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Introduction to Journalism – Answer Bank

This was made for referential purposes.
This is not official, but made from collaborating questions from multiple textbooks, and even Wikipedia.
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Table of Contents

What is news? Explain news value with examples.

News is an unpublished account of human activity, which seeks to interest, inform, or educate the readers. The first requirement of news is that a writing should not have been published anywhere before. It should come to the readers to the first time. It is like a hot cake coming straight from the over. Anything, which has come in print before, does not constitute news. It may be anything but not news. The second ingredient is human activity. News must relate in one way or the other to the human activity. Human beings must be involved in an event embodied in news. The Third important factor is that it should be of some interest to the readers. The interest may be physical or emotional. The fourth important prerequisite is that it should be designed to impart some sort of information to the readers.

Before the 14th century, instead of using the word “news”, English speakers typically used the word “tidings”, more or less meaning the “announcement of an event”.  This Middle English version started before the 11th century and stems from the Old English term “tidung” meaning “Event, occurrence, or a piece of news”.

News is information about current events. News is provided through many different media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, and also on the testimony of observers and witnesses to events. It is also used as a platform to manufacture opinion for the population.

Common Topics for news reports include war, government, politics, education, health, the environment, economy, business, fashion, and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, laws, taxes, public health, criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. The genre of news as we know it today is closely associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe.

I recommend everyone to go and check this site, for the most credible news ever, with actually rational discussion and no sense of fear. Also you can check some news articles before going to exam, and can write how the media does not cover these news

https://www.reddit.com/r/indianews/

News Value

Information arrives in the newsroom from a wide range of sources minute by minute. A news editor, who is limited by time and space, cannot report all this material.  

Journalists must be selective and filter out information that is not newsworthy. Because they are in competition with other news outlets, they highlight only those stories they consider to be of greatest interest.  They act as “gatekeepers” on behalf of their readers or audience.

Reports, which are interesting and newsworthy, are distinguished by a broadly agreed set of characteristics called ‘’news values’’. These values provide journalists with a mechanism to sort through quickly, process and select the news from that vast amount of information made available to them.

In practice, when a journalist makes a judgment as to whether a story has the necessary ingredients to interest his readers, he will decide informally on the basis of his experience and intuition, rather than actually ticking off a checklist. Even so, many studies of news production show that most of these factors are consistently applied across a range of print, broadcast, and online news organisations worldwide.

Following are some of the parameters based on which an editor decides the newsworthiness of a story

Proximity

Does this story matter to my audience?

Proximity in literal sense is closeness or nearness, This closeness can be in terms of geography of the event, or the occurrence of News. For a person living in Mumbai, the attack or a bomb blast in Mumbai, will be of a greater importance, or relativity than a Bomb Blast in USA.

Proximity is all about understanding the impact of your story, as it relates to the audience of the person you’re pitching.

If a YouTuber  who is not from India[PewDiePie, makes a video on Chotta Bheem, then definitely you will be more interested to watch it.

Impact

How will this affect my readers’ lives?

The number of people whose lives will be influenced in some way by the subject of the story. For instance, a bakery strike may have less impact than a postal strike.

This is the real guts of the story, and it’s typically the lead that you’ll pitch to a publication. The impact of the story quickly establishes the importance of the piece to the reader, and the consequences for the reader themselves. In our fire engine story, for example, the impact of this story was that anyone listening to the radio unlucky enough to suffer a house fire will hopefully suffer less damage because of these amazing new fire engines. It also lets people know that they should keep an eye out for some shiny new fire engines driving around town. This value works hand-in-hand with proximity (which we’ll get to in a moment), as impact is largely determined by audience.

Timeliness

Why are you telling me this now?

Recent events have higher news value than earlier happenings. Of particular value are stories brought to the public ahead of the competition. These are known as scoops.

These shiny new fire engines were…new. What puts the ‘new’ in your ‘news’? Note that this doesn’t mean the story itself has to be new, but some new information has to have come to light that makes the story timely and/or relevant again. Last September, for example, there was a ‘New Species Of Massive Dinosaur Discovered In Africa.’ Obviously, the dinosaur itself isn’t new, but the discovery is. This could likewise be the case with new analysis or new data from months or even years ago – but it’s important to emphasize what’s new.

New Infinity War TV SPOT will matter before April 27. And not afterwards.

Prominence

Why are you telling me this?

For the same occurrence, people in the public eye have higher news value than obscure people.

Any fax from the local member’s office had a pretty decent shot at making the bulletin. As the state representative for Bathurst, almost anything he did or said was newsworthy. In digital marketing, this concept is now more commonly thought of as authority. What makes you (or your client) worth quoting on a story like this? What qualifies you to tell the story? As marketers, this is rarely going to qualify as a potential lede, but it’s important info to establish your credibility as someone qualified to tell this story.

The Bizarre

Is there anything unexpected about this story?

This news value is best expressed through a great journalistic aphorism that I’m sure to mangle, but let’s give it a shot: ‘When a dog bites a man, that’s not an interesting story. It happens all the time. But if a man bites a dog, then that’s news.’ Or as Ron Burgundy might put it:

There was nothing bizarre about any news story, like Man bites the Dog, or Saas Bina Sasural having Game of Thrones Setup, or Neil Nitin Mukesh going to GOT. Nor did it have any elements of – conflict, currency or human interest – the final three news values were about to get to. But that’s OK – rarely will a story (or a piece of content you’re pitching) fit all these parameters. It can still be newsworthy – you just have to be aware of where your story is strong and play those strengths up as potential leads.

Conflict

What are the different sides of this issue, and what are their arguments?

Strife is newsworthy. War. Public anger or Bitter Disagreement over fundamental issues.

Think about the way political news is reported. It’s almost covered like sport, right? You’ve got two teams fighting it out at all times, and it never seems like they can agree on anything. Well, part of the reason it seems like they can never agree is because the stuff they do agree on is boring. Humans love conflict, especially simple, two-sided conflict. It engages us emotionally, as we get to judge the merits of the arguments, judge those who are wrong and get our righteous agreement jollies by nodding vigorously along with those we agree with. Many content marketers could do more with conflict as a news value, but (and perhaps this explains why it’s underexplored), creating content around conflict can be tricky, as you have to be thorough in your research and careful to accurately represent the argument (or arguments) in the conflict.

Currency

Is this trending?

More value is attributed to stories pertaining to issues or topics that are in the spotlight of public concern rather than to issues or topics about which people care less. Stories come and stories go.

Currency means that an idea’s time has come. Think about the Ice Bucket Challenge. This story generated a momentum completely of its own – and news outlets covered everything from the latest video of a celebrity dumping water on their head to the economics of the phenomenon. Note that this applies to ‘seasonal’ pieces as well as trending pieces. Right now we’re being inundated with end-of-year lists and New Year’s resolution stories, and soon that will switch over to stories about romance, chocolate, and going to Jared as publishers do their obligatory coverage of Valentine’s Day, as those stories will have increased currency in February.

Human Interest

Are there attractive people who are impacted by this story?

When you think ‘human interest,’ you probably think of those crappy stories that your grandma loves on Sixty Minutes about some poor lady who got ripped off by her builder. Don’t do those stories. However, human interest can still be a very handy tool. People want to read stories about other people, so a human interest angle can be especially useful in helping you put a human face on a bigger story that needs to be personalized. Think again about the Ice Bucket Challenge and the great human interest stories that emerged from that trend, like that of Peter Frates [ the real man behind ICE Bucket Challenge]


Describe the history of Indian Journalism

The first newspaper in India was circulated in 1780 under the editorship of James Augustus Hicky, named Hicky’s Bengal Gazette. On May 30, 1826 Udant Martand (The Rising Sun), the first Hindi-language newspaper published in India, started from Calcutta (now Kolkata), published every Tuesday by Pt. Jugal Kishore Shukla.

Maulawi Muhammad Baqir in 1836 founded the first Urdu-language newspaper the Delhi Urdu Akhbar. India’s Press in the 1840s was a motley collection of small-circulation, daily or weekly sheets printed on rickety presses.

Few extended beyond their small communities and seldom tried to unite the many castes, tribes, and regional subcultures of India. The Anglo-Indian papers promoted purely British interests.

Englishman Robert Knight (1825–1890) founded two important English-language newspapers that reached a broad Indian audience, The Times of India and The Statesman. They promoted nationalism in India, as Knight introduced the people to the power of the press and made them familiar with political issues and the political process.

Below is the timeline of the History of Journalism in India

  • 1780
    The first newspaper in India was published by James Hicky in January 1780. It was called the Bengal Gazette and announced itself as “a weekly political and commercial paper open to all parties but influenced by none”.Bengal Gazette was a two-sheet paper measuring 12 inches by 8 inches, most of the space being occupied by advertisements. Its circulation reached a maximum of 200 copies. Within six years of Bengal Gazette, four more weeklies were launched in Kolkata (then Calcutta).
  • 1782
    Madras Courier was launched in 1782.
  • 1791
    Bombay Herald was launched in 1791.
  • 1792
    Bombay Courier was launched in 1792. It published advertisements in English and Gujarati.
  • 1799
    In 1799, the East India administration passed regulations to increase its control over the press.
  • 1816
    The first newspaper under Indian administration appeared in 1816. It was also called Bengal Gazette and was published by Gangadhar Bhattacharjee. It was a liberal paper which advocated the reforms of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.Raja Ram Mohan Roy himself brought out a magazine in Persian called Mirat-ul-Ukhbar. He also published The Brahmanical Magazine, an English periodical to counteract the religious propaganda of the Christian missionaries of Serampore.
  • 1822
    In 1822, the Chandrika Samachar was started in Bengal.
    At the same time, Bombay Samachar was started by Ferdunji Marzban. It gave importance to social reform and commercial news in Gujarati.
  • 1826
    The first Hindi newspaper Oodunt Martand was published in 1826 from Bengal. However, it could not survive long because of its distant readership and high postal rates. Its place was soon taken by Jami Jahan Numa, a newspaper that was pro-establishment.
  • 1832
    In 1832, Bal Shastri Jambhekar launched at Anglo-Marathi newspaper from Pune.
  • 1830-1857
    A large number of short-lived newspapers were brought out in this time. Some were in Indian languages like Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Urdu and Persian.
  • 1857
    The Uprising of 1857 brought out the divide between Indian owned and British owned newspapers. The government passed the Gagging Act of 1847 and the Vernacular Press Act in 1876. After 1857, the pioneering efforts in newspapers shifted from Bengal to Mumbai. Gujarati press made great progress under the efforts of Ferdunji Marzban and Kurshedji Cama.
  • Marathi journalism followed close behind with a distinctive educational bias.
  • 1861
    In 1861, Mr Knight merged the Bombay Standard, Bombay Times and Telegraph and brought out the first issue of Times of India.
  • 1875
    In 1875, the same Mr Knight with the backing of rich merchants from Kolkata started Indian Statesman which was later called as Statesman.Around the same time, Amrita Bazar Patrika was able to establish itself in Kolkata. Starting out as a vernacular paper, it was constantly in trouble due to its outspokenness. In order to circumvent the strict provision of the Vernacular Press Act, Amrita Bazar Patrika converted itself overnight into an English newspaper.Amrita Bazar Patrika inspired freedom fighter Lokmanya Tilak to start Kesari in Pune. He used Kesari to build anti-cow killing societies, Ganesh mandals and reviving the Chhatrapati Shivaji cult. He used mass communication as a powerful political weapon.
  • 1905
    By 1905, the English and vernacular press had become pretty professional. Political leaders and social reformers were regular contributors to newspapers. Some prominent writers of the time were C Y Chintamani, G A Natesan, N C Kelkar, Phirozshah Mehta and Benjamin Horniman.
    Indian news was supplied by special correspondent and government handouts (press releases), international news was supplied by Reuters, an international news agency.
  • 1920s and 1930s
    Newspapers in this period started reflecting popular political opinion. While big English dailies were loyal to the British government, the vernacular press was strongly nationalist.
    The Leader and Bombay Chronicle were pro-Congress.

The Servant of India and The Bombay Chronicle were moderate.

The Bande Mataram of Aurbindo Ghosh, Kal of Poona and Sakli of Surat were fiercely nationalist.


In 1918, Motilal Nehru started the Independent of Lucknow as a newspaper of extreme Indian opinion.

The Home Rule Party started Young India, which later became Mahatma Gandhiji’s mouthpiece.

As more and more Indians started learning English, many became reporters, editors and even owners. The Anglo-Indian press began to lose ground except in Bombay and Calcutta.

In 1927, industrialist G D Birla took over Hindustan Times and placed it on a sound financial footing. In the same year, S Sadanand started the Free Press Journal, a newspaper for the poor and the middle-class in Mumbai.


What is Editorial? Explain different types of Editorial.

An Editorial is usually a brief article written by an editor that expresses a newspaper’s or publishing house’s own views and policies on a current issue. If written by an outsider it normally carries a disclaimer saying the article does not necessarily reflects the publisher’s official views.

With globalisation, many  newspapers have undergone changes in their format, make-up and content, a example being that of the Mumbai based – DNA which revamped its pages and dropped the editorial pages just because the Editor felt that the readers don’t take the Editorial Pages seriously. However, other than the DNA, no other newspaper has done away with the editorial column.  Editorial columns are still important because a lot of readers attach value to the impersonal, but well-informed opinions expressed in editorials in case of a burning news breaking out.

Editorials are often a precarious piece to write, because the views expressed in them are considered to be the views of the paper. Even if the number of readers regularly reading the editorials is a small fraction of the newspaper’s total readership, to the extent these readers represent the most serious section of a paper’s readership, the paper must attach special value to their opinions and reactions

An editorial generally reflects the broad views of the papers’ readership, but is not always an index of public opinion. Sometimes, some editors may express opinions which are not in accord with the opinions of the readers, and this requires courage and a strong sense of self conviction. Kumar Ketkar showed this quality when he was the editor of Loksatta, though he came in for a lot of flak for his strong anti-BJP stand

Some papers have up to eight editorial writers and hence this gives rise to specialisation. Thus there are editorial writers for finance, foreign affairs, national politics, civic problems, etc.

The editor has the final say on the view expressed by the editorial writers because of their familiarity with the subject.

Types of Editorial

Every newspaper has its own editorial policy. Some take bold stand on an issue, while others follow a soft core. Editorial policy goes a long way in building the reputation and credibility of a newspaper. If, a newspaper is bold in criticizing a particular stand or move of a political party or the government in power, it is able to carve a niche in hearts of the readers.

  1. Informative Editorial

The main purpose of such editorials is to give information to the readers. The information can be regarding new medicine, new disease or new problem in an economy. Informative editorial are those which just give informations, review, or announce certain facts. It may define terms and issues, identify persons and factors, provide historical and geographical background when necessary. There is a wide variety of editorials in this category, ranging from those which provide background information to those which identify issues.

2.        Interpretative Editorial

Editorials are the voice of the newspaper. The purpose of Interpretative Editorial is to not criticize or appreciate someone or something; rather, they simplify the information for readers. These editorials explain the significance or meaning of a news event, current idea, condition or situation, theory or hypothesis. The writer doesn’t argue nor criticize, but merely present both sides of an issue and leaves the judgment to the reader. It merely interprets, say for example, the content of a new memorandum issued by the principal.

3.        Argumentative Editorial

These types of editorial put forward an argument. These are generally based on previous days News. Editorial writers are often critical of Government policies. Whenever and wherever, Government goes wrong, the editorial should expose it.  This is oftentimes called editorial of persuasion. The editor argues in order to convince or persuade the reader to accept his stand on the issue.

The editorial “Many tickets to Ride” from “Hindustan Times” has appreciated the metro project initiated by the Government in states like Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Gujarat. But, at the same time, it also informs the Government to learn lessons from mistakes in Delhi.

4.        Entertaining Editorial

These types of editorial are light in the nature. Some newspapers don’t even carry it. Sometimes, these types of editorial pick up a serious topic but, present it in a lighthearted way. “The Times of India” carries opinion of famous authors on it editorial page. Often, Entertaining Editorial are of Two Types. One is the short humorous treatment of a light topic. The second is a slightly satirical treatment of a serious subject. It evokes a smile, a chuckle, laughter, while suggesting truth. Its main aim is to entertain. It is usually short.

5.        Editorial of Criticism

As, already mentioned, the purpose of an editorial is to indulge in constructive criticism. This type of editorial is of no use, if it does not provide solution to the problems. For example, if editor is criticizing the steps taken by BJP Government, for “Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan”, then it should suggest other measure for better implementation.  It points out the good or the bad features of a problem or situation mentioned in the news. Its purpose is to influence the reader. Sometimes it also suggests a solution at the end. It praises, commends, or pays tribute to a person or organization that has performed some worthwhile projects or deeds, or accomplishments.


Sub editor’s role is limited to glorified clerk”

Comment and explain the editorial department with diagram and explanation.

The sub editor or copy editor in a newspaper organisation, is described as “the midwife to the story” and “an unsung hero of a newspaper”. Sub editors work on the copy prepared by the reporters.

They have no direct involvement in news events. Still they try their best to make the copy attractive. Their role is limited to a desk job only. They don’t cover new stories themselves. So in a way their job is restricted within the premises of the office four walls.

The sub editors or copy editors work under chief sub editor and sometime directly under the news editor. He or she selects news events, removes unnecessary elements and arrange available information in the right order.

They check and recheck facts, style, grammar while editing a story in newspaper. They also are required to put up suitable headlines for each story. A good sub editor is an intelligent reader, tactful and sensitive critic.

Sub Editors are unsung heroes of journalism and no one can ignore their importance. The statement that sub editors role is limited to being a glorified clerk is a one sided statement. It doesn’t hold true. Although sub-editor is not directly involved in the creation of news, but they are responsible in giving a shape and dimension to the news stories.

The newspaper is an organization where cadres are fixed. Unlike any other organization newspapers are different in functioning because of the time limit it has, there is a chaos in the organization, everyone in busy in its work. To maintain the speed of the work and proper functioning of organization even newspaper need a structure, this organization structure differ from one organization. That means there are very few chances that two organizations have similar structure.

Structure and Function of the organization:

Editor in Chief:

It is the top most position in the editorial board. He does not involve in day-to-day activity of a newspaper yet he controls the newspaper. He appoints the right person for the job.A good Editor in Chief would know how to use his power & influence for the betterment of the publication as well as for the betterment of the society. He would use his office to draw attention to humanitarian issues and fight for the cause of the oppressed & the weak. The Editor in Chief is the soul of the Newspaper.

Resident Editor:

The resident editor heads a particular edition of the newspaper like the Editor in Chief he is fully responsible for the entire content of the edition. He has legal and moral responsibility for all that goes in the edition of his newspaper. The Resident editor sets the policies of his office and his man job is to chalk out the plan for the growth of his edition.

News Editor

He is the head of the news desk. His team comprises deputy news editor, Chief Sub Editor, sub editor trainee sub editor. As the head of the desk the news editor plays a very important role in the layout of the newspaper. He is responsible for the day-to-day running of a newspaper. He Plans layout of newspaper edition,  Receives news copy, photographs, and dummy page layouts marked to indicate columns occupied by advertising. Confers with management and the editorial staff members regarding placement of developing news stories. Determines placement of stories based on relative significance, available space, and knowledge of layout principles. Marks layout sheets to indicate position of each story and accompanying photographs. Approves proofs submitted by composing room. May write or revise headlines. May edit copy may perform related editorial duties as required.

Copy Editor

A book editor (sometimes known as copy editor or line editor) prepare manuscripts of books for publication. They may proofread manuscripts and work with authors to ensure the manuscript is suitable for publication.

Chief Sub-editor:

A chief sub-editor monitors the pages of a publication and sort through the articles to decide on those that will be included.

Proofreader:

A proofreader checks typeset proofs and/or computer printouts to detect errors in typesetting or keyboarding before the final printing of a publication.

Senior Sub-Editor:

A senior sub-editor writes headlines to fit the space allocated to a story or copy, decides on layout of photographs and drawings, contributes to the design of the publication and generates new ideas. It is advantageous for senior sub-editors to have knowledge of computer-design applications.

Sub-Editor:

A sub-editor works for associate editors of magazines and newspapers in assessing the suitability of reports and articles for publication, and edits as necessary. They may arrange the production of photographs or illustrations and liaise with printing compositors to achieve the desired effect.Editors have to work under pressure when meeting deadlines, especially those who work on daily newspapers. Incase of numbers of sub editors are less in news desk then it becomes difficult to finish the job. In such cases some time news desks only edits the spellings and give headlines to the stories.

Reporting:

Reporters are eyes and ears of any newspaper publication without reporters newspaper cannot function. Because news is information which is obtained and verified by the reporter before it is published.

Chief Reporter:

He is one of the most important people in the office, because of his position of chief reporter. His job includes assigning task to the reporters and also awarding beats to them. He is very important for any publication, he hold all the important contacts with politicians, celebrity, social activist.

Reporter:

They are eyes and ears of the newspaper; they are responsible for all the field work done. Reporters provide news from the field and even from there reliable sources. If at all any news is missed and cannot be generated it can be taken from the news agencies like PTI, UNI etc depend from where the news is coming and the weightage of the news.

Feature Editor:

A magazine features editor ensures that their publication is full of entertaining, informative and newsworthy articles. Most opportunities are in large publishing companies that produce a wide range of titles. However, features editors are also employed by trade magazines, specialist publishers, online media and in-house magazines. The responsibilities of the role can include: generating ideas for features, commissioning work by freelance writers, editing and proofreading, managing writing staff and liaising with artists and photographers. Magazine features editor do not always need specialist knowledge of the subject they cover, unless the content is highly technical, although an interest in the subject is usually expected.

Feature Writer

The job of a feature writer is to write a feature on given topic.Feature writer can be of different segment and specialist in there field of writing.Feature article is light and for the pleasure reading. But writing a feature is different from writing news report as it is a soft news and the writing style is different.


What is investigative journalism? Explain its importance with examples

Investigative journalism is a type of journalism that uncovers what others don’t want uncovered. An investigative journalist digs deep into one story, whether it be corporate financial corruption, violent crime, or other topics that might not get covered in the everyday news.

One of the main goals of investigative journalism is to spur change. An investigative journalist might spend four years following a politician and uncovering a money laundering crime to protect the people from electing a criminal.

Then again, simpler forms of investigative journalism provide citizens with news stories via television networks and newspapers, but isn’t the everyday sort of news. It may be a local grocery story that is prejudice toward hiring the elderly or a school failing to support students with special needs.

Another name often used to refer to investigative journalism is watchdog journalism. Underneath this umbrella term is interpretive reporting, which is is type of investigative journalism that evaluates the consequences of certain events or actions.

Keep in mind however that investigative journalism is not leak journalism, which is when a reporter releases sensitive documents to the public without any further research into the documents.


What is the difference between News and feature article? Explain with examples

Descriptive Paragraphs for those who liked the Meme Exam Videos, and Point wise Difference for the Normies

A newspaper is like a treasure house. It is one document that has all types and kinds of content in it, from fresh news updates to sports news, from page 3 gossips to political/city news. It even has the entertainment section which includes game puzzles, Sudoku, comic strips, zodiac predictions, etc. For the sake of this article, we will be dealing with two sections of the newspaper, namely: news report and a feature report.

While both types of stories are equally important for your public relations strategy, they’re used in different circumstances. Here are critical differences between a feature story and a news story.

A News Report is basically a general reporting of an event that has occurred. The report is filled with facts and information. It usually contains answers to all the “5 W’s” i.e. Why, Where, What, Who and How. The event that is covered in a news report is fresh and current.  News reports include certain beats such as crime, politics, education, sports, etc. The main purpose of a news story is to inform the people what is happening around them. It generally follows a pattern known as ‘The Inverted Pyramid’ which means writing the facts and information in the order of its importance. The main information at the beginning of the article means people can get the gist of the news report at a quick glance, thus ensuring good use of their time.

Feature News on the other hand also contains factual information like that of news report. However the feature news is not necessarily fresh or current news. A good feature goes deeper than just a press release as it thoroughly explores an issue from all direction. The feature news consists of quotes from important people pertaining to the story of the feature news. It analyses the events, ask pertinent questions and seeks answers. It does not merely report, it ponders. The writer  or reporter gives his opinions in a feature piece. Different writers follow different styles of writing news features. This very difference in every news feature makes it unique in its own way. The average words in a feature news range between 2000 to 2500 words.

Timing.

The major difference between a news story and a feature story is that a news story is time-sensitive. Media outlets want to publish news stories as quickly as possible after an event occurs. Feature stories, however, are not as time-dependent and contain no urgent content. You can write one anytime after an event occurs.

Style.

The writing styles of a news story and a feature are different. In a news story, the emphasis is on content rather than form. News stories go straight to the point, using simple and effective words to deliver the facts quickly. They usually average between 300-500 words.

Feature stories are often more wordy and they have a creative structure. Feature stories can be more than 2000 words.

Beginning and ending.

A news story and a feature story have different types of beginnings and endings. News stories tell what the news is upfront and then give the most important details in the first paragraph or two. The beginning – or lead – of a feature story, on the other hand, doesn’t give the news straightaway. Instead, it hooks readers and keeps them reading until the end.

A news story can end anywhere after you’ve described the most important facts, whereas a feature story ends with readers feeling satisfied that they gained some value from reading the story.


Explain any 5 types of leads for a news story with examples.

Papa Sipe/Semester Saviour found all the leads. Read all. Lmao. The Answer was a little rushed. So pardon me for the gramatcial mistakes. Not just here but everywhere, I am really tensed because the time is really very short this time. For ME.

Summary/digest/Straight Leads

It brings the central issue of discussions at first. It tells readers what they want to know in a creative manner If the reader only read the lead, he or she would have a solid grasp of the story. This is the most common and widely used lead especially in newspapers and most of us have come across these while browsing stories with the morning cuppa. These are straight leads that just state the facts and include the who, where, what, when, why and sometimes even the how of the event or happening. Traditionally, summary leads have been used to report breaking news or a developing story. Of late, most breaking news reaches us through electronic media or mobile much before the print form, so even if you apply the summary to your lead, it makes better sense to start with the why, what  and the how rather than the who, when and where.


Example
:

Twelve People were killed & at least 50 injured and hospitalized when a bus and car smashed into each other.  “Bus got fire and collided with the car which resulted into this accident.‟ This mishap took place near Gurgaon in the morning.

Question Lead

Use when story has direct relevance or public interest to reader. Many editors dislike question lead on the basis that people read newspapers to get answers, and not to be asked questions if the question is provocative, it may be used as a lead.


Example
: What is the first thing that a woman buys when she is advised that she won $2,50,000 in a jingle contest? Mrs. Jane Roe, informed by XYZ Soaps that her entry took top prize in the nationwide contest, said that she will buy a rhyming dictionary that .

Punch, Capsule or Cartridge lead

Short & punchy to attract the readers. Blunt, explosive statement to summarize article. The punch lead is most often used in news stories and can be used in news features where you want to convey a hard-hitting message to the readers or to reveal some high-voltage piece of information. To give an example, if you are writing an investigative story about a thick wooded forest that has been destroyed because of deforestation and construction activity, a lead simply saying “The trees are gone” or “the birds have flown away” will give the desired impact. But such leads should be used sparingly and only when the story warrants it otherwise it will look contrived. And if you decide to begin with such a lead, you should be sure to have equally impactful information in the paragraphs that follow otherwise your readers would be disappointed.


Example: President is Dead

Statement or Direct Quotation

This lead can be extremely effective if quote is good and important. Then, paragraphs is used to explain the quote. This is lead is generally used in speech reporting.


Example
: “I will start looking for a secular state in India from Kashmir to Kerala excluding Tamil Nadu for me to reside and work. If am not able to find such a place in the country then I would seek a country that does entertain an artist like me. I could leave the country like MF Hussain, ”. Said the actor speaking to the press. India’s one of the finest actor and filmmaker, Kamal Hassan is disappointed. Lot of drama has been happening from few days and his latest movie Vishwaroopam is not yet released in Tamil Nadu.

Contrast lead

Grabbing Readers attention by comparing extremes- the big with little, comedy with tragedy, old age with youth, past with the present and so on. This lead uses two different thoughts or two sentences that are exactly opposite to each other in the opening paragraph to make a strong statement. The contrast in the lead is employed to drive home the point about a particular event, person or happening. For eg, pitting joy against sorrow, new against old, tragedy against happiness are some of the ways to do it.


Examples
: A private is having funds in crores and international facilities where a municipal school is lacking in its basic need of teachers. The XYZ public school management has agreed that they have 28,00,000 is too high.(now, rest of the story will tell how the situation is there)Similarly, corruption in politics could be one reason.

Direct-Address or Direct-Appeal Lead

This lead directly speaks to the reader. It addresses the reader directly as “you”. It enhances the interest of the reader as it directly talk with them.


Examples
:

YOU WONT BELIEVE WHAT KYLIE JENNER JUST DID

YOU WONT BELIEVE WHAT KIM JUST DID
YOU WONT BELIEVE WHAT THE HECK HE SAID [die]

You might not get relief from breezy wind as meteorological department said the weather are going to be same for next 15 days more.

Descriptive Lead

As the name suggests, this type of lead goes into great detail to describe the scene or person that makes up the subject of the story. The idea is to create visual impact. So if you are writing a news report about a high-profile murder, instead of using a boring summary lead informing who was murdered and why, you could make the piece more impactful by graphically describing the crime scene. A descriptive lead describes how an event happened rather than simply telling what the event is about. Writer try to paint the event/place/person through words. This lead can help in creating mood of the story.


Example

Allahabad: At the Kanchi Shankaracharyas camp, a 24-hour mantra jaap (chanting of hymns) echoes across sector 6 of the 70-sq km large kumbh city. Adjacent to the Kanchi Peeth camp, the SGPC team at the kumbh prepares for the afternoon langar (community lunch). Hundreds of pilgrims, visitors and homeless at the kumbh have already queued up for the lunch.

Parody lead

This lead attempts to play on proverb, quotation, song titles or phrase.

Example: “Jo Jeeta Wahi Sikandar‟.

Historical or literary-Allusion Lead

This lead draws attention on some characters or event in history or literature that is familiar to average readers. The religious books and literary works are used as reference points by writers. Example: Lastly, Nirbhaya died after 15 days struggle. She fought for the life like Jhansi ki Rani, But her life ended as the infection of body could stopped, said Doctor team member.

Staccato Lead Jerky

Exciting phrases used if facts justify it. Short, clipped words, phrases and sentences, sometime separated with dashes and dots. To create certain mood in the story, often this is descriptive in nature.


Example
:  “Midnight on the bridge…a scream…a shot…a splash…a second shot…a third shot.”  Rohit has less learning ability. Rohit has severe problem in speech. Rohit is autistic. But still he manages like a normal child.(rest of the story)

Suspended Interest/Delayed Lead

This lead work as a stimulators of interest among readers. After the lead, story runs in chronological order, so reader has to read the whole story to get the climax. The reader must get the story by reading to the end of the story.


Example:

Fourteen-year-old Akbars appeal to the judge to let him remain with his Hindu guardian instead of transferring him to his Muslim mother has shot Aiku Lal Sandil to national headlines. However, for the tea vendor from Baradari, Lucknow, taking in Akbar wasn’t something he thought twice about. Having been raised by a Muslim man himself, Sandil couldn’t just look away when he found the six-year-old lost boy in a Lucknow park eight years ago. (rest the story)

Circumstantial Lead

This lead stress on the circumstances under which the incident took place. Generally, used in Human Interest Story.

Example: An 60-year old retired bank employee raised his voice when 2 unidentified persons entered in his house for robbery in Shakarpur area. Fortunately, a police van was standing nearby. They reached at the spot and rescued the women.

Oddity or Freak Lead

Begin with uncommon or odd statement. Unusual approach to attract the readers.


Example
:

“For sale: one elephant.”

 The City Park Commission is thinking about inserting that ad in the newspaper.

”Wanted: Supporters from among the opposition parties who can vote for the NDA govt. to save it from a possible defeat in coming election in Uttar Pradesh.

Narrative or Sequence Lead

This lead starts at the middle of an event. It carries the reader through the event and give a surprising twist at the end of the story.

Example: He paused for a second to gaze upon it. Then slowly he reached down and laid his hand upon it feeling the skin. He turned aside and carefully selected the knife. Sweating now, he lifted it up and then, suddenly brought it down. Red, Red it was red everywhere. ”Cut‟ shouted the director. Thus ended the first shot of Sanjeev Kumar. Three retakes later and it was done. And what followed is history.

Bullet Lead

In this lead, short sentence or phrase is used in a straight forward manner. This is used in a important news. Since this lead hits the readers like a bullet.

Example:

Mahatma is no more.

Indira Gandhi is shot dead.

 Funny or Gag Lead

This lead is written in funny way. This is written on rare basis depending upon the story. Generally, used in a feature.

Blind identification Lead

If the person concerned is not well known in the community, his/her name is less important than other salient facts that identify the person.

Example:
“An 80-year-old woman” instead of her name.
A police inspectors son was attacked with a knife by some miscreants on Mount Road this evening. The victim Pratap Daniel, 20, has been admitted to a private hospital and his condition is critical.

What is Inverted Pyramid style of writing?

In general, news stories are organized using the inverted pyramid style, in which information is presented in descending order of importance. This allows the audience to read the most crucial details quickly so they can decide whether to continue or stop reading the story. From an editing perspective, using the inverted pyramid style makes it easier to cut a story from the bottom, if necessary. Invented more than a century ago, the inverted pyramid style remains the basic formula for news writing (Scanlan, 2003).

I made this Diagram on my own, since the ones on internet are stupid. Hope it helps

‘President John Fitzgerald Kennedy was shot and killed by an assassin today. He died of a wound in the brain caused by a rifle bullet that was fired at him as he was riding through downtown Dallas in a motorcade.’

These are the first two sentences from the front page of the November 22, 1963 New York Times. The article goes on to detail the events prior to the shooting, the capture of a suspect, resuscitation attempts on the president, and the administering of last rites. But in just those first two sentences the reader is told the end of the story.

This popular and widely used style of news writing is known as the inverted pyramid. It’s a method of ‘front loading’ an article so that the reader receives the most important information first, or on top. The article starts with the conclusion: Kennedy was shot and killed.

Using an inverted pyramid, the journalist leads with the attention-grabbing finale. The journalist follows up with supporting paragraphs that contain details, in order of most to least important. The article ends with the least important information. In the New York Times article, the last paragraph contains portions of the speech President Kennedy was on his way to give at an event in Dallas.

Notice how the inverted pyramid is the opposite of essay writing. Essay writing requires the student to start with an introduction and build toward a conclusion. Instead, the journalist makes his or her point and then proceeds to explain it.

Why Use An Inverted Pyramid?

The inverted pyramid has been used for well over a century, and for good reason. The formula is known for engaging and assisting readers. The first sentences are written to grab readers’ attention, much like the headline itself, and draw them into the article. Readers can quickly decide whether or not the article interests them.

Even if readers stop reading the New York Times article after the first two sentences, they still know the main point of the article. The formula allows readers to skim articles to pick up on certain details, rather than read them word for word. This is helpful when a reader already knows the main point of a widely covered news story – as was the case with the assassination – and is simply looking for updates.

The formula is also helpful to print media editors. The print media includes newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and other printed publications. These materials typically have strict space restrictions, and articles often need to be shortened. The inverted pyramid allows editors to cut material from the bottom of an article without cutting important information.

It is important to note that some news stories do not strictly follow the inverted pyramid style, although the lead for a hard news piece always does. Furthermore, not everyone in the journalism field embraces the style; some detractors believe it is an unnatural way to engage in storytelling and present news to the public. Yet, proponents believe it is an efficient way to organize and share information in a fast-paced society


Explain the process of creating Electronic News.

I do not have a concrete answer at the moment. I have the points tho. If you find a better answer. Please contact me. I have added a list of Crew and Department. I could not find anything in accordance with that. So I have added ENG Answer. But I am not sure

Electronic news-gathering is when reporters and editors make use of electronic video and audio technologies in order to gather and present news. Electronic news-gathering can involve anything from a lone reporter taking a single professional video camera out to shoot a story, to an entire television crew taking a production or satellite truck on-location to conduct a live news report for an outside newscast.

Electronic news requires teamwork. Generally a journalist goes to the site or place of the news story. He/she interviews various sources of news information and records their bytes. A cameraperson is often accompanied with the journalist. Footage is captured of the event/news. Then the rough footage is edited by the news editor, who packages the entire story. The journalist either prepares the script of the news story and dubs his voiceover that helps in the narrative of the story.

Sometimes, journalists will try to give their opinion via P2C wherein they speak directly to the camera that seems as if they are speaking to the viewers themselves. In crucial news stories, journalists are connected live with the anchors of the studio, where in they provide live update of the news.

Nowadays breaking news are happening at a lightening speed. So the electronic news team have to be on their toes to be up to date with information. Please give examples as well.

Points to elaborate for this Question

  • Producer and Director to manage timeline, paperwork and coordination to manage the crew and behaviour
  • Anchors or Correspondents having the knowledge to raise right questions and present well.
  • Camera operators to shoot the anchor and other participants (in studio or onsite). Needs the camera, tripod and headphones.
  • Editors to fill in and put together the show in post-production
  • Using sources say news agencies as fillers.

Crew

  • News Editor
  • Script-writer/ Script-editor
  • VTR Editor
  • Graphics Artist
  • Voiceover Professional
  • Multi-skilled Professional

Department

  • PCR –  production control room from where the news bulletin is controlled/given commands
  • MCR – master control room from where video stories/clips are played as per the command of PCR.
  • Voice over – the audio given to a final script in a special room with minimum disturbances.                                                                        
  • Newsroom – where all the journalists
  •  sit together and work .
  • Producer – who is associated with production of news
  • VT editor – video editor who edits the story

What are the different beats in journalism? Explain any 3 with examples

Basically Genre, you gotta talk about some news genres and elaborate on them.

Journalism and the art of delivering of the news come in many forms. Some approaches to news gathering and reporting are known to be more popular if compared with the rest. Some reporting techniques are also considered specialized and best done by certain journalists who are trained in this specialization. Take the case of beat reporting- this is one form of reporting that is highly specialized and will normally focus on a very specific aspect of an issue, industry or even sector. It is a normal practice that beat reporters should not be new in the field. These are the reporters that are allowed to grow in their jobs. The beat reporters will be assigned a niche, industry or focus and they are expected to familiarize themselves with the available topics and issues that may arise. They are expected not just to deliver the news but they are also expected to come up with informed observations and commentaries on the latest news and issues for a given time. The delivery of facts is just the start; it’s now common to see beat reporting that involve some insights and commentaries. The ability to come up with insights and commentaries help the beat reporters define themselves from the typical journalists in the field and in the offices.

Beat reporting is actually influenced by the term ‘beat’. This is based on the ‘beat’ noun that will refer to the usual road or path taken by a person on a regular basis. For example, this will refer to the same path or road that is taken by the police officer. Using the same concept, the journalism industry has also adopted the word. This time, the term ‘beat’ will refer to the topic or niche that is assigned to the reporter on a regular basis.

Beat reporting is considered an important aspect of journalism and this is seen by the awards that are given to successful beat reports. For example, there was the Pulitzer Prize for Beat Reporting.

Food

People crave information about food. They’re as insatiable for it as they are for, well, food itself. A strong local news publication should remind people when it is time to plant what, what’s in season in their local markets, and who’s doing something creative with food in local restaurants.

One great food blogger could cover this beat, but in a larger newsroom, this beat could be divided among a gardening columnist, a restaurant critic, a recipe writer and a reporter covering nutrition and agriculture.

Properly executed, the food beat – and the audience it connects with – can entice significant advertising support from local food producers, markets and restaurateurs. If I were starting a local blog today, and could cover only one topic to start, it’d be the local food scene.

Education

Education defines lives of young people and parents within your community, and news about education is their primary information need.

And yet, most news organizations give little coverage to education, beyond easy-to-cover issues such as prep sports, police calls to a campus and state-released test scores. That’s because most school systems are skeptical, even fearful, of outsiders. Student safety regulations limit access to students. Overworked and underpaid teachers have little time for outsiders. District personnel have grown used to the media portraying academics negatively, if they cover it all.

But the reward for a news organization that can fully cover a school district is huge. Parents want a fuller look at what’s happening in their schools, including everything from the in-class experience to the performance of speech teams and show choirs. Heck, maybe more comprehensive coverage of their schools might entice more than a few students into a habit of reading the local news.

Labor

We eat. We learn. We work. But how many publications cover work, from the worker’s perspective? Business stories typically focus on the management side. But what about the pocketbook and workplace politics issues that employees face? Where’s the coverage of that? This is the home for your consumer reporting, including household finance and budgeting, but also for local development issues covered from an employee’s point of view. Are development incentives helping create jobs and pay for workers, or just fattening management’s pockets for projects that would have happened anyway?

Covering unions and labor negotiations will be part of this beat, but don’t limit yourself to that. What are people doing in your community to get hired, to get promoted or even just to keep their jobs?

Business

Who’s filed for a zoning change or variance? Who’s pulled building permits? Who’s hiring, or laying off, employees? Make it a daily habit to check that information at city hall, or wherever such notices are filed in your community.


The Business journalist or reporter covers in-depth reports about the latest in business, launch of products, stock markets etc.

There are many shows on T.V. on channels like CNBC, NDTV dedicated only for business news, whereas in newspapers, one can find a special sections or even separate newspapers (DNA money, Economic times).

A weekly round-up of new hires and promotions at local businesses also ought to be a must for any local business writer. It shows that you’re paying attention to the local business community and helps you forge connections with the people within it.

You’re running a business now – a news publication business. What are the issues you’ve had to deal with in starting and maintaining that business? Every other business person in your community is facing those same issues. Cover them in your publication and you’ll find many other local voices eager to join you in a conversation.

Faith

Faith unites and divides people within your community. It inspires some, and disturbs others. Political and social movements are born within places of worship. The relationships formed and strengthened within churches and other places of worship affect how business and political deals will be made in your community.

You need a reporter who accepts people of all faiths, without prejudice, so that they will be accepted by sources in all faith communities. Like education, this is a tough beat to gain trust from sources, but if you do, you’ll be rewarded with an engaged readership.

Politics

Primarily concerned with civil governments and political power. It is frequently opinionated on by many experts analyzing the several features of current affairs in relation to the government. The politician-journalist relationship is both adversarial and symbiotic. It provides the backdrop for diverse ethical issues which the political Journalist must fight with.

Political journalism has two main types of journalists. One being the traditional journalist who may have an office with the government and reports news purely based on the facts without passing their own judgment and political feelings. The other main type is the opinionated journalist, a reformer, a critic, analyst, and columnist.

Crime

Also referred to as investigative journalism. This type of journalism is about unearthing facts and studying cases that may require more efforts, which can take months or even years.

Journalists who specialize in investigative journalism create headlines with news that expose scandals. Sometimes, persistent follow up of a story proves beneficial to uncover some hitherto unsolved cases. This would require in-depth research from the journalist along with evidence.

Entertainment and Fashion

The entertainment industry includes the lives of the rich and famous, all the gossip, scandals, etc. But all that is just a part of the entertainment industry journalism. It also includes all the movie buzz, television show reviews and a whole lot more.

Fashion journalism as the name suggests is all about articles or reports related to the fashion world. Journalists are also known as fashion writers or fashion editors. The main job is to cover the latest in the fashion business or develop lifestyle articles. Such fashion articles can be found in magazines and newspapers.  Today, there are many television channels that cater only to fashion, which gives ample opportunity for journalists who have a passion to cover such topics.

Another aspect of the entertainment world is the celebrity journalism, in India it Page 3 is considered to have most of the articles in relation to this. The journalist is connected to news and events related to celebrities from the entertainment world and also includes celebrities from other fields such as music, sports, dance, art, politics, etc. This journalism is particularly popular with newspapers, magazines and television.

Sports

If your community is closely associated with an individual professional sport then you might consider launching an additional, niche publication covering that sport.

Journalists spend hours reporting on a particular sport event.  A journalist has to report the accurate facts and statistics related to that event. Interviews with celebrity sport stars are yet one of the interesting features of sports journalism.

Technology

Here reporters give detailed analysis and reviews of the gadgets. The target audience is not that wide though, it is more looked into by the younger generation as they have higher interest in technology advancements.


What are the various principles of journalism?

I checked the original article. There are like 20/30 Principles. Few books mentioned like 3 and I was like Whaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa. But who cares. 15 Marks is 2+ Pages. So Lets Do it. It might be huge. But you know what to do. Read the Heading. And write something which has not been mentioned in any book at all.

Every profession has certain set of rules and regulations to be followed by the people in that particular profession. So be it Teaching, Medicine, Law, or Journalism. There are many ways of looking at the principles of journalism, ranging from the philosophical to the pragmatic. In view of the central role of the media, including the news media, in the world today, a combination approach acknowledging and incorporating both the essential principles and the practical steps through which the principles can translated into action is probably most useful.

Accuracy

The first and foremost principle of Journalism is that the information provided by the journalists should be correct and supported by the facts. As a reporter you should always cross check the facts and minute details like name and the designation of the person concerned in the news, name of the institution, dates and spell check.

Even in a world of expanding voices, accuracy is the foundation upon which everything else is built: context, interpretation, comment, criticism, analysis and debate. The truth, over time, emerges from this forum. As citizens encounter an ever-greater flow of data, they have more need not less for identifiable sources dedicated to verifying that information and putting it in context.

Journalists cannot always guarantee ‘truth’, but getting the facts right is the cardinal principle of journalism. Journalists should always strive for accuracy, give all the relevant facts they have and ensure that they have been checked.

Independence

Journalists must be independent voices; we should not act, formally or informally, on behalf of special interests whether political, corporate or cultural. We should declare to our editors – or the audience – any of our political affiliations, financial arrangements or other personal information that might constitute a conflict of interest.  Journalists must maintain an independence from those they cover.

Independence is an underlying requirement of journalism, a cornerstone of its reliability. Independence of spirit and mind, rather than neutrality, is the principle journalists must keep in focus. While editorialists and commentators are not neutral, the source of their credibility is still their accuracy, intellectual fairness and ability to inform – not their devotion to a certain group or outcome. In our independence, however, we must avoid any tendency to stray into arrogance, elitism, isolation or nihilism.

Objectivity

Objectivity is not imposing your personal opinion in news reporting. As a reporter, one should just tell the audience about the facts and figures. Journalist should not try to make a judgement. In times like Elections, it is important for a Journalist to use words very carefully, as every word from their mouth can be responsible and accountable for the future of the country.

Objectivity implies a standard; it suggests that there is one way to write a story. But if that’s the case, why do two newspapers never carry the same angle?  If they are all writing objective stories, how can they all present different points of view? But at the end of the day, journalists are also human beings, they also have their likings and disliking, they also have their favourite stars. Come on! Even they like Energee than Keveninator [censoring.]

It is important to realzie that objectivity has not always been a value closely held by media outlets. Instead, some have chosen to embrace what is known aas advocacy journalism. Some argue that instead of ‘objectivity’ journalists should aim for fairness and accuracy. Others stress that balance is of the utmost importance

Balance / Fairness and Impartiality

Most stories have at least two sides. While there is no obligation to present every side in every piece, stories should be balanced and add context. Objectivity is not always possible, and may not always be desirable (in the face for example of brutality or inhumanity), however being faithful to the report, and impartial reporting builds trust and confidence.

Forum for Public Criticism and Compromise

The news media are the common carriers of public discussion, and this responsibility forms a basis for our special privileges. This discussion serves society best when it is informed by facts rather than prejudice and supposition. It also should strive to fairly represent the varied viewpoints and interests in society, and to place them in context rather than highlight only the conflicting fringes of debate. Accuracy and truthfulness require that as framers of the public discussion we not neglect the points of common ground where problem solving occurs.

Accountability

A sure sign of professionalism and responsible journalism is the ability to hold ourselves accountable. When we commit errors we must correct them and our expressions of regret must be sincere not cynical. We listen to the concerns of our audience. We may not change what readers write or say but we will always provide remedies when we are unfair.


What is the basic difference between writing for print, TV and online news

The difference between Print, TV, and Online News, includes several areas such as the readership, space, portability, etc. Print media has been one of the oldest forms of journalism. After the advancement of technology in the last few decades, the multimedia/broadcast journalism has installed its precedence over the journalistic community. Broadcast journalism is faster and timely, something which is imperative for us journalists. Switch on your television, or radio, and you get the latest updates via tickers, or prime-time.

There was a time when Broadcast was at its peak. And was the only source of News, apart from Print. However when Internet came, it made rapid inroads in our lives and has grown exponentially to touch our lives in all spheres.

Knowing your audience and the purpose of your content is paramount whether writing for the broadcast, web or for print. However, there are significant differences between the two mediums of which a writer must be aware before writing Web content for the first time.

Compared to print, the Web is generally an informal and immediate medium. Users have come to expect a more informal writing style that is more straightforward. Puns and figurative language don’t translate well and can often be confusing for international users.

Writing for Print News

When we read a Paper, or when we write for Exams. We tend to use a sort of bookish language, and sometimes get formal. So that we may impress the Teacher, and s/he may like our Paper. The Sole Purpose is to impress the person who is going to read. And the same formula works over here.

When we write for a print Medium, we are writing for eyes. We may sometimes use words with a deeper sense, however sometimes we need to write in a very simple manner, or we might use language which will have certain jargons, or words which are easily recognized by your target audience. Like for the jokes I make. Yep. Those. Precisely. The Doraemon Jokes, or Motu Patlu😭👌

Very Important / Tl;Dr [ in internet it means too long didnt read]

  • Powerful Words
  • Formal Words
  • Important Words
  • Purr Purr Purr

Writing for TV News

When one is writing for Television, one has to be cautious about the fact that the audience is not just watching listening, but watching as well. Unlike Print, here people wont fixate only on what is the information which they are receiving, but audience is also interested in the visuals. If the visuals are not appealing then the audience will not tune into your channel.

When writing for TV News, the Writer has to not only write the information in the script but s/he also has to keep in mind, the manner and order of the visuals. The golden rule of Television Writing is that, the best visual is should come first. Imagine this, if you see amazing some good lines, but poor visuals in a trailer, will you really be interested in watching a movie? 🤔🤔🤔🤔

Many things are kept in consideration while writing for TV. The language should be kept simple, if a person is speaking in another language, then subtitles should be used, if you are watching something on Animal/Wildlife/Nature Channels then there should be Hindi/Local Language Voiceover or it should be supported by subtitles. DRAGON BALL SUPER IN JAPANESE WAS WEIRD, BUT THE SUBS SAVED ME.

Very Important / Tl;Dr [ in internet it means too long didnt read]

  • Visuals are the most important
  • Writing should support visual, and VICE VERSA visual should support the Writings as well
  • Not all the visuals/important content should be shown at first, you have to keep your audience engaged. The Writer should be able to build the pace.

Writing for Online News

Make sure you write you’re and not your There is not much difference between Print and Web Journalism. But there are certain things which should be kept in mind while writing for Web.

When one writes for Web, then it should be accessible on all platforms and devices. And if you have made that sure, then the second problem you will be facing is Competition. It is very likely 💯💯💯, that the article you have written, would have been written by someone else as well. So to make sure you stand out, it is important that your Headline is provoking, catchy, and simple.

It is also necessary that your articles most important data is contained in the first paragraph. The Paragraph should be simple, clear, balanced, and can be self standing. There should also be pictures to support your article, which will engage the readers.

Very Important / Tl;Dr [ in internet it means too long didnt read]

  • You will get an instant feedback or comment, so your content should be prompt
  • Your Article should be short, and crispy.
  • It should have a catchy/provoking title

I made this Diagram on my own. Might be helpful I guess???

Print

Television

Web

Focus

Words

Visual and then Words

Title, Introduction

Vocabulary/Language

Precise and Formal

Respective of Visual and Genre.

Can be Simple, can be Formal

Based on Topic, Content

Can be simple

Should be Short/Crisp

Sensory Organ
[why not xD]

Eyes

Eyes and Ears

Eyes

Additional Information

Heavy Importance on Words

The Order, and Management of Visual and Words is Important

Instant Feedback and Comments are highly expected.


Explain the basic components of a news story

1. The Headline.

 The headline is a one or two line summary of the contents of the news story, in larger type, that tells readers what the story is about . Headlines act as an index of the contents of the newspaper, and a summary of the information in its stories.

2. The Lead.

 The lead is usually defined as the first sentence of a news story, sometimes as the first few sentences. The lead is the beginning of a story. The lead on a hard news story is often called a summary lead. Lead should contain the most important facts of the story – at least some of the Five Ws. Most agree that the ideal lead is short – no more than 25 or 30 words. Leads should be “tight” – that is, written with economy. A news story with a strong lead is more likely to be read.

3. The Backup Quote. Most news stories, except the briefest of briefs, should have a backup quote placed soon after the lead. Ideally, the backup quote – attributed to comprehensible and entertaining way.

4. Attribution. All news stories require attribution . Attribution is the explanation of the source of the information in theText Box: 25 news story. Attribution allows the reader to judge for herself whether the facts set out in the story have merit. The best stories contain lots of quotes – and all quotes have attribution.  A news story without attribution is worthless.

5. Reaction.

 All news stories that contain controversial statements, should have reaction – the comments of someone who is familiar with the situation, or of someone with an alternative view of the main thesis of the story. A representative of the government should have the opportunity to respond. Fairness requires reaction.

6. The Nut Graph. 

A nut graph informs readers of the focus of the story. The lead will serve the same purpose as the nut graph.  A nut graph is essential to set out for the reader what is going on.

7. Background.

Most stories need some background for the reader to understand what’s going on.. The more complicated the story, the more pressing the need for background. Background helps explain the action.

8. The Ending.

Sometimes writers end a story with a reference to future action that is expected.

Active Voice Versus Passive Voice

Most journalists, and most journalism textbooks, say that news stories should be written in the active voice.The active voice describes the action. The passive voice describes the recipient of the action.The active voice delivers a clear, strong statement of what happened. The passive voice can make an exciting event dull.

Summary

– Journalists are usually encouraged to write in the active voice.

– The active voice describes the action, the passive voice describes the recipient of the action.

– A simple way to remember how to write in the active voice is to memorize the order of subject, verb and object – SVO.

– Sometimes, however, the passive voice is better because it doesn’t indicate who was the author of an action.


What are the duties in the editorial department?

Tl;dr this is what the entire answer is gonna be like.

  • Sorting of news stories
  • Writing interest evoking Articles.
  • Under the supervision of Editor
  • Coverage to each aspect of news.

The editorial staffs provide material for publication and prepares the subject matter called”copy” for the printer or the net. Big newspapers have elaborate editorial staff consisting of many editors and sub editors as in charges of various subs-sections, designated as Editor, Managing Editor, News Editor, Sunday Editor, Sports Editors, Women’s Editor, etc. Small Newspapers combine many of these position or drop some altogether and have an editorial staff consisting of ten to fifteen persons. The editorial department is the record section of a newspaper. It also maintains a library, where beside other relevant books, extensive files of clippings and photographs are maintained.

To be the editor of a daily newspaper with a nationwide circulation is an ambition which very few journalists can attain. There are however occasions when many intelligent reporters and correspondents are satisfied with the excitement and thrill of their job and do not relish to have the ambition of a more ordered routine of an indoor job of the editor, even though it may bring them greater name and fame.

The News Desk.

The job of an editorial staff requires ambition. And only the ones who have it are able to do it. There are various things which take place until it finally reaches the end consumer. The People working in the Editorial Department have to be prompt and well aware of everything that is happening. They have to stay alert, and widen their sources.

All stories destined for the newspaper, whether they come from the typewriters of reporters and rewrite men or from the several wire services, teleprinters and other sources-require editing. This duty falls chiefly on the copyreader who sits on the horseshoe shape table called the desk. The city editor and other editors read all the copy.

The amount, of this work varies with each paper and even at different timings on each day. On a big desk the copyreader may edit from 10 to 15 columns. The editorial function is to bring each news that comes to up to par. As the copy reader picks up the copy and reads; he forms general conclusions about the story in hand.

  • Has it news value? If it hasn’t, then it is not worth printing.
  • Is it accurate and fair? Inaccurate and uncertain items are no; wanted by a good newspaper. If at all he selects anything which is dubious or doubtful, he takes the responsibility for published inaccuracies.
  • Is it libellous? An item that contains words or implications that may get the paper into legal difficulties has to have the danger spots eliminated.
  • Is it complete ? Is the treatment fragmentary and partial? Will it lead the reader up in the air? If so, its details must be rounded, with or without the help of background materials.

If the item meets these qualifications, the copyreader starts his editing to fit his paper’s requirements. These requirements may vary but, as a general rule, we take it that the paper requires.

Clearness

The reader must have no difficulty in finding out what the story means.

Condensation

The copyreader must cut and condense each story to the length assigned to it. Condensation applies to words and not to ideas. Verbal frills may go but the meaning must remain. Condensation is done by substituting short words for long ones-even smaller words tor bigger ones; for example, ‘try’ in place of ‘endeavour’.

Arrangement

The copyreader’s notion of arrangement differs from that of the literary man. It is based on the convention of the Mead’ which puts the important parts first and the least important parts last. It also makes for the sequence of ideas.

Style

The copyreader’s style has nothing to do with literary quality. It refers to particular rules which his paper has laid down for spelling, punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviation, use of numerals and the like.

The copyreader edits his copy along the foregoing principles by means of a set of standardised copy reading symbols, which tell the typesetter what section to omit, when to transpose, when to spell a word out and when to contract. He then proceeds to check the copy paragraphs and if the story has sufficient length, supplies sub­heads.

The subhead is a line to be printed in a type which differs from the body of the story/article and is used to break up the too solid look of a long column. The best rule is to paragraph for ideas and not for mechanical reasons. Copyreaders try to avoid being mechanical when it comes to the subhead.

The look of the column demands a sub-head every two sticks or a stick and a half at least, or say about every 300 or 350 words.

The copyreader aims to have his subheads make divisions in the subject, each division meant for something new, and not merely for repeating what has been already told.

The copyreader usually faces three problems: (i) to tighten up the story and thereby speed up the action; (ii) to cut out the excess matter and bromides; and (iii) to reduce the story so that a telegra­phic editor could splash it in a page-one box if he chose to handle it that way.


Explain the code of ethics which has to be followed by Journalists.

Okay so Shush.  Just Shush. And read this.

As the press is a primary instrument in the creation of public opinion, journalists should regard their calling as a trust and be eager to serve and guard their public interests. In the discharge of their duties, journalists should attach due value to fundamental, human and social rights and shalI hold good faith and fair play in news reports and comments as essential professional obligations.

Journalists should observe special restraint in reports and comments dealing with tensions, likely to lead, or leading to civil disorder.

  1. As the press is a primary instrument in the creation of public opinion, journalists should regard their calling as a trust and be eager to serve and guard their public’s interests.
  2. In the discharge of their duties journalists should attach due value to fundamental, human and social rights and shall hold good faith and fair play in news reports and comments as essential professional obligations.
  3. Journalists should observe special restraint in reports and comments dealing with tensions, likely to lead, or leading to civil disorder.
  • Journalists shall particularly observe maximum restraint in publishing reports and comments relating to communal tension, incidents, riots, incipient situations likely to lead to communal disturbances. The identification of communities which may lead to chain reactions should be avoided.
  • Journalists should endeavour at all times to promote the unity of the country and nation, pride in th e country, its people, its achievements and its strength in diversity. Journalists should be most circumspect in dealing with movements and ideas which promote regionalism at the cost of national unity.
  • Any reportage on ideas of fresh partition and secession must be treated with the greatest caution. Any comment likely to give comfort to the proponents of such ideas and further their interests should be avoided. The integrity of the country and of Indian peoples must be considered sacrosanct and beyond question.
  1. Journalists should endeavour to ensure that information disseminated is factually accurate. No fact shall be distorted or the essential facts deliberately omitted. No information known to be false shall be published.
  2. Responsibility shall be assumed for all information and comments published. If responsibility is disclaimed, this will be explicitly stated.
  3. Confidences shall always be respected. Professional secrecy must be preserved.
  4. Any report found to be inaccurate and any comment on inaccurate reports shall be voluntarily rectified. It shall be obligatory to give fair publicity to a correlation of contradiction when a report published is shown to be false or inaccurate in material particulars.
  5. Journalists shall not exploit their status for non-journalistic purposes.
  6. Journalists shall not allow personal interest to influence professional conduct.
  7. There is nothing so unworthy as the acceptance or demand of a bribe or inducement for the exercise by a journalist of his power to give or deny publicity to news or comments.
  8. Freedom in the honest collection and publication of news and facts and the rights of their comments and criticism and principles which every journalist should always defend.
  9. Journalists shall be very conscious of their obligation to their fellows in the profession and shall not seek to deprive fellow-journalists of their livelihood by unfair means.
  10. The carrying on of personal controversies in the press in which no public interest is involved shall be regarded as derogatory to the dignity of the profession.
  11. It is unprofessional to give currency to rumours or loose talk affecting the private life of individuals. Even verifiable news affecting the private life of individuals shall not be published unless the public interest as distinguished from public curiosity demands its publication.
  12. The Press shall refrain from publishing matters likely to encourage vice and crime.

What is ABC? Explain in detail

Story Time Audit is official inspection of a Companys Finances or Accounts. Correct if wrong.

The Audit Bureau of Circulations of India is a non-profit circulation-auditing organisation. It certifies and audits the circulations of major publications, including newspapers and magazines in India.

Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) is one of the several organisations of the same name operating in different parts of world. ABC founded in 1948 is a not-for-profit, voluntary organisation consisting of publishers, advertisers and advertising agencies as members. It does pioneering work in developing audit procedures to certify the circulation figures of publications which are members of ABC.

ABC as it is called and understood by all, is a founder member of the International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Certification.

  • The main function of ABC is to evolve, lay down a standard and uniform audit procedure by which a member publisher shall compute its Qualifying copies.
  • The circulation figure so arrived at is checked and verified by a firm of chartered accountants which are empanelled by the Bureau.
  • The Bureau issues ABC certificates every six months to those publisher members whose circulation figures confirm to the rules and regulations as set out by the Bureau.
  • Circulation figures that are checked and certified by an independent body are an important tool and critical to the advertising business community.

ABC’s membership today includes 562 Dailies, 107 Weeklies and 50 magazines plus 125 Advertising Agencies, 45 Advertisers & 22 New Agencies and Associations connected with print media and advertising. It covers most of the major towns in India.

An Advertiser would like to know the facts and figures before investing his money in advertising. An Advertiser ought to know how many people buy a publication and in which area. The ABC gives all these vital statistics every six months. The ABC figures are not the outcome of opinions, claims or guesswork, but they are the result of rigid, in depth and impartial audits of paid circulation of member publications by independent firms of Chartered Accountants working in accordance with the rules / procedures prescribed by the Bureau.

The Working of ABC

Bureau’s Council of Management functions as the Board of Directors which the main policy is making body. Council members meet frequently atleast once in two months.

Bureau’s Council of Management comprises of :

  • 8 elected representatives of Publisher members
  • 4 elected representatives of Advertising Agency members
  • 4 elected representatives of Advertiser members

The position of Chairman of the Council of Management rotates every year between the senior most publisher member and senior most non publisher member on the Council (Advertising Agency and Advertiser). Chairman is elected by the Council of Management every year.

The Bureau (ABC) certifies circulation figures of member publications every six months i.e. for the audit periods January to June and July to December. The Audits of circulation figures are carried out by empanelled firms of Chartered Accountants as per the prescribed Bureau’s audit guidelines and procedures.

Bureau also has a separate panel of Bureau auditors to undertake surprise checks and surprise recheck audits as deemed essential by the Bureau. All members of the Bureau receive online thru Bureau’s website “http://www.auditbureau.org” certified circulation data of member publications along with the distribution statements duly mentioning the state, district, town in which member publications are distributed. The average qualifying sales of those member publications who comply with the prescribed audit guidelines are certified by the Bureau. The certified circulation data is primarily used for media planning purpose by various media agencies, print media advertisers and government publicity departments.

The day-to-day activities of the Bureau are carried out by the Secretariat as per the directions of the Bureau’s Council of Management.


What is human interest story? What is its impact on readers?

In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person, or people, or a pet in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer. Human interest stories are a type of soft news.

Human interest stories may be “the story behind the story” about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement. A study published in the American Behavioural Scientist illustrates that human interest stories are furthermore often used in the news coverage of irregular immigration, although the frequency differs from country to country.

Human interest stories are sometimes criticized as “soft” news, or manipulative, sensationalistic programming. Major human interest stories are presented with a view to entertain the readers or viewers while informing them. Although this could be considered a strategy, it has been referenced as a successful method of persuasion. Terry Morris, an early proponent of the genre, said she took “considerable license with the facts that are given to me.”

The benefit of telling a story like this is so the reader can relate to it in an emotional way. A good human interest story will spark anger, empathy, compassion, sympathy, motivation, laughter, fear and love. Not in equal measure, but if a journalist can tick all these boxes in some way, the story is bound to be a success and likely be shared and highly engaged with. The fundamental objective is to move someone with a story.🌚🌚🌚

Why is the Human Interest story important?

A Cyclone in a Western Country,
Tsunami in Japan,

YouTuber filming Suicide is almost unimaginable to fathom for most consumers of news. Yes, we shake our head in shock that so many people could be wiped out of existence, but we very quickly get on with our lives; we move swiftly onto the next news cycle.

However, when a young survivor is pulled from the crumbled wreckage of a school,         three days after the final tremors have been felt, our ability to relate to the situation grows. It could be our daughter. Our niece. One of our students.

This personal, and very intimate angle, allows readers to engage with the content, to feel something. If the story is sad, you want your reader to feel sad. If it is happy, you want them to feel happy. A good human interest story breaks down barriers, allows people to form connections with the story through emotions.

It can alert people to a cause or charity or fundraiser they wouldn’t ordinarily know about; a condition they never knew existed; an opportunity that could have passed them by, a person, place or idea best avoided. A good human interest story should be thought provoking, should incite debate, should pull at the heartstrings.


Explain the role of News Editor.

The News Editor is one of the most important person who plans a daily newspaper. His role in any newspaper office, whether it be weekly, or daily, is crucial and it does not have an end. To a national newspaper, an active, intelligent, and enterprising news editor is the vital spark which energises it’s news coverage and outlook.

He is responsible for a steady and continuous inflow of up to the minute news into the newspaper office. Although most of the news supplied is a mechanical process covered by daily routine, but like all machinery of news gathering, the news editor is responsible for watching its smooth functioning.

The news editor keeps a careful eye on the routine side of his news collection as well as on the other side of his work or the desk which calls for more imaginative emulation.

An ideal news editor manages to get all the obvious stories into his paper with a good proportion of them as exclusives. While the selection of obvious stories is impor­tant, greater importance is attached to the original ones produced by his team of correspondents.

The number of words received on the teleprinter in a newspaper is so large that if each word were to be printed, the newspaper will have to run into hundreds of pages each morning.

The news editor is called upon to use his discretion, discrimination and imagination in reading the public mind and select the stories which have real news value and can be called important by his readers-quite a large number to be allotted a “splash” position on the main news pages according to the subject matter 01 field of activity they are concerned with.

All this has to be done with an alertness to ensure that the kind of stories readers seek shall be found in his newspaper.

There are some fundamental stories which no newspaper can afford to miss as they go into all the daily newspapers without exception. While they are important and have to be included, there are others called exclusive which only an alert news editor can discover from the large ocean of copy that has been pouring into the office during the day.

An intelligent news editor has to make a judicious follow-up of a seemingly promising paragraph or sometimes even make further enquiry before finalising the story and give it the perfect shape he wants.


What is lead? Name a few types of leads with example.

The lead, or opening paragraph, is the most important part of a news story. With so many sources of information – newspapers, magazines, TV, radio and the Internet – audiences simply are not willing to read beyond the first paragraph (and even sentence) of a story unless it grabs their interest. A good lead does just that. It gives readers the most important information in a clear, concise and interesting manner. It also establishes the voice and direction of an article.

Summary / Digest / Straight Leads

It brings the central issue of discussions at first. It tells readers what they want to know in a creative manner If the reader only read the lead, he or she would have a solid grasp of the story. This is the most common and widely used lead especially in newspapers and most of us have come across these while browsing stories with the morning cuppa. These are straight leads that just state the facts and include the who, where, what, when, why and sometimes even the how of the event or happening. Traditionally, summary leads have been used to report breaking news or a developing story. Of late, most breaking news reaches us through electronic media or mobile much before the print form, so even if you apply the summary to your lead, it makes better sense to start with the why, what  and the how rather than the who, when and where.

Example:

Twelve People were killed & at least 50 injured and hospitalized when a bus and car smashed into each other.  “Bus got fire and collided with the car which resulted into this accident.‟ This mishap took place near Gurgaon in the morning.

Question Lead

Use when story has direct relevance or public interest to reader. Many editors dislike question lead on the basis that people read newspapers to get answers, and not to be asked questions if the question is provocative, it may be used as a lead.

Example: What is the first thing that a woman buys when she is advised that she won $2,50,000 in a jingle contest? Mrs. Jane Roe, informed by XYZ Soaps that her entry took top prize in the nationwide contest, said that she will buy a rhyming dictionary that .

Punch, Capsule or Cartridge lead

Short & punchy to attract the readers. Blunt, explosive statement to summarize article. The punch lead is most often used in news stories and can be used in news features where you want to convey a hard-hitting message to the readers or to reveal some high-voltage piece of information. To give an example, if you are writing an investigative story about a thick wooded forest that has been destroyed because of deforestation and construction activity, a lead simply saying “The trees are gone” or “the birds have flown away” will give the desired impact. But such leads should be used sparingly and only when the story warrants it otherwise it will look contrived. And if you decide to begin with such a lead, you should be sure to have equally impactful information in the paragraphs that follow otherwise your readers would be disappointed.

Example: President is Dead

Statement or Direct Quotation

This lead can be extremely effective if quote is good and important. Then, paragraphs is used to explain the quote. This is lead is generally used in speech reporting.

Example: “I will start looking for a secular state in India from Kashmir to Kerala excluding Tamil Nadu for me to reside and work. If am not able to find such a place in the country then I would seek a country that does entertain an artist like me. I could leave the country like MF Hussain, ”. Said the actor speaking to the press. India’s one of the finest actor and filmmaker, Kamal Hassan is disappointed. Lot of drama has been happening from few days and his latest movie Vishwaroopam is not yet released in Tamil Nadu.

Contrast lead

Grabbing Readers attention by comparing extremes- the big with little, comedy with tragedy, old age with youth, past with the present and so on. This lead uses two different thoughts or two sentences that are exactly opposite to each other in the opening paragraph to make a strong statement. The contrast in the lead is employed to drive home the point about a particular event, person or happening. For eg, pitting joy against sorrow, new against old, tragedy against happiness are some of the ways to do it.

Examples: A private is having funds in crores and international facilities where a municipal school is lacking in its basic need of teachers. The XYZ public school management has agreed that they have 28,00,000 is too high.(now, rest of the story will tell how the situation is there)Similarly, corruption in politics could be one reason.

Direct-Address or Direct-Appeal Lead

This lead directly speaks to the reader. It addresses the reader directly as “you”. It enhances the interest of the reader as it directly talk with them.

Examples:

YOU WONT BELIEVE WHAT KYLIE JENNER JUST DID

YOU WONT BELIEVE WHAT KIM JUST DID
YOU WONT BELIEVE WHAT THE HECK HE SAID [die]

You might not get relief from breezy wind as meteorological department said the weather are going to be same for next 15 days more.

Descriptive Lead

As the name suggests, this type of lead goes into great detail to describe the scene or person that makes up the subject of the story. The idea is to create visual impact. So if you are writing a news report about a high-profile murder, instead of using a boring summary lead informing who was murdered and why, you could make the piece more impactful by graphically describing the crime scene. A descriptive lead describes how an event happened rather than simply telling what the event is about. Writer try to paint the event/place/person through words. This lead can help in creating mood of the story.

Example

Allahabad: At the Kanchi Shankaracharyas camp, a 24-hour mantra jaap (chanting of hymns) echoes across sector 6 of the 70-sq km large kumbh city. Adjacent to the Kanchi Peeth camp, the SGPC team at the kumbh prepares for the afternoon langar (community lunch). Hundreds of pilgrims, visitors and homeless at the kumbh have already queued up for the lunch.

Parody lead

This lead attempts to play on proverb, quotation, song titles or phrase.

Example: “Jo Jeeta Wahi Sikandar‟.

Historical or Literary – Allusion Lead

This lead draws attention on some characters or event in history or literature that is familiar to average readers. The religious books and literary works are used as reference points by writers.

Example: Lastly, Nirbhaya died after 15 days struggle. She fought for the life like Jhansi ki Rani, But her life ended as the infection of body could stopped, said Doctor team member.

Staccato Lead Jerky

Exciting phrases used if facts justify it. Short, clipped words, phrases and sentences, sometime separated with dashes and dots. To create certain mood in the story, often this is descriptive in nature.

Example:  “Midnight on the bridge…a scream…a shot…a splash…a second shot…a third shot.”  Rohit has less learning ability. Rohit has severe problem in speech. Rohit is autistic. But still he manages like a normal child.(rest of the story)

Suspended Interest / Delayed Lead

This lead work as a stimulators of interest among readers. After the lead, story runs in chronological order, so reader has to read the whole story to get the climax. The reader must get the story by reading to the end of the story.

Example:

Fourteen-year-old Akbars appeal to the judge to let him remain with his Hindu guardian instead of transferring him to his Muslim mother has shot Aiku Lal Sandil to national headlines. However, for the tea vendor from Baradari, Lucknow, taking in Akbar wasn’t something he thought twice about. Having been raised by a Muslim man himself, Sandil couldn’t just look away when he found the six-year-old lost boy in a Lucknow park eight years ago. (rest the story)

Circumstantial Lead

This lead stress on the circumstances under which the incident took place. Generally, used in Human Interest Story.

Example: An 60-year old retired bank employee raised his voice when 2 unidentified persons entered in his house for robbery in Shakarpur area. Fortunately, a police van was standing nearby. They reached at the spot and rescued the women.

Oddity or Freak Lead

Begin with uncommon or odd statement. Unusual approach to attract the readers.

Example:

“For Sale: One Elephant.”

 The City Park Commission is thinking about inserting that ad in the newspaper.

”Wanted: Supporters from among the opposition parties who can vote for the NDA govt. to save it from a possible defeat in coming election in Uttar Pradesh.

Narrative or Sequence Lead

This lead starts at the middle of an event. It carries the reader through the event and give a surprising twist at the end of the story.

Example: He paused for a second to gaze upon it. Then slowly he reached down and laid his hand upon it feeling the skin. He turned aside and carefully selected the knife. Sweating now, he lifted it up and then, suddenly brought it down. Red, Red it was red everywhere. ”Cut‟ shouted the director. Thus ended the first shot of Sanjeev Kumar. Three retakes later and it was done. And what followed is history.

Bullet Lead

In this lead, short sentence or phrase is used in a straightforward manner. This is used in a important news. Since this lead hits the readers like a bullet.

Example:

Mahatma is no more.

Indira Gandhi is shot dead.

 Funny or Gag Lead

This lead is written in funny way. This is written on rare basis depending upon the story. Generally, used in a feature.

Blind identification Lead

If the person concerned is not well known in the community, his/her name is less important than other salient facts that identify the person.

Example:
“An 80-year-old woman” instead of her name.
A police inspectors son was attacked with a knife by some miscreants on Mount Road this evening. The victim Pratap Daniel, 20, has been admitted to a private hospital and his condition is critical.


Explain The Role Of Various Sources In The News Organization.

In journalism, a source is a person, publication, or other record or document that gives timely information. Outside journalism, sources are sometimes known as “news sources”. Examples of sources include official records, publications or broadcasts, officials in government or business, organizations or corporations, witnesses of crime, accidents or other events, and people involved with or affected by a news event or issue.

Reporters are expected to develop and cultivate sources, especially if they regularly cover a specific topic, known as a “beat”. Beat reporters must, however, be cautious of becoming too close to their sources. Reporters often, but not always, give greater leeway to sources with little experience. For example, sometimes a person will say they don’t want to talk, and then proceed to talk; if that person is not a public figure, reporters are less likely to use that information.

Primary sources of News.

REPORTERS

Reports are full time paid employees of the newspaper, T.V or radio who gathers the news for the same. Their area is specified by locality or by beat. Some reporters are specially assigned to cover event or an incidence so they stand first in the list of primary sources.

CORRESPONDENCE

Correspondent is a journalist who contribute through a story or report he / she are not actual filed reporters but always  stories which can be further illustrated as news. The key element here is the correspondent’s network. Most importantly correspondent must possess good communications skill so that he can interview the people well and get acquainted with the inner workings of his allotted area.

NEWS AGENCIES

In a developing area of news, news agencies are considered to be the most important source of news. New media is reason behind the development and spread of news agencies through the world. Reporters and correspondents and other secondary sources have geographical restrictions but news has no boundaries. News agencies plays an important role in gathering and delivering the news to the news houses. This is the only virtual source available.

There are two types of news agencies:

  • Wire Services.
  • Syndicates.
  • Wire Services [I love how nobody told me about this mistake]

There are news agencies who use to send news by telex or teleprinters, fax etc. they got the name for this as a Wire Services. These agencies maintain regional, national and state wires for general use. The importance of these wire services for editor is high in all other sources. He may not use the story comes from an unknown sources but will use a story that has been come from wire services.

Although there are many local and regional news agencies; only five major agencies are primarily responsible for the flow of daily news.

•        The Associated Press                –        USA

•        United Press International        –        USA

•        TASS                                        –        Russia

•        Reuters                                –        UK

•        Agencies France Presse                –        France

List of Indian Wire Services

  • PTI – Press Trust of India
  • UNI – United News of India
  • IANS – Indo Asian News Services

After the introduction of new media, the news source has changed its traditional ways. Now anytime, anywhere whatever happens, immediately reaches to the globe through live internet channels, news channels etc. Citizen journalists are another source which spreads the news on new media channels.

News syndicate are different from news agencies. News syndicate distributes news articles, columns, feature articles, comic strips, crossword puzzles, book reviews etc. to individual newspaper or magazine. News syndicates have contract with artists, writers and photographers for a host of popular features that are sold to newspapers

Secondary Sources of News

In the business of news and reporting one question always remains silent; where does news come from? How reporter gets news? Where does its origin lie? The answer is clear; different types of sources.

Reporter indeed is the first and primary source, who gathers the news material, work on field and compose the news report. But there are certain things which reporter must track out or take follow-up about the incidence from external medium. These external mediums are the news sources. Following are the few important news sources :

  1. Internet Sites
  2. Various government ministries.
  3. Business houses ( public, private )
  4. Government officials
  5. Institutions (Educational and Research)
  6. Police stations
  7. Local morgues and post mortem centers
  8. Social welfare / NGOs
  9. Courts
  10. Hospitals and clinics
  11. Railway, Bus station and Airports.

The reporter must established a harmonious relationship with its all sources, to get recent updates and the latest news.


What is feature story? Explain different types of feature stories

A feature story is a piece of nonfiction writing about news. A feature story is a type of soft news. The main subtypes are the news feature and the human-interest story. A feature story is distinguished from other types of non-fiction by the quality of the writing. Stories should be memorable for their reporting, crafting, creativity, and economy of expression.

A feature story, as contrasted with straight news reporting, normally presents newsworthy events and information through a narrative story, complete with a plot and story characters. It differs from a short story primarily in that the content is not fictional. Like literature, the feature story relies upon creativity and subjectivity to make an emotional connection with the readers and may highlight some universal aspect of human nature. Unlike straight news, the feature story serves the purpose of entertaining the readers, in addition to informing them. Although truthful and based upon facts, they are less objective that straight news.

Unlike straight news, the subject of a feature story is rarely time sensitive. It generally features good news. Feature stories are usually written in active voice, with an emphasis on lively, entertaining prose. Some forms, such as a color story, uses description as the main mode.

Features are not meant to deliver the news firsthand. They do contain elements of news, but their main function is to humanize, to add colour, to educate, to entertain, to illuminate. They often recap major news that was reported in a previous news cycle. Features often:

  • Profile people who make the news
  • Explain events that move or shape the news
  • Analyze what is happening in the world, nation or community
  • Teach an audience how to do something
  • Suggest better ways to live [kys✅]
  • Examine trends
  • Entertain.

Types of Features

Personality Profiles
A personality profile is written to bring an audience closer to a person in or out of the news. Interviews and observations, as well as creative writing, are used to paint a vivid picture of the person. The CBC’s profile of Pierre Elliot Trudeau is a classic example of the genre and makes use of archival film footage, interviews, testimonials, and fair degree of editorializing by the voice-over commentary.

Human interest stories
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person, or people, or a pet in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer. Human interest stories are a type of soft news. A human interest story is written to show a subject’s oddity or its practical, emotional, or entertainment value.

Trend stories

A trend story examines people, things or organizations that are having an impact on society. Trend stories are popular because people are excited to read or hear about the latest fads. [Destiny is Coming]

In-depth stories

Through extensive research and interviews, in-depth stories provide a detailed account well beyond a basic news story or feature.

Backgrounders

Also called an analysis piece, adds meaning to current issues in the news by explaining them further. These articles bring an audience up-to-date, explaining how this country, this organization, this person happens to be where it is now.


What is the role and function of journalism?

Journalism is the activity of gathering, assessing, creating, and presenting news and information. It is also the product of these activities.

Journalism can be distinguished from other activities and products by certain identifiable characteristics and practices. These elements not only separate journalism from other forms of communication, they are what make it indispensable to democratic societies. History reveals that the more democratic a society, the more news and information it tends to have.

News is that part of communication that keeps us informed of the changing events, issues, and characters in the world outside. Though it may be interesting or even entertaining, the foremost value of news is as a utility to empower the informed.

The purpose of journalism is thus to provide citizens with the information they need to make the best possible decisions about their lives, their communities, their societies, and their governments.

These are the important functions of journalism to inform, to interpret and educate, to guide, to entertain. The detail of each is given below:

Political or Watchdog Role

The media have long served as a watchdog for the public, watching for threatening actions from our elected officials and “growling” when necessary. How many of you have ever been to a school board meeting? Or a city council meeting? Our elected officials make decisions that can affect our quality of life, but most of us do not pay attention until it is too late, when new laws or rules have already been enacted. The media are at those meetings, or at least are checking up on what happens at them, and warn us –growl– when something that will affect us negatively happens.

 

Economic Role

The media help the economy survive, both by bringing the businessman and the consumer together — advertising — and by keeping the public informed on the state of the economy. Advertising is just one way in which the media inform us about the economy, and as a result influence the economy. News about interest rates, the stock market, etc. are other ways.

 

Sentry Role

Like the sentry at the gate, the media watch the horizon and announce what or who is approaching before it gets there. The media do this as part of the watchdog role, too. But this is more subtle. Coming changes might be good changes or inconsequential changes that we might WANT to know about more than NEED to know about. Take new fashion trends, for example. We could probably get by without knowing about next year’s fashion trends, but we like to know.

The media must realize that news is an evolving process and should be covered as it evolves. Too many people, especially sources of stories, think the media should wait until decisions have been made before covering a story. In reality, we probably have a greater need to know what decisions MIGHT be made.

 

Historical/Record Keeping Role

Considered by many to be the most important role — to some it is the ONLY role — is that of a record keeper. What happened? Where? When? Who was involved? Etc. As mentioned above, this certainly is an important role. Today’s media are recording history as it happens. And we enjoy that they do. We can watch a baseball game, perhaps in person, and still want to read about it in the paper the next day or see the highlights on the television news that night.

In reality, because of some gatekeeping decisions, some media do a lousy job of recording what happened. Many of these poor decisions on what to include or not include in the media are made because mass media is big business and today’s corporate, bottom-line thinking means that some important stories just are too expensive to cover.

 

Entertainment Role

News is more than reporting bare facts. There are many media messages competing for the reader’s/viewerÕs time, and those readers/viewers want to be entertained, as well as informed. So the media entertain us. Indeed, many news content decisions are made based on the entertainment value –if more people are entertained, more willl read/watch, and advertisers will pay to reach the larger audience.

Some media, such as television, are almost exclusively entertainment oriented. Many of the mergers between internet and entertainment industries we read about these days are focusing on ways of entertaining us on our computers.

But even newspapers entertain us with comics, crossword puzzles, advice columns, horoscopes and more.

 

Social Role

People like reading/hearing about other people and the media have long complied. We especially are enthralled with celebrities. Entire media markets exist solely for this role — look at People or Us magazines or “Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous.”

Newspapers have long included “vital statistics,” such as who is getting married, who is getting divorced, who had children, etc.

 

Marketplace of Ideas/Leadership Role

The editorial pages, letters to the editor, opinion columns, reporter on the street interviews, critical reviews, etc., are all examples of how the media disseminate not only their own view, but the views of others.

This is really two related roles. First the media provide us with a variety of views, not just their own so that we have a “marketplace of ideas” on which to base our opinions. Second, the media themselves lead the way with editorials and other matter to help us form our opinions. Media that do neither, or emphasize one of these two roles over the other, do us a disservice. But as we’ll see when we look at the history of media, especially print media, the concept of a diversity of opinions in one publication was unheard of. Early newspapers, for example, were highly partisan. If you wanted both sides of a story you had to read competing newspapers.

 

Information

This function includes all reports, news and happenings concerning the daily life. It does not include any information involving or concerning the pursuit of leisure. But it does cover all news regarding government politics, foreign affairs, weather, accident, business, labour, education. This function consists mostly of matter, which is given, in news broadcast on the radio and T.V. as well as in the news columns of the newspapers and magazines

Education Function

The journalism / newspapers not only provide the information to the people but they also educate people by providing guidance on various .issues through the editorials and column. The need for interpreting and explaining the news in our day and age is readily manifold because their own field of knowledge baffled even the specialists at time. Accordingly, the present day journalism see to it that, along with its announcement of a fact, event or theory, the reader or listener also get explanation, background material, interpretation and diagrams. These are all aimed at helping an individual to achieve a better understanding of the significance of what they read or hear.

News Function

The most important and exacting function of journalism / newspaper is the provision of a daily or periodical supply of news and all the news. The provision of news to the readers is a basic concept and Ale newspaper journalism.

The function includes all reports news and happenings concerning the daily life, it does include any information involving or regarding Govt. politics, foreign affairs, weather, accidents, business, education etc.

Opinion for Motives

It means influence the opinion of the readers through editorials, articles or certain special features. In journalism people are not only informed, guided and entertained but they all influenced to have their opinion on certain issues. In certain cases, the opinion of people is diverted to another direction, sometimes, to negative and sometimes to positive direction.

Guidance

From the earliest days journalism has sought to influence mankind. Journalism endeavors to sway the minds of men through the printed words, cartoons and pictures as they appear in the newspapers, magazines, pamphlets and books and through the spoken words over the air.

Avowedly the newspaper strives to influence its readers through its articles of opinion, its editorial, its cartoons, and its signed column etc. By Journalism we mean collection and editing of material of current interests for presentation through print media.

Now-a-days Journalism developed into a full-fledged social discipline and News is the essence of Journalism. Journalism is actually the information, education and guidance as such information is one of the constituent part of Journalism. It stands for writing for newspapers or magazines. It is the communication of information through writing in periodicals and newspapers. Thus Journalism means communication of information regarding the events of day through written words, sound or pictures.


What is the importance of citizen journalism in India

Journalism is a medium to communicate every possible societal activity with the masses. Due to the paucity of time and space, it is not possible for media, newspapers and radio channels to keep up with every form of news at the community or local level. Journalism can be understood on the basis of its contribution and its nature. Let us understand the concept of Citizen Journalism.

Citizen journalism is an active involvement of the public or citizens in communicating information at the grassroot level. It is different from the concept of professional journalism. Citizen journalism in India plays a very critical role in imparting information. India is a diverse nation, surrounded by complex issues and these issues can be about anything- infrastructure problems, crime, water and electricity availability etc. and most of these issues exist at a local level.

Due to the fragmented status of India, the media has lost its fundamental duty of informing and educating people and has become a source of entertainment more than anything else. And I do believe that it has neglected the people of India. Mainstream media houses are bogged down by cost pressures and are busy making big bucks. Real journalism gets diverted due to its association with different alliances and political parties. It is quite evident that the grassroot level happenings are conveniently ignored by the mainstream journalists, who are busy broadcasting reports which can get them higher earnings.

In India , citizen journalism in comparison to traditional journalism can be seen in the form of RTI activists [Right to Information], freelance journalists and even the common man who is aware of his/her social responsibility. The most recent movement, known to us as ‘India Against Corruption’ validates its presence in the society. The drastic increase in social networking and advancement in technology has made citizen journalism platforms more active and reachable. Citizen reporting is more focused and issued-based in nature.

There are numerous initiatives taken up by citizen journalists in their communities. The story of Shubhranshu Choudhary and the ‘Voice of Chhattisgarh’ is an example. Choudhary is a former BBC journalist and founder of CGnet Swara – a democratic tool of India. It is a system developed with the help of Microsoft Research India to allow people to use mobile phones to send and listen to audio reports in their local language. Choudhary has created a boom in the tribal land of Chhattisgarh by creating a technology to help and increase global reach by virtue of its websites and training professional journalists at the same time. CGnet Swara is transforming the shape of India in terms of communicating, sharing and receiving news.

‘We Dalits, Adivasis go 4 km to fetch water,” reads a report posted on the web page of a citizen journalism portal in India. “Please help with a hand pump. Drinking water is not available in the village for a long time. 500 Dalit and Adivasi people live here, and they go four km to fetch water. Wells in the village gives dirty water, which causes diseases in the village.”

‘Dalits’, segregated as untouchables in the ancient caste system of India, and ‘Adivasis’, the original landowners, have long been oppressed and disenfranchised from a labyrinthine system of governance in a nation that prides itself as the world’s largest democracy.

The report has been filed by Janmawati Saket, a social activist and one of the many citizen reporters who form an integral part of the problem-solving platform CGNet Swara (derived from Central Gondwana region and coupled with ‘Swara’ meaning voice in Sanskrit), an emerging online portal for citizen journalism “Indian style” that is making a significant difference in the lives of people throughout the region.

It is true that mainstream journalism vests in the handful of people situated at the top who decide what goes up. Communication needs to become democratic in nature, something which is highly lacking in our country. There have been mixed responses from all ends toward the whole concept of citizen journalism. Some may believe that it is just a big thing in small towns and probably a form of unsuccessful professional journalism. India being one of the largest democracies in the world, citizen or participatory journalism would benefit the country in every possible way. It is for the common people, and will redefine the structure of mainstream journalism. If implemented with full support and planned properly, it can become one of the most powerful tools, especially in the tribal society. Every Indian would know the source to report news that touches their lives and such a concept will be a revolution more than anything else. It will influence how news is reported in the traditional mainstream media


Explain the importance of news agencies.

I really can’t find the importance

News agency, also called press agency, press association, wire service, or news service, organization that gathers, writes, and distributes news from around a nation or the world to newspapers, periodicals, radio and television broadcasters, government agencies, and other users. It does not generally publish news itself but supplies news to its subscribers, who, by sharing costs, obtain services they could not otherwise afford. All the mass media depend upon the agencies for the bulk of the news, even including those few that have extensive news-gathering resources of their own.

A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters. A news agency may also be referred to as a wire service, newswire, or news service.

Although there are many news agencies around the world, three global news agencies, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Associated Press (AP) and Reuters, have offices in most countries of the world and cover all areas of information. All three began with and continue to operate on a basic philosophy of providing a single objective news feed to all subscribers; they do not provide separate feeds for conservative or liberal newspapers

News agencies can be corporations that sell news (e.g., Press Association, Thomson Reuters and United Press International). Other agencies work cooperatively with large media companies, generating their news centrally and sharing local news stories the major news agencies may choose to pick up and redistribute (i.e., Associated Press (AP), Agence France-Presse (AFP) or American Press Agency (APA)) and Indian Press Agency PTI.

Governments may also control news agencies: China (Xinhua), the United States of America (RFE/RL, RFA), Russia (ITAR-TASS), and several other countries have government-funded news agencies which also use information from other agencies as well.


Function of Audit Bureau of Circulation

The Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) is a non-profit organisation. Its primary function is the certification and provision of accurate and comparable circulation figures, to assist the bipartite groupings (advertisers/marketers and publishers) in the buying and selling of advertising and promotional material. This is achieved through agreement or auditing standards; on the certificates; and on the reports submitted.

Publisher members are requested to submit audited figures verifying their circulation, by means of a circulation certificate. The audit of the certificate must be conducted by a Registered Accountant and Auditor who must have full-access to all financial accounts and other relevant records connected with the publication for the purpose of a complete and accurate ABC audit. The Bureau does random check audits to verify the information prepared by the publisher.

The main objective of the ABC is to promote the interests of the buyers (advertisers and marketers) and sellers (media owners) of advertising and promotional material by providing accurate and comparable circulation data. Further objectives are to provide circulation data that is in no way inaccurate, misleading or distorted; to deal honestly and fairly with all parties; and to increase industry awareness regarding the benefits of ABC membership and of the information provided.

The Bureau assesses the circulations of the newspapers and periodicals on yearly basis, and issues certificates, enabling them to be placed on the Central Media List to get rates for the public sector advertisements on the basis of ABC figures. The above function has been allocated to the Ministry of Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage under The Rules of Business 1973 Schedule-II Entry 16 sub-provision 6(ii) and under Cabinet Decision, dated 3rd April 1984, circulations audit of any publication was declared mandatory for getting government sector advertisements.

There are three major functions of ABC:

Certification of circulation figures of publications

To ascertain the circulation figures of the publications and issue certificate on Net Paid Circulations of publications.

Removal of a Publication from the Central Media List

The publication shall be removed from the Central Media List automatically without any further notice, if it is not renewed within sixty days from the date of expiry of the certificate.

Providing circulation figures to public sector organizations

The Audit Bureau of Circulations shall provide the circulations figures to the Public Sector Organizations.


Function of Press Council of India.

The Press Council of India was first constituted on 4th July, 1966 as an autonomous, statutory, quasi-judicial body, with Shri Justice J R Mudholkar, then a Judge of the Supreme Court, as Chairman.

The Press Council of India was set up on the recommendations of the First Press Commission (1954). The commission had felt that high standard of journalism was being maintained by only the few well-established players, while others were prone to publishing sensational news. The commission had opined that only an autonomous body comprising people principally connected with the industry could ensure that no code of journalistic ethics are breached by any player.

Functions of Press Council Of India

The Press Council Act, 1965, listed the following functions of the Council in furtherance of its objects:

  • To help newspapers to maintain their independence
  • To build up a code of conduct for newspapers and journalists in accordance with high professional standards
  • To ensure on the part of newspapers and journalists the maintenance of high standards of public taste and foster a due sense of both the rights and responsibilities of citizenship
  • To encourage the growth of a sense of responsibility and public service among all those engaged in the profession of journalism
  • To keep under likely to restrict the supply and dissemination of news of public interest and importance
  • To keep under review such cases of assistance received by any newspaper or news agency in India from foreign sources, as are referred to it by the Central Government
  • Provided that nothing in this clause shall preclude the Central Government from dealing with any case of assistance received by a newspaper or news agency in India from foreign sources in any other manner it thinks fit
  • To promote the establishment of such common service for the supply and dissemination of news to newspapers as may, from time to time, appear to it to be desirable;
  • To provide facilities for the proper education and training of persons in the profession of journalism
  • To promote a proper functional relationship among all classes of persons engaged in the production or publication of newspapers
  • To study developments which may tend towards monopoly or concentration of ownership of newspapers, including a study of the ownership or financial structure of newspapers, and if necessary, to suggest remedies therefore
  • To promote technical or other research

What is Inverted Pyramid Style of Writing?

In general, news stories are organized using the inverted pyramid style, in which information is presented in descending order of importance. This allows the audience to read the most crucial details quickly so they can decide whether to continue or stop reading the story. From an editing perspective, using the inverted pyramid style makes it easier to cut a story from the bottom, if necessary. Invented more than a century ago, the inverted pyramid style remains the basic formula for news writing.

 

These are the first two sentences from the front page of the November 22, 1963 New York Times. The article goes on to detail the events prior to the shooting, the capture of a suspect, resuscitation attempts on the president, and the administering of last rites. But in just those first two sentences the reader is told the end of the story.

This popular and widely used style of news writing is known as the inverted pyramid. It’s a method of ‘front loading’ an article so that the reader receives the most important information first, or on top. The article starts with the conclusion: Kennedy was shot and killed.

Using an inverted pyramid, the journalist leads with the attention-grabbing finale. The journalist follows up with supporting paragraphs that contain details, in order of most to least important. The article ends with the least important information. In the New York Times article, the last paragraph contains portions of the speech President Kennedy was on his way to give at an event in Dallas.

Notice how the inverted pyramid is the opposite of essay writing. Essay writing requires the student to start with an introduction and build toward a conclusion. Instead, the journalist makes his or her point and then proceeds to explain it.

Why Use An Inverted Pyramid?

The inverted pyramid has been used for well over a century, and for good reason. The formula is known for engaging and assisting readers. The first sentences are written to grab readers’ attention, much like the headline itself, and draw them into the article. Readers can quickly decide whether or not the article interests them.

Even if readers stop reading the New York Times article after the first two sentences, they still know the main point of the article. The formula allows readers to skim articles to pick up on certain details, rather than read them word for word. This is helpful when a reader already knows the main point of a widely covered news story – as was the case with the assassination – and is simply looking for updates.

The formula is also helpful to print media editors. The print media includes newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and other printed publications. These materials typically have strict space restrictions, and articles often need to be shortened. The inverted pyramid allows editors to cut material from the bottom of an article without cutting important information


What are the various sources for collection of news?

This is a repeated question.

I am not quite sure about the previous Answer.

So if I share that again I will cannonize it

So I should not


Do you think social media is taking over traditional forms of Journalism? Comment

This is an extract from an article. This says Trad/Soc is nothing. Journalism just evolved.

Possible Points you can elaborate or the perspectives you can pick
-Yes it is, Social is Quick to Access and Traditional takes times

        -Yes it is, Social, use/made easily, and Traditional is often Dominated/Slow/only be certain people

        -No, Traditional is Logical, Proofread, Accurate, whereas Social is not.

        -No, Social is extension of Traditional. It did not take over. It evolved.

Social media, as you can imagine, has monumentally changed the world of journalism, in ways that no one could have comprehended before its colossal rise. Social media users often report on news via their pages before the story has even been assigned to a journalist, and this alone has completely altered the concept of breaking news.

Journalists don’t even decide what the biggest story of the day is anymore, rather, society does, and the news that goes viral is often produced by social media users themselves.

These days, people want real-time information, which is why so many of us turn to social media sites such as Twitter to stay up-to-date with the news. It was even found that two-thirds of U.S. adults get news from social media, demonstrating just how popular it is as a media outlet.

This then poses as a threat to journalists. If they have gathered a news story second-hand from social media, which is often the case, and they find a new angle that isn’t yet out there but sit on it for too long, they risk having the new angle reported on first by other competitors, or worse, social media users (dun dun dunnnn)!

Social media could therefore be seen as the rawest form of journalism — it provides eyewitness and first-hand accounts and is the fastest channel for breaking news.

The news of the death of Michael Jackson in 2009 broke on social media before any major news networks. TMZ.com, the American entertainment website, released the story first, before the mass of tweets about it forced Twitter to temporarily shut down. This was two hours before it was confirmed by the LA Times and Associated Press.

I remember this day; I was rehearsing for a dance competition at home in Guernsey, Channel Islands, when one of my teammates who was watching at the time stood up to announce that Michael Jackson had just passed away. She found the news on Twitter, not from a major media outlet. This is how powerful social media is as a tool for news reporting.

While some do believe that social media is a true form of journalism and could potentially be the future of it, others (including me) believe that social media and traditional journalism can work together in acting as message diffusing systems.

Journalists can provide the news stories that social media is able to spread far and wide, or vice versa. In this sense, social media accentuates and compliments journalism, rather than replacing it.

In ways, social media has introduced a new layer to the world of journalism; interaction and communication with audiences, which journalists can seriously benefit from.

Some other advantages of this new dimension for journalists are that they are able to partake in wider newsgathering, reach out to sources directly, build personal relationships and increase engagement with audiences, just to name a few.

“New technology enables normal people to do reporting. But new technology also improves the monitoring quality of journalism as well.”

— Sarah Hartley, the Guardian

So, I don’t believe that journalism is dying in the current world of social media. I do believe however, that social media in one way or another technically is a form of journalism, because it’s a channel that allows people to report on news. But, it is not replacing traditional journalism as such because more so, it can be used to enhance it, and the two can work together in informing the world effectively.


What are the guidelines that a news reader must follow while presenting a news story?

While presenting a news story, news reader should keep in mind the following guidelines.

1. Knowledge: An understanding of issues, names, geography, history and the ability to put all of these in perspective for viewers.

2. Command over language: News Reader should have good knowledge of grammar, syntax, pronunciation, tone and art of storytelling.

3. Ability to process new information: Sorting, organizing, prioritizing and retaining massive amounts of incoming data.

4. Mastery of multitasking: The ability to simultaneously: take in a producer’s instructions via an earpiece while scanning new information from computer messages, texts or Twitter; listen to what other reporters on the team are sharing and interviewees are adding; monitor incoming video — and yes, live-tweet info to people who have come to expect information in multiple formats.

5. Interviewing finesse: An instinct for what people need and want to know, for what elements are missing from the story, and the ability to draw information by skillful, informed questioning and by listening

6. Appreciation of all roles: An understanding of the tasks and technology that go into the execution of a broadcast, the ability to roll with changes and glitches, and anticipate all other professionals Involved.

7. Acute sense of timing: The ability to condense or expand one’s speech on demand, to sense when a story needs refreshing or recapping, to know without even looking at a clock how many words are needed to fill the minute while awaiting a satellite window, live feed or interviewee.

8. Presentation: Good presentation skills. A news reader should have good presentation skills. Should look attractive and think on their feet.


How do you decide the newsworthiness of a story?

1. Proximity: Location, location, location. If an event is happening nearby, it will impact readers more than if it were happening somewhere else that doesn’t affect them as much – in another state or in another country. Depending on the story, it may as well be the same thing.

2. Prominence: A well-known person, place or event has a stronger news angle than something that the audience isn’t familiar with. A guest speaker visiting your local elementary school to take over story time doesn’t resonate with many people … unless that speaker is Johnny Depp.

3. Timeliness: Current news has more impact than something that happened yesterday or last week. The news media loses interest in past events because there is always fresh news somewhere.

4. Oddity: If something is unusual, shocking or bizarre, the strangeness alone could make it newsworthy.

5. Consequence: If the impact of an event may directly affect readers, they will want to know about it.

6. Conflict: Readers are always interested in disagreements, arguments and rivalries. If an event has a conflict attached to it, many readers will be interested on that basis alone. Stories that involve conflict include those about religion, sports, business, trials, wars, human rights violations, politics or even struggles against nature, animals or outer Space.

7. Human interest: If a situation draws any sort of emotional reaction, then it might contain the news element of a human-interest story. These stories can be “soft” kid-at-the-petting-zoo snapshots, inspiring comeback accounts or infuriating reports of incompetence on the part of a public figure.

8. Extremes/superlatives: Reporters and audiences alike love to hear about the first, the best, the longest, the smallest, the highest. If you can claim one for yourself, do it.

9. Scandal: Everyone loves to get insight on a scandal or a controversy.

10. Impact: The number of people affected by the event will affect its newsworthiness, whether it’s an adjustment of minimum wage or an alleged outbreak of dengue.


Explain in brief how newspapers were used for Indian freedom struggle. BONUS HISTORY

Long asf Answer

1674 Printer Launched in India, 1780 Hickys Paper showed up, and Madras,etc followed up
Hicky paper, calcutta general advertiser, but people call it 
Hickys Bengal Gazette

Hicky got Government patronage, free postal circultion and Ads [basically AdSense before new policies]

Hicky did good. He was good.

Government got mad  And halted the Circulation [Adsense and YouTube 2018]

Hicky got pissed [just like PewDiePie]

After this, all follow up people and more news papers came up, and got mad, and became Voice of India

Boom. Done.

The printing press preceded the advent of printed news in India by about 100 years. It was in 1674 that the first printing apparatus was established in Bombay followed by Madras in 1772. India’s first newspaper, Calcutta General  Advertise, also known as the  Hicky’s Bengal Gazette was established in January 1780, and the first Hindi Daily, Samachar Sudha Varshan , began in 1854. Within this framework, it is instructive to examine India’s press in two broad analytical sections: pre-colonial times and the colonial, independent press.

The post-Emergency phase, which continues at the present, may be the third independent phase of India’s newspaper revolution James Augustus Hicky was the founder of India’s first newspaper, the Calcutta General Advertiser also known as  Hicky’s Bengal Gazette, in 1780. Soon other newspapers came into existence in Calcutta and Madras: the Calcutta Gazette, the Bengal Journal, The Oriental Magazine, the Madras Courier and the Indian Gazette. While the India Gazette enjoyed governmental patronage including free postal circulation and advertisements, Hicky’s Bengal Gazette earned the rulers’ wrath due to its criticism of the government.

In November 1780 its circulation was halted by government decree. Hicky protested against this arbitrary harassment without avail, and was imprisoned.The Bengal Gazette and the India Gazette were followed by the Calcutta Gazette which subsequently became the government’s “medium for making its general orders”

The Bombay Herald, The Statesmen in Calcutta and the Madras Mail and The Hindu , along with many other rivals in Madras represented the metropolitan voice of India and its people. While Statesman voiced the English rulers’ voice, The Hindu became the beacon of patriotism in the South. The Hindu was founded in Madras as a counter to the Madras Mail. In the struggle for freedom, journalists in the twentieth century performed a dual role as professionals and nationalists.

Indeed many national leaders, from Gandhi to Vajpayee, were journalists as well. Calcutta, Madras,Bombay and Delhi were four main centers of urban renaissance which nourished news in India..There were nationalist echoes from other linguistic regional provinces. Bengal, Gujarat, Tamil, Karalla, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh produced dailies in regional languages. Hindi and Urdu were largely instrumental in voicing the viewpoints and aspirations of both Hindus and Muslims of the Northern provinces..

In the struggle against the British, some newspapers played a very notable role. This included the Hindi Patriot!

Established in 1853, by the author and playwright, Grish Chandra Ghosh, it became popular under the editorship of Harish Chandra Mukherjee.In 1861, the paper published a play, “Neel Darpan” and launched a movement against the British, urging the people to stop cultivating the crop for the white traders.

This resulted in the formation of a Neel Commission. Later, the paper was taken over  by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. The paper strongly opposed the Government’s excesses and demanded that Indians be appointed to top government posts. The  Indian Mirror  was the other contemporary of this paper which was very popular among the reading public. Yet another weekly,  Amrita Bazar Patrika which was being published from Jessore, was critical of the government, with the result that its proprietors faced trial and conviction. In 1871, the  Patrika moved to Calcutta and another Act was passed to supressit and other native journals.

1780

The first newspaper in India was published by James Hicky in January 1780. It was called the Bengal Gazette and announced itself as “a weekly political and commercial paper open to all parties but influenced by none”. Bengal Gazette was a two-sheet paper measuring 12 inches by 8 inches, most of the space being occupied by advertisements. Its circulation reached a maximum of 200 copies. Within six years of Bengal Gazette, four more weeklies were launched in Kolkata (then Calcutta).

1782

Madras Courier was launched in 1782.

1791

Bombay Herald was launched in 1791.

1792

Bombay Courier was launched in 1792. It published advertisements in English and Gujarati.

1799

In 1799, the East India administration passed regulations to increase its control over the press.

1816

The first newspaper under Indian administration appeared in 1816. It was also called Bengal Gazette and was published by Gangadhar Bhattacharjee. It was a liberal paper which advocated the reforms of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Raja Ram Mohan Roy himself brought out a magazine in Persian called Mirat-ul-Ukhbar. He also published The Brahmanical Magazine, an English periodical to counteract the religious propaganda of the Christian missionaries of Serampore.

1822

In 1822, the Chandrika Samachar was started in Bengal.  At the same time, Bombay Samachar was started by Ferdunji Marzban. It gave importance to social reform and commercial news in Gujarati.

 

1826

The first Hindi newspaper Oodunt Martand was published in 1826 from Bengal. However, it could not survive long because of its distant readership and high postal rates. Its place was soon taken by Jami Jahan Numa, a newspaper that was pro-establishment.

1832

In 1832, Bal Shastri Jambhekar launched at Anglo-Marathi newspaper from Pune.

1830-1857

 A large number of short-lived newspapers were brought out in this time. Some were in Indian languages like Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Urdu and Persian.

1857

The Uprising of 1857 brought out the divide between Indian owned and British owned newspapers. The government passed the Gagging Act of 1847 and the Vernacular Press Act in 1876.  After 1857, the pioneering efforts in newspapers shifted from Bengal to Mumbai. Gujarati press made great progress under the efforts of Ferdunji Marzban and Kurshedji Cama. Marathi journalism followed close behind with a distinctive educational bias.

1861

In 1861, Mr Knight merged the Bombay Standard, Bombay Times and Telegraph and brought out the first issue of Times of India.

1875

In 1875, the same Mr Knight with the backing of rich merchants from Kolkata started Indian Statesman which was later called as Statesman.  Around the same time, Amrita Bazar Patrika was able to establish itself in Kolkata. Starting out as a vernacular paper, it was constantly in trouble due to its outspokenness. In order to circumvent the strict provision of the Vernacular Press Act, Amrita Bazar Patrika converted itself overnight into an English newspaper.  Amrita Bazar Patrika inspired freedom fighter Lokmanya Tilak to start Kesari in Pune. He used Kesari to build anti-cow killing societies, Ganesh mandals and reviving the Chhatrapati Shivaji cult. He used mass communication as a powerful political weapon.

1905

By 1905, the English and vernacular press had become pretty professional. Political leaders and social reformers were regular contributors to newspapers. Some prominent writers of the time  were C Y Chintamani, G A Natesan, N C Kelkar, Phirozshah Mehta and Benjamin Horniman. Indian news was supplied by special correspondent and government hand-outs (press releases), international news was supplied by Reuters, an international news agency.

1920s and 1930s

  • Newspapers in this period started reflecting popular political opinion. While big English dailies were loyal to the British government, the vernacular press was strongly nationalist.
  • The Leader and Bombay Chronicle were pro-Congress.
  • The Servant of India and The Bombay Chronicle were moderate.
  • The Bande Mataram of Aurbindo Ghosh, Kal of Poona and Sakli of Surat were fiercely nationalist.
  • In 1918, Motilal Nehru started the Independent of Lucknow as a newspaper of extreme Indian opinion.
  • The Home Rule Party started Young India, which later became Mahatma Gandhiji’s mouthpiece.  As more and more Indians started learning English, many became reporters, editors and even owners. The Anglo-Indian press began to lose ground except in Bombay and Calcutta. In 1927, industrialist G D Birla took over Hindustan Times and placed it on a sound financial footing. In the same year, S Sadanand started the Free Press Journal, a newspaper for the poor and the middle-class in Mumbai.

 

After Mutiny

– Standard, The Bombay Times and Telegraph merged into Times of India in 1861, Robert Knight was the owner , he was also owner of Statesman daily (1875) from Calcutta, Indian Economist monthly and Agriculture Gazette of India, his editorials and writings were balanced and impressive.

– Other major publications- Indu Prakash weekly, Gyan Prakash, Lokhitavadi (all 1861), Amrit Bazar Patrika (1868 Cacutta), Pioneer (1872 Allahbad), The Hindu (1878 Chennai) , Keshari (marathi) and The Maratha (English) (both in 1878 from Pune by veteran freedom fighter Balgangadhar Tilak)

 

– Pioneer Indian Journalists- Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahadev Govinda Ranade, Dadabhoi Naoroji, Gopal Rao Hari Deshmukh, Vishu Shastri Pandit, Karsondas Mulji, Bal Sashtri  Jambhekar etc.

– British govt. enacted Vernacular Press Act-1878 to suppress Indian language newspapers – Indian National Congress (INC) founded in 1885.

– It was led by many nationalists like Surendranath Banerjee, Balgangadhar Tilak, Dadabhoi Naoroji, Motilal Gosh, Bipin Chandra Pal, G. Subramania Aiyer, etc., who were active  journalists too.

– After establishment of INC, Indian press became an important part of struggle for independence.

Leading Newspapers After Establishment of INC

-1900- Bangalee English Daily (ed)- Surendranath Banarjee

-1901- New India English Weekly (ew)- Bipinchandra Pal

– 1901- Bande Mataram – Bengalee weekly- Bipinchandra Pal

– 1906- Yugantar – Bengali daily- Barendra kumar Ghose

– 1909- Leader- ed- Madan Mohan Malviya

– 1913- New India –ed- Annie Besant

– 1913- Bombay Chronicle –ed- Phiroj Shah Mehata

– 1918 –Justice- ed- Dr.T.M.Nair (published by non- Brahmin movement in Madras)

– 1918 – Searchlight- English biweekly- Shachindranath Sinha -1919- The Independent -ed– Pandit Motilal Neharu

– 1919- Young India – ed- Mahatma Gandhi

– 1920 – Nav Jeevan – Gujarati weeky- Mahatma Gandhi

– 1922- Swarajya- ed- T.Prakasham

– 1923- Forward- ed- Chittaranjan Das

– 1923- The Hindustan Times –ed- K.M. Panikar (first daily in Delhi)

– 1929- Liberty-ed- Subhas Chandra Bose -1932- Harijan- Gujarati weekly- Mahatma Gandhi

– 1938- National Herald- Jawaharlal Nehru – Viceroy Lord Curzon Vs. Indian press

– In 1907 series of arrests and prosecutions against the journalists and press

– India Press Act –1910 asked for heavy security deposits

– 963 publications and press were prosecuted under the act

– 173 new printing press and 129 newspapers were killed at their birth by the weapon of security deposits

– British govt. collected about 5 lakhs Indian Rs. in the first year of the act enforcement

– During the First world war (1914-1918) Indian press were divided.

– The act was forcely executed against the press who were not in support of British side in the  world war.

– In 1919 Jalianwala Bagh massacre was a big disaster to the Indian press. – Even the Anglo- Indian press were not escaped.

 

The Golden Era of Indian Mission Journalism 1920 – 1947)

– Declaration of non-cooperation movement against British rule in India.

– Press marched shoulder to shoulder with satyagrahis.

– Mahatma Gandhi lauded for freedom of expression, ideas and people’s sentiments

– Gandhi would not accept adv., he believed newspapers should survive on the revenue from subscribers

– He would not accept any restrictions on the paper, he rather close it down

– His writings were widely circulated and reproduced in the newspapers all over the country

– A big challenge to non-Gandhian newspapers.

– Gandhi declared ‘Salt Satyagraha’ in 1930

– The nationalist press played a memorable role, which perhaps is unique in the history of any freedom movement.

– Press ordinance issued in 1930 to suppress Indian press through heavy security deposits.

– When second world war broke out , British rulers became more suppressive to the Indian press

– In 1940 UP government directed the press to submit the headlines of the news to the secretary of the information department for his pre- approval

– In response to this, National Herald (newspaper run by Jawaharlal Nehru) published the news  without headlines

– Second world war and freedom fight gave more fuel to Indian press

– Britishers charged them as ‘ pro-Hitler’

– All India Newspaper Editors Conference held in 1940 at Delhi voiced against the suppressive attitude of the British govt.

 – Fresh suppression and struggle started from 1942 when Quit India Movement initiated

– Many press, publications and journalists including Neharu suspended and arrested in 1942

– It continued until the declaration of independence in 1947 August – K. Rama Rao, Editor, Swarajya “ It was more than a vocation, it was a mission and the newspaper was a noble enterprise working for patriotic purpose”.


What are the tools for reporters?

Accurate Answer not found.

Word Processors have eased the job of reporters and the sub-editors as far as journalists dealing with languages using Roman and Similar Scripts are concerned. (The scripts of vernacular languages in India do not have a suitable keyboard. However an important update, Google Docs supports Indian Regional Languages Typing. Me and my Family also translate Books into Regional Languages.So yea. If you wanna attempt. Go for it) Writing the leads for stories is a difficult task even for experienced reporters. Earlier, reporters used to change paper after paper on the typewriter till they could type in a good lead. Now, reporters can modify the lead any number of times without much hassle.

Similarly, a sub-editor handling the copy of a novice may need to bring an important point buried deep in the story to the top. Now, he can do it with a few strokes of keys. The word processor also provides many other features useful to the journalist. But, one facility which needs special mention is the ability of word processors to insert other files in the copy. Files can be easily combined and material from archives inserted into the body.

Maintenance and retrieval of material from newspaper morgues (for those unfamiliar with the term, “the morgue is where we keep obituaries of living people, especially the famous ones, until they are dead”. But nowadays, many other things are also kept in the morgue) have become easier and quicker with electronic medium. The archives can be easily searched and retrieved material incorporated into copy. It is time that every publisher of newspapers and magazines worth the name has an electronic equivalent of a morgue.

Word processing and archiving have also brought in its own evils, or better say, devils. Most publications have practically abandoned proofreading, leaving the job to spell check engines of word processors. But spell check engines have their own limitations. It will not flag a spelling mistake if spelling is wrong only in the current context. For example, the engine would pass the word if you type `their’ where `there’ is needed. A more dreaded mistake in publishing like `public’ getting printed without the `l’ can also go unnoticed this way.

Besides, many of word processors on sale in India use American spelling while we follow British spelling. The result is often a mix up of both American and British spelling. The spell check machine, as you know, can replace the wrongly spelled word with the correctly spelled word. It will, however, flag a correct word as misspelled, it the word is not in its dictionary. And sub editors may hit the key for replacement without applying the mind. The result of all this is a newspaper with more printer’s devils than in the past. And the printer is innocent of the crime. Most of the printer’s devils have been ostracised by photo composing. A p or d will not be upside down anymore. But new devils have taken possession of publishing.

Easy access to archives and the capability to insert material from the archives without retyping is tempting many reporters to use archive material without rewriting. While this may be okay with material like biodata, it would not look that nice elsewhere. Owing to easy access to archives, reporters would be depending on them rather than scouting for the information afresh. Over dependence on archived reports can result in repetition of errors committed in earlier reports. However, the balance is in favour of archives. Reference to past events and issues in the archives will help to avoid more mistakes than it is likely to cause. Reporters will also be able to add much more background and depth to their reports through use of archives.

Newspapers used to be considered one day wonders that are discarded the next day. Except for researchers and their likes, few would be searching back issues of newspapers. But this has changed with the availability of searchable newspapers, back issues and archives on the Internet. And this has increased the responsibility of all working behind newspapers. They are more likely to be hauled up for a mistake committed years ago than ever before. More than mere mistakes, one may find reports contradicting each other in the same newspaper, if one scans through a longer period of reportage by different reporters. No doubt, that can be very embarrassing for the newspapers and reporters. However, more at risk will be the politicians. They can be easily caught for their contradictory statements.


Bring out the risks of Citizen Journalism

Citizen journalism, any type of news gathering and reporting, are written articles published about any topic newsworthy or also  photographs or videos of a newsworthy event. This is done by members of the general public rather than the professional news agencies commonly referred to as “Mainstream Media.”

With the creation of new technologies including blog sites, social networks, and the use of smart phones with cameras,  it allows members of the public without any journalistic training to participate in debates and publish their own point of view about a range of subjects.

It is difficult to think of a reason against citizen journalism. Professional journalists on occasion put themselves in dangerous situations to cover a story. Why should it be any different for a citizen journalist willing to assume the risk to do the same? Being paid to cover a story does not give a person special privilege to assume risk. Some may argue that a citizen journalist is more likely to put others in jeopardy when covering a dangerous situation.

According to Bowman and Willis (2003) –
the intent of [a citizen‘s] participation is to provide

independent, reliable, accurate, wide-ranging
and relevant information that a democracy requires.

However, due to the fact that in general citizen journalists are not professionally trained, or simply do not have these intentions—not all contributions from citizen journalists adhere to ethical standards that can be expected of professional journalists. Moreover, citizen journalists, especially those who write, usually give a very personal and therefore often biased view of an event.

Some clearly identify their intentions, political or other, such as Indymedia or The Huffington Post; many mainstream news organizations indicate UGC, and whether this content can be verified by other sources. But others place personal accounts of citizens alongside reports from their staff, making it more difficult to distinguish amateur and therefore unchecked content from professional content, which has been checked for accuracy, objectivity, truthfulness and fairness.

Many citizen contributors do not see themselves as journalists but rather as activists, and therefore do not believe they should adhere to media ethics. However, if their work is published in the media, it can have damaging effects, especially on sites where the editorial gatekeeping is left completely to the audience. One of the most striking examples for this was a report by an anonymous source, only identified as “johntw”, on CNN iReport on 3 October 2008 about Apple CEO Steve Jobs suffering a heart attack and being rushed to hospital.

As there had already been concerns about Mr Jobs‘s health, Apple‘s stock prices sank to a 17-month low within minutes of the posting. Only when the blog Silicon Valley Insider rectified the information after having checked it with an Apple spokesperson, who had strongly denied the report, was the story brought to a halt and Apple‘s stocks slowly recovered. The incident also damaged CNN iReport reputation, although the site clearly states that only content marked “CNN iReport” has been vetted. While this news item might have been relevant, it was neither reliable nor accurate, and since the author was anonymous, he or she could not be held accountable or responsible.


What is online writing?

This Answer is the Epitome of what/why I do

Online writing refers to any text created with (and usually intended for viewing on) a computer, smartphone, or similar digital device. Also called digital writing. Online writing formats include texting, instant messaging, emailing, blogging, tweeting, and posting comments on social media sites such as Facebook.

The main difference between offline and online writing techniques is that while people buy newspapers and magazines intending to read them, on the Internet people generally browse. You must grab their attention and hold it if they are to read on. This means that, on the whole, online writing is more concise and pithy and should offer the reader greater interactivity.

Digital writing is not simply a matter of learning about and integrating new digital tools into an unchanged repertoire of writing processes, practices, skills, and habits of mind.

Digital writing is about the dramatic changes in the ecology of writing and communication and, indeed, what it means to write—to create and compose and share.

Because online readers tend to scan, a Web page or e-mail message should be visibly structured; it should have what Nielsen calls a ‘scannable layout.’ He found that frequent use of headings and bullets can increase readability by 47 percent. And since his study found that only about 10 percent of online readers scroll below the text initially visible on the screen, online writing should be ‘fronted,’ with the most important information placed at the beginning. Unless you have a good reason otherwise–as in a ‘bad news’ message, for example–structure your Web pages and e-mail messages like newspaper articles, with the most important information in the headline (or subject line) and the first paragraph.

Blogging

“Blogs are usually written by one person in their own individual language. This, therefore, presents you with the ideal opportunity to present the human face and personality of your business.

You can be

– conversational

– enthusiastic

– engaging

– intimate (but not overly so)

– informal.

All of this is possible without stopping beyond the limits of what would be considered as the acceptable voice of the company. However, other styles may be required owing to the nature of your business or your readership.

On the latter, as with other forms of online writing, it’s important to know your reader and their expectations before you begin writing a blog.

Single Sourcing

Single sourcing describes the set of skills related to the conversion, updating, remediating, and reuse of content across multiple platforms, products, and media. . . . Creating reusable content is an important skill in Internet writing for a variety of reasons. It saves the writing team time, effort, and resources by writing content once and reusing it multiple times. It also creates flexible content that can be adapted and published in a variety of formats and media, such as web pages, videos, podcasts, advertisements, and printed literature.

OR YOU CAN SAY WHAAAAT I AM DOING 
RIGH NOOOWWWWW


Explain Journalists’ role in Society

Before we start looking at the media themselves, let’s look at the role of the media, particularly the news media, in society. We already talked about how the media both influence and mirror society, but in what ways does it do this? Listed below are just some of the roles the media play.

When it comes to news media, most people think in terms of the historical role. That is, the media record history. Certainly, that is a major role the media play. But it is not the only function. The list below is not in any special order of importance, though the historical role is purposely buried in the middle.

Political or Watchdog Role

The media have long served as a watchdog for the public, watching for threatening actions from our elected officials and “growling” when necessary. How many of you have ever been to a school board meeting? Or a city council meeting? Our elected officials make decisions that can affect our quality of life, but most of us do not pay attention until it is too late, when new laws or rules have already been enacted. The media are at those meetings, or at least are checking up on what happens at them, and warn us –growl– when something that will affect us negatively happens.

 

Economic Role

The media help the economy survive, both by bringing the businessman and the consumer together — advertising — and by keeping the public informed on the state of the economy. Advertising is just one way in which the media inform us about the economy, and as a result influence the economy. News about interest rates, the stock market, etc. are other ways.

 

Sentry Role

Like the sentry at the gate, the media watch the horizon and announce what or who is approaching before it gets there. The media do this as part of the watchdog role, too. But this is more subtle. Coming changes might be good changes or inconsequential changes that we might WANT to know about more than NEED to know about. Take new fashion trends, for example. We could probably get by without knowing about next year’s fashion trends, but we like to know.

The media must realize that news is an evolving process and should be covered as it evolves. Too many people, especially sources of stories, think the media should wait until decisions have been made before covering a story. In reality, we probably have a greater need to know what decisions MIGHT be made.

 

Historical/Record Keeping Role

Considered by many to be the most important role — to some it is the ONLY role — is that of a record keeper. What happened? Where? When? Who was involved? Etc. As mentioned above, this certainly is an important role. Today’s media are recording history as it happens. And we enjoy that they do. We can watch a baseball game, perhaps in person, and still want to read about it in the paper the next day or see the highlights on the television news that night.

In reality, because of some gatekeeping decisions, some media do a lousy job of recording what happened. Many of these poor decisions on what to include or not include in the media are made because mass media is big business and today’s corporate, bottom-line thinking means that some important stories just are too expensive to cover.

 

Entertainment Role

News is more than reporting bare facts. There are many media messages competing for the reader’s/viewers time, and those readers/viewers want to be entertained, as well as informed. So the media entertain us. Indeed, many news content decisions are made based on the entertainment value –if more people are entertained, more will read/watch, and advertisers will pay to reach the larger audience.

Some media, such as television, are almost exclusively entertainment oriented. Many of the mergers between internet and entertainment industries we read about these days are focusing on ways of entertaining us on our computers.

But even newspapers entertain us with comics, crossword puzzles, advice columns, horoscopes and more.

 

Social Role

People like reading/hearing about other people and the media have long complied. We especially are enthralled with celebrities. Entire media markets exist solely for this role — look at People or Us magazines or “Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous.”

Newspapers have long included “vital statistics,” such as who is getting married, who is getting divorced, who had children, etc.

 

Marketplace of Ideas/Leadership Role

The editorial pages, letters to the editor, opinion columns, reporter on the street interviews, critical reviews, etc., are all examples of how the media disseminate not only their own view, but the views of others.

This is really two related roles. First the media provide us with a variety of views, not just their own so that we have a “marketplace of ideas” on which to base our opinions. Second, the media themselves lead the way with editorials and other matter to help us form our opinions. Media that do neither, or emphasize one of these two roles over the other, do us a disservice. But as we’ll see when we look at the history of media, especially print media, the concept of a diversity of opinions in one publication was unheard of. Early newspapers, for example, were highly partisan. If you wanted both sides of a story you had to read competing newspapers.


Write short notes on ‘Follow-Up and Continuity’ and ‘The curtain-raiser’

A follow-up is a journalist’s term for a story which is written so that you can report more of a story which has already been published or broadcast. Those extra details can be new facts, later developments, reactions or new issues which have been raised by the original event.

 

What all follow-ups have in common is that they depend for some of their news value on a story which has gone before.

Why are follow-ups needed?

Follow-ups are needed because one story on its own may not cover all aspects of an event or controversy properly. Although life goes on second-by-second, day-by-day, journalists cannot report it all. Journalists have to concentrate on bits of life and report them to their readers or listeners in 20 centimetre stories or 40-second news reports, three-minute current affairs segments or half-page features. Journalists impose space and time limits on their reports which do not always reflect how important the event is in the real world.

A Curtain Raiser is a performance, stage act, show, actor or performer that opens a show for the main attraction. A curtain raiser is a story on what is likely to happen and not a report on what has happened. It raises the curtain to show what is on the stage and how the drama will unfold itself. It is to a news event what an appetizer is to a meal it whets one’s appetite to know what is going to come. A curtain raiser is based on past events and the reporter understands of what is likely to come on the strength of his information on what had happened in the past. The term is derived from the act of raising the stage curtain. The first person on stage has “raised the curtain”.


Correspondent is also a Journalist. Justify

A correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is usually a journalist or commentator for magazines, or more speaking, an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or radio or television news, or another type of company, from a remote, often distant, location. A foreign correspondent is stationed in a foreign country. The term “correspondent” refers to the original practice of filing news reports via postal letter. The largest networks of correspondents belong to ARD (Germany) and BBC (UK).

The reporter’s work is confined to a direct narrative factually describing an event. Reporters are usually employed full time by Newspaper, TV, or Radio Channels. Most reporters are assigned to a particular locality or subject area from which the reporter gathes news. Some reporters are sent by editors to report on specific events while others look for news where it happens. E.g. Police Stations, Courts, Hospitals, etc.

The reporter may receive many different assignments over a period of time, covering a variety of events. For a newspaper reporter, notes taken at the scene are used to compose a news “story” in the office. For television, the reporter typically appears in a video clip at the scene of the story, where visual content supports the narrative.

A good reporter should be able to spot a good story and deliver his facts clearly and concisely. Generally reporters are tipped off by his sources but he must be able to follow the trail and conclude the news titbits with an exhaustive report. A good network of sources enables the reporter to access the information or people, the data collected from which forms both his background and field research.

The correspondent, on the other hand, is usually assigned to a region or a special subject. Thus we may have a middle east or a science correspondent. A correspondent is a someone who contributes to a TV, Radio, or Print News Segment through a story or report. His job may differ from a reporter, in that he may have to develop story ideas and take along a crew and shoot the story by interviewing people and collecting visuals.

Correspondents are generally stationed away from headquarters. They are mostly freelancers or work under contractual/exclusive agreements. They report directly to the editor. News correspondents may be stationed in the same city but they are not required to be present in office, except for handing over the completed assignment. Correspondents generally specialise in a certain field, but these days they are required to undertake research in different fields of social activity of the country they are posted to.

A correspondent requires huge network of useful contacts and an ability to grasp the rudiments of other languages incase of foreign posting. Like a reporter, he must not reveal his sources and must be able to get a good story concise and as precise as possible because he has to cable or mail his story to headquarters and a long story is expensive and time consuming to relay.

Such people, by continuous exposure and or study, produce material which provides important background, developmental information, and context. They become “experts” on their subject matter. Usually, their material is prepared in an office, although they may visit various scenes or interview others to procure the information they need.

As an example, consider hurricane season. A wind blown TV reporter will appear, describing wave height, flooding, destruction of property, evacuation, etc, all with video footage in support. Perhaps 45 seconds. Then, “back to you, Mel.” But the science correspondent will discuss over-all weather patterns leading up to the storm, the preparedness (or lack of it) among civil authorities, the economic impact, perhaps global climate change, etc. The correspondent is usually a “talking head” in a studio, supported perhaps by maps and diagrams.

Thus correspondent is also a journalist. S/He informs the public about news and events happening internationally, nationally, and locally. They report the news for newspapers, magazines, websites, television, and radio.


What is the role of Print medium?

How does Journalism work at the digital age?

Did not get these anywhere……


Explain Hooks and Angles

The main idea of a news story and lead is called the “Angle.”It is also referred to in newsrooms as the “hook” because the angle is used to grab, or hook, the reader’s attention to make them want to read the rest of the story.

Finding the angle of a news story forces a newswriter to be critical of a story idea and the reporting. A news writer will discover if there’s no angle in an idea or the facts that have been gathered before an editor, teacher or reader will.

Writing the lead and angle involves making some difficult decisions. A news writer must sort through the facts that were gathered from the reporting and decide what the theme is. There may be several different themes, but the writer must decide what the central theme of the story will be in the lead.

Hook answers the “why” of the 5 W’s in journalism and prompts the reader to continue reading in hopes that you will answer the other burning questions regarding the what, when, where, why and who of the story.

Even though there is no particular formula for writing the perfect hook sentence, there are a few ways you can approach all of your stories to draw your audience in, hold their attention and leave them wanting more:

1. Who are you writing for?

Your audience matters when it comes to crafting your hook. Consider what is going to catch someone’s attention based on their age, gender and possible interests.

If you are writing for a teen magazine then your audience is going to be vastly different from engineers and programmers that may be reading the promotional brochures you write for a gaming developer.

2. What is important to your audience?

Think about the type of story you are writing and where it is going to appear.

If you write for an arts and crafts magazine then your readers will value different things compared to readers interested in finding information about health and fitness on a fitness blog.

Questions to ask yourself before writing any hook include:

  • Does your story solve a particular problem for a specific audience group?
  • Do you want to tell people something interesting about you or a product?
  • Is your reader in search of a specific type of information?
  • Do you want to show your audience that you understand a particular topic?
  • Is your story meant to entertain or educate?

3. What news is currently trending?

Since your hook must take into account why your story is relevant right now, it’s also important to know what other hot topics are trending in the media right now. Turn simple story ideas into hot topics by infusing your hook with the trending topic.


Explain the Importance of Gatekeeping

Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination, whether for publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other mode of communication. Gatekeeping is managing the information through a process, which contain to move the information through gates or filters. The gatekeeping process includes selecting, writing, editing, placing, scheduling.

Gatekeeping as a theory, is the news selection and extraction of news, which then gets passed through a series of gates (the journalists), and gets transformed and ends up in the news. For an example, a journalist may decide to cover a story on New Zealand earthquakes, but will only extract parts of the news that are relevant and credible to be processed and supplied to the public, and then this becomes the news.

The shift in society, through social media sites has seen this gatekeeping nonessential for journalism, as these sites jump the gates of traditional journalism, and the audience have the ultimate control over what they read, see or hear in these media echo chambers.

The first use of “gatekeeping” term was in 1947 by Kurt Lewin, Psychologist. His studies focused on how a person behavior changed when they are connected with a group of people. It is a powerful process through which events are covered by the mass media, explaining how and why certain information passes through gate or is closed off from media attention.

The role of a gatekeeper within journalism is of extreme importance in today’s media environment. Gatekeepers ultimately craft and conduct what is being published to the masses, therefore they determine what is to become the public’s social reality, and their view of the world

In recent years, there has been blurred lines between establishing who the media audiences are and who the journalists are in today’s society. Due to social media jumping the gates, and with the wide range of accessibility, the differences between public opinions and what is journalistic news is made indistinct.

With today’s fast-paced and competitive media environment, there has been a significant rise of these social media channels, creating outlets where anyone and everyone can be a journalist. Therefore, why do we need gatekeeper journalists anymore? The public need reliable, intelligent and relevant sources which they can go to for news, thus creating a push to try and deregulate clickbait and fake news within the media.

The selection of news is based on the salience of the news and a particular media’s in house agenda. Then there is news evaluation and filtering process. The gatekeeper decides which information will go forward and which will not. The gatekeepers choice hold the potential to colour the mental pictures that are subsequently created in people’s understanding of what is happening in the world around them.

There are four levels of gatekeeping

1. At the reporter’s level

2. The subeditor/editor’s level

3. The advertiser’s level

4. Media owner’s level/ Producer

Gatekeepers regulates the flow of news. Gatekeepers (i.e., journalists, editors) possess the power to control the gate by determining the content delivered to audiences, opening and closing the gate of information. Gatekeepers wield power over those on the other side of the gate, those seeking to be informed (audiences), as well as those seeking to inform (politics, activists, academics, etc.).

In an ideal situation, the gatekeepers would be taking on the challenge of weighing the evidence of importance in social problems when selecting among the options of content and information to exhibit. Yet, decisions concerning content selection are not void of subjective viewpoints and encompass values, beliefs, and ideals of gatekeepers. The subjective attitudes of gatekeepers influence their perspective of what qualifies as newsworthy information. Hence, those in the position to determine the content transmitted through media exercise the power to shape social reality for media audiences

With today’s fast-paced and competitive media environment, there has been a significant rise of these social media channels, creating outlets where anyone and everyone can be a journalist. Therefore, why do we need gatekeeper journalists anymore? The public need reliable, intelligent and relevant sources which they can go to for news, thus creating a push to try and deregulate clickbait and fake news within the media.

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