on an individual, an organization, a community, or an entire culture, therefore, the researcher is mindful of and attentive to system and situationational dynamics.

The Analysis

    1. Unique case orientation — assumes that each case is special and unique; the first level of analysis is being true to, respecting, and capturing the details of the individual cases being studied; cross-case analysis follows from and depends upon the quality of individual case studies.
    1. Inductive analysis — immersion in the details and specifics of the data to discover important patterns, themes, and inter-relationships; begins by exploring, then confirming findings, guided by analytical principles rather than rules.
    1. Holistic perspective — the whole phenomenon under study is understood as a complex system that is more than the sum of its parts; the focus is on complex interdependencies and system dynamics that cannot be reduced in any meaningful way to linear, cause and effect relationships and/or a few discrete variables.
    1. Context sensitive — places findings in a social, historical, and temporal context; researcher is careful about [even dubious of] the possibility or meaningfulness of generalizations across time and space; emphasizes careful comparative case analyses and extrapolating patterns for possible transferability and adaptation in new settings.
  1. Voice, perspective, and reflexivity — the qualitative methodologist owns and is reflective about her or his own voice and perspective; a credible voice conveys authenticity and trustworthiness; complete objectivity being impossible and pure subjectivity undermining credibility, the researcher’s focus reflects a balance between understanding and depicting the world authentically in all its complexity and of being self-analytical, politically aware, and reflexive in consciousness.


Explain Quantitative Research and its features in detail.

A: In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Quantitative data is any data that is in numerical form such as statistics, percentages, etc. The researcher analyses the data with the help of statistics and hopes the numbers will yield an unbiased result that can be generalized to some larger population. Qualitative research, on the other hand, inquires deeply into specific experiences, with the intention of describing and exploring meaning through text, narrative, or visual-based data, by developing themes exclusive to that set of participants

In social sciences, quantitative research is widely used in psychology, economics, demography, sociology, marketing, community health, health & human development, gender and political science, and less frequently in anthropology and history. Research in mathematical sciences such as physics is also ‘quantitative’ by definition, though this use of the term differs in context. In the social sciences, the term relates to empirical methods, originating in both philosophical positivism and the history of statistics, which contrast with qualitative research methods.

Qualitative research produces information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses. Quantitative methods can be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true

Quantitative methods are those research methods that use numbers as its basis for making generalizations about a phenomenon. These numbers originate from objective scales of measurement of the units of analysis called variables. Four types of measurement scale exist namely nominal, ordinal, ratio, and interval.

The data that will serve as the basis for explaining a phenomenon, therefore, can be gathered through surveys. Such surveys use instruments that require numerical inputs or direct measurements of parameters that characterize the subject of investigation (e.g. pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, turbidity, and conductivity to measure water quality). These numbers will then be analyzed using the appropriate statistical application software to unravel significant relationships or differences between variables. The output serves as the basis for making the conclusions and generalizations of the study.

7 Characteristics of Quantitative Methods

Seven characteristics discriminate qualitative methods of research from qualitative ones.

    1. Data gathering instruments contain items that solicit measurable characteristics of the population (e.g. age, the number of children, educational status, economic status).
    1. Standardized, pre-tested instruments guide data collection thus ensuring the accuracy, reliability and validity of data.
    1. For more reliable data analysis, a normal population distribution curve is preferred over a non-normal distribution. This requires a large population, the numbers of which depend on how the characteristics of the population vary. This requires adherence to the principle of random sampling to avoid researcher bias in interpreting the results that defeat the purpose of research.
    1. The data obtained using quantitative methods are organized using tables, graphs, or figures that consolidate large numbers of data to show trends, relationships, or differences among variables. This fosters understanding to the readers or clients of the research investigation.
    1. Researchers can repeat the quantitative method to verify or confirm the findings in another setting. This reinforces the validity of groundbreaking discoveries or findings thus eliminating the possibility of spurious or erroneous conclusions.
    1. Quantitative models or formula derived from data analysis can predict outcomes. If-then scenarios can be constructed using complex mathematical computations with the aid of computers.
  1. Advanced digital or electronic instruments are used to measure or gather data from the field.

Outline the differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

The quantitative approach, with proper sampling, allows for the measurement of many subjects’ reactions to a set of questions. Because each question has a limited set of answers, the results can be compared and analyzed statistically; they also can be generalized to a larger population within known limits of error (Warwick and Lininger, 1975; Patton, 1986). Qualitative methods provide the context against which to more fully understand those results. They capture what people have to say in their own words and describe their experiences in depth. Qualitative data provides the texture of real life in its many variations; it gives insight into the reasoning and feelings that motivate people to take action. In short, quantitative methods are standardized, systematically obtaining succinct responses from as many clients as possible. A qualitative approach provides greater richness and more detailed information about a smaller number of people (Patton, 1986). Which approach is more appropriate for any given evaluation exercise will depend on its specific objectives. Given the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches and the varied purposes they serve, good-quality impact assessments increasingly employ both methods.

Discuss observation as a means of primary data collection method in media research.

Observation

Observation is the most popular method of data collection. If the observation is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to check and controls on validity and reliability, then it becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection in research process. It is thus, a systematic and careful watching of facts as they occur in course of nature. It involves watching test subjects without interacting with them. In other words, observation implies use of eyes rather than of ears and voice.

Types of observation

    1. Direct and indirect observation – In direct observation, the observer is physically present and personally monitors the particular situation. It allows the observer to react to and report mild aspects of events and behavior as they occur. Direct observation helps him to concentrate on unexpected events if any occur. Information overload, observer’s weakness, boredom and distractive events can reduce the accuracy and completeness of such events. If the observation is carried on with the help of some recording done by photographic or electronic means, it is termed as indirect observation. This is a permanent record that can be reanalyzed to find many different aspects of an event.
    1. Simple and systematic observation – the observation used to collect data at the exploratory stage is known as simple observation. The observation which employs standardized procedures, training to observer’s schedule for recording and other devices to control the observer and the subject is called as systematic observation.
    1. Casual and scientific observation – the observation without any previous preparation is the casual observation. The researcher observes things as a matter of chance i.e. the right thing at the right time and in the right place. If the observation is done with the help of certain measurement tools, it is called the scientific observation.
    1. Subjective and objective observation – every act of observation consist of two components the object and the subject. If one observes one’s own immediate experience it is termed as subjective observation. If the observer observes things which are not related with him is called objective observation.
  1. Structured and unstructured observation – structured observation consists of careful definition of the units to be observed, information to be recorded, selection of relevant data for observation and standardization of conditions of observations. This kind of observation records only the listed behavior in the form. It is used in studies which provide systematic observation or to these casual hypotheses. It is appropriate in descriptive studies. In unstructured observation the conditions mentioned in the structured are not standardized. It is flexible in character and this kind of observation is used in exploratory studies.

Advantages of observation

    1. Simple and non technical and the researcher requires less training.
    1. Basis of formulating hypothesis.
    1. Provides more accurate and reliable data.
  1. The researcher is gathering observed information rather than data relating to intentions or preferences.

Disadvantages of observation

    1. This method does not examine motives or feelings towards a particular behavior.
    1. The findings are limited to those observed.
    1. Opinions and attitudes cannot be gathered by observation.
  1. It is a long term process.

Discuss Survey as a means of primary data collection method in media research and state its various types.

Direct communication with consumers is established and information is collected from them through questionnaire. Questionnaire is a series of questions relating the research topic. The information collected through survey method is direct or first-hand information which is reliable, effective and accurate.

According to Tull and Hawkins, “Survey is the systematic gathering of information from respondents for the purpose of understanding and for predicting some aspects of the behaviour of the population of interest”.

According to F.L.Whitney, “Survey research is an organized attempt to analyze, interpret and report the present status of social institution group or areas”.

Thus, survey method is systematic process of collecting information where only part of the universe is selected to collect the data in which selected respondents represents the universe.

Types of Survey method:

  1. Telephone survey
  2. Mail survey
  3. E-mail survey
  4. Internet survey
  5. Social media survey
  6. Media listening survey
  7. 1. Telephone survey: In this method, telephone is used as an instrument for the collection of data from the respondents. The respondents is contacted over a phone, questions are asked on the subject matter of survey and information is collected from respondents for further processing. It is a quick and economical method of survey as response is immediate and large number of respondents are covered.
  8. Mail survey: A questionnaire is prepared containing a list of questions to solicit information from selected respondents. This questionnaire is sent through post or advertised in a newspaper or magazine, explaining the purpose of the questionnaire and request to complete and return it to the researcher. A reply-paid envelope may also be given to the respondents wherever possible to encourage the respondents to promptly send the answers.
  9. E-mail survey: When the survey are e-mailed to the potential respondents to get response, then, it is called as e-mail survey. Email survey may be an easy method to collect data. It uses electronic mail to contact members of the sample. The researcher will send the questionnaire to the sample respondents and keep track of who has responded.
  10. Internet survey: An internet survey is a questionnaire that the target can fill and respond over the internet. Internet surveys are usually created as web forms with a database to store and retrieve the answers. A statistical software tools are provided for data analysis. The researcher can gather the responses as soon as the respondents submit the web forms.
  11. Social media survey: Social media is the collection of online communication channels dedicated to community based input, interaction, content sharing and collaboration. It allows people to create, share or exchange information about career interest, ideas, pictures. Facebook, twitter, Linkedin, WhatsApp etc, are social media survey use to collect data from the respondents.

Media listening survey: It is a process of using social media channels to track, gather and store the information and data individual, groups or organizations. It is the process of monitoring digital media channels to devise a strategy that will better influence consumers. It includes email, survey, comment boxes etc.


Discuss Focus Group Discussions as a means of primary data collection method in media research.

Focus groups are a form of qualitative research that is commonly used in product marketing and marketing research, but it is a popular method within sociology as well. During a focus group, a group of individuals — usually 6-12 people is brought together in a room to engage in a guided discussion of a topic.

The participants of a focus group are selected based on their relevance and relationship to the topic under study. They are not typically chosen through rigorous, probability sampling methods, which means that they do not statistically represent any meaningful population. Rather, participants are chosen through word-of-mouth, advertising, or snowball sampling, depending on the type of person and characteristics the researcher is looking to include.

Advantages of Focus Groups

    • As a socially oriented research method, it captures real-life data in a social setting.
    • It is flexible.
    • It has high face validity, meaning that it measures what it is intended to measure.
    • It generates quick results.
    • It costs little to conduct.
  • Group dynamics often bring out aspects of the topic or reveal information about the subject that may not have been anticipated by the researcher or emerged from individual interviews.

Disadvantages of Focus Groups

    • The researcher has less control over the session than he or she does in individual interviews.
    • Data can sometimes be difficult to analyze.
    • Moderators require certain skills.
    • Differences between groups can be troublesome.
    • Groups can often be difficult to pull together.
  • The discussion must be conducted in a conducive environment.


Explain the difference between case study and survey method.

Case study: A case study refers to an in-depth study in which an individual, group or a particular situation is studied. This is used in both in natural and social sciences. In the natural sciences, a case study can be used to validate a theory or even a hypothesis. In the social sciences, case studies are used extensively to study human behavior and comprehend various social aspects. For example, in psychology, case studies are conducted to comprehend the individual behavior. In such an instance, the researcher records the entire history of the individual so that it enables him to identify various patterns of behavior. When speaking of case studies, it must be highlighted that they usually produce rich descriptive data. However, case studies cannot be used to provide generalizations on an entire population since the sample of a case study is usually limited to a single individual or a few individuals. For a case study, various research techniques such as interviews, direct and participatory observation, and documents can be used

Survey method: A survey refers to research where data is gathered from an entire population or a very large sample in order to comprehend the opinions on a particular matter. In the modern society, surveys are often used in politics and marketing. For example, imagine a situation where an organization wishes to understand the opinions of consumers on their latest product. Naturally the organization would conduct a survey to comprehend the opinions of the consumer. One of the most powerful research techniques used for surveys is the questionnaire. For this, the researcher creates a set of questions on the topic for which he will gather information from the participants. Unlike case studies, the data gathered from surveys are not very descriptive. Instead, they are statistically significant.


Differences between case study and survey method:

Differences

Case study

Survey method

Meaning

A case study refers to an in-depth study in which an individual, group, or a particular situation is studied A survey refers to research where data is gathered from an entire population or a very large sample in order to comprehend the opinions on a particular matter

Research type

Case studies are used in qualitative research Surveys are mostly used in quantitative research

Data

Case studies produce rich in depth data. Surveys produce numerical data.

Sample

For a case study, a relatively small population is chosen. This can vary from a few individuals to groups. For a survey, a large population can be used as the sample.


Write the process of Sampling in Detail

The sampling process consists of following steps:

    1. Define the population or universe – this is the first step in developing any sample design. The universe is clearly defined in terms of elements, units, extent and time. The population or universe is the specific group of items which the researcher wants to study and plan to generalize. The universe can be  finite or infinite. In finite universe the number of items is limited and in the case if infinite universe, we cannot measure the number of units. The definition of the universe is determined by the research objectives if that study.
    1. Developing a sample frame – after defining the population, the next step is the development of a frame. It is the kind of directory of sample. It contains the names of all items of the universe and represent the elements of population such as telephone book, telephone numbers, maps etc.
    1. Find the sampling unit – the researcher has to identify the sampling unit before selecting the sample for study.  It may contain one or more several population elements. For instance, a sampling unit may be geographical one such as state or village, or a social unit like school, club or church. The researcher should select substitute sample units as all the elected units may not participate.
    1. Select a sampling method – here, the researcher has to explain the method used for selection of sample. The two common method used for this purpose are probability sampling method and non probability method.
    1. Determine the sampling size – after identifying the sampling method the researcher has to determine how many elements of the population to be sampled. That means, he has to refer the number of items to be selected from the universe. The sample size should be around one tenth of the size of population. The selected sample size should fulfill the requirement of consistency, flexibility and representativeness.
    1. Specify sampling plan – in this stage the researcher should decide the operational procedures for selection of the sample.
  1. Select the sample – this is the last step in which the required samples have to be selected.


What is tabulation? Discuss the types of tabulation.

Tabulation is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying it in a compact form for further analysis. It also includes arrangement of data in a logical order. Tabulation is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows. The tabulation may be done manually or in computer. The decision depends on the basis of size and type of study, cost, availability of computer, time period etc. if the tabulation is to be done in the computer, the answers must be converted unto numeric form. In hand tabulation, we could use direct tally, list and tally and count method.

    1. Direct Tally – in this method, the codes are written on the tally sheet. A stroke is marked against the code for denoting the response. After every four stroke code fifth response is indicated by drawing a diagonal or horizontal line through the stroke.
    1. List and Tally – this method is used for listing a large number of questionnaires in one sheet. Here, the responses are entered into rows and code number of the question is represented in columns.
  1. Card Sort and Count Method – it is the most flexible hand tabulation. In this method the data is recorded on special cards of convenient size and shape with a series of holes. The cards belonging to each category in the table are segregated and the number of cards in each category is counted and the frequency is confirmed. The response for a total of 40 items can be entered in each page.

Types of Tabulation

  1. Simple Tabulation – this represents only one way table which contains just one characteristics or quality. An example of simple tabulation is given below:

Marks obtained

Number of students

Below 20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
Above 60

Complex Tabulation – the complex tabulation shows the division of data in two or more categories based on more than one quality or characteristics. Complex tabulation usually results in two way tables (indicates two interrelated characteristics), three way tables(shows three interrelated characteristics)  or manifold tables (more than three interrelated characteristics)

Importance of Tabulation:

    1. Tabulation facilitates the process of comparison
    1. Preserves space and reduces explanatory and descriptive statement at minimum.
  1. Easily helps to detect errors and omissions.

What is data processing? What are the different methods of data processing.

After data collection, the raw data has to be processed. The facts and figures collected are to be processed with a view to reducing them to manageable proportions. Through systematic and careful processing, the collected data will lend itself for statistical procedures and meaningful interpretations leading to formulation of a theory. Thus, collected data must undergo processing. The processing stage involves editing, coding, classification and tabulation.

Editing

Editing is the first step in processing of data. It is a process of examining the data collected in questionnaires or schedules and to correct it and the schedules prepared for tabulation and coding. It is the editor’s responsibility to make the data as accurate as possible, consistent with other facts secured, uniformly entered as complete as possible, acceptable for tabulation and arranged to facilitate coding and tabulation. Basically, there are two stages in editing:

    1. Field Editing – at the time of interviewing the interviewer may have written the response in abbreviated or illegible form. In field editing, the investigator reviews these reported forms to a complete written format. The field editing is considered as a necessary step because each individual writing style may be difficult for other to interpret.
  1. Central Editing – this process is done after getting all forms or schedules in office. If the study is a small one the editing should be done by one editor and if it is large, a team of editors will be involved.editors may correct obvious errors and they are sometimes required to contact the respondents to clear certain points which are mentioned in the schedule or questionnaire. The editor can strike out the inappropriate answers and has no basis for determining the correct answer.

Coding

It is the process of assigning figures or symbols to answers so that the responses can be put into a limited number of categories or classes. In categorization we are using a set of rules to partition a body of data. The classes should be appropriate for the concerned research problem. The must also possess the characteristic of exhaustiveness, mutual exclusivity and unidimensionality. Exhaustiveners indicated that there must be a class for every data item. Mutually exclusively denotes that a specific answer can be placed in only one cell in a given category set. Unidimensionality means every category is defined in terms of only concept. This is necessary for efficient analysis. The coding decision is normally taken at the designing stage of the questionnaire.

    1. The first step in this process is to study the answers. In the case of pre coded questions, coding begins at the preparation if interview schedule or questionnaire.
    1. The second step involves to develop a coding frame. It is an outline of what is coded and how it is to be coded, the coding frame is build up by listing the possible answers to each question and assigning code numbers or symbols to each of them which are indicators used for coding.
    1. After the sample frame preparation, the next step is the gradual fitting of the answers to the questions.
  1. The final step is to transfer the information from the schedules to a separate sheet named transcription shee. It is a large summary sheet which contains answers or codes of all the respondents. If the number of respondents are few, no transcription is required.

Classification

Mostly, all research studies contain a large volume of data and it will be classified into homogeneous groups to get meaningful relationships, classification is the process of grouping of data into group or classes on the basis of common characteristics. That means data having common characteristics are placed in one group. In the same way the entire data is divided into a number of groups or classes.

Types of classification

    1. Qualitative classification – it is the classification of data based on attributes or qualities.
    1. Quantitative classification – this is totally based on variables or quantity.
    1. Multiple classification – this is the process of making more than two groups on the basis of some quality or attributes.
    1. Dichotomous classification – in this, we are arranging the data into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence of a certain quality.
    1. Classification based on periodical basis – the data belonging to a particular time or period is put under one class.
  1. Classification based on geographical basis – the data collected from different places have been put under different classes.

Tabulation

Tabulation is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying it in a compact form for further analysis. It also includes arrangement of data in a logical order. Tabulation is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows. The tabulation may be done manually or in computer. The decision depends on the basis of size and type of study, cost, availability of computer, time period etc. if the tabulation is to be done in the computer, the answers must be converted unto numeric form. In hand tabulation, we could use direct tally, list and tally and count method.

    1. Direct tally – in this method, the codes are written on the tally sheet. A stroke is marked against the code for denoting the response. After every four stroke code fifth response is indicated by drawing a diagonal or horizontal line through the stroke.
    1. List and tally – this method is used for listing a large number of questionnaires in one sheet. Here, the responses are entered into rows and code number of the question is represented in columns.
  1. Card sort and count method – it is the most flexible hand tabulation. In this method the data is recorded on special cards of convenient size and shape with a series of holes. The cards belonging to each category in the table are segregated and the number of cards in each category is counted and the frequency is confirmed. The response for a total of 40 items can be entered in each page.

Types of tabulation

  1. Simple tabulation – this represents only one way table which contains just one characteristics or quality. An example of simple tabulation is given below:

Marks obtained Number of students
Below 20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
Above 60

  • 2. Complex tabulation – the complex tabulation shows the division of data in two or more categories based on more than one quality or characteristics. Complex tabulation usually results in two way tables (indicates two interrelated characteristics), three way tables(shows three interrelated characteristics)  or manifold tables (more than three interrelated characteristics)

Importance of tabulation:

    1. Tabulation facilitates the process of comparison
    1. Preserves space and reduces explanatory and descriptive statement at minimum.
  1. Easily helps to detect errors and omissions.


Explain the importance of data processing and analysis.

Before beginning the dissertation writing, one has to collect data for the research. The data to be used can be either collected using data gathering techniques or someone else’s existing data, if it serves the purpose of the research. Collecting the data correctly takes a great deal of work. Before data analysis can begin, the accuracy of the data collected needs to be verified. Following data collection, the data needs to be critically analysed. For any research, data analysis is very important as it provides an explanation of various concepts, theories, frameworks and methods used. It eventually helps in arriving at conclusions and proving the hypothesis.

Data analysis is a process used to inspect, clean, transform and remodel data with a view to reach to a certain conclusion for a given situation. Data analysis is typically of two kinds: qualitative or quantitative. The type of data dictates the method of analysis. In qualitative research, any non-numerical data like text or individual words are analysed. Quantitative analysis, on the other hand, focuses on measurement of the data and can use statistics to help reveal results and conclusions. The results are numerical. In some cases, both forms of analysis are used hand in hand. For example, quantitative analysis can help prove qualitative conclusions.

Among the many benefits of data analysis, the more important ones are:

Data analysis helps in structuring the findings from different sources of data.

    1. Data analysis is very helpful in breaking a macro problem into micro parts.
    1. Data analysis acts like a filter when it comes to acquiring meaningful insights out of huge data set.
  1. Data analysis helps in keeping human bias away from the research conclusion with the help of proper statistical treatment.

When discussing data analysis it is important to mention that a methodology to analyse data needs to be picked. if a specific methodology is not selected data can neither be collected nor analyzed. The methodology should be present in the dissertation as it enables the reader to understand which methods have been used during the research and what type of data has been collected and analyzed throughout the process. The dissertation also presents a critical analysis of various methods and techniques that were considered but ultimately not used for the data analysis. An effective research methodology leads to better data collection and analysis and leads the researcher to arrive at valid and logical conclusions in the research. Without a specific methodology, observations and findings in a research cannot be made which means methodology is an essential part of a research or dissertation.


What is a questionnaire? What points should be taken into consideration while devising a good questionnaire?

A Questionnaire is a tool for obtaining answers to questions by using a form which the respondent fills by himself. It consists a number of questions which is systematically compiled and organized in a set of forms. It is mostly used to gather information from widely scattered sources. The main purpose of questionnaire is to collect the information from the respondents who are scattered in a vast area and to achieve in collecting reliable and dependable data.

When preparing a questionnaire, certain points have to be kept in mind. They are:

    1. Size – the questionnaire must be small and manageable.
    1. Appearance – the overall appearance of the questionnaire should be attractive and must be printed in good quality paper.
    1. Clarity – the questions should be clear and precise. There should not be any ambiguity about the idea of the questions.
    1. Sequence – the questions should be in proper sequence, lucid and interesting to the respondent.
    1. Margin and spacing – proper margin and spacing gives an attractive look to the questionnaire and it makes filling it easy. Title, subtitle, column etc. should be avoided.
    1. Length – the respondents do not like to spend too much time to fill a questionnaire.
  1. Simple language – avoid technical terms and abbreviations. It is always good to use simple language in the questionnaire.

Delbert C. Miller has given certain points for the questionnaire preparations in his Handbook of Research Design and Social Measurement. Some of them are as follows:

    1. Keep the language pitched to the level of the respondent.
    1. Try to pick words that have same meaning for everyone.
    1. Avoid long questions.
    1. Do not prior assume that your respondent possesses factual information, on first hand opinions.
    1. Establish the frame of reference you have in mind.
    1. Informing a question, either suggest all possible alternatives to the respondents or do not suggest any.
    1. Protect your respondent’s ego.
    1. Decide whether you need a direct question or an indirect question or an indirect followed by a direct question.
    1. Decide whether the question should be open or closed.
    1. Decide whether general or specific questions are needed.
    1. Avoid ambiguous wordings.
    1. Avoid biased or leading questions.
    1. Phrase questions so that they are not unnecessarily objectionable.
    1. Decide whether a personal or impersonal question will obtain the better response.
  1. Questions should be limited to a single idea or single reference.



Explain interview as a technique of data collection.

Interview is one of the most important powerful method of data collection in research. It is a kind of verbal technique for the collection of data. It is a direct method of enquiry. It is noted that interview is not only spoken words but also gestures, facial expressions, voice modulations etc.  the main purpose of interview as a research method, is to gather data extensively and intensively.

Types of interview

According to the Number of Interviewee –

    • Individual interview – In this type of interview only one person is interviewed. The personal interview helps to collect the confidential personal aspects of an individual. Also, it establishes an inter personal contact between the interviewer and interviewee.
  • Group interview – this method is used for gathering the information by interviewing two or more persons simultaneously.

According to Purpose:

    1. Diagnostic Interview – this type of  interview is used to diagnose the cause of disease or the cause of some abnormalities. An apt example of this is the preliminary interview help with the patient in clinical psychology.
    1. Treatment Interview – this interview is carried out to make the patient aware of the cause of their illness and advices them to change the faulty lifestyle.
  1. Research Interview – interviews which are conducted to gather information related to a particular problem is called research interview.

Based on Subject Matter:

    1. Qualitative interview – it deals with certain complex, serious non quantifiable matter. This type of interview tries to explore the cause of some events.
    1. Quantitative interview – in this certain facts are gathered about a large number of persons. Eg – census interview
  1. Mixed interview – here, both qualitative and quantitative types of data are required.

Based on the  Nature of Approach:

    1. Structured interview – a complete set of well defined questions and a highly standardized technique of recordings are used in structured interview. The interviewer has to act according to the written instructions given in the schedule.
  1. Unstructured interview – in this, interviewer does not follow pre planned list of questions. Here, the interviewer acts as a catalyst by encouraging the interviewee to tell about his experiences.

Based on Period of Contact:

    1. Short contact interview – for filling up a schedule or questionnaire, a single sitting of small duration is required. A short contact interview is the best method for this situation.
  1. Prolonged contact interview – this type of interview is used to collect information from a person or a group by conducting prolonged interviews.

Advantages of Interview

    1. Information collected is reliable as it is received personally.
    1. Helps to study abstract factors like attitudes, feelings, opinions etc.
    1. Highly flexible.
  1. Eliminates personal barriers and gives opportunities to study the the immediate reaction of the interviewee.

Disadvantage of Interview

    1. Time consuming and costly
    1. Results depend on the interviewing skills of the interviewer.
  1. Not objective and scientific


What are the types of Print Media Research?

Readership Research

This type of research started in United States immediately after World War II. They conduct a personal interview in which the respondents are asked to identify the article they had read from a selected newspaper. But a comprehensive study of newspaper readership was undertaken by American Newspaper Publishers Association. The readership research is important in newspaper industry as it helps to get the detailed information about the readers and accordingly they could change the content of the publication, if necessary. Moreover, the increasing competition from traditional and online media makes the readership research more important. Research into newspaper readership mainly contains five types of studies:

    1. Item Selection Studies
      This study is used to determine who reads specific parts of the newspaper. In item selection studies, aided recall, measurement used to find out the readership of a particular item is used. Here, the researcher shows a copy of newspaper  to the reader to find out which are the stories he/she remembers. /

      Instead of conducting personal interviews, the researcher can also use telephone interview to collect data. In an item selection study, the unit of analysis will be a specific news article, or a specific content category. The readership of these items or categories is then related to certain audience demographic or psychographic characteristics. For example, a research study reported that teenage readers have reading habits different from adults.
    1. User and Gratification Studies
      This type of readership research is used to study all  media content. The respondents are given a list of possible uses and gratification and are asked whether any of these are the motives behind their reading.

      Then, the researcher summed the responses and an average score for each motivation item is calculated. The main aim of this study is to find out the motives that lead to newspaper reading and the personal and psychological rewards that result from it. Gratification from reading the newspaper seemed to differ across ethnic group.
    1. Reader Profiles
      Reader profile studies gives a demographic summary of the readers of a publication. These data can be used to focus the content of the publication, prepare advertising campaign and increase subscriptions. We cannot predict the nature and extent of newspaper reading among individuals with this demographic data. In psychographic studies, the reader has to indicate whether they agree or disagree with a group of attitudinal statements.

      Afterwards, patterns of response are analyzed to see how they correlate or cluster together. People who show high levels of agreement with questions that cluster together can be described as labels that summarize the substance of the question. Lifestyle segmentation research also follows a similar approach. The psychographic and lifestyle segmentation studies provides an additional insight about editorial aims, target audience and circulation goals.
    1. Editor Reader Comparison
      Here, we are questioning a group of editors about some topics and these answers are compared with those of their readers to find out whether there is any kind of similarity between their opinions.

      This kind of study reveals whether the space allocation of the newspaper made by the editor matches the public interest. An editor reader comparison study revealed that both groups agreed on the importance of many journalistic standards, but readers did not value professional staffing goals and enterprise reporting as highly as the editor did.
  1. Reader-Non Reader Studies
    This type of study tries to find out the reasons people do not read the newspapers. It can be conducted by personal, telephone or mail interviews with minor modifications. It is difficult to define the term non-reader.

    In some studies, a non reader is determined by a no answer to the question, ”do you generally read a newspaper?”. Otherwise we could  use more specific questions like, “have you read a newspaper yesterday or today?” . a third form of this question includes using multiple response categories.

Circulation Research

The term circulation can be explained as the number of copies of a magazine or newspaper sod through paid subscription and other sales by mail or single copies. The circulation research mainly focuses on the demand of print medium in different markets and its delivery and pricing system. There are mainly two types of circulation research used in print media. The first ind considers a particular group of readers as a unit of analysis and in the second type, the unit of analysis will be the individual reader.

The first type of circulation research uses a particular group of readers as its unit of analysis. It tries to measure circulation in terms of overall characteristics of a particular market. Circulation research can also be used to identify other market level of market structure that have an impact non circulation market size and location showed a stronger relationship with circulation.

The second type of circulation research uses individual reader as the unit of analysis to measure the effects of certain aspects of delivery and pricing system on reader behavior. Magazine publishers often conduct this type of circulation by drawing samples of subscribers in different states and checking on delivery dates of their publication and its physical condition when received.

Newspaper Management Research

This kind of research comes across at goal setting and job satisfaction. This is the budding research area in the last two decades. This growth was due to three factors, first the newspaper companies expanding their holdings, which created a more complicated management structure.

Second, media competition becoming more intense. Newspaper with efficient management techniques had a greater advantage in the new competitive environment.

Third, the newspaper industry became more labour intensive skilled and experienced persons from the backbone of a successful newspaper. These researches are helpful to determine how to keep employees satisfied and productive.

The techniques used to study newspaper management are the same as those used to study any business activity. The key topics that attracted the researcher’s  attention in the management research are goal setting by management, organizational structure, employee job satisfaction and effects of competition and ownership of newspaper content and quality.

Typography and Makeup Research

In this research, the researcher measures the effects of news design elements – specifically typeface and page makeup on readership, reader preferences and comprehension. By means of this approach, researchers have tested the effects of different typography and makeup elements, including the amount of white space, presence of paragraph headlines, size and style of type, variations in column width and use of vertical and horizontal page makeup. This will help the researcher to determine the impact of different newspaper and magazine design elements on readership ad item preferences.

The experimental method is used most often in typography and makeup studies. Subjects are typically assigned to one or more treatment groups exposed to an experimental stimulus and asked to rate what they have seen according to a series of dependant variable measures. A common practice is to measure these variables by means of a semantic differential rating scale.

Readability Research

Readability can be defined as the sum total of all elements and their interactions that affect the success of a piece of printed material. Success is measured by the extent to which readers understand the piece, are able to read it at an optimal speed and find it interesting. Several formulas have been developed to determine objectively the readability of the text.

One of the measures of readability was developed by Gunning which is known as fog index. To compute the ofx index, researchers must systematically select a sample of 100 words each, determine the mean sentence length by dividing the number of words by the number of sentences, count the number of wortf with three or more syllables, add the mean sentence length to the number of words with three or more syllables and multiply this sum by 0.4.  McLaughlin proposed another kind of readability index called SMOG Grading.

Here the researcher merely selects ten consecutive sentences near the beginning of the text, ten from the middle and ten from the end and counts every word of three or  more syllables and takes the square root of the total. The number obtained represents the reading grade that a person must have reached to understand the text.

Another method called Cloze procedure, chooses a passage of about 250-300 words, deletes every fifth word from a random starting point and replace it with a blank. The researcher then gives the passage to the subjects and asks them to fill the blanks with what  they think are the correct words and counts the number of times the blanks are replaced with correct words. The number of correct words or the percentage of correct replacement constitutes the readability score for that passage.


Explain Semiotic Approach to construct meanings. What do you mean by denotations and connotations?

In our day to day life, we come across with numerous signs. These visual signs have some identified meanings such as ‘stop’, ‘danger’, ‘no smoking’ etc. The meanings are clear because we have grown up looking at them and someone told what it was; and so we have an automatic response to them.

According to Saussure language does not label or baptize already discriminated pre-linguistic categories but actually articulates them. He reversed the perspective the viewed language as the medium by which reality is represented and stressed instead of the constitutive role language played in constructing reality for us. Saussure analyzed the signs into its two basic components: a sound component which is named as the signifier; and a conceptual component which he called the signified. This conceptual component, the signified, is not a material object, but the thought, idea of an object, it is what is called to mind when an individual hears or uses the appropriate signifier. The signifier, therefore, constitutes the material aspects of language.

In case of a spoken language, a signifier is any meaningful sound which is made, in case of written language a signifier is any meaningful mark written down, in case of media a signifier is any image which is related to the audience. In short, a sign is the union of a signifier and a signified which form an indissociable unity like two sides of the same piece of paper.

Barthes Primary And Secondary Level Of Signification

Ronal Barthes; early work on popular culture is concerned with the process of signification, the mechanism by which meanings are produced and put into circulation. Mythologies is a collection of essays on French popular culture. It is the significant attempt to bring the methodology of semiology. Mythologies concludes with the important theoretical essay, “Myth Today”.  In this essay, Barthes outlines a semiological model for reading popular culture. He takes Saussure’s perspective of signifier/signified = sign and adds it to a second level of significance. Barthes argues that Saussure’s perspective indicate any primary signification as the signifier ‘cat’ produces the signified ‘cat’: a four legged feline creature. The signifier ‘cat’ at secondary level may produce the signified ‘cat’ : someone cool and hip.

Denotation

Denotation is the first level of signification, it means the permanent sense of a word  excluding all subjective evaluation. It describes the literal or obvious meaning of the sign, this, denotation of visual image refers to what all people see without association to their culture, ideology or society. Barthes expressed that the denoted message bears analogical properties and it is primary to connotation in the process of signification. In this level of signification we deal with the sign as the basic meaning that is independent of content and subjective interpretations as in connotations, for example, the image of sunrise denoted as the beginning of the day, and end of the night, while in connotation can be described as a new day full of hope, end of darkness, may be light etc. and many other interpretations.

Connotation

Barthes use the term connotation to explain the way the sign works. It describes the interaction that occurs when the sign meets the feelings or emotions of the users and values of their culture. It is, in the sense, influenced by the subjective factors that open more interpretations to the text. He suggested that connotation being itself a system comprises signifiers, signifieds, and the process which unites the former to the latter. For Barthes, connotation relies upon the prior existence of denotation, it always works as the borrowed territory of the denoted. We can say that connotation is build on denotation. Thus, connotation for Barthes is a reproduction of the message whether linguistic or visual; also it is a product of mental abilities responsible on reading between the lines.


Elaborate on the primary and secondary level of significance as given by Barthes

Ronal Barthes; early work on popular culture is concerned with the process of signification, the mechanism by which meanings are produced and put into circulation. Mythologies is a collection of essays on French popular culture. It is the significant attempt to bring the methodology of semiology. Mythologies concludes with the important theoretical essay, “Myth Today”.  In this essay, Barthes outlines a semiological model for reading popular culture. He takes Saussure’s perspective of signifier/signified = sign and adds it to a second level of significance. Barthes argues that Saussure’s perspective indicate any primary signification as the signifier ‘cat’ produces the signified ‘cat’: a four legged feline creature. The signifier ‘cat’ at secondary level may produce the signified ‘cat’ : someone cool and hip.

Denotation

Denotation is the first level of signification, it means the permanent sense of a word  excluding all subjective evaluation. It describes the literal or obvious meaning of the sign, this, denotation of visual image refers to what all people see without association to their culture, ideology or society. Barthes expressed that the denoted message bears analogical properties and it is primary to connotation in the process of signification. In this level of signification we deal with the sign as the basic meaning that is independent of content and subjective interpretations as in connotations, for example, the image of sunrise denoted as the beginning of the day, and end of the night, while in connotation can be described as a new day full of hope, end of darkness, may be light etc. and many other interpretations.

Connotation

Barthes use the term connotation to explain the way the sign works. It describes the interaction that occurs when the sign meets the feelings or emotions of the users and values of their culture. It is, in the sense, influenced by the subjective factors that open more interpretations to the text. He suggested that connotation being itself a system comprises signifiers, signifieds, and the process which unites the former to the latter. For Barthes, connotation relies upon the prior existence of denotation, it always works as the borrowed territory of the denoted. We can say that connotation is build on denotation. Thus, connotation for Barthes is a reproduction of the message whether linguistic or visual; also it is a product of mental abilities responsible on reading between the lines.

Barthes works show new semiotics doctrine that allowed analyzing the signs system in media to prove how even non verbal communications give connotative meanings. Semiotic approach is highly applied in media studies that concentrate upon semiological analysis of such varied media domains as advertising cinema, video clips, caricature etc. Semiotics is considered as one of the major branches of media analysis materials, it has been successfully transferred to media qualitative research taking the inspiration from the linguistic tradition as a type of analysis. It enables the interpretation of the underlying meanings within the media output and how the audience accepts, rejects or redefines those meanings.


Explain Content Analysis. States its uses.

Content Analysis grew in the middle part of 20th century to become part of a larger and theoretically based projects of social and political analysis. The method was increasingly integrated into larger research efforts involving not only the analysis of media content but also other methods of inquiry like surveys, experiment, observations etc.

Content analysis also grew to become an important component in the armoury of studies of international media flows, and about cultural imperialism, development communication, globalization and also concerns about New World Information and Communication Order. Content analysis is defined as a method of studying and analyzing communication in a systematic, objective and quantitative manner for the purpose of measuring variables.

Uses of Content Analysis

    1. Content analysis is used in large number of fields, ranging from marketing and media studies, to literature and rhetoric, ethnography and cultural studies, sociology and political science, as well as other fields of research. The reason behind this wide acceptability of content analysis is that it can be applied to examine any piece of writing or occurrence of recorded communication. The more possible uses of content analysis are:
    1. Rveal international differences in communication content
    1. Detect the existence of propaganda
    1. Identify the intention, focus or communication trends of an individual, group or an institution
    1. Describe attitudinal and behavioral responses to communications
  1. Determine psychological or emotional state of persons or groups.

Advantages

    1. The researcher could apply both quantitative and qualitative operation in content analysis.
    1. It can provide valuable historical or cultural insights over time though analysis of texts.
    1. Content analysis allows a closeness to text which can alternate between specific categories and relationships and also statistically analyse the coded form of the text.
    1. Content analysis can be use to interpret text for purposes such as development of expert system,.
    1. It provides an insight into complex models of human thought and language use.
  1. It looks directly at communication through text or transcripts.


Explain different areas that have been developed in Media Research.

Media effects researches are a kind of mass communication research. The media effects research deals the study of media effects on the audience of various demographic profile. These studies help us to find out what kind of responses the targeted audience deliver, and how can we alter the media vehicle and message to create a favourable impacts on the masses.  The media effects refers to the theories about the ways the mass media affect how their audience think and behave.

Political Effects – The two theories, agenda setting theory and the spiral of silence are the basic behind the political effects of mass media. According to agenda setting theory, the media influences the importance that people give to public issues. The spiral of silence studies the effects of media on public opinions. The mass media is quite often used to promote the political interests of political groups. Image building exercises, poll campaigns, exposure of sleaze in political parties are some of the various facts of such effects.

Individual effects of the media: There are six types of mass media effects on individuals, which is based on the dependency theory. According to the dependency theory, the mass media can have the following effects on individuals.

  1. Intellectual effect: This individual media effects is based on the self-understanding effect of dependency theory. People use the media to develop their knowledge and understanding. Thus, the media helps them to grow in intellectual terms that is, in terms of education, creativity, information, current affairs etc.
  2. Globalization effect: Based on the social understanding effect of the dependency theory. People learn more about the world, especially about the races, economy religions, politics and cultures of the world. Example: Knowledge about political developments, economic developments, ecology, environment and other societies.
  3. Commercial effect: The Action orientation effect of the dependency theory, people buy and sell goods, ideas and concepts to and from other people. Firms also indulge in similar processes. The mass media helps the economic development of nation through the effect of Ad world, propaganda and public relation. Example: Transnational corporations sell their goods across all the continents of the world due to their promotional and campaigns.
  4. Social effects: The Interaction orientation effect of dependency theory, people define their behaviour patterns according to the media exposure they get from various mass media vehicles. Example: People socialize and interact with their family members, friends, colleagues and strangers according to the norms defined by the media.
  5. Solo entertainment effect: The Solitary play effect of the dependency theory; when a people is alone, he uses the media to entertain himself and the loneliness enables him to indulge in such acts as may not be possible to accomplish when he is moving in a group. The media affects his entertainment activities. Example: A person spending his weekend by enjoying a movie on his laptop.
  6. Group entertainment Effect: The Social play effect of the dependency theory; the behavioural manner of an individual in a family setting is different from his friends circle. They shows quite different behavioural patterns in defined groups. The people are using the media to entertain themselves in such group also.

Contingent effect of the Mass media:

  1. Violence: Media violence is the witchcraft of our society. Television, magazines, cinema and internet are the most effective vehicle of media violence nowadays. This violence includes physical duels, act of crime, a blunt refusal to obey the law and challenges posed to the established system of governance. Media violence can be both physical and mental. The acts of fight, war, robbery, hooliganism, arson etc, affect the minds of the audience in the physical sense.
  2. Sexual content: There are two types of consequence have been reported because of viewing of pornographic material, change in perceptual and behavioural consequence.
  3. Horror: the media use horror to tingle the innate fears of readers or viewers. When people become scared at a movie, their arousal system kicks into high gear. The heart rate and blood pressure increase.
  4. Disasters: Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss and distraction and devastation of life and property. Media throughout the world play a vital role in educating the public about disasters, warning of hazards, gathering and transmitting information about affected areas, alerting government officials, relief organization and the public to specific needs. Timely accurate and sensitive communication can educate, warn, inform and empower people to take practical steps to protect themselves from natural hazards.
  5. Love and romance: The media extensively using these topics to attract the audience. The teenagers are the most easily identifiable markets for love stories, novels and romantic soap operas. The impact of this is so great that is usually crosses the limits of sanity and makes the young audiences hysterical.

According to dependency theory mass media can have the following effects on individuals:

    1. Self understanding- people depend upon media to grow in intellectual terms.
    1. Social understanding- people depend upon media to learn about world and their community.
    1. Action orientation- people depend upon media to decide what to buy and how to act.
    1. Interaction orientation- people depend upon media to decide how they would behave with others.
    1. Solitary play- people depend upon media to entertain themselves when they are alone.
    1. Social play – people depend upon media to entertain themselves when they are in groups. Acc to present media scenario we would classify individual effects of media as follows:
    1. Intellectual effect- this is based on the self understanding effect of the dependency theory. People use media to develop their knowledge and understanding.
    1. Globalization effect- based on social understanding effect, people learn more about the world, especially about the races, economy, religions, polity and the cultures of the world.
    1. Commercial effects- based on the action orientation effect, people buy and sell goods, ideas and concepts to and from other people. Forms also indulge in similar processes. Mass media helps the economic development of nation.
    1. Social effect- based on the interaction orientation effect, people define their behavior patterns acc to the media exposure they get from various mass media vehicles.
    1. Solo entertainment effect- based on the solitary play effect, when a person is alone he uses media to entertain himself and the loneliness enables him to indulge in such acts as may not be possible to accomplish when he is moving in a group.
  1. Group entertainment effect- based on social play affect, the behavioral manner of an individual in a family setting is different from his friend circle. This show quite different behavioural patterns in defined groups because of the media they use to entertain themselves.

Explain briefly the various components of Data Tabulation

Tabulation is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying it in a compact form for further analysis. It also includes arrangement of data in a logical order. Tabulation is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows. The tabulation may be done manually or in computer. The decision depends on the basis of size and type of study, cost, availability of computer, time period etc. if the tabulation is to be done in the computer, the answers must be converted unto numeric form. In hand tabulation, we could use direct tally, list and tally and count method.

Direct Tally

In this method, the codes are written on the tally sheet. A stroke is marked against the code for denoting the response. After every four stroke code fifth response is indicated by drawing a diagonal or horizontal line through the stroke.

List and Tally

This method is used for listing a large number of questionnaires in one sheet. Here, the responses are entered into rows and code number of the question is represented in columns.

Card Sort and Count Method

It is the most flexible hand tabulation. In this method the data is recorded on special cards of convenient size and shape with a series of holes. The cards belonging to each category in the table are segregated and the number of cards in each category is counted and the frequency is confirmed. The response for a total of 40 items can be entered in each page.

Types of Tabulation

Simple Tabulation

This represents only one way table which contains just one characteristics or quality. An example of simple tabulation is given below:

Marks obtained

Number of Students

Below 20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
Above 60

Complex Tabulation

The complex tabulation shows the division of data in two or more categories based on more than one quality or characteristics. Complex tabulation usually results in two way tables (indicates two interrelated characteristics), three way tables(shows three interrelated characteristics)  or manifold tables (more than three interrelated characteristics)

Importance of Tabulation:

Tabulation facilitates the process of comparison

Preserves space and reduces explanatory and descriptive statement at minimum.

Easily helps to detect errors and omissions.


Explain the steps involved in writing a report and state the various components of a research report.

Generally There Are Three Stages In Preparing A Research Report:

Organization

The first stage in report writing is ordering the parts and planning the writing; the base for preparing the report. If the author arranges his thoughts in a logical and sequential order; he could be brought under control; even broad subject, and treated it in a single closure. A well created form will help to overcome wrong emphasis. To achieve a harmonious succession, and a good start, the researcher has to make a plan for ideas that comes into is thoughts. So the organization or the planning of the report is the essential prerequisite for easy communication of research result. The organization of report can be classified into the topical, chronological and the mixed.these are not applicable in all research communications.

Topical organization takes the topic and subtopics as basic to the writing and while developing, each topic interrelates one with the other. This is a kind of organization, which arrange the topic horizontally. It is appropriate, to research on current problems and major research methods like descriptive, analytical and experimental research.

Chronological form of organization gives emphasis on the time and developmental aspects. It may look back over a period – centuries or decades or a short period of years as in economic growth studies.

Mixed Form

In this both aspects are considered i.e. it is a mixture of horizontal and sequential organization. It should be adopted wherever feasible, since it enables movement forward within each topic with a forward or backward glance in the report as a whole and also in each chapter and is each section.

The kind of organization adopted depends upon the research problem, nature, the purpose of study, the availability of time for investigation etc whatever the form of report, particularly in the mixed form, transition should be provided even before the writing begins.

Write Up

Report presentation is an important part in the research project. The report should be clear and the clarity of the report depends upon the language command of the writer, his knowledge about facts and techniques, and data and documentation. The research report should present in such a way that it should reveal all facts related to the study and thereby, the researcher could judge the adequacy of the method adopted for study. The research report particularly aim to the technical persons, is easy to write as he could understand the nature of the problem and is familiar with technical terms and apparatus and their use. But as concerned with administrators and layman, a straight forward report is required. For them, simplicity, clarity and readability I presentation is important.

Documentation

documentation includes footnotes, bibliography, tables, charts and graphs, quotation, appendices and index. The primary importance of documentation is to support the facts presented by the researcher. It is helpful to indicate the differences in views, facts and findings and also, it helps the reader to get additional information. Through the documentation the researcher enables to acknowledge to others who helped them for investigation.

Components of Research Report

The six components of a research report are as follows:  An abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and references.

The Abstract

The abstract is an overview of the research study and is typically two to four paragraphs in length.  Think of it as an executive summary that distills the key elements of the remaining sections into a few sentences.

Introduction

The introduction provides the key question that the researcher is attempting to answer and a review of any literature that is relevant.  In addition, the researcher will provide a rationale for why the research is important and will present a hypothesis that attempts to answer the key question.  Lastly, the introduction should summarize the state of the key question following the completion of the research.  For example, are there any important issues or questions still open?

Methodology

The methodology section of the research report is arguably the most important for two reasons.  First it allows readers to evaluate the quality of the research and second, it provides the details by which another researcher may replicate and validate the findings. (1) Typically the information in the methodology section is arranged in chronological order with the most important information at the top of each section.

(2) Ideally the description of the methodology doesn’t force you to refer to other documents; however if the author is relying on existing methods, they will be referenced.

Results

In longer research papers, the results section contains the data and perhaps a short introduction.  Typically the interpretation of the data and the analysis is reserved for the discussion section.

Discussion

The discussion section is where the results of the study are interpreted and evaluated against the existing body or research literature.  In addition, should there be any anomalies found in the results, this is where the authors will point them out.  Lastly the discussion section will attempt to connect the results to the bigger picture and show how the results might be applied.

References

This section provides a list of each author and paper cited in the research report.  Any fact, idea, or direct quotation used in the report should be cited and referenced


Describe In Brief, The Layout Of A Research Report, Covering All The Relevant Points.

Generally a research report is presented either in a form of a dissertation or in the form of a thesis. The design of a research report indicates what exactly the report should possess. A comprehensive format of the research report should contain three parts

    • The preliminary pages
    • The text
  • The reference materials

Preliminary Pages

The preliminaries consist of following components in the sequential order:

Title Page

It is the first page of the report. The following statements are required in a title page, even though its format may different from one institution to the other.

Title of Research Topic

    • Statement emphasizing the relationship of the report with specified degree
    • Name and designation of the guide
    • Name of the candidate
    • Name of the institution which the thesis is being submitted
  • Month and year to which the thesis is being submitted

Acknowledgement and Preface

The preface emphasis the purpose of conducting the research study, a brief resume of its background, methodology applied for it, scope and general nature of that particular topic. He could grant his acknowledgement in the preface, if he wants. Moreover, if the researcher likes to discuss the significance and nature of the research in the introductory chapter, he can skip the preface page and use it only for acknowledgement.but the best practice is to write the preface and acknowledgement separately. Acknowledgement, on the other hand, is generally aims, to show gratitude to those who have helped him in his research study, including guidance and assistance and providing funds.

Table of Contents

The table of contents gives an outline of the content of the research report in a sequential order. It contains list of chapter titles followed by starting page number of each chapter.

List of tables and figures

Under this, all tables and figures like maps, drawings, graphs, charts, diagrams etc. are included. For photographs, the term plates is used.

The Text

The text consists of the content in a thesis or dissection. It is the most important part of the thesis. It provides an outline of the research report along with all details. In this section, the researcher presents the facts and the basic principles of his argument. The text usually consists of an introduction, main body and conclusion.

Introduction

In this, the researcher introduces the research study by highlighting its special features in two or four paragraphs or pages. He should describe briefly the background information about the problem and the objective of the study. Usually, the introductory part contains the following:

    • A lucid, complete and concise statement of the problem being investigated
    • An explanation of the scope of the research
    • The purpose of research and its importance
    • A preview of the organization of the thesis
    • A resume of the historical background and present importance of the problem
    • A briefing about the data source, technique used for data analysis and technical terminologies used in study
    • A brief statement with regard to the research methodology adopted
  • A statement, mentioning the limitations of the project

Main Body

This is the soul of the research report and of course, the largest section of the report. It constitutes all the chapters and the number and length will depend on the nature of the research and the evidence to be presented. The data is critically analyzed and interpreted through textual situation and tabular and graphic devices. The data should be described fully, analyzed in detail and the evidence result from the analysis should be presented. Every bit of evidence should be supported by logical reasoning and empirical facts. Contents should be organized systematically and presented under appropriate headings. Because of the diversity of the research subject, it is difficult to define a Particular direction for organizing the main body.

Conclusion

This is the last and vital part of the text of the report. It consists of the summary, generalizations, suggestions and recommendations. It should clearly mention which of the research objectives have been achieved and which remains unanswered. The conclusion should contain discussion of limits of the research in terms research method and specific research instruments used, theoretical framework used, data analyzed and assumptions made.


Reference Material

This generally contains bibliography, appendices and index.

Bibliography

Bibliography is the list of books or publications referred by the researcher to collect information for the preparation of research report. It should also contain all those works which the researcher has consulted. It should be arranged alphabetically and may be divided into three parts, the first part may contain the name of the books and pamphlets, the second part may contain the names of the magazines and newspaper articles and the third part may contain the web id. The primary of a bibliography is to guide the reader to find the exact item which the researcher has consulted.

Appendices

The additional or supplementary materials which could not be included in the main text will come under the heading Appendix or Appendices. In research report, some relevant evidence or explanation in the body of the text clutter it up, rendering the text more difficult to read. Such explanations or evidences can be put to an appendix. This helps to the interested reader to refer the appendix for further details. Thus the appendices are useful for placing cumbersome materials which will break the continuity of the main text. It may also include copy of the questionnaire and the interview schedule uused for data collection, instructions, to the field of workers, statistical tests etc.

Index

Index is an alphabetical arrangement of names, places and topics along with the number of pages they are mentioned or discussed in the report. The index may either be subject index or author index. This is mostly used in publications, technical manuscripts or the report intended as a work of reference.


Explain ‘Empiricism’, Verifiability & Generalization.

Empirical research is research using empirical evidence. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence (the record of one’s direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data).

Research design varies by field and by the question being investigated. Many researchers combine qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions which cannot be studied in laboratory settings, particularly in the social sciences and in education.

In some fields, quantitative research may begin with a research question (e.g., “Does listening to vocal music during the learning of a word list have an effect on later memory for these words?”) which is tested through experimentation. Usually, a researcher has a certain theory regarding the topic under investigation. Based on this theory, statements or hypotheses will be proposed (e.g., “Listening to vocal voice has a negative effect on learning a word list.”). From these hypotheses, predictions about specific events are derived (e.g., “People who study a word list while listening to vocal music will remember fewer words on a later memory test than people who study a word list in silence.”).

These predictions can then be tested with a suitable experiment. Depending on the outcomes of the experiment, the theory on which the hypotheses and predictions were based will be supported or not, or may need to be modified and then subjected to further testing.

Empirical cycle

Empirical cycle according to A.D. de Groot

A.D. de Groot’s empirical cycle:

Observation: The observation of a phenomenon and inquiry concerning its causes.

Induction: The formulation of hypotheses – generalized explanations for the phenomenon.

Deduction: The formulation of experiments that will test the hypotheses (i.e. confirm them if true, refute them if false).

Testing: The procedures by which the hypotheses are tested and data are collected.

Evaluation: The interpretation of the data and the formulation of a theory – an abductive argument that presents the results of the experiment as the most reasonable explanation for the phenomenon

Couldn’t find Verifiability and generalization


Define ethnography, state importance of ethnography.

Ethnography is a form of research focusing on sociology of meaning through close field observation of socio cultural phenomena. It is a methodology which stems from anthropology. Anthropology is the study of people, especially of their societies and customs. Ethnography uses field work to provide a descriptive study of human societies.

Ethnography is any full or partial description of a group. Participant observation is the main method of data collection and the researcher becomes a full working member of the group being studied. Typically, the ethnographer focuses on a community, selecting respondents who are known to have an overview of the activities of the community. The respondents are asked to identify other respondents representative of the community using chain sampling to obtain a saturation of respondents in all empirical areas of investigation.

This process is intended to reveal common cultural understandings related to the phenomena under study. These subjective but collective understandings on a subject are often interpreted to be more than significant than objective data.

Ethnography can help investigate very complicated or critical design challenges. A good researcher is essential when observing and/or interacting with target audiences in their real-life environment.

Ethnography is most useful in the early stages of a user-centred design project. This is because ethnography focuses on developing an understanding of the design problem. Therefore, it makes more sense to conduct ethnographic studies at the beginning of a project in order to support future design decisions (which will happen later in the user-centred design process).

Ethnographic methods (such as participant observation) could also be used to evaluate an existing design – but their true value comes from developing an early understanding of the relevant domain, audience(s), processes, goals and context(s) of use.

We would normally recommend that ethnographic methods are used for very complex and/or critical design problems.

More complex design problems (in terms of their domain, audience(s), processes, goals and/or context(s) of use) are likely to need the deeper understanding which ethnographic studies can bring. Equally, highly critical systems (where failure or error can lead to disaster) could also justify significant ethnographic research.

For example: An insurance company wanted to redesign their system dealing with the processing of insurance claims. This system had evolved over many years and actually represented a patchwork of previous systems. The ‘claim processing’ supported by this ‘system of systems’ is itself a highly complex process. In this example, ethnographic research should probably be considered.

Advantages of Ethnography

One of the main advantages associated with ethnographic research is that ethnography can help identify and analyse unexpected issues. When conducting other types of studies, which are not based on in-situ observation or interaction, it can very easy to miss unexpected issues. This can happen either because questions are not asked, or respondents neglect to mention something. An ethnographic researcher’s in-situ presence helps mitigate this risk because the issues will (hopefully) become directly apparent to the researcher.

Ethnography’s other main benefit is generally considered to be its ability to deliver a detailed and faithful representation of users’ behaviours and attitudes. Because of its subjective nature, an ethnographic study (with a skilled researcher) can be very useful in uncovering and analysing relevant user attitudes and emotions.


What do you understand by term plagiarism?

Plagiarism is the “wrongful appropriation” and “stealing and publication” of another author’s “language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions” and the representation of them as one’s own original work.

Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions like penalties, suspension, and even expulsion. Recently, cases of “extreme plagiarism” have been identified in academia. The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement.

Plagiarism is not in itself a crime, but can constitute copyright infringement. In academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense. Plagiarism and copyright infringement overlap to a considerable extent, but they are not equivalent concepts, and many types of plagiarism do not constitute copyright infringement, which is defined by copyright law and may be adjudicated by courts. Plagiarism is not defined or punished by law, but rather by institutions (including professional associations, educational institutions, and commercial entities, such as publishing companies).

Plagiarism is a major problem for research. There are, however, divergent views on how to define plagiarism and on what makes plagiarism reprehensible. In this paper we explicate the concept of “plagiarism” and discuss plagiarism normatively in relation to research. We suggest that plagiarism should be understood as “someone using someone else’s intellectual product (such as texts, ideas, or results), thereby implying that it is their own” and argue that this is an adequate and fruitful definition.

We discuss a number of circumstances that make plagiarism more or less grave and the plagiariser more or less blameworthy. As a result of our normative analysis, we suggest that what makes plagiarism reprehensible as such is that it distorts scientific credit. In addition, intentional plagiarism involves dishonesty. There are, furthermore, a number of potentially negative consequences of plagiarism.

Plagiarism can occur at any stage of the research lifecycle from proposing to communicating and reporting research. It is best understood in the context of communicating research, however, plagiarism can also be observed in other research activities such as authorship and peer review.

Plagiarism is presenting and using another’s published or unpublished work, including theories, concepts, data, source material, methodologies or findings, including graphs and images, as one’s own, without appropriate referencing and without permission when permission is required. It includes literal copying, failure in paraphrasing or attribution, and the misuse of privileged information obtained through confidential review of research proposals and manuscripts.

Forms of Plagiarism

Literal copying: Reproducing word for word, in whole or in part, without permission and acknowledgement of the original source

Substantial copying: Capturing the essence of another’s work, in whole or in part, without permission and acknowledgement of the original source. This can include copying of research materials, processes, tables or equipment

Paraphrasing: Reproducing the essential meaning, form and/or progression of someone else’s ideas without permission and without proper acknowledgement of the source

Irresponsible-recycling/duplicate submission: Reproducing portions of one’s own work in a paper and submitting it for publication as an entirely new paper, without cross-referencing or acknowledging earlier publication(s)

Un-published plagiarism:

Unattributed use of privileged information or materials obtained through confidential peer review of research proposals and manuscripts

Plagiarism can be avoided by responsible referencing and attribution. Plagiarism by authorship, where a contributor to a research output is improperly omitted as an author, is generally best handled as an authorship dispute.


Independent and Dependent Variable

A concept which can take different quantitative value is called a variable. The concept like weight, height, income etc. are the examples of variables. The qualitative phenomena are also quantified on the basis of the presence or absence of the concerning attributes. Phenomena which can take on quantitatively different values even in decimal points are called continuous variables. But all variables are not continuous . if they can only be expressed in integer values they are non continuous variables or in statistical language, discrete variables.

Age is an example of continuous variable but the number of children is an example of non continuous variable. If one variable depends upon or is a consequence of the other variable, it is termed as a dependant variable, and the variable that is antecedent to the dependent variable is termed as an independent variable.

For example, if we say that height depends upon age, then height is a dependent variable and age is an independent variable. Also readymade films and lectures are examples of independent variable, whereas behavioral changes, occurring as a result of environmental manipulation s are examples of dependent variable.


Hypothesis Development

Not Sure if correct but here it is.

The hypothesis is directly related to a theory but contains operationally defined variables and is in testable form.  Hypotheses allow us to determine, through research, if our theory is correct. In other words, does prior work experience result in better grades?  When doing research, we are typically looking for some type of difference or change between two or more groups. In our study, we are testing the difference between having work experience and not having work experience on college grades.  Every study has two hypotheses; one stated as a difference between groups and one stated as no difference between groups.

When stated as a difference between groups, our hypothesis would be, “students with prior work experience earn higher grades than students without prior work experience.”  This is called our research or scientific hypothesis. Because most statistics test for no difference, however, we must also have a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is always written with the assumption that the groups do not differ.  In this study, our null hypothesis would state that, “students with work experience will not receive different grades than students with no work experience.”

The null hypothesis is what we test through the use of statistics and is abbreviated H0.  Since we are testing the null, we can assume then that if the null is not true then some alternative to the null must be true.  The research hypothesis stated earlier becomes our alternative, abbreviated H1. In order to make research as specific as possible we typically look for one of two outcomes, either the null or the alternative hypothesis.  To conclude that there is no difference between the two groups means we are accepting our null hypothesis. If we, however, show that the null is not true then we must reject it and therefore conclude that the alternative hypothesis must be true.  While there may be a lot of gray area in the research itself, the results must always be stated in black and white.


Exploratory Research Design

Exploratory research is research conducted for a problem that has not been studied more clearly, intended to establish priorities, develop operational definitions and improve the final research design. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data-collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist.

Exploratory research often relies on techniques such as:

    • secondary research – such as reviewing available literature and/or data
    • informal qualitative approaches, such as discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors
  • formal qualitative research through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies

Exploratory research, as the name implies, intends merely to explore the research questions and does not intend to offer final and conclusive solutions to existing problems. This type of research is usually conducted to study a problem that has not been clearly defined yet.

Conducted in order to determine the nature of the problem, exploratory research is not intended to provide conclusive evidence, but helps us to have a better understanding of the problem. When conducting exploratory research, the researcher ought to be willing to change his/her direction as a result of revelation of new data and new insights.

Exploratory research design does not aim to provide the final and conclusive answers to the research questions, but merely explores the research topic with varying levels of depth. It has been noted that “exploratory research is the initial research, which forms the basis of more conclusive research. It can even help in determining the research design, sampling methodology and data collection method”. Exploratory research “tends to tackle new problems on which little or no previous research has been done”. Unstructured interviews are the most popular primary data collection method with exploratory studies.


Descriptive Research Design

Descriptives research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the “what” question (what are the characteristics of Minnesota state population or situation being studied?) The characteristics used to describe the situation or population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories. For example, the periodic table categorizes the elements. Scientists use knowledge about the nature of electrons, protons and neutrons to devise this categorical scheme. We now take for granted the periodic table, yet it took descriptive research to devise it. Descriptive research generally precedes explanatory research. For example, over time the periodic table’s description of the elements allowed scientists to explain chemical reaction and make sound prediction when elements were combined. Hence, descriptive research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used as the basis of a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity.

The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.

Advantages

The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment. A good example of this would be an anthropologist who wanted to study a tribe without affecting their normal behavior in any way. True experiments, whilst giving analyzable data, often adversely influence the normal behavior of the subject.

Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to quantitative research designs, the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively. Quantitative experiments are often expensive and time-consuming so it is often good sense to get an idea of what hypotheses are worth testing.

Disadvantages

Because there are no variables manipulated, there is no way to statistically analyze the results. Many scientists regard this type of study as very unreliable and ‘unscientific’.

In addition, the results of observational studies are not repeatable, and so there can be no replication of the experiment and reviewing of the results.


Causal Research Design

Causal research, also known as explanatory research is conducted in order to identify the extent and nature of cause-and-effect relationships. Causal research can be conducted in order to assess impacts of specific changes on existing norms, various processes etc.

Causal studies focus on an analysis of a situation or a specific problem to explain the patterns of relationships between variables. Experiments are the most popular primary data collection methods in studies with causal research design.

The presence of cause cause-and-effect relationships can be confirmed only if specific causal evidence exists. Causal evidence has three important components:

  1. Temporal Sequence. The cause must occur before the effect. For example, it would not be appropriate to credit the increase in sales to rebranding efforts if the increase had started before the rebranding.
  2. Concomitant Variation. The variation must be systematic between the two variables. For example, if a company doesn’t change its employee training and development practices, then changes in customer satisfaction cannot be caused by employee training and development.
  3. Nonspurious Association. Any covariation between a cause and an effect must be true and not simply due to other variable. In other words, there should be no a ‘third’ factor that relates to both, cause, as well as, effect.

Advantages of Causal Research (Explanatory Research)

Causal studies may play an instrumental role in terms of identifying reasons behind a wide range of processes, as well as, assessing the impacts of changes on existing norms, processes etc.

Causal studies usually offer the advantages of replication if necessity arises

This type of studies are associated with greater levels of internal validity due to systematic selection of subjects

Disadvantages of Causal Research (Explanatory Research)

Coincidences in events may be perceived as cause-and-effect relationships.

For example, Punxsutawney Phil was able to forecast the duration of winter for five consecutive years, nevertheless, it is just a rodent without intellect and forecasting powers, i.e. it was a coincidence.

It can be difficult to reach appropriate conclusions on the basis of causal research findings. This is due to the impact of a wide range of factors and variables in social environment. In other words, while casualty can be inferred, it cannot be proved with a high level of certainty.

It certain cases, while correlation between two variables can be effectively established; identifying which variable is a cause and which one is the impact can be a difficult task to accomplish.


Functions of Research Design

The definition of the research design explains the functions of a research design. A research design is a logical procedural plan that the researcher takes on to get answers to the research questions. The aim in the selection and building a research design is to ensure the validity, reliability, and accuracy of the research will stay intact. It includes how data is to be collected, what will be the sample size, how sampling will be done and how data is to be analyzed. The details regarding sampling, data collection, and data analysis are mentioned in detail in the research design so as to be very clear about each step of the research study.

Basically, every research design has two main functions;

To develop an operational plan to undertake various steps of the research

To ensure validity, reliability, and authenticity in each step of the research.

Operational plan

The operational plan of the research is an overall, detailed answer to the steps that are taken in the research in order to get answers to the research question. This plan helps the researcher and the readers get to know about the sampling process, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation. It is necessary that you have a practical, workable procedural plan that also ensures research validity and authenticity. The researcher, his/her research supervisor, and in some cases a statistician can be asked for help to develop a research design. The research design constitutes the following.

Sampling and sampling technique

Sampling size and sampling technique both need to be mentioned in the operational plan of the research design. Most of the research have a materials and methods chapter and the researcher precisely explains about the sampling procedure in that chapter.

Type of data to be collected

Data can be primary or secondary and some research needs a combination of both of them. The researcher should explicitly describe the type of data to be collected as the person who is appointed to collect data will need this information.

Data collection technique/s

Multiple techniques can be used in one research, on the other hand, the researcher decides to use a single technique. It depends on the research problem and the objectives that what technique the researcher decides to use.

Data analysis technique/s

The researcher at this point already knows that the data is quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative data needs a different approach for analysis while qualitative data needs completely different approach. The researcher needs to explain what variables need to be analyzed, whether a comparison between variables is to be studied or not.

Data coding and interpretation technique/s

The researcher should decide at this stage what codes need to be assigned and how to quantify and analyze raw data through the process of coding.

Validity and reliability of the research design

The other important function of the research design is to maintain validity, reliability, accuracy and authenticity of the research by using effective research tools. The researcher devises a research plan that he thinks is workable now he should discuss it thoroughly with his/her research supervisor or any expert in the field. An expert statistician or research supervisor can think about the loopholes in the research design and suggests new ideas.

Reliability

Reliability is an important factor in any research study in order for a study to be valid it should first be reliable. The reliability of the research design can be maintained by asking questions like; does the sample size enough to represent the population under study? will the data to be collected will be adequate to test the hypothesis of the research? does the sequencing of the questions in the questionnaire suitable for the population under study or is there better options?

Authenticity

Authenticity is important especially in qualitative research where the research needs to use tools that best describe participants responses

Validity

Validity means that the research design you have devised should measure what needs to be measured in your research. The construct should measure the variables that need to be measured.

Objectivity

Objectivity is easy to achieve in a quantitative research where every step is quantifiable. In qualitative research, objectivity is simple to state but difficult to achieve. The researcher needs to keep his personality, values and likes away from the research study.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Research

Advantages

1. Subject materials can be evaluated with greater detail. 

There are many time restrictions that are placed on research methods. The goal of a time restriction is to create a measurable outcome so that metrics can be in place. Qualitative research focuses less on the metrics of the data that is being collected and more on the subtleties of what can be found in that information. This allows for the data to have an enhanced level of detail to it, which can provide more opportunities to glean insights from it during examination.

2. Research frameworks can be fluid and based on incoming or available data. 

Many research opportunities must follow a specific pattern of questioning, data collection, and information reporting. Qualitative research offers a different approach. It can adapt to the quality of information that is being gathered. If the available data does not seem to be providing any results, the research can immediately shift gears and seek to gather data in a new direction. This offers more opportunities to gather important clues about any subject instead of being confined to a limited and often self-fulfilling perspective.

3. Qualitative research data is based on human experiences and observations. 

Humans have two very different operating systems. One is a subconscious method of operation, which is the fast and instinctual observations that are made when data is present. The other operating system is slower and more methodical, wanting to evaluate all sources of data before deciding. Many forms of research rely on the second operating system while ignoring the instinctual nature of the human mind. Qualitative research doesn’t ignore the gut instinct. It embraces it and the data that can be collected is often better for it.

4. Gathered data has a predictive quality to it. 

One of the common mistakes that occurs with qualitative research is an assumption that a personal perspective can be extrapolated into a group perspective. This is only possible when individuals grow up in similar circumstances, have similar perspectives about the world, and operate with similar goals. When these groups can be identified, however, the gathered individualistic data can have a predictive quality for those who are in a like-minded group. At the very least, the data has a predictive quality for the individual from whom it was gathered.

5. Qualitative research operates within structures that are fluid. 

Because the data being gathered through this type of research is based on observations and experiences, an experienced researcher can follow-up interesting answers with additional questions. Unlike other forms of research that require a specific framework with zero deviation, researchers can follow any data tangent which makes itself known and enhance the overall database of information that is being collected.

Disadvantages

1. The quality of the data gathered in qualitative research is highly subjective. 

This is where the personal nature of data gathering in qualitative research can also be a negative component of the process. What one researcher might feel is important and necessary to gather can be data that another researcher feels is pointless and won’t spend time pursuing it. Having individual perspectives and including instinctual decisions can lead to incredibly detailed data. It can also lead to data that is generalized or even inaccurate because of its reliance on researcher subjectivisms.

2. Data rigidity is more difficult to assess and demonstrate.

Because individual perspectives are often the foundation of the data that is gathered in qualitative research, it is more difficult to prove that there is rigidity in the information that is collective. The human mind tends to remember things in the way it wants to remember them. That is why memories are often looked at fondly, even if the actual events that occurred may have been somewhat disturbing at the time. This innate desire to look at the good in things makes it difficult for researchers to demonstrate data validity.

3. Mining data gathered by qualitative research can be time consuming. 

The number of details that are often collected while performing qualitative research are often overwhelming. Sorting through that data to pull out the key points can be a time-consuming effort. It is also a subjective effort because what one researcher feels is important may not be pulled out by another researcher. Unless there are some standards in place that cannot be overridden, data mining through a massive number of details can almost be more trouble than it is worth in some instances.

4. Qualitative research creates findings that are valuable, but difficult to present.


Presenting the findings which come out of qualitative research is a bit like listening to an interview on CNN. The interviewer will ask a question to the interviewee, but the goal is to receive an answer that will help present a database which presents a specific outcome to the viewer. The goal might be to have a viewer watch an interview and think, “That’s terrible. We need to pass a law to change that.” The subjective nature of the information, however, can cause the viewer to think, “That’s wonderful. Let’s keep things the way they are right now.” That is why findings from qualitative research are difficult to present. What a research gleans from the data can be very different from what an outside observer gleans from the data.

  1. Data created through qualitative research is not always accepted. 
    Because of the subjective nature of the data that is collected in qualitative research, findings are not always accepted by the scientific community. A second independent qualitative research effort which can produce similar findings is often necessary to begin the process of community acceptance.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Quantitative Research

Advantages

    • Allow For A Broader Study, Involving A Greater Number Of Subjects, And Enhancing The Generalisation Of The Results
    • Can Allow For Greater Objectivity And Accuracy Of Results. Generally, Quantitative Methods Are Designed To Provide Summaries Of Data That Support Generalisations About The Phenomenon Under Study. In Order To Accomplish This, Quantitative Research Usually Involves Few Variables And Many Cases, And Employs Prescribed Procedures To Ensure Validity And Reliability
    • Using Standards Means That The Research Can Be Replicated, And Then Analysed And Compared With Similar Studies. Kruger (2003) Confirms That ‘quantitative Methods Allow Us To Summarize Vast Sources Of Information And Facilitate Comparisons Across Categories And Over Time’
    • Personal Bias Can Be Avoided By Researchers Keeping A ‘distance’ From Participating Subjects And Employing Subjects Unknown To Them
    • Permits Formulation Of Statistically Sound Hypotheses With No Room For Emotional Design.
    • Probabilistic Inference And Prediction Permits Sound Implementation And Hence Rigorous Evaluation Of Quantitative Hypotheses.
    • Enables Evaluation Of Multiple Datasets And Hypotheses, Faster And More Accurately Than Any Human Brain Could Ever Perform.
  • Time-consuming Manual Implementations Of Ideas Can Be Automated And Hence Performed Exponentially Faster.

Disadvantages

    • Collect A Much Narrower And Sometimes Superficial Dataset
    • Results Are Limited As They Provide Numerical Descriptions Rather Than Detailed Narrative And Generally Provide Less Elaborate Accounts Of Human Perception
    • The Research Is Often Carried Out In An Unnatural, Artificial Environment So That A Level Of Control Can Be Applied To The Exercise. This Level Of Control Might Not Normally Be In Place In The Real World Yielding Laboratory Results As Opposed To Real World Results
    • In Addition Preset Answers Will Not Necessarily Reflect How People Really Feel About A Subject And In Some Cases Might Just Be The Closest Match.
    • The Development Of Standard Questions By Researchers Can Lead To ‘structural’ Bias And False Representation, Where The Data Actually Reflects The View Of Them Instead Of The Participating Subject.
    • Requires Constant (Or Periodic) Monitoring Of Model Performance To Ensure Continued Compliance With Original Hypotheses -> Which Is Time Consuming.
    • Inadequate Quality Of Training Data Used In Model Construction Can Lead To Erroneous Or Even Disastrous Model Performance On Unseen Data.
  • Requires A Deep Background In Multiple Complex Disciplines That Are Hard To Master For The Average Person – Hence Limited Supply Of Quants (Which Is A Good Thing Actually).

Focus Group

A focus group is a common qualitative research technique used by companies for marketing purposes. A focus group typically consists of a small number of participants, usually around six to 12, from within a company’s target market. The consumers are brought together and led through discussions of important company and brand topics by a moderator.

A focus group is qualitative research because it asks participants for open-ended responses conveying thoughts or feelings. The other prominent research type is quantitative research. This is more data-driven research that uses surveys or questionnaires to derive numerical-based statistics or percentages. With qualitative research, researchers seek more open and complete perspectives on the brand or product. However, more general interpretations and uses of the research are necessary, since you cannot as easily break down the research into facts.

Focus Group Features

Within a focus group, a moderator poses a series of questions intended to gain insight about the way the group views the brand, product and related images, slogans, concepts or symbols. As a representative sample of consumers targeted by the company, a focus group can offer insights consistent with those shared by the broader target market. Focus group moderators should pose questions in a way that does not lead group members to provide desired responses, but rather honest and insightful responses.

Benefits

A focus group is generally more useful when outcomes of research are very unpredictable and the researcher is looking for more open feedback, as opposed to comparisons of potential results as in a quantified research method. A focus group also allows consumers to express clear ideas and share feelings that do not typically come out in a quantified survey or paper test. Because of the open conversation among group members, topics and discussion are more free-flowing and members can use comments from others to stimulate recall.

Drawbacks

“Groupthink” is a primary concern with focus groups. When you bring a group of people together to talk about a brand, the tendency exists for influential group members to affect the expressions of others within the group. Additionally, consumers are often more reluctant to express negative ideas in a face-to-face setting than in a more indirect research format when they know the company is conducting research.


Depth Interview

In-depth interviewing is a qualitative research technique that involves conducting intensive individual interviews with a small number of respondents to explore their perspectives on a particular idea, program, or situation.

Example, we might ask participants, staff, and others associated with a program about their experiences and expectations related to the program, the thoughts they have concerning program operations, processes, and outcomes, and about any changes they perceive in themselves as a result of their involvement in the program.

In-depth interviews are useful when you want detailed information about a person’s thoughts and behaviors or want to explore new issues in depth. Interviews are often used to provide context to other data (such as outcome data), offering a more complete picture of what happened in the program and why.

Example, you may have measured an increase in youth visits to a clinic, and through in-depth interviews you find out that a youth noted that she went to the clinic because she saw a new sign outside of the clinic advertising youth hours. You might also interview a clinic staff member to find out their perspective on the clinic’s “youth friendliness.” In-depth interviews should be used in place of focus groups if the potential participants may not be included or comfortable talking openly in a group, or when you want to distinguish individual (as opposed to group) opinions about the program. They are often used to refine questions for future surveys of a particular group.

The primary advantage of in-depth interviews is that they provide much more detailed information than what is available through other data collection methods, such as surveys. They also may provide a more relaxed atmosphere in which to collect information— people may feel more comfortable having a conversation with you about their program as opposed to filling out a survey. However, there are a few limitations and pitfalls, each of which is described below.

Prone to bias: Because program or clinic staff might want to “prove” that a program is working, their interview responses might be biased. Responses from community members and program participants could also be biased due to their stake in the program or for a number of other reasons. Every effort should be made to design a data collection effort, create instruments, and conduct interviews to allow for minimal bias.

Can be time-intensive: Interviews can be a time-intensive evaluation activity because of the time it takes to conduct interviews, transcribe them, and analyze the results. In planning your data collection effort, care must be taken to include time for transcription and analysis of this detailed data.

Interviewer must be appropriately trained in interviewing techniques: To provide the most detailed and rich data from an interviewee, the interviewer must make that person comfortable and appear interested in what they are saying. They must also be sure to use effective interview techniques, such as avoiding yes/no and leading questions, using appropriate body language, and keeping their personal opinions in check.

Not Generalizable: When in-depth interviews are conducted, generalizations about the results are usually not able to be made because small samples are chosen and random sampling methods are not used. In-depth interviews however, provide valuable information for programs, particularly when supplementing other methods of data collection. It should be noted that the general rule on sample size for interviews is that when the same stories, themes, issues, and topics are emerging from the interviewees, then a sufficient sample size has been reached.


Literature Review

A literature review is a text of a scholarly paper, which includes the current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and do not report new or original experimental work. Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such reviews are found in academic journals, and are not to be confused with book reviews that may also appear in the same publication. Literature reviews are a basis for research in nearly every academic field.

A narrow-scope literature review may be included as part of a peer-reviewed journal article presenting new research, serving to situate the current study within the body of the relevant literature and to provide context for the reader. In such a case, the review usually precedes the methodology and results sections of the work.

Producing a literature review may also be part of graduate and post-graduate student work, including in the preparation of a thesis, dissertation, or a journal article. Literature reviews are also common in a research proposal or prospectus (the document that is approved before a student formally begins a dissertation or thesis).

The Purpose Of A Literature Review Is To:

    • Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied.
    • Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration.
    • Identify new ways to interpret prior research.
    • Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature.
    • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.
    • Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort.
    • Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research.
  • Locate your own research within the context of existing literature 

Doing a careful and thorough literature review is essential when you write about research at any level. It is basic homework that is assumed to have been done vigilantly, and a given fact in all research papers. By providing one, usually offered in your introduction before you reach your thesis statement, you are telling your reader that you have not neglected the basics of research.

It not only surveys what research has been done in the past on your topic, but it also appraises, encapsulates, compares and contrasts, and correlates various scholarly books, research articles, and other relevant sources that are directly related to your current research. Given the fundamental nature of providing one, your research paper will be not considered seriously if it is lacking one at the beginning of your paper.

1. It Creates a Rapport with Your Audience

A literature review helps you create a sense of rapport with your audience or readers so they can trust that you have done your homework. As a result, they can give you credit for your due diligence: you have done your fact-finding and fact-checking mission, one of the initial steps of any research writing.

As a student, you may not be an expert in a given field; however, by listing a thorough review in your research paper, you are telling the audience, in essence, that you know what you are talking about. As a result, the more books, articles, and other sources you can list in the literature review, the more trustworthy your scholarship and expertise will be.

Depending on the nature of your research paper, each entry can be long or short. For example, if you are writing a doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, the entries can be longer than the ones in a term paper. The key is to stick to the gist of the sources as you synthesize the source in the review: its thesis, research methods, findings, issues, and further discussions mentioned in the source.

2. It Helps You Avoid Incidental Plagiarism

Imagine this scenario. You have written a research paper, an original paper in your area of specialization, without a literature review. When you are about to publish the paper, you soon learn that someone has already published a paper on a topic very similar to yours. Of course, you have not plagiarized anything from that publication; however, if and when you publish your work, people will be suspicious of your authenticity.

They will ask further about the significance of repeating similar research. In short, you could have utilized the time, money, and other resources you have wasted on your research on something else. Had you prepared a literature review at the onset of your research, you could have easily avoided such mishap. During the compilation of your review, you could have noticed how someone else has done similar research on your topic. By knowing this fact, you can tailor or tweak your own research in such a way that it is not a mere rehashing of someone else’s original or old idea.

3. It Sharpens Your Research Focus

As you assemble outside sources, you will condense, evaluate, synthesize, and paraphrase the gist of outside sources in your own words. Through this process of winnowing, you will be able to place the relevance of your research in the larger context of what others researchers have already done on your topic in the past

The literature review will help you compare and contrast what you are doing in the historical context of the research as well as how your research is different or original from what others have done, helping you rationalize why you need to do this particular research.

Perhaps you are using a new or different research method which has not been available before, allowing you to collect the data more accurately or conduct an experiment that is more precise and exact thanks to many innovations of modern technology. Thus, it is essential in helping you shape and guide your research in the direction you may not have thought of by offering insights and different perspectives on the research topic.


Secondary Data collection methods

When the data are collected by someone else for a purpose other than the researcher’s current project and has already undergone the statistical analysis is called as Secondary Data.

The secondary data are readily available from the other sources and as such, there are no specific collection methods. The researcher can obtain data from the sources both internal and external to the organization. The internal sources of secondary data are:

    • Sales Report
    • Financial Statements
    • Customer details, like name, age, contact details, etc.
    • Company information
    • Reports and feedback from a dealer, retailer, and distributor
  • Management information system

There are several external sources from where the secondary data can be collected. These are:

    • Government censuses, like the population census, agriculture census, etc.
    • Information from other government departments, like social security, tax records, etc.
    • Business journals
    • Social Books
    • Business magazines
    • Libraries
  • Internet, where wide knowledge about different areas is easily available.

The secondary data can be both qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative data can be obtained through newspapers, diaries, interviews, transcripts, etc., while the quantitative data can be obtained through a survey, financial statements and statistics.

One of the advantages of the secondary data is that it is easily available and hence less time is required to gather all the relevant information. Also, it is less expensive than the primary data. But however the data might not be specific to the researcher’s needs and at the same time is incomplete to reach a conclusion.

Also, the authenticity of the research results might be skeptical. A researcher can collect secondary data from various sources. It may be published or unpublished. Before using secondary data, the following characteristics must be checked:

    • Reliability of data – who collected the data? From what source? Time?  Possibility of bias? Accuracy? Which method?
    • Suitability of data – the object, scope and original enquiry must be studied and then carefully scrutinize the data for suitability.
  • Adequacy – the data is considered inadequate if the level of accuracy received in the data  is found inadequate or if it is related to an which may be either narrower or wider than the area of present enquiry.


Measurement Scales

Measurement scales are used to categorize and/or quantify variables. This lesson describes the four scales of measurement that are commonly used in statistical analysis: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. The scales can be classified into four categories:

Nominal Scale

It is used to describe data that comprises simple names or categories. Nominal scale provides convenient way of keeping track of people, objects and events. Under this scale, we would classify individuals, companies, products, brand or other elements into categories where no order is implied. It is used to measure the property of difference. It consists of two or more categories that  have no numerical properties. The only numeric operation that can be done on a nominal scale is that of counting. The information obtained from, a nominal scale is qualitative, that means objects are classified by names only.

Nominal scale is the least powerful level of measurement. It indicates no order or distance relationship and has no arithmetic origin. A nominal scale simply describes differences between things by assigning them to categories. Nominal data are, thus, counted data. The scale wastes any information that we may have about varying degrees of attitude, skills, understandings, etc. In spite of all this, nominal scales are still very useful and are widely used in surveys and other ex-post-facto research when data are being classified by major sub-groups of the population

Ordinal Scale

The lowest level of the ordered scale that is commonly used is the ordinal scale. The ordinal scale places events in order, but there is no attempt to make the intervals of the scale equal in terms of some rule. Rank orders represent ordinal scales and are frequently used in research relating to qualitative phenomena. A student’s rank in his graduation class involves the use of an ordinal scale. One has to be very careful in making statement about scores based on ordinal scales. For instance, if Ram’s position in his class is 10 and Mohan’s position is 40, it cannot be said that Ram’s position is four times as good as that of Mohan. The statement would make no sense at all. Ordinal scales only permit the ranking of items from highest to lowest. Ordinal measures have no absolute values, and the real differences between adjacent ranks may not be equal. All that can be said is that one person is higher or lower on the scale than another, but more precise comparisons cannot be made. Thus, the use of an ordinal scale implies a statement of ‘greater than’ or ‘less than’ (an equality statement is also acceptable) without our being able to state how much greater or less.

The real difference between ranks 1 and 2 may be more or less than the difference between ranks 5 and 6. Since the numbers of this scale have only a rank meaning, the appropriate measure of central tendency is the median. A percentile or quartile measure is used for measuring dispersion. Correlations are restricted to various rank order methods. Measures of statistical significance are restricted to the non-parametric methods.

The ordinal scale places data in an order. It denotes the relative position of two or more objects or some characteristics. Ordinal scale include differentiation by class, and it also differentiates within a class of features on the basis of rank according to some qualitative measure.

Measurements with ordinal scales are ordered in the sense that higher numbers represents higher values. Although ordinal variables provide information concerning the relative position of participants or observations in our research study, ordinal variables do not tell us anything about the absolute magnitude of difference between first and second or between second and third. The information obtained from an ordinal scale is in rank order.

Interval Scale

This provides more quantitative information. When a variable is measured on an interval scale, the distance between numbers or units on the scale represents the same magnitude on the trait or characteristic being measured. Interval scale is a scale of measurement in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size. Interval scale may either be numeric or semantic.

Ratio Scale – like the interval scale, the ratio scale gives information about the magnitude of difference between the things being measured. But it has the additional property that the data should have a true zero i.e. the property being measured has no quantity. All forms of arithmetic operations can be meaningfully applied to ratio scale data. A ratio scale is considered as the top level of measurement and is not often available in social research.


Barthes Primary level and secondary level signification.

Barthes primary and secondary level of signification

Ronal Barthes; early work on popular culture is concerned with the process of signification, the mechanism by which meanings are produced and put into circulation. Mythologies is a collection of essays on French popular culture. It is the significant attempt to bring the methodology of semiology. Mythologies concludes with the important theoretical essay, “Myth Today”.  In this essay, Barthes outlines a semiological model for reading popular culture. He takes Saussure’s perspective of signifier/signified = sign and adds it to a second level of significance. Barthes argues that Saussure’s perspective indicate any primary signification as the signifier ‘cat’ produces the signified ‘cat’: a four legged feline creature. The signifier ‘cat’ at secondary level may produce the signified ‘cat’ : someone cool and hip.

Denotation

Denotation is the first level of signification, it means the permanent sense of a word  excluding all subjective evaluation. It describes the literal or obvious meaning of the sign, this, denotation of visual image refers to what all people see without association to their culture, ideology or society. Barthes expressed that the denoted message bears analogical properties and it is primary to connotation in the process of signification. In this level of signification we deal with the sign as the basic meaning that is independent of content and subjective interpretations as in connotations, for example, the image of sunrise denoted as the beginning of the day, and end of the night, while in connotation can be described as a new day full of hope, end of darkness, may be light etc. and many other interpretations.

Connotation

Barthes use the term connotation to explain the way the sign works. It describes the interaction that occurs when the sign meets the feelings or emotions of the users and values of their culture. It is, in the sense, influenced by the subjective factors that open more interpretations to the text. He suggested that connotation being itself a system comprises signifiers, signifieds, and the process which unites the former to the latter. For Barthes, connotation relies upon the prior existence of denotation, it always works as the borrowed territory of the denoted. We can say that connotation is build on denotation. Thus, connotation for Barthes is a reproduction of the message whether linguistic or visual; also it is a product of mental abilities responsible on reading between the lines.


Semiotic Analysis

In our day to day life, we come across with numerous signs. These visual signs have some identified meanings such as ‘stop’, ‘danger’, ‘no smoking’ etc. The meanings are clear because we have grown up looking at them and someone told what it was; and so we have an automatic response to them.

According to Saussure language does not lael or baptize already discriminated pre linguistic categories but actually articulates them. He reversed the perspective the viewed language as the medium by which reality is represented and stressed instead of the constitutive roile language played on constructing reality for us.

Saussure analyze the signs into its two basic components: a sound component which be names as the signifier; and a conceptual component which he called the signified. This conceptual component, the signified, is not a material object, but the thought, idea of an object, it is what is called to mind when an individual hears or uses the appropriate signifier.

The signifier therefore constitutes the material aspects of language. In case of a spoken language, a signifier is any meaningful sound which is made, in case of written language a signifier is any meaningful mark written down, in case of media a signifier is any image which is related to the audience. In short, a sign is the union of a signifier and a signified which form an indissociable unity like two sides of the same piece of paper.

Barthes primary and secondary level of signification

Ronal Barthes; early work on popular culture is concerned with the process of signification, the mechanism by which meanings are produced and put into circulation. Mythologies is a collection of essays on French popular culture. It is the significant attempt to bring the methodology of semiology. Mythologies concludes with the important theoretical essay, “Myth Today”.  In this essay, Barthes outlines a semiological model for reading popular culture. He takes Saussure’s perspective of signifier/signified = sign and adds it to a second level of significance. Barthes argues that Saussure’s perspective indicate any primary signification as the signifier ‘cat’ produces the signified ‘cat’: a four legged feline creature. The signifier ‘cat’ at secondary level may produce the signified ‘cat’ : someone cool and hip.

Denotation

Denotation is the first level of signification, it means the permanent sense of a word  excluding all subjective evaluation. It describes the literal or obvious meaning of the sign, this, denotation of visual image refers to what all people see without association to their culture, ideology or society. Barthes expressed that the denoted message bears analogical properties and it is primary to connotation in the process of signification. In this level of signification we deal with the sign as the basic meaning that is independent of content and subjective interpretations as in connotations, for example, the image of sunrise denoted as the beginning of the day, and end of the night, while in connotation can be described as a new day full of hope, end of darkness, may be light etc. and many other interpretations.

Connotation

Barthes use the term connotation to explain the way the sign works. It describes the interaction that occurs when the sign meets the feelings or emotions of the users and values of their culture. It is, in the sense, influenced by the subjective factors that open more interpretations to the text. He suggested that connotation being itself a system comprises signifiers, signifieds, and the process which unites the former to the latter. For Barthes, connotation relies upon the prior existence of denotation, it always works as the borrowed territory of the denoted. We can say that connotation is build on denotation. Thus, connotation for Barthes is a reproduction of the message whether linguistic or visual; also it is a product of mental abilities responsible on reading between the lines.


Limitations of Content Analysis

Kerlinger’s (2000) define content analysis as “Content analysis is a method of studying and analyzing communication in a systematic, objective and quantitative manner for the purpose of measuring variables”.

A systematic analysis and description of the content of a communication media is known as a content analysis. It is a research tool focused on the actual content and internal features of media. It is used to determine the presence of certain words, concepts, themes, phrases, characters or sentences within texts or sets of texts and to quantify this presence in an objective manner.

    • Extremely time consuming process
    • Difficult to automate or computerized
    • Tends to simply consist of word counts
    • Subject to increased error, particularly when relational analysis is used to attain a higher level of interpretation
    • It is inherently reductive, particularly when dealing with texts.
    • It often disregards the context that produced the etxt, a;so state of things after the text is produced..
    • Content analysis can be extremely time consuming
    • It is subject to increased error, particularly when relational analysis is used to attain a higher level of interpretation
    • It is often devoid of theoretical base, or attempts to liberally to draw meaningful inferences about the relationships an
    • impacts implied in a study
    • It tends too often to simply consist of word counts
    • It often disregards the context that produced the text, as well as the state of things after the text is produced
  • It can be difficult to automate or computerize.

Advantages and disadvantages of Sampling

Sample means a small portion of the population taken up for intensive study purpose. It is a small part of the entire population having similar characteristics of the population. For example: small quantity of blood taken from human body for testing. Sample acts as a representative of the whole universe. Sampling is the process of selection of certain percentage of a whole group of items as per predetermined plan.

Paul L. Erdos and Arthur J. Morgan define sampling as “a process of selecting a segment of the universe to obtain information of ascertainable reliability about the population”

Advantages of sampling

Sampling ensures convenience, collection of intensive and exhaustive data, suitability in limited resources and better rapport. In addition to this, sampling has the following advantages also.

1. Low cost of sampling

If data were to be collected for the entire population, the cost will be quite high. A sample is a small proportion of a population. So, the cost will be lower if data is collected for a sample of population which is a big advantage.

2. Less time consuming in sampling

Use of sampling takes less time also. It consumes less time than census technique. Tabulation, analysis etc., take much less time in the case of a sample than in the case of a population.

3. Scope of sampling is high

The investigator is concerned with the generalization of data. To study a whole population in order to arrive at generalizations would be impractical.

Some populations are so large that their characteristics could not be measured. Before the measurement has been completed, the population would have changed. But the process of sampling makes it possible to arrive at generalizations by studying the variables within a relatively small proportion of the population.

4. Accuracy of data is high

Having drawn a sample and computed the desired descriptive statistics, it is possible to determine the stability of the obtained sample value. A sample represents the population from which its is drawn. It permits a high degree of accuracy due to a limited area of operations. Moreover, careful execution of field work is possible. Ultimately, the results of sampling studies turn out to be sufficiently accurate.

5. Organization of convenience

Organizational problems involved in sampling are very few. Since sample is of a small size, vast facilities are not required. Sampling is therefore economical in respect of resources. Study of samples involves less space and equipment.

6. Intensive and exhaustive data

In sample studies, measurements or observations are made of a limited number. So, intensive and exhaustive data are collected.

7. Suitable in limited resources

The resources available within an organization may be limited. Studying the entire universe is not viable. The population can be satisfactorily covered through sampling. Where limited resources exist, use of sampling is an appropriate strategy while conducting marketing research.

8. Better rapport

An effective research study requires a good rapport between the researcher and the respondents. When the population of the study is large, the problem of rapport arises. But manageable samples permit the researcher to establish adequate rapport with the respondents.

Disadvantages of sampling

The reliability of the sample depends upon the appropriateness of the sampling method used. The purpose of sampling theory is to make sampling more efficient. But the real difficulties lie in selection, estimation and administration of samples.

Disadvantages of sampling may be discussed under the heads:

1. Chances of bias

The serious limitation of the sampling method is that it involves biased selection and thereby leads us to draw erroneous conclusions. Bias arises when the method of selection of sample employed is faulty. Relative small samples properly selected may be much more reliable than large samples poorly selected.

2. Difficulties in selecting a truly representative sample

Difficulties in selecting a truly representative sample produces reliable and accurate results only when they are representative of the whole group. Selection of a truly representative sample is difficult when the phenomena under study are of a complex nature. Selecting good samples is difficult.

3. In adequate knowledge in the subject

Use of sampling method requires adequate subject specific knowledge in sampling technique. Sampling involves statistical analysis and calculation of probable error. When the researcher lacks specialized knowledge in sampling, he may commit serious mistakes. Consequently, the results of the study will be misleading.

4. Changeability of units

When the units of the population are not in homogeneous, the sampling technique will be unscientific. In sampling, though the number of cases is small, it is not always easy to stick to the, selected cases. The units of sample may be widely dispersed.

Some of the cases of sample may not cooperate with the researcher and some others may be inaccessible. Because of these problems, all the cases may not be taken up. The selected cases may have to be replaced by other cases. Changeability of units stands in the way of results of the study.

5. Impossibility of sampling

Deriving a representative sample is difficult, when the universe is too small or too heterogeneous. In this case, census study is the only alternative. Moreover, in studies requiring a very high standard of accuracy, the sampling method may be unsuitable. There will be chances of errors even if samples are drawn most carefully.


Questionnaire Survey

A questionnaire is a tool for obtaining answers to questions by using a form which the respondent fills by himself. It consists a number of questions which is systematically compiled and organized in a set of forms. It is mostly used to gather information from widely scattered sources. The main purpose of questionnaire is to collect the information from the respondents who are scattered in a vast area and to achieve in collecting reliable and dependable data.

Types of questionnaire

Structured and Unstructured Questionnaire – the questionnaire which consists contains definite concrete and direct questions is known as structured questionnaires. This kind of questionnaire is used to initiate a formal enquiry and also to supplement and check the previously accumulated data. A non structured questionnaire is used as an interview guide. The researcher is free to arrange the form or statements of the questionnaire. It may consist of partially completed questions or statements. The main advantage of this method is its flexibility.

Open Questionnaire – in this the respondents are free to express their views or ideas as it is open end or unrestricted type of questionnaire. It probably provides a greater depth of response and is used where new facts are to be revealed. The main drawback of this type is that it is difficult to interpret, tabulate and summarise in the research report.

Closed Questionnaire – the respondent cannot express his own judgement in the closed questionnaire. It contains questions that call for short check response like marking yes or no answers or choose answer from a set of provided responses. It is more objective and easy to tabulate and analyze. Moreover, it is easy to fill out, takes less time and more acceptable and convenient ot the respondent.

Mixed Questions – it consists of both open and close ended questionnaire. This method is very useful in social research.

Advantages of Questionnaire

    • It is more economical
    • The respondents gets enough time to answer the questions
    • It can be conveniently reached to respondents who are not easily accessible
  • The result should be dependable and reliable

Disadvantages of Questionnaire

    • Cannot be used with illiterates
    • The proportion of return is very low
    • There is a chance of misinterpretation of the question
  • It involves uncertainty about the response


Experimentation as a tool for primary data collection

Experiments are the most reliable source of data collection in natural sciences. Experiments can be conducted in any area of scientific study, whether it is chemistry, biology, physiology, physics, astronomy or mathematics. Experiments consist of logical series of actions that result in the answer to your query. Experiments can be conducted in a controlled environment as well as in natural situations. In experiments the experimenter controls the external factors while looking for the effect of internal factors.

Experiments can be conducted in the field as well as in laboratories. In most of the natural science studies a research question is formulated in which the researcher formulates one or several hypotheses. Later the experimenter design experiments that can help him approve or disapprove his hypothesis. The results of the experiments are analyzed using suitable statistical tests and on the basis of these results conclusion is drawn. In any method of data collection in primary research the researcher follows a code of conduct.

The researcher aims at obtaining the most authentic, reliable, valid and up to date data. He tries his best to keep biases far from the research study. In any form primary data collection tools are far superior than secondary data collection tools, although it is difficult to obtain data using primary research tools.


Uses of Content Analysis

Content Analysis grew in the middle part of 20th century to become part of a larger and theoretically based projects of social and political analysis. The method was increasingly integrated into larger research efforts involving not only the analysis of media content but also other methods of inquiry like surveys, experiment, observations etc.

Content analysis also grew to become an important component in the armoury of studies of international media flows, and about cultural imperialism, development communication, globalization and also concerns about New World Information and Communication Order. Content analysis is defined as a method of studying and analyzing communication in a systematic, objective and quantitative manner for the purpose of measuring variables.

Uses of Content Analysis

Content analysis is used in large number of fields, ranging from marketing and media studies, to literature and rhetoric, ethnography and cultural studies, sociology and political science, as well as other fields of research.

The reason behind this wide acceptability of content analysis is that it can be applied to examine any piece of writing or occurrence of recorded communication. The more possible uses of content analysis are:

    • Rveal international differences in communication content
    • Detect the existence of propaganda
    • Identify the intention, focus or communication trends of an individual, group or an institution
    • Describe attitudinal and behavioral responses to communications
  • Determine psychological or emotional state of persons or groups.


Phases in the Development of Mass Media Research

The term mass media refers to any form of communication that simultaneously reaches a large number of people through different channel of communication

It is the study of the effects of the different mass media on social, psychological and physical aspects. Research survey that segments the people based on what television programs they watch, radio they listen and magazines they read. It includes achievements and effects of media and a study about the development of media. Newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, Cinema or other mass media analysis and collection of information’s. It helps to understand the ways in which media can meet the needs of the audience.

Whether it can provide information and entertainment to more and different types of people. New technological improvements that helps to improve or enhance the medium. Thus in order to deal with social and political issues insightfully, management and regulation of media is needed. Unbiased evaluation of data can be achieved through media research.

    • Phase 1: The medium itself. There is an interest in the medium itself. What is it? How does it work? What technology does it involve? How is it similar to or different from what we already have? What functions or services does it provide? Who will have access to the new medium? How much will it cost?
    • Phase 2: Uses and users of the medium. Begins once the medium is developed. In this phase, specific information is accumulated about the uses and the users of the medium. How do people use the medium in real life? Do they use it for information only, to save time, for entertainment, or for some other reason? Do children use it? Do adults use it? Why? What gratifications does the new medium provide? What other types of information and entertainment does the new medium replace? Were original projections about the use of the medium correct? What uses are evident other than those that were predicted from initial research?
    • Phase 3: Effects of the medium. Includes investigations of the social, psychological, and physical effects of the medium. How much time do people spend with the medium? Does it change people’s perspectives about anything? What do the users of the medium want and expect to hear or see? Are there any harmful effects related to using the medium? In what way, if any, does the medium help people? Can the medium be combined with other media or technology to make it even more useful?
  • Phase 4: How the medium can be improved. Research is conducted to determine how the medium can be improved, either in its use or through technological developments. Can the medium provide information or entertainment to more types of people? How can new technology be used to perfect or enhance the sight and/or sound of the medium? Is there a way to change the content to be more valuable or entertaining?

Advantages and 3 Disadvantages of Content Analysis

Kerlinger’s (2000) define content analysis as “Content Analysis is a method of studying and analyzing communication in a systematic, objective and quantitative manner for the purpose of measuring variables”.

A systematic analysis and description of the content of a communication media is known as a content analysis. It is a research tool focused on the actual content and internal features of media. It is used to determine the presence of certain words, concepts, themes, phrases, characters or sentences within texts or sets of texts and to quantify this presence in an objective manner.

Content analysis is a research technique used to make replicable and valid inferences by interpreting and coding textual material. By systematically evaluating texts (data from documents, oral communication, and graphics), qualitative data can be converted into quantitative data. Although the method has been used frequently in the social sciences, only recently has it become more prevalent among organizational scholars.

Advantages

    • The researcher could apply both quantitative and qualitative operation in content analysis.
    • It can provide valuable historical or cultural insights over time though analysis of texts.
    • Content Analysis allows a closeness to text which can alternate between specific categories and relationships and also statistically analyse the coded form of the text.
    • Content analysis can be use to interpret text for purposes such as development of expert system,.
    • It provides an insight into complex models of human thought and language use.
  • It looks directly at communication through text or transcripts.

Disadvantages

    • Extremely time consuming process
    • Difficult to automate or computerized
    • Tends to simply consist of word counts
    • Subject to increased error, particularly when relational analysis is used to attain a higher level of interpretation
    • It is inherently reductive, particularly when dealing with texts.
  • It often disregards the context that produced the text;so state of things after the text is produced.

Sampling Frame.

In statistics, a sampling frame is the source material or device from which a sample is drawn. It is a list of all those within a population who can be sampled, and may include individuals, households or institutions

The elementary unit or group or cluster which is based on the sampling process is called a sampling unit. The list which contains all such units are known as sampling frame.

A sampling frame is a list of all the items in your population. It’s a complete list of everyone or everything you want to study. The difference between a population and a sampling frame is that the population is general and the frame is specific. For example, the population could be “People who live in Mumbai, India.” The frame would name ALL of those people, from Parle to Andheri to Goregaon and everywhere else in Mumbai. A couple more examples:

Population: People in STAT101.

Sampling Frame: Adrian, Anna, Bob, Billy, Howie, Jess, Jin, Kate, Kaley, Lin, Manuel, Norah, Paul, Roger, Stu, Tim, Vanessa, Yasmin.

Population: Birds that are pink.

Sampling Frame: Brown-capped Rosy-Finch.

White-winged Crossbill.

American Flamingo.

Roseate Spoonbill.

Black Rosy-Finch.

Cassin’s Finch.

When you draw a sample in statistics, you need a list of items to draw the sample from. Take a very simple population: bingo balls numbered 1 to 99. You frame would be a list of all those balls: 1 , 2, 3…99. Once you have your list, you can go ahead and draw your sample.

A sampling frame can be a list of just about anything. For example, the population could be “All infectious diseases in the United States.”


Qualities of a Good Sampling Frame

You can’t just use any list you come across! Care must be taken to make sure your sampling frame is adequate for your needs. For example, according to Alaska University, a good sample frame for a project on living conditions would:

    • Include all individuals in the target population.
    • Exclude all individuals not in the target population.
  • Includes accurate information that can be used to contact selected individuals.

Other general factors that you would want to make sure you have:

    • An unique identifier for each member. This could be a simple numerical identifier (i.e. from 1 to 1000). Check to make sure there are no duplicates in the frame.
    • A logical organization to the list. For example, put them in alphabetical order.
    • Up to date information. This may need to be periodically checked (i.e. for address changes).
  • In some cases, it might be impossible, or very difficult, to get a sampling frame. For example, getting a list of prostitutes in your city isn’t likely (mostly because of the fact that most prostitutes won’t want to be found).

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