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Introduction to Advertising – Answer Bank

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Table of Contents

Explain the steps in creating an advertising strategy.

An advertising strategy provides an overview and broad direction for the advertising campaign. Strategy provides the framework for small business and their advertising agencies to develop, review and measure the effectiveness of advertising campaigns in line with advertising and marketing objectives.

An advertising strategy is generally tailored to a target audience perceived to be most likely to purchase product and strategies include elements such as geographic location, demographics, special offers, medium to be sued such as billboards, television, etc.

Every business needs an advertising strategy. Think of it as your guide to promoting your business. Your plan will tell you who your targets are, how to reach them – and most importantly, it will point out what you’re failing to do. This allows you to correct your course and improve your business’s marketing, which leads to increasing sales.

The Steps involved in the Process of Creating an Advertising Strategy are as follows

Step 1 – Briefing

The advertiser needs to brief about the product or the service for which the advertiser is advertising, and should conduct a Strength Weakness Opportunities and Threat Analysis of the company and its product properly.

This will provide a 360 Degree insight of the Market. It helps to minimize the effect of weaknesses in your business, while maximizing your strengths. SWOT will help the advertiser figure out “What is going” quickly. The “What to do” part of the strategy should follow logically from the “Whats going on” part.

The product or service offered by the company is clearly defined, This means that the position of the product in the market is determined. You have to understand the product and its customer base for effectively marketing to the people at large

Step 2 – Knowing the Objective

One should first know the objective or the purpose of advertising, what message is to be delivered to the audience. It is very important to understand the primary objective of the product or company.

Step 3 – Research

The next step is to study the market for that particular product. This step involves finding out the market behavior, knowing the competitors, what type of advertising they are using, what is the response of the consumers, availability of the resources needed in the process, etc.

Step 4 – Target Audience

Who the Hell Are You Customers?! Are you going to give this to them? THIS THING IS FKSJ

Exactly who are your customers? Are you selling in an urban, surburban, or rural market? Are your customers from the middle class or upper middle class?

The next step is to identify the target consumers most likely to buy the product. The target should be appropriately identified without any confusion.

For example, if the product is health drink for growing kids, then the target audience will be parents who are the potential candidates to buy the product and not the kids who are going to drink it

Step 5 – Media Selection

It is important to choose the right medium for advertising. The choice of the medium/ media is made after considering the target audience and market research.

This depends on the product or service that is being marketed, the customers who are to be informed about the product, and those who are willing to buy it —should be successfully reached.

Step 6 – Setting the Budget

The budget may be determined either before or after creating an advertising strategy. The advertising budget has to be planned so that there is no shortage or excess of funds during the process of advertising and also there are no losses to the company. Setting out all the costs for the campaign and indicating when the costs will fall. The campaign is designed to meet measurable objectives, so the plan should indicate how the agency will measure the campaign.

Step 7 – Designing and Creating the Ad

First the design, that is the outline of the ad, and it is created on paper by the copywriters of the agency, then the actual creation of ad is done with help of the art directors and the creative personnels of the agency. While you may not have a lot of actual writing and designing to do for your ad during the creation process but you will need to review and sign off on different stages of the Project. Then the created ad is re examined and the ad is redefined to make it perfect to enter the market.

Step 8 – Place and Time of the Ad

This step is to decide where and when the ad will be shown. The place will be decided according the the target customers, so that the ad is clearly and easily visible to them. The finalization of time on basis of which the ad will be telecasted or show on the selected media will be done by the traffic department of the agency

Step 9 – Execution

Finally, an advertisement is released with perfect creation, perfect placement and perfect timing in the market. It is now on air, at this stage.

Step 10 – Evaluation

The last step is to judge the performance of the ad in terms of the response from the customers, whether they are satisfied with the ad and the product, did the ad reach all the targeted people, was the advertisement capable enough to compete with the other players in the market, etc. Every point is studied properly and changes are made, if required


Explain features and characteristics of Advertising.

The world has become a global market. Modern market is more dynamic, competitive, and consumer-oriented. Entire marketing process is aimed at satisfying consumers more effectively than competitors. Consumer satisfaction can be achieved by receiving information from market and sending information to the market.

In order to inform, attract, and convince the valued customers, a marketer undertakes a number of promotional means. Advertising is one of the powerful means to inform about company’s total offers. Advertising is a dominant element of market promotion. Many times, the entire promotional efforts are replaced by advertising alone.

Major portion of promotion budget is consumed by advertising alone. Advertising is so powerful and popular that it is taken as equal to marketing!! Mass media are used intensively to advertise various products. Marketing without advertising seems to be impossible. Advertising works like a magic stick to actualize marketing goals!

Advertising is a paid form of mass communication that consists of the special message sent by the specific person (advertiser or company), for the specific group of people (listeners, readers, or viewers), for the specific period of time, in the specific manner to achieve the specific goals.

More clearly, advertising can be defined as:

Advertising includes oral, written, or audio­visual message addressed to the people for the purpose of informing and influencing them to buy the products or to act favorably toward idea or institution.

“Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of goods, services, or ideas by an identified sponsor.”

– Philip Kotler

“Advertising is a printed, written, oral and illustrated art of selling. Its objective is to encourage sales of the advertiser’s products and to create in the mind of people, individually or collectively, an impression in favour of the advertiser’s interest.”

– Frank Presbrey

“Advertising consists of all activities involved in presenting to a group a non-personal, oral or visual, openly sponsored identified message regarding a product, service, or idea. The message, called an advertisement, is disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by the identified sponsor.”

– William Stanton

Characteristics of Advertising

1. Tool for Market Promotion:

There are various tools used for market communication, such as advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and publicity. Advertising is a powerful, expensive, and popular element of promotion mix.

2. Non-personal:

Advertising is a type of non-personal or mass communication with the target audience. A large number of people are addressed at time. It is called as non-personal salesmanship.

Even if the target audience is specific and can be selected, advertising still remains the medium of mass communication. It reaches a large audiences at once and is created in such a way so as to create mass impact. Advertising is non-personal in character as against salesmanship, which is a personal or face to face communication.

3. Paid Form:

Advertising is not free of costs. Advertiser, called as sponsor, has to spend money for preparing message, buying media, and monitoring advertising efforts. It is the costliest option of market promotion. Company has to prepare its advertising budget to appropriate advertising costs.

In the world of advertising there are no free lunches. Everything that you see or hear being published is paid for by the brands. This cost of advertising is of course targeted and result oriented.

4. Wide Applicability:

Advertising is a popular and widely used means for communicating with the target market. It is not used only for business and profession, but is widely used by museums, charitable trusts, government agencies, educational institutions, and others to inform and attract various target publics.

5. Varied Objectives:

Advertising is aimed at achieving various objectives. It is targeted to increase sales, create and improve brand image, face competition, build relations with publics, or to educate people.

6. Forms of Advertising:

Advertising message can be expressed in written, oral, audible, or visual forms. Mostly, message is expressed in a joint form, such as oral-visual, audio-visual, etc.

7. Use of Media:

Advertiser can use any of the several advertising media to convey the message. Widely used media are print media (newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, booklets, letters, etc.), outdoor media (hoardings, sign boards, wall-printing, vehicle, banners, etc.), audio-visual media (radio, television, film, Internet, etc.), or any other to address the target audience.

8. Advertising as an Art:

Today’s advertising task is much complicated. Message creation and presentation require a good deal of knowledge, creativity, skills, and experience. So, advertising can be said as an art. It is an artful activity.

9. Element of Truth:

It is difficult to say that advertising message always reveals the truth. In many cases, exaggerated facts are advertised. However, due to certain legal provisions, the element of truth can be fairly assured. But, there is no guarantee that the claim made in advertisement is completely true. Most advertisements are erotic, materialistic, misleading, and producer-centered.

10. One-way Communication:

Advertising involves the one-way communication. Message moves from company to customers, from sponsor to audience. Message from consumers to marketer is not possible. Marketer cannot know how far the advertisement has influenced the audience.

11. Providing Information

Apart from convincing the target group, the primary function of advertising is giving all information related to the product or service. The information provided should not only be about the positives but also should warn consumers about any disadvantages of the product. The information supplied should educate and guide consumers and facilitate them to make a correct choice while buying a product.

Features of Advertising

Payment of money:

One of the features of advertising is to pay the money for advertising. Advertisements appear in newspapers, magazines, television or cinema screens because the advertiser has purchased some time to communicate information to the potential customers. The adviser must pay money for advertising activities. It is not free of cost.

Non-personal:

In advertising, there is no face to face or direct contact with the customers. That is why it is described as non-personal salesmanship. It is a non-personal form of presenting products and promoting ideas. It simplifies the task of the sales force by creating awareness in the mind of potential customers.

Promote products and services:

Advertising helps in the promotion of products and services.It is directed towards increasing the sale of the products and services of a business unit.Advertising is essential for the promotion of goods and services.

Identified sponsor:

The advertisement should disclose or identify the sources of opinion and ideas it presents.It should identify the sponsor from where the advertisement can be occurred. Identifying the specific sponsor is very important in the advertising process.

Importance of Advertising

Advertising helps in providing various information about the advertising firm, its products, qualities and place of availability of its products and so on. It helps to create a non-personal link between the advertiser and the receiver of the message. The significance of advertising has increased in the modern era of large-scale production and tough competition in the market.The importance of advertising to different parties are discussed as follows:

  • Information about a product
  • Creation of permanent demand
  • Service to existing customers
  • Conversion of prospective buyers to actual buyers
  • Support to personal selling
  • Increase in sales and reduction in cost
  • Minimization of middlemen
  • Creation of image or goodwill
  • Protection of people from imitation
  • Reminder to the users
  • Establishment of relationship

One can also explain the importance of advertising in relations to major individual components of the market. They are as follows:

Importance to Manufacturers and Traders

Advertising has become indispensable for the manufacturers because of the following advantages:

Introducing new product:

Advertising helps in introducing new products. A business organization can introduce itself and its products to the public through advertising.It is essential for the organization to introduce its product through advertising.

Increase the sale:

Advertising leads to increase the sale of existing products by entering into new markets and attracting new customers. The increase in the selling activities helps in increment of sales in the market.

Create steady demand:

Advertising helps to create the steady demand for the products. For example, a drink may be advertised during summer as a product necessary to fight tiredness caused by heat and during winter as essential things to resist cold.

Help in meeting competition:

Advertising helps in meeting the forces of competition in the market place. If a product is not advertised continuously, the competitors may snatch its market through increased advertisements. Therefore, advertising is necessary to remain in the market and remind the customer about its reputation in the market.

Increase the goodwill:

Advertising helps to increase the goodwill of a firm by promising improved quality to the customers. It is necessary for an organization to increase its goodwill to sustain in the market.

Increase the morale:

Advertising helps to increase the morale of the employees of the firm. The salesmen feel happier because their task becomes easier if the product is advertised and known to the public.

Facilitates mass production:

Advertising helps to facilitate mass production of goods in the market. It enables the manufacturer to achieve lower cost per unit of product. Distribution costs are also lowered when the manufacturer sells the product directly to the customers. Advertising encourages mass distribution of the product through the retailers. Retailers are encouraged to purchase and sell the advertised products.


Explain the structure of an Ad agency.

Advertising agency is an independent organization in which the technical and artistic people make ad for people and services of different companies and also choose the mass media.  A modern advertising agency offer specialized knowledge, skills & experience which are required to produce an effective advertising campaign. It has writers, artists, media experts, researchers, TV producer, account executives etc.

These specialist work together to understand fully the advertiser requirement of advertising campaign and develop suitable advertising plan and strategies by creating advertisement and implement advertising plans and strategies.

Each Advertising agency is unique in different departmental service. They are specialist in providing different marketing promotions some of the most common are:

  • Public Relations
  • Direct Marketing
  • Recruitment Advertising
  • Industrial or Business to Business

Advertising campaign

“An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication. Advertising campaign appear different media across a specific time frame”

Functions of advertising Agency

An advertising agency has 4 key functions to perform:

  • Plan the strategy for advertising.
  • Creating production the ads
  • Planning and buying the media in which to run them
  • Managing this process together with the client

Structure of advertising agency

Usually advertising agency consists of the following different departments. Who are works together to perform an effective and best out put.

  • Account department
  • Marketing services
  • Production Department
  • Finance Department
  • Creative department
  • Media planning
  • Traffic Department
  • Client services

This is a diagram which I could not find, so I made it on my own.

The placement of Creative was shifted for Creative Reasons

These departments are varying from company to company and organization to organization on it working load and size of company.

Account Management department

In an advertising agency, account department deals directly with the client and help the client to cover more market in less money. Officers in account department mean that they have to make never-ending negotiations between the ad agency and its clients. They make efforts to contract renewal and strengthen the firms’ client support.  Account department doesn’t mean dealing with account only. In an advertising agency, it’s meant to deal with client and managing with them.

They are responsible for coordinating with the creative department, media production staff that are all behind the campaign.  Throughout the campaign, they keep in touch with the client to updated him on ads progress and gain feedback. Upon completion of the creative work, it is their job to ensure the ads production and placement.

  • Account planners are the liaison between agency and client and they research the needs and preferences of the target market for a product or service.
  • In smaller agencies, account planning may be part of the stability of an account executive. Larger agencies may appoint a specialist as a member of the account management team. This department combines research with strategic thinking
  • They use their findings to develop an advertising strategy a prepare a brief for the creative team and also craft creative strategies with the team that’s working on an advertising campaign
  • They monitor the market trends and get the consumer’s insight into strategy planning, creative planning, evaluating, focus groups and helps keep advertising campaigns on target and on brand

Client Services Department

The Client Services department members are accountable for maintaining a strong and productive relationship between the agency and its clients  Usually this separated department is seen in very large ad agencies. Client services department helps their clients for the promotion of their business but other than making ads. They can prepare PR (Public Relations) campaign for their clients, can arrange exhibition for them and even can do some research on their demand. They also help their client on designing the wrappers or other packaging material.

The client servicing executive is responsible for all communications that happens between the client and the agency. Client services managers are problem solvers who analyze markets and help advertisers to develop business goals for their goods and services. Client for the promotion of their services department helps their clients business but other than making ads. They can prepare PR (Public Relations) campaigns for their clients and can arrange exhibitions for them on their demand.

  • Responsible for generating new business, maintain existing clients and billing from the client.
  • The client servicing executive is responsible for handling queries from the clients. He/she should take down brief notes from the client and correct the desired changes as per the client’s needs by communicating to the creative team and also coordinate with all the departments in the agency and clients, besides staying calm under pressure
  • Have an in depth knowledge about the clients’ products, brand, culture, market position and their overall needs/ services.
  • The client servicing executive should ensure that the client stas with the advertising agency for a long period of time. The executive should have exemplary communication skills, along with presentation and managerial skills.

Media Planning Department

This department works on planning and buying the media. If ad would not be placed on the most appropriate medium or combination of medium then all efforts and cost on it would be wastage. The planning group handles more strategic marketing and media issues. The buying group handles media negotiations and implementation. Media Planning department, on behalf of their clients looks for the best and most appropriate medium or combination of mediums for an advertisement. They buy space from media and place their client advertising there.

Each medium, which they are hundreds are now, has its own unique method of accepting advertising such as different cost structures. Media planning department on behalf of their clients looks for the best media for advertising. They buy space form media and place their client advertising there.

This department mainly focuses on Reach and the Frequency of an advertisement which includes TV and Radio Time, outdoor (billboards, posters, guerrilla), magazine, and newspaper insertions

Media Planner

  • The media planner produces the media schedule. The media planner takes the statistical research done by the media researcher as the basis for deciding which medium will be the most appropriate to carry the advertising.
  • They also have a time table to show actual scheduling by month, week of commencement, as well as actual date and broad indication of time of the day
  • Has to analyze all the existing evidence to allow the media planner to decide where the advertisement and commercials should be placed, based on the Opportunities To be Seen (OTS) or Heard (OTH) by the target audience.

Media Buyer

  • The final part of the process for the media department is actually to buy the space or air time
  • Media buyer is the person who has the responsibility to buy the space and air time with maximum discount for the agency

Creative department

This is a department of highly skilled people who work in a team to give best results. It comprises of technical experts, system architectures, graphics designers, art directors and artists, Statement Of Purpose writing section , film production section, computers programming etc.

There work to create and produce ads and public services messages for both

This is a department consisting of highly skilled people to give the best results. It comprises of technical experts, graphic designers, art directors and artists. Their work is to create and produce ads and public service messages for both Electronic and Print Media as per demand of the client and as per the instructions given to them

The major department under this who perform are Art Directors and Copywriters. They generate creative ideas and the remaining team works in giving those ideas appropriate physical shapes.

The creative department actually writes the ad copy and develops artwork for their advertising agency’s clients. You may work as a copywriter in the creative department, for example, writing jingles for radio ads or written copy for sales letters and brochures. Copywriters must write convincing copy to prompt consumers to buy products. Additionally, as a graphic designer, you may create colorful images and designs for websites or corporate logos. Film and video professionals may also be an area of interest for you in the creative department of your advertising agency.

  • Art Director

Ads are expected to have the practical typographic layout and design skills, latest techniques and technology

Many young ads start as visualizer, rendering layout for Sr. Ad[?] and producing mockups of ads for the client to approve

  • Copywriters

The most important requirement is the ability to write, not to copy what others write, but to create original fresh ideas [like PewDiePie.]

Copywriters are usually teamed with art directors, they solve problems together, sharing the job of coming up with pictures and headlines, they have to emphasize on what kind of ideas are appropriate for the brand and also do research on what other brands in the same category are doing.

The CopyWriters /Art Directors Team is given a brief and then they work on it together for days or even weeks. Then ideas are presented and chose, they will then work together to craft, copy and create visuals for the ad campaign.

Production Department

Larger agencies have a production department responsible for managing advertising campaigns. They set schedules and manage campaign budgets, coordinating the work of the creative and media departments. The production team also interacts with external suppliers working on advertising campaigns, such as printers, photographers and video production companies. In smaller agencies, account executives or creative directors take responsibility for project management.

Ideas are just ideas until they are made real. This is the job of the production department. Once the ad is sold to the client, the creative and accounts teams will collaborate with production to get the campaign produced on budget. The production department is controlled by the production manager who will have at least one traffic controller.

  • The Responsibility of the production department is to make sure that everything that is needed to produce the final advertisement is prepared cost effectively to the highest quality and then delivered to the right place at the right time and in right format
  • The role of the production department is to coordinate with different vendors and get original photography or illustrations produced, working with printers, hiring typographers and TV Directors, and other disciplines needed to get an ad campaign published within the provided deadline with the quality standards set by the agency

Finance Department

Money at the end of the day is what Advertising Agencies want/aim for. Finance Department is responsible for handling all the matters related to finance. They take care of all the bills, for example electricity, phones, house rent, building fares, internet charges, transport allowance, etc.

They are responsible for handing all the matters related to finance. They take care of all the bills for example electricity, phones, house rent, building fares, internet charges, transport allowance etc. they are responsible for getting money form advertisers as well. Employees’ salaries and daily payments also come under this department.

Traffic Department

Traffic Department keeps the agency’s’ heart beating. The traffic department controls the flow of work in the agency by increasing its efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job start, inappropriate job initiations, incomplete information sharing, over and under cost estimation and answering the phone calls.

It is the job of traffic to get each and every job through the various stages of account management, creative development, media buying and production in a set timeframe.

Traffic will also ensure that the work flows through the agency smoothly, preventing jams that may overwhelm creative teams and lead to very long hours, missed deadlines and problematic client.

The traffic department regulates the flow of work in the agency. It increase agency efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job start, inappropriate job initiations, incomplete information sharing, over and under cost estimation and answering the phone calls.


What is Advertising. Discuss the Growth and Development of Advertising in India.

What is, Definition, Explanation of Advertising Highly Forgettable Content

The world has become a global market. Modern market is more dynamic, competitive, and consumer-oriented. Entire marketing process is aimed at satisfying consumers more effectively than competitors. Consumer satisfaction can be achieved by receiving information from market and sending information to the market.

In order to inform, attract, and convince the valued customers, a marketer undertakes a number of promotional means. Advertising is one of the powerful means to inform about company’s total offers. Advertising is a dominant element of market promotion. Many times, the entire promotional efforts are replaced by advertising alone.

Major portion of promotion budget is consumed by advertising alone. Advertising is so powerful and popular that it is taken as equal to marketing!! Mass media are used intensively to advertise various products. Marketing without advertising seems to be impossible. Advertising works like a magic stick to actualize marketing goals!

Advertising is a paid form of mass communication that consists of the special message sent by the specific person (advertiser or company), for the specific group of people (listeners, readers, or viewers), for the specific period of time, in the specific manner to achieve the specific goals.

More clearly, advertising can be defined as:

Advertising includes oral, written, or audio­visual message addressed to the people for the purpose of informing and influencing them to buy the products or to act favorably toward idea or institution.

“Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of goods, services, or ideas by an identified sponsor.”

– Philip Kotler

“Advertising is a printed, written, oral and illustrated art of selling. Its objective is to encourage sales of the advertiser’s products and to create in the mind of people, individually or collectively, an impression in favour of the advertiser’s interest.”

– Frank Presbrey

“Advertising consists of all activities involved in presenting to a group a non-personal, oral or visual, openly sponsored identified message regarding a product, service, or idea. The message, called an advertisement, is disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by the identified sponsor.”

– William Stanton

Growth, Development of Advertisement in India

The Indian advertising industry has evolved from being a small-scaled business to a full-fledged industry. The advertising industry is projected to be the second fastest growing advertising market in Asia after China. It is estimated that by 2018, the share of ad spend in India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will be around 0.45 per cent.

The Indian government has given tremendous support to the advertising and marketing industry. Advertising expenditure is likely to increase in the financial sector, driven by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) policies which could result in a more favourable business environment. Also, proposed licences for new banks and better market sentiments render the advertising and marketing industry in India a fertile space.

History of Advertising / Dawn of Advertising / Advertising Begins

  • The dawn of Indian Advertising marked its beginning when hawkers called out their wares right from the days when cities and markets first began. It was then that the signages, the trademarks, the press ads and the likes evolved.
  • Concrete advertising history began with classified advertising. Ads started appearing for the first time in print in Hickey’s Bengal Gazette which was India’s first newspaper.
  • Studios mark the beginning of advertising created in India as opposed to being imported from England. Studios were set up for bold type, ornate fonts, fancier, larger ads.
  • Newspaper studios trained the first generation of visualizers and illustrators
  • Major advertisers during that time were retailers like Spencer’s, Army & Navy and Whiteway and Laidlaw.
  • Retailers’ catalogues that were used as marketing promotions provided early example.
  • Patent medicines: The first brand as we know them today was a category of advertisers.
  • Horlicks becomes the first ‘malted milk’ to be patented in 1883.
  • B Dattaram and Co. claims to be the oldest existing Indian agency in Mumbai which was started in 1902. Later, Indian ad agencies were slowly established and they started entering foreign owned ad agencies.
  • Ogilvy and Mather and Hindustan Thompson Associate agencies were formed in the early 1920s. In 1939, Lever’s advertising department launched Dalda – the first major example of a brand and a marketing campaign specifically developed for India.
  • In the 1950s, various advertising associations were set up to safeguard the interests of various advertisers in the industry.
  • In 1967, the first commercial was aired on Vividh Bharati and later in 1978; the first television commercial was seen.
  • Various companies now started advertising on television and sponsoring various shows including Humlog and Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi.
  • In 1986, Mudra Communications created India’s first folk-history TV serial Buniyaad which was aired on Doordarshan; it became the first of the mega soaps in the country.
  • Later in 1991, First India-targeted satellite channel, Zee TV started its broadcast. 1995 saw a great boom in media boom with the growth of cable and satellite and increase of titles in the print medium.
  • This decade also saw the growth of public relations and events and other new promotions that various companies and ad agencies introduced.
  • Advertising specific websites were born, one of them being agencyfaqs now known as afaqs.

Current Status of the Indian Advertising Industry

The Indian advertising industry has evolved from being a small-scaled business to a full-fledged industry. The advertising industry is projected to be the second fastest growing advertising market in Asia after China.

It is estimated that by 2018, the share of ad spend in India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will be around 0.45 per cent.

The Indian government has given tremendous support to the advertising and marketing industry. Advertising expenditure is likely to increase in the financial sector, driven by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) policies which could result in a more favourable business environment. Also, proposed licences for new banks and better market sentiments render the advertising and marketing industry in India a fertile space.

  • India’s Advertising industry is expected to grow at a rate of 16.8 percent year-on-year to Rs 51,365 crore (US$ 7.61 billion) in 2016#, buoyed by positive industry sentiment and a strong GDP growth of 7 per cent and above.
  • India’s digital advertising market has grown at a fast pace of 33 per cent annually between 2010 and 2015##, while spending as a percentage of total advertising increased to 13 per cent or nearly US$ 1 billion in 2015.
  • Print contributes a significant portion to the total advertising revenue, accounting for almost 41.2 per cent, whereas TV contributes 38.2 per cent, and digital contributes 11 per cent of the total revenue. Outdoor, Radio and Cinema make up the balance 10%.
  • Of the current Rs 2,750 crore (US$ 407.66 million) digital advertising market, search and display contribute the most – search advertisements constitute 38 percent of total advertising spends followed by display advertisement at 29 per cent, as per the study.
  • The Internet’s share in total advertising revenue is anticipated to grow twofold from eight per cent in 2013 to 16 per cent in 2018. Online advertising, which was estimated at Rs 2,900 crore (US$ 429.9 million) in 2013, could jump threefold to Rs 10,000 crore (US$ 1.48 billion) in five years, increasing at a compound annual rate of 28 per cent.

Recent Developments

Additional Information  for our O Grader, Brethren and Sistren.

  • The Indian Railways is working on a new advertising policy aimed at installing 100,000 big digital screens at 2,175 railway stations across the country, which is expected generate Rs 11,770 crore (US$ 1.76 billion) revenue annually.
  • Times Internet Limited plans to invest US$ 100 million in development of smart marketing technology platform Colombia, which will serve its marketers to engage with around 200 million digital users per month.
  • Zarget, a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) based conversion rate optimisation start-up, has raised US$ 1.5 million in seed funding from Accel Partners, Matrix Partners and Freshdesk Inc’s founder Mr Girish Mathrubootham, which will be used to build more marketing related tools.
  • Snapdeal.com, one of India’s largest and fast growing e-commerce companies, has acquired TargetingMantra (Insightful Pvt. Ltd), which is a Gurugram-based marketing and personalisation services company, as part of its plan to enhance the experience for its customers.
  • Indian Railways has appointed Ernst & Young (EY) as a consultant to discover its advertising potential, which is in line with the Railway Budget proposal of increasing non-fare earnings to over Rs 5,000 crore (US$ 741.2 million) in five years.
  • MoMark Services, a mobile based customer engagement platform for small and medium businesses, has raised US$ 600,000 from YourNest Angel Fund and LNB Group, to scale up its product offerings and talent acquisition.
  • Tata Motors has appointed renowned football player Lionel Messi as the global brand ambassador for Tata cars and utility vehicles globally, with an aim to tap the youth market and expand visibility and presence of Tata Motors in newer markets.
  • Advertising agency J Walter Thompson has launched its global digital agency network ‘Mirum’ in India which will provide services such as strategy and consulting services, campaigns and content, experience and platforms, analytics and innovation and product development, with the target to increase non-traditional media revenues to 40-45 percent from 35 percent currently.
  • DDB Mudra Group has planned to launch ‘Track DDB’, a brand that addresses the data-led world of marketing communications, which will provide services like creative, data and digital analytics, database marketing, CRM, digital and mobile marketing in India.
  • All India Radio (AIR) has appointed ‘releaseMyAd’ as a virtual agency to let advertisers book ads for all of AIR’s station online.
  • Google is all set to help India implement Prime Minister Mr Narendra Modi’s “Digital India” initiative, and the government has a well laid out plan to realise it, said Google’s Chief Internet Evangelist Mr Vinton G. Cerf. Digital India is Rs 1.13 trillion (US$ 16.75 billion) government initiative that seeks to transform the country into a connected economy, attract investment in electronics manufacturing, and create millions of jobs and support trade.
  • As companies look for better productivity and increasing efficiencies in a tough market environment, market research firm Nielsen has launched its first consumer neuroscience lab in India at its Mumbai headquarters. The neuroscience lab will augment the company’s research capabilities in packaging and research, improving their effectiveness.
  • MPS North America LLC, the US subsidiary of Bengaluru-based publishing solutions provider MPS Ltd, has acquired Electronic Publishing Services Inc. (EPS), a New York-based firm with interests in content creation, art rendering, design and production. The deal will allow MPS to strengthen its foothold in North America.
  • Jaipur-based Girnar Software Private Limited, which owns and operates the website CarDekho.com, announced that it has raised US$ 50 million in its second round of funding. The funding was led by Hillhouse Capital with participation from Tybourne Capital and Sequoia Capital.
  • ZipDial has become the first Indian technology product startup to be bought by Twitter in what is the third such deal led by a global corporation following the acquisitions by Facebook and Yahoo. The ZipDial deal is expected to cost Twitter US$ 34-35 million. This feature is expected to help Twitter reach people who will come online for the first time in countries such as Brazil, India and Indonesia, mostly using a mobile device.
  • Telecom major Axiata’s subsidiary, Axiata Digital Advertising (ADA) has formed a joint venture with US-based advertising tech firm Adknowledge to get into the US$ 47 billion digital ad market in the Asia Pacific region and has identified India as a ‘key’ market.

Discuss the various ethical issues in advertising.

Ethics provides a way of conduct to the advertising agency and Ad Makers. Even after Ad Agencies agreeing upon the codes set by AAAI there are still issues that go against the ethics of the society.

That branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the righteous, wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions. Some of the common examples of ethical issues in advertising are given below:

Vulgarity / Obscenity

The most common issue is, use of obscene or vulgar imagery to grab the attention of the consumers. These kinds of messages may be effective in grabbing attention of the consumers but degrades the taste of advertising and the society also gets impacted with such messages at large

Example : AXE ads that use vulgarity to promote its deodorants

Misleading information

Although spreading and providing information is one of the basic features of advertising, there are many instances where advertisements have found to give out either wrong or deceptive information to consumers

Example: Kellogg (India): The Kellogg’s Special K advertisement for the two week challenge does not state the specifics of the diet plan and thus has omitted important facts. Also the disclaimers did not follow the rules of being shown on the screen for the necessary 12 seconds, being legible and being in the same language as the advertisement.

Puffery

Advertisements or sales presentation relying on exaggerations, opinions, and superlatives, with little or no credible evidence to support its vague claims. Puffery may be tolerated to an extent so long as it does not amount to misrepresentation

Example : Fair and lovely ads that claim to give fairer skin in just 7 days, which is a clear case of exaggeration

Stereotypes

Creating a specific image or idea and attaching it to a person or thing is called stereotyping. This is widely used in advertising in terms of gender, ethnic minority an economic class. This generally happens because these images are easily accepted and are tested widely over long period of time.

Example : Insurance companies sell policies for son’s education and daughter’s weddings, and jewellers pitch their products primarily for the brides-to be. In advertisements, women are always the showpiece moms, daughters, wives and sisters, a mere reflection of how society views her.

Controversial Products

The law of India doesn’t allow the marketing and advertising of harmful or controversial products like alcohol, cigarettes and Tobacco. The sale is still allowed so it is obvious that the manufacturers use some tactics to promote these products. Such advertising goes against the ethics of advertising fraternity


Explain briefly the characteristics of advertising.

Advertising is a paid form of mass communication that consists of the special message sent by the specific person (advertiser or company), for the specific group of people (listeners, readers, or viewers), for the specific period of time, in the specific manner to achieve the specific goals.

Characteristics of Advertising

1. Tool for Market Promotion:

There are various tools used for market communication, such as advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and publicity. Advertising is a powerful, expensive, and popular element of promotion mix.

2. Non-personal:

Advertising is a type of non-personal or mass communication with the target audience. A large number of people are addressed at time. It is called as non-personal salesmanship.

Even if the target audience is specific and can be selected, advertising still remains the medium of mass communication. It reaches a large audiences at once and is created in such a way so as to create mass impact. Advertising is non-personal in character as against salesmanship, which is a personal or face to face communication.

3. Paid Form:

Advertising is not free of costs. Advertiser, called as sponsor, has to spend money for preparing message, buying media, and monitoring advertising efforts. It is the costliest option of market promotion. Company has to prepare its advertising budget to appropriate advertising costs.

In the world of advertising there are no free lunches. Everything that you see or hear being published is paid for by the brands. This cost of advertising is of course targeted and result oriented.

4. Wide Applicability:

Advertising is a popular and widely used means for communicating with the target market. It is not used only for business and profession, but is widely used by museums, charitable trusts, government agencies, educational institutions, and others to inform and attract various target publics.

5. Varied Objectives:

Advertising is aimed at achieving various objectives. It is targeted to increase sales, create and improve brand image, face competition, build relations with publics, or to educate people.

6. Forms of Advertising:

Advertising message can be expressed in written, oral, audible, or visual forms. Mostly, message is expressed in a joint form, such as oral-visual, audio-visual, etc.

7. Use of Media:

Advertiser can use any of the several advertising media to convey the message. Widely used media are print media (newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, booklets, letters, etc.), outdoor media (hoardings, sign boards, wall-printing, vehicle, banners, etc.), audio-visual media (radio, television, film, Internet, etc.), or any other to address the target audience.

8. Advertising as an Art:

Today’s advertising task is much complicated. Message creation and presentation require a good deal of knowledge, creativity, skills, and experience. So, advertising can be said as an art. It is an artful activity.

9. Element of Truth:

It is difficult to say that advertising message always reveals the truth. In many cases, exaggerated facts are advertised. However, due to certain legal provisions, the element of truth can be fairly assured. But, there is no guarantee that the claim made in advertisement is completely true. Most advertisements are erotic, materialistic, misleading, and producer-centered.

10. One-way Communication:

Advertising involves the one-way communication. Message moves from company to customers, from sponsor to audience. Message from consumers to marketer is not possible. Marketer cannot know how far the advertisement has influenced the audience.

11. Providing Information

Apart from convincing the target group, the primary function of advertising is giving all information related to the product or service. The information provided should not only be about the positives but also should warn consumers about any disadvantages of the product. The information supplied should educate and guide consumers and facilitate them to make a correct choice while buying a product.


Enumerate the Criticism of Advertising.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience to purchase products, ideals or services. While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs. Unsolicited commercial email and other forms of spam have become so prevalent that they are a major nuisance to internet users, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers.

Advertising increasingly invades public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. Advertising frequently uses psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful.

Despite many benefits drawn from advertising, it suffers from a severe criticism advanced by different segments of society. It is not an unmixed blessing. It has been criticised on the following grounds.

Increased Price of The Product:

Advertising increases the cost of the product as the expenses on it form the part of the total cost of the product. The increased prices are borne by the consumers. But it cannot be denied that advertising leads to large scale production which considerably reduces the total and per unit cost of production. The consumer may pay less rather than higher.

Multiplication of Needs:

Advertising creates artificial demand for the product and induces people to buy those products which are not needed by them. On account of its repetition, it allures and creates a desire in the minds of the people to possess an article not required by them.

Deceptive:

Sometimes advertising is used as an instrument of cheating. In order to impress upon the people false statements are given with regard to different virtues of a product. Fraudulent means and deceptive practice are resorted to by various traders in order to sell their products. All these things adversely affect the public confidence in the advertising.

It Leads to Monopoly:

Advertising sometimes leads to monopoly in a particular brand of a product. By investing large sums in advertising of his brand, a big producer eliminates small producers of the same product from the market and creates brand monopoly. This leads to exploitation of consumers.

But in reality this argument does not hold good. The monopoly powers are temporarily acquired by the manufacturers as they face strong competition by the rival producers of the same product. In the words of Marry Hepner “advertising stimulates competition. It often enables the small businessmen to compete with large concerns as well as to start new business”.

Harmful For the Society:

Sometimes advertisements are unethical and objectionable. Most often, these carry indecent language and virtually nude photographs in order to attract the customers. This adversely affects the social values.

Wastage of Precious National Resources:

A serious drawback levied against the advertisement is that it destroys the utility of certain products before their normal life. The latest and improved model of a product leads to the elimination of old ones. For instance, in the U.S.A., people like to possess the latest models of cars and discarding the old ones which are still in useable conditions. This leads to wastage of national resources.


Explain types of Advertising Research.

Research can be conducted to optimise advertisements for any medium: radio, television, print (magazine, newspaper or direct mail), outdoor billboard (highway, bus, or train), or Internet. Different methods would be applied to gather the necessary data appropriately.

There are primarily two broad types of advertising research viz. Pre-testing and Post-testing. Pre­testing is testing the advertisement before running it so that the likelihood of preparing most effective ads, by allowing an opportunity to detect and eliminate weaknesses or flaws increases. Post-testing is done after the advertisement is run on the media. This is more expensive and elaborate but most realistic as well because the advertisements are tested in real life setting.

In another way of advertising research can be classified into two types of research, customised and syndicated. Customised research is conducted for a specific client to address that client’s needs. Only that client has access to the results of the research. Syndicated research is a single research study conducted by a research company with its results available, for sale, to multiple companies.

Pre-testing

Pre-testing, also known as copy testing is a form of customised research that predicts in-market performance of an ad, before it airs, by analysing audience levels of attention, brand linkage, motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ad’s Flow of Attention and Flow of Emotion. (Young) Pre-testing is also used on ads still in rough form – e.g., animatics or ripomatics.

Pre­testing is also used to identify weak spots within an ad to improve performance, to more effectively edit 60’s to 30’s or 30’s to 15’s, to select images from the spot to use in an integrated campaign print ad, to pull out the key moments for use in ad tracking, and to identify branding moments.

Pre-testing is undertaken to:

  • Establish whether the advert ‘says’ what it was intended to
  • Assess the likelihood of getting a response from the reader

Post-Testing:

Post-testing or Ad tracking, as otherwise known, can be customised or syndicated. Tracking studies provide either periodic or continuous in-market research monitoring a brand’s performance, including brand awareness, brand preference, product usage and attitudes. Advertising tracking can be done by telephone interviews or online interviews—with the two approaches producing fundamentally different measures of consumer memories of advertising, recall versus recognition.

The purpose of ad tracking is generally to provide a measure of the combined effect of the media weight or spending level, the effectiveness of the media buy or targeting, and the quality of the advertising executions or creative. Some newer forms of online tracking, separate the issues of the quality of the creative component from the quality of the media buy and instead focus on the relative performance of ads versus the competitive ads that are airing at the same time. All forms of tracking data are used to provide inputs to Marketing Mix Models which marketing science statisticians build to estimate advertising return on investment (ROI).

Some ad tracking studies are conducted by telephone while others are conducted on the Internet. The two approaches produce very different measures of advertising awareness because the interviews tap into consumer memories of advertising using fundamentally different measures, recall versus recognition.

For example, with an Internet study, the respondent can be shown a few memorable, de-branded still images from the TV ad or a de-branded version of a print or Internet ad and then answer three significant questions:

  • Do you recognise this ad? (Recognition measure)
  • Please type in the sponsor of this ad. (Unaided awareness measure)
  • Please choose from the following list, the sponsor of this ad. (Aided awareness measure)

A telephone survey does not allow for visuals. Verbal descriptions are very difficult to provide for a campaign that has several ads featuring the same character(s) in the same situation with only slight changes. Telephone is not considered a flexible enough methodology to be used in all situations.


Explain the Pretesting Methods.

Pre-testing, also known as copy testing is a form of customised research that predicts in-market performance of an ad, before it airs, by analysing audience levels of attention, brand linkage, motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ad’s Flow of Attention and Flow of Emotion. (Young) Pre-testing is also used on ads still in rough form – e.g., animatics or ripomatics.

Pre­testing is also used to identify weak spots within an ad to improve performance, to more effectively edit 60’s to 30’s or 30’s to 15’s, to select images from the spot to use in an integrated campaign print ad, to pull out the key moments for use in ad tracking, and to identify branding moments.

Pre-testing is undertaken to:

  • Establish whether the advert ‘says’ what it was intended to
  • Assess the likelihood of getting a response from the reader

Pre-tests for Print Media Advertisements:

Consumer Jury Test:

Few consumers form a group and act as jury to show their preferences for one or two ads out of several being considered. The jury members rank the ads and respond to the questions like which was the most impressive ad or which ad provoked you most to go ahead and buy the product or which ad did you notice first and so on. This test is conducted by two methods namely Order of Merit Rating and Paired Comparison test.

  • In the Order of Merit Rating Test, the jury the jurors rank the advertisements as per their preference. The consensus emerges about the best ad copy at the end. But the best may be the best amongst the worst ones.
  • In the Paired Comparison Test, at a time two ad copies are compared one-to-one. Every single ad is compared with all others. Sources are recorded on cards. They are summed up. The winner gets the highest score. This technique is easier than order of merit. Till ten copies, there is good accuracy; which later decreases. The number of comparisons one is required to make with the help of the following formula:

n.(n-l) / 2
Where n= the number of ads to be rested.

Portfolio Test:

Along with the regular advertisements some dummy copies are kept in a folio. Then the consumer-sample sees the folio. The consumer is then asked about what he has seen in each ads. The ad giving minimum playback is considered the best. But then it is necessary to observe whether the chosen advertisement is dummy or regular. If found dummy the actual one is improved on the same lines.

Mock Magazine Test:

Unlike the above method of keeping the advertisements in a folio, test ads are introduced in a real magazine to an experimental group to read. The control group is also exposed to the same magazine, but is without test ads. Later a recall test is conducted to assess the effectiveness о I test ads.

Direct Questioning

A consumer jury is formed and either the whole ad or its different elements are tested by asking direct questions. Sometimes there is one single question only and sometimes an elaborate questionnaire is prepared to assess attention strength, read-through strength, affective strength and behaviour strength of the ad. For each component the copy is allotted some points. Each ad is rated from the best to the worst.

Perceptual Meaning Studies (PMS)

In this method the respondent is exposed to test the ads for a limited time period. Tachistoscope is an instrument that may be used in this test. After the respondent sees the advertisement, he is subjected to a recall test for the product, brand illustration and the main copy.

Pre-tests for Broadcast Media Advertisements:

All the above methods can be applied to broadcast media also. In addition, some special methods are available to pre-test broadcast media ads – TV and radio ads. The techniques used are:

In Home Projection Tests

A movie projector screen is installed at consumer’s home to show him the test commercials. He is questioned before and after the exposure to the advertisements. The questions are related to the ad and the change it causes after exposure. The strong and weak points of the ads can be assessed.

Trailer Tests:

Two groups of customers are considered. Both are given discount coupons to purchase the brand under consideration and are invited to shop in a real life shopping environment, a departmental store, a shopping centre etc. The prospects are invited to the display their products. Now one group is shown the test ads whereas the other group is not. The redemption rate of coupons is measured for both groups which may give an idea about the effectiveness of test ads.

Theatre Test:

A group of people who could be a captive audience for an entertainment programme is considered and a questionnaire is sent to them. The free tickets are later sent to them for the programme where the test ads are run. On viewing these, they are asked to fill up another questionnaire. It assesses product, brand and its theme.

Live Telecast Test:

The advertisements are put on air either by narrowcasting or live telecasting. These ads are test ads, and not the regular ads. Later, viewers are interviewed to know their reactions.

Some Other Pre-Testing Techniques:

Sales Experiment:

Before a product advertisement is launched nationally, a small ad campaign of one or more advertisements is run. Two or more test centres are selected to do so. The ads are run for a fixed period say one to four months and then the sales responses are noted. It is a very useful and effective measure for FMCG items and those ads who aim to motivate buyers to take an immediate sales action.

Direct Mail Tests:

A group of prospects are selected from the mailing list randomly and are sent different test ads. Then to measure the response, the orders against each lot are noted.

Physiological Testing:

In this test, rather than what respondents say, what is considered more important is the physiological reaction of the respondents. Three principal instruments to do so are:

Eye Movement Camera:

It measures how the eye moves over the layout of test ads. The route taken by the eye and also the pauses are noted so that the areas of interest and attention can be judged.

Galvanometer:

It measures skin responses to ad stimuli like perspiration by gland activity through palm. More perspiration decreases the resistance and faster current passes. The tension is generated. The greater it is, the more effective the ad is. The technique is of limited use for ads of a very sensitive nature.

Perceptoscope or Pupillometric Devices:

They record changes in pupils dilatation. Dilatation indicates reading and attention. Contraction shows dislike of the respondent to what is being read. It evaluates interesting appealing visual stimuli. It is developed by Eckhard Hess and James Polk. Left eye is photographed to record dilatation.


Briefly explain the various functions of an ad agency.

The Biggest Answer has been Repeated. So the thing is that they bullet points under them are the Functions is what I am assuming. But you know how it goes, tell briefly about the department and then head to the function.

Advertising agency is an independent organization in which the technical and artistic people make ad for people and services of different companies and also choose the mass media.  A modern advertising agency offer specialized knowledge, skills & experience which are required to produce an effective advertising campaign. It has writers, artists, media experts, researchers, TV producer, account executives etc.

These specialist work together to understand fully the advertiser requirement of advertising campaign and develop suitable advertising plan and strategies by creating advertisement and implement advertising plans and strategies.

Each Advertising agency is unique in different departmental service. They are specialist in providing different marketing promotions some of the most common are:

  • Public Relations
  • Direct Marketing
  • Recruitment Advertising
  • Industrial or Business to Business

Advertising campaign

“An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication. Advertising campaign appear different media across a specific time frame”

Functions of advertising Agency

An advertising agency has 4 key functions to perform:

  • Plan the strategy for advertising.
  • Creating production the ads
  • Planning and buying the media in which to run them
  • Managing this process together with the client

Structure of advertising agency

Usually advertising agency consists of the following different departments. Who are works together to perform an effective and best output.

  • Account department
  • Marketing services
  • Production Department
  • Finance Department
  • Creative department
  • Media planning
  • Traffic Department
  • Client services

This is a diagram which I could not find, so I made it on my own.

The placement of Creative was shifted for Creative Reasons

These departments are varying from company to company and organization to organization on it working load and size of company.

Account Management department

They are responsible for coordinating with the creative department, media production staff that are all behind the campaign.  Throughout the campaign they keep in touch with the client to updated him on ads progress and gain feedback. Upon completion of the creative work it is their job to ensure the ads production and placement.

  • Account planners are the liaison between agency and client and they research the needs and preferences of the target market for a product or service.
  • In smaller agencies, account planning may be part of the stability of an account executive. Larger agencies may appoint a specialist as a member of the account management team. This department combines research with strategic thinking
  • They use their findings to develop an advertising strategy a prepare a brief for the creative team and also craft creative strategies with the team that’s working on an advertising campaign
  • They monitor the market trends and get the consumer’s insight into strategy planning, creative planning, evaluating, focus groups and helps keep advertising campaigns on target and on brand

Client Services Department

The Client Services department members are accountable for maintaining a strong and productive relationship between the agency and its clients  Usually this separated department is seen in very large ad agencies. Client services department helps their clients for the promotion of their business but other than making ads. They can prepare PR (Public Relations) campaign for their clients, can arrange exhibition for then and even can do some research on their demand. They also help their client on designing the wrappers or other packaging material.

The client servicing executive is responsible for all communications that happens between the client and the agency. Client services managers are problem solvers who analyze markets and help advertisers to develop business goals for their goods and services. Client for the promotion of their services department helps their clients business but other than making ads. They can prepare PR (Public Relations) campaigns for their clients and can arrange exhibitions for them on their demand.

  • Responsible for generating new business, maintain existing clients and billing from the client.
  • The client servicing executive is responsible for handling queries from the clients. He/she should take down brief notes from the client and correct the desired changes as per the client’s needs by communicating to the creative team and also coordinate with all the departments in the agency and clients, besides staying calm under pressure
  • Have an in depth knowledge about the clients’ products, brand, culture, market position and their overall needs/ services.
  • The client servicing executive should ensure that the client stas with the advertising agency for a long period of time. The executive should have exemplary communication skills, along with presentation and managerial skills.

Media Planning Department

This department works on planning and buying the media. If ad would not be placed on the most appropriate medium or combination of medium then all efforts and cost on it would be wastage. The planning group handles more strategic marketing and media issues. The buying group handles media negotiations and implementation. Media Planning department, on behalf of their clients looks for the best and most appropriate medium or combination of mediums for an advertisement. They buy space from media and place their client advertising there.

Each medium, which they are hundreds are now, has its own unique method of accepting advertising such as different cost structures. Media planning department on behalf of their clients looks for the best media for advertising. They buy space form media and place their client advertising there.

This department mainly focuses on Reach and the Frequency of an advertisement which includes TV and Radio Time, outdoor (billboards, posters, gurrilla), magazine, and newspaper insertions

Media Planner

  • The media planner produces the media schedule. The media planner takes the statistical research done by the media researcher as the basis for deciding which medium will be the most appropriate to carry the advertising.
  • They also have a time table to show actual scheduling by month, week of commencement, as well as actual date and broad indication of time of the day
  • Has to analyze all the existing evidence to allow the media planner to decide where the advertisement and commercials should be placed, based on the opportunities to be seen (OTS) or heard (OTH) by the target audience.

Media Buyer

  • The final part of the process for the media department is actually to buy the space or air time
  • Media buyer is the person who has the responsibility to buy the space and air time with maximum discount for the agency

Creative department

This is a department of highly skilled people who work in a team to give best results. It comprises of technical experts, system architectures, graphics designers, art directors and artists, sop writing section , film production section, computers programming etc.

There work to create and produce ads and public services messages for both

This is a department consisting of highly skilled people to give the best results. It comprises of technical experts, graphic designers, art directors and artists. Their work is to create and produce ads and public service messages for both Electronic and Print Media as per demand of the client and as per the instructions given to them

The major department under this who perform are Art Directors and Copywriters. They generate creative ideas and the remaining team works in giving those ideas appropriate physical shapes.

The creative department actually writes the ad copy and develops artwork for their advertising agency’s clients. You may work as a copywriter in the creative department, for example, writing jingles for radio ads or written copy for sales letters and brochures. Copywriters must write convincing copy to prompt consumers to buy products. Additionally, as a graphic designer, you may create colorful images and designs for websites or corporate logos. Film and video professionals may also be an area of interest for you in the creative department of your advertising agency.

  • Art Director

Ads are expected to have the practical typographic layout and design skills, latest techniques and technology

Many young ads start as visualizer, rendering layout for Sr. Ad[?] and producing mockups of ads for the client to approve

  • Copywriters

The most important requirement is the ability to write, not to copy what others write, but to create original fresh ideas [like PewDiePie.]

Copywriters are usually teamed with art directors, they solve problems together, sharing the job of coming up with pictures and headlines, they have to emphasize on what kind of ideas are appropriate for the brand and also do research on what other brands in the same category are doing.

The CopyWriters /Art Directors Team is given a brief and then they work on it together for days or even weeks. Then ideas are presented and chose, they will then work together to craft, copy and create visuals for the ad campaign.

Production Department

Larger agencies have a production department responsible for managing advertising campaigns. They set schedules and manage campaign budgets, coordinating the work of the creative and media departments. The production team also interacts with external suppliers working on advertising campaigns, such as printers, photographers and video production companies. In smaller agencies, account executives or creative directors take responsibility for project management.

Ideas are just ideas until they are made real. This is the job of the production department. Once the ad is sold to the client, the creative and accounts teams will collaborate with production to get the campaign produced on budget. The production department is controlled by the production manager who will have at least one traffic controller.

  • The Responsibility of the production department is to make sure that everything that is needed to produce the final advertisement is prepared cost effectively to the highest quality and then delivered to the right place at the right time and in right format
  • The role of the production department is to coordinate with different vendors and get original photography or illustrations produced, working with printers, hiring typographers and TV Directors, and other disciplines needed to get an ad campaign published within the provided deadline with the quality standards set by the agency

Finance Department

Money at the end of the day is what Advertising Agencies want/aim for. Finance Department is responsible for handling all the matters related to finance. They take care of all the bills, for example electricity, phones, house rent, building fares, internet charges, transport allowance, etc.

They are responsible for handing all the matters related to finance. They take care of all the bills for example electricity, phones, house rent, building fares, internet charges, transport allowance etc. they are responsible for getting money form advertisers as well. Employees’ salaries and daily payments also come under this department.

Traffic Department

Traffic Department keeps the agency’s’ heart beating. The traffic department controls the flow of work in the agency by increasing its efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job start, inappropriate job initiations, incomplete information sharing, over and under cost estimation and answering the phone calls.

It is the job of traffic to get each and every job through the various stages of account management, creative development, media buying and production in a set timeframe.

Traffic will also ensure that the work flows through the agency smoothly, preventing jams that may overwhelm creative teams and lead to very long hours, missed deadlines and problematic client.

The traffic department regulates the flow of work in the agency. It increase agency efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job start, inappropriate job initiations, incomplete information sharing, over and under cost estimation and answering the phone calls.


Explain the functions of at least two departments of an ad agency.

    1. Make Ads
    2. Make Good Ads
    3. BONUS Steal Foreign Ads in the most subtle way Possible
    4. BONUS Make sure you release Avengers/DC Movie associated Ads, at least a month after the movie is out of theatre.
    5. Please read the above Answer.

Explain the Role and functions of Advertising.

The world has become a global market. Modern market is more dynamic, competitive, and consumer-oriented. Entire marketing process is aimed at satisfying consumers more effectively than competitors. Consumer satisfaction can be achieved by receiving information from market and sending information to the market.

In order to inform, attract, and convince the valued customers, a marketer undertakes a number of promotional means. Advertising is one of the powerful means to inform about company’s total offers. Advertising is a dominant element of market promotion. Many times, the entire promotional efforts are replaced by advertising alone.

Advertising is a paid form of mass communication that consists of the special message sent by the specific person (advertiser or company), for the specific group of people (listeners, readers, or viewers), for the specific period of time, in the specific manner to achieve the specific goals.

Functions of Advertising:

Advertising has become an essential marketing activity in the modern era of large-scale production and severe competition in the market.

It performs the following functions:

Promotion of Sales:

Advertising promotes the sale of goods and services by informing and persuading the people to buy them. A good advertising campaign helps in winning customers and generating revenues.

Introduction of New Products:

Advertising helps in the introduction of new products in the market. A business enterprise can introduce itself and its products to the public through advertising. Advertising enables quick publicity in the market.

Support to Production System:

Advertising facilitates large-scale production. The business firm knows that it will be able to sell on a large-scale with the help of advertising. Mass production will reduce the cost of production per unit by making possible the economical use of various factors of production.

Increasing Standard of Living:

Advertising educates the people about the products and their uses. It is advertising which has helped people in adopting new ways of life and giving up old habits. It has contributed a lot towards the betterment of the standard of living of the society.

Public Image

Advertising builds up the reputation of the advertiser. Advertising enables a business firm to communicate its achievements and its efforts to satisfy the customers’ needs to the public. This increases the goodwill and reputation of the firm.

Support to Media:

Advertising sustains press. Advertising provides an important source of revenue to the publishers of newspapers and magazines and the producers of T.V. programmes.

Significance of Advertising:

Advertising helps in spreading information about the advertising firm, its products, qualities and place of availability of its products and so on. It helps to create a non-personal link between the advertiser and the receivers of the message.

The significance of advertising has increased in the modern era of large scale production and tough competition in the market. Advertising is needed not only to the manufacturers and traders but also to the customers and the society. The benefits of advertising to different parties are discussed in the following paragraphs.

Benefits the Manufacturers and Traders:

  • It pays to advertise. Advertising has become indispensable for the manufacturers and distributors because of the following advantages:
  • Advertising helps in introducing new products. A business enterprise can introduce itself and its products to the public through advertising.
  • Advertising develops new taste among the public and stimulates them to purchase the new product through effective communication.
  • Advertising assists to increase the sale of existing products by entering into new markets and attracting new customers.
  • Advertising helps in creating steady demand of the products. For instance, a drink may be advertised during summer as a product necessary to fight tiredness caused by heat and during winter as an essential thing to resist cold.
  • Advertising helps in meeting the forces of competition in the market. If a product is not advertised continuously, the competitors may snatch its market through increased advertisements. Therefore, in certain cases, advertising is necessary to remain in the market.
  • Advertising is used to increase the goodwill of the firm by promising improved quality to the customers.
  • Advertising increases the morale of the employees of the firm. The salesmen feel happier because their task becomes easier if the product is advertised and known to the public.
  • Advertising facilitates mass production of goods which enables the manufacturer to achieve lower cost per unit of product. Distribution costs are also lowered when the manufacturer sells the product directly to the customers. Advertising also facilitates distribution of the product through the retailers who are encouraged to deal in the advertised products.

Benefits the Customers:

Advertising offers the following advantages to customers:

  • Advertising helps the customers to know about the existence of various products and their prices. They can choose from the various products to satisfy their wants. Thus, they cannot be exploited by the sellers.
  • Advertising educates the people about new products and their diverse uses.
  • Advertising increases the utility of existing products for many people adding to the amount of satisfaction which they are already enjoying.
  • Advertising induces the manufacturers to improve the quality of their products through research and development. This ensures supply of better quality products to the customers.

Benefits the Society:

The whole society is benefited because of advertisement in the following ways:

  • Advertising provides employment to persons engaged in writing, designing and issuing advertisements, and also those who act as models. Increased employment brings additional income with the people which stimulate more demand. Employment is further generated to meet the increased demand.
  • Advertising promotes the standard of living of the people by increasing the variety and quality in consumption as a result of sustained research and development activities by the manufacturers.
  • Advertising educates the people about the various uses of different products and this increases their knowledge. Advertising also helps in finding customers in the international market which is essential for earning foreign exchange.
  • Advertising sustains the press, and other media. It provides an important source of income to the press, radio and television network. The customers are also benefited because they get newspapers and magazines at cheaper rates. The publishers of newspapers and magazines are benefited because of increased circulation of their publications. Lastly, advertising also encourages commercial art.

Describe the various ethical issues in advertising.

Ethics provides a way of conduct to the advertising agency and Ad Makers. Even after Ad Agencies agreeing upon the codes set by AAAI there are still issues that go against the ethics of the society.

That branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the righteous, wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions. Some of the common examples of ethical issues in advertising are given below:

Vulgarity / Obscenity

The most common issue is, use of obscene or vulgar imagery to grab the attention of the consumers. These kinds of messages may be effective in grabbing attention of the consumers but degrades the taste of advertising and the society also gets impacted with such messages at large

Example : AXE ads that use vulgarity to promote its deodorants

Misleading information

Although spreading and providing information is one of the basic features of advertising, there are many instances where advertisements have found to give out either wrong or deceptive information to consumers

Example: Kellogg (India): The Kellogg’s Special K advertisement for the two week challenge does not state the specifics of the diet plan and thus has omitted important facts. Also the disclaimers did not follow the rules of being shown on the screen for the necessary 12 seconds, being legible and being in the same language as the advertisement.

Puffery

Advertisements or sales presentation relying on exaggerations, opinions, and superlatives, with little or no credible evidence to support its vague claims. Puffery may be tolerated to an extent so long as it does not amount to misrepresentation

Example : Fair and lovely ads that claim to give fairer skin in just 7 days, which is a clear case of exaggeration

Stereotypes

Creating a specific image or idea and attaching it to a person or thing is called stereotyping. This is widely used in advertising in terms of gender, ethnic minority an economic class. This generally happens because these images are easily accepted and are tested widely over long period of time.

Example : Insurance companies sell policies for son’s education and daughter’s weddings, and jewellers pitch their products primarily for the brides-to be. In advertisements, women are always the showpiece moms, daughters, wives and sisters, a mere reflection of how society views her.

Controversial Products

The law of India doesn’t allow the marketing and advertising of harmful or controversial products like alcohol, cigarettes and Tobacco. The sale is still allowed so it is obvious that the manufacturers use some tactics to promote these products. Such advertising goes against the ethics of advertising fraternity


What is an Advertising Agency? How does an Advertising agency operate

Advertising agency is an independent organization in which the technical and artistic people make ad for people and services of different companies and also choose the mass media.  A modern advertising agency offer specialized knowledge, skills & experience which are required to produce an effective advertising campaign. It has writers, artists, media experts, researchers, TV producer, account executives etc.

These specialist work together to understand fully the advertiser requirement of advertising campaign and develop suitable advertising plan and strategies by creating advertisement and implement advertising plans and strategies.

Each Advertising agency is unique in different departmental service. They are specialist in providing different marketing promotions some of the most common are:

  • Public Relations
  • Direct Marketing
  • Recruitment Advertising
  • Industrial or Business to Business

Advertising campaign

“An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication. Advertising campaign appear different media across a specific time frame”

Functions of advertising Agency

An advertising agency has 4 key functions to perform:

  • Plan the strategy for advertising.
  • Creating production the ads
  • Planning and buying the media in which to run them
  • Managing this process together with the client

Structure of advertising agency

Usually advertising agency consists of the following different departments. Who are works together to perform an effective and best out put.

  • Account department
  • Marketing services
  • Production Department
  • Finance Department
  • Creative department
  • Media planning
  • Traffic Department
  • Client services

This is a diagram which I could not find, so I made it on my own.

The placement of Creative was shifted for Creative Reasons

These departments are varying from company to company and organization to organization on it working load and size of company.

Account Management department

In an advertising agency, account department deals directly with the client and help the client to cover more market in less money. Officers in account department mean that they have to make never-ending negotiations between the ad agency and its clients. They make efforts to contract renewal and strengthen the firms’ client support.  Account department doesn’t mean dealing with account only. In an advertising agency, it’s meant to deal with client and managing with them.

They are responsible for coordinating with the creative department, media production staff that are all behind the campaign.  Throughout the campaign, they keep in touch with the client to updated him on ads progress and gain feedback. Upon completion of the creative work, it is their job to ensure the ads production and placement.

  • Account planners are the liaison between agency and client and they research the needs and preferences of the target market for a product or service.
  • In smaller agencies, account planning may be part of the stability of an account executive. Larger agencies may appoint a specialist as a member of the account management team. This department combines research with strategic thinking
  • They use their findings to develop an advertising strategy a prepare a brief for the creative team and also craft creative strategies with the team that’s working on an advertising campaign
  • They monitor the market trends and get the consumer’s insight into strategy planning, creative planning, evaluating, focus groups and helps keep advertising campaigns on target and on brand

Client Services Department

The Client Services department members are accountable for maintaining a strong and productive relationship between the agency and its clients  Usually this separated department is seen in very large ad agencies. Client services department helps their clients for the promotion of their business but other than making ads. They can prepare PR (Public Relations) campaign for their clients, can arrange exhibition for them and even can do some research on their demand. They also help their client on designing the wrappers or other packaging material.

The client servicing executive is responsible for all communications that happens between the client and the agency. Client services managers are problem solvers who analyze markets and help advertisers to develop business goals for their goods and services. Client for the promotion of their services department helps their clients business but other than making ads. They can prepare PR (Public Relations) campaigns for their clients and can arrange exhibitions for them on their demand.

  • Responsible for generating new business, maintain existing clients and billing from the client.
  • The client servicing executive is responsible for handling queries from the clients. He/she should take down brief notes from the client and correct the desired changes as per the client’s needs by communicating to the creative team and also coordinate with all the departments in the agency and clients, besides staying calm under pressure
  • Have an in depth knowledge about the clients’ products, brand, culture, market position and their overall needs/ services.
  • The client servicing executive should ensure that the client stas with the advertising agency for a long period of time. The executive should have exemplary communication skills, along with presentation and managerial skills.

Media Planning Department

This department works on planning and buying the media. If ad would not be placed on the most appropriate medium or combination of medium then all efforts and cost on it would be wastage. The planning group handles more strategic marketing and media issues. The buying group handles media negotiations and implementation. Media Planning department, on behalf of their clients looks for the best and most appropriate medium or combination of mediums for an advertisement. They buy space from media and place their client advertising there.

Each medium, which they are hundreds are now, has its own unique method of accepting advertising such as different cost structures. Media planning department on behalf of their clients looks for the best media for advertising. They buy space form media and place their client advertising there.

This department mainly focuses on Reach and the Frequency of an advertisement which includes TV and Radio Time, outdoor (billboards, posters, guerrilla), magazine, and newspaper insertions

Media Planner

  • The media planner produces the media schedule. The media planner takes the statistical research done by the media researcher as the basis for deciding which medium will be the most appropriate to carry the advertising.
  • They also have a time table to show actual scheduling by month, week of commencement, as well as actual date and broad indication of time of the day
  • Has to analyze all the existing evidence to allow the media planner to decide where the advertisement and commercials should be placed, based on the Opportunities To be Seen (OTS) or Heard (OTH) by the target audience.

Media Buyer

  • The final part of the process for the media department is actually to buy the space or air time
  • Media buyer is the person who has the responsibility to buy the space and air time with maximum discount for the agency

Creative department

This is a department of highly skilled people who work in a team to give best results. It comprises of technical experts, system architectures, graphics designers, art directors and artists, Statement Of Purpose writing section , film production section, computers programming etc.

There work to create and produce ads and public services messages for both

This is a department consisting of highly skilled people to give the best results. It comprises of technical experts, graphic designers, art directors and artists. Their work is to create and produce ads and public service messages for both Electronic and Print Media as per demand of the client and as per the instructions given to them

The major department under this who perform are Art Directors and Copywriters. They generate creative ideas and the remaining team works in giving those ideas appropriate physical shapes.

The creative department actually writes the ad copy and develops artwork for their advertising agency’s clients. You may work as a copywriter in the creative department, for example, writing jingles for radio ads or written copy for sales letters and brochures. Copywriters must write convincing copy to prompt consumers to buy products. Additionally, as a graphic designer, you may create colorful images and designs for websites or corporate logos. Film and video professionals may also be an area of interest for you in the creative department of your advertising agency.

  • Art Director

Ads are expected to have the practical typographic layout and design skills, latest techniques and technology

Many young ads start as visualizer, rendering layout for Sr. Ad[?] and producing mockups of ads for the client to approve

  • Copywriters

The most important requirement is the ability to write, not to copy what others write, but to create original fresh ideas [like PewDiePie.]

Copywriters are usually teamed with art directors, they solve problems together, sharing the job of coming up with pictures and headlines, they have to emphasize on what kind of ideas are appropriate for the brand and also do research on what other brands in the same category are doing.

The CopyWriters /Art Directors Team is given a brief and then they work on it together for days or even weeks. Then ideas are presented and chose, they will then work together to craft, copy and create visuals for the ad campaign.

Production Department

Larger agencies have a production department responsible for managing advertising campaigns. They set schedules and manage campaign budgets, coordinating the work of the creative and media departments. The production team also interacts with external suppliers working on advertising campaigns, such as printers, photographers and video production companies. In smaller agencies, account executives or creative directors take responsibility for project management.

Ideas are just ideas until they are made real. This is the job of the production department. Once the ad is sold to the client, the creative and accounts teams will collaborate with production to get the campaign produced on budget. The production department is controlled by the production manager who will have at least one traffic controller.

  • The Responsibility of the production department is to make sure that everything that is needed to produce the final advertisement is prepared cost effectively to the highest quality and then delivered to the right place at the right time and in right format
  • The role of the production department is to coordinate with different vendors and get original photography or illustrations produced, working with printers, hiring typographers and TV Directors, and other disciplines needed to get an ad campaign published within the provided deadline with the quality standards set by the agency

Finance Department

Money at the end of the day is what Advertising Agencies want/aim for. Finance Department is responsible for handling all the matters related to finance. They take care of all the bills, for example electricity, phones, house rent, building fares, internet charges, transport allowance, etc.

They are responsible for handing all the matters related to finance. They take care of all the bills for example electricity, phones, house rent, building fares, internet charges, transport allowance etc. they are responsible for getting money form advertisers as well. Employees’ salaries and daily payments also come under this department.

Traffic Department

Traffic Department keeps the agency’s’ heart beating. The traffic department controls the flow of work in the agency by increasing its efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job start, inappropriate job initiations, incomplete information sharing, over and under cost estimation and answering the phone calls.

It is the job of traffic to get each and every job through the various stages of account management, creative development, media buying and production in a set timeframe.

Traffic will also ensure that the work flows through the agency smoothly, preventing jams that may overwhelm creative teams and lead to very long hours, missed deadlines and problematic client.

The traffic department regulates the flow of work in the agency. It increase agency efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job start, inappropriate job initiations, incomplete information sharing, over and under cost estimation and answering the phone calls.


Brief History of Advertising

This is Pretty Huge. I am adding Indian Version as well. Just in case you wanna read that.

Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeiiisnt it a cute name? and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. History tells us that Out-of-home advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising.

As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing, developed advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe.

However, false advertising and so-called “quack” advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.

As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.

In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney Palmer established a predecessor to advertising agencies in Boston . Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize.

In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularized, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business’ name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows.

However, radio station owners soon realized they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio stations broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.

This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialize the radio and people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons – to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC, originally a private company, the British Broadcasting Company, but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 192. In Canada, advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model, creating the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity was allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to consumers’ eyes. The Volkswagen ad campaign—featuring such headlines as “Think Small” and “Lemon” (which were used to describe the appearance of the car)—ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a “position” or “unique selling proposition” designed to associate each brand with a specific idea in the reader or viewer’s mind. This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution and its archetype was William Bernbach who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others.

The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the “dot-com” boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites including the search engine Google, started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than inundate, users. This has led to an increasing trend of interactive advertising.

A recent advertising innovation is “guerrilla marketing”, which involves unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become a part of the advertising message. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which causes consumers to buy the product or idea. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and “embedded” ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages, and various innovations utilizing social network services such as MySpace.


Role of Advertising in Communications Mix

Not Quite Sure about this Answer. If you find an accurate answer please mail me.

Marketing is a broad business function that includes product research and development, merchandising and distribution processes and pricing, as well as communication or promotion. The communication mix refers to specific methods used to promote the company or its products to targeted customers. Some depictions of the promotional mix include five elements, while others add a sixth — event sponsorship.

Advertising is often the most prominent element of the communication mix. In fact, marketing and advertising are often misconstrued as the same thing. Advertising includes all messages a business pays to deliver through a medium to reach a targeted audience. Since it involves the majority of paid messages, companies often allocate significant amounts of the marketing budget to the advertising function. While it can be costly, the advertiser has ultimate control over the message delivered, since it pays the television or radio station, print publication or website for placement.

Advertising is adapted when communication cannot be maintained with your customers. Unlike Sales, Advertising is much cheaper way to reach target. However, money should not be spent immediately/in large amounts on Advertising. There should be a proper survey, research, analysis of strengths and weaknesses.

Advertisements help in increasing brand awareness, and gaining favourable attention towards the brand. Unlike any other method, where there is no surety of sales, with advertisements you can inform about your brand, repeatedly.

Advertisements not only have a strong message or pursuing power, but the audio or visuals used, have high possibility of gaining a stronger and more successful response.


Explain in detail Communication process.

So when this is asked to you on any other day you give that model. But when its asked in Advertising, we include Noise/Interference. This model is called Marketing Communication Model

The Communication is a two-way process wherein the message in the form of ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinions is transmitted between two or more persons with the intent of creating a shared understanding.

Communication strategy can make or break a brand by creating the positive or favourable image necessary in the minds of customers. They act as an important tool in understanding how communications work in real life. Marketing communication models are developed based on various studies that explain how communication works in marketing a product. There are theories within external marketing communications. Advertising is aiming to help customers progress through the cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages before they buy the products.

The communication process model is created to show that communication consist of several different elements in constant interaction with each other. There is said to be seven main elements in this process model, sender, message, receiver, feedback, channel, context or setting and noise or interference. These seven are equally important in the process of communication and without any one of them, the process will be incomplete.

Source

The initiator of the message in the process of communication.  In terms of advertising here the brands or companies are the initiator of the source of the message

Message

The ad that are created for brands to be sent to consumers at different media channels are considered to be the message. These messages could be combination of visuals sound, words, emotions, etc.

Medium

The channels through which the messages reach the target group are called the medium. In terms of advertising various media vehicles where ads are carried like TV, Radio, Internet, Newspapers, etc. are the mediums

Receiver

The audience that receives the messages are the receiver. These could be intended or unintended audience for the messages. The reception of the message largely depends upon the past experiences, attitudes, perception and learning of the audiences.

Feedback

The response that the source receives from audience regarding the communication is called as feedback. In terms of advertising to gain feedback is very difficult as its medium is mass communication and each person is different


Explain the effects of Advertising on the society and economy.

Advertising is both applauded and criticized not only for its role in selling products but also for its influence on the economy and on society. Advertising isn’t journalism, education, or entertainment, although it often performs the tasks of all three. Advertising has positive as well as negative, social and economic impacts on our society. Most important aspects are discussed below:

Economic Aspects of Advertising:

Effect on value:

Advertising gives added value to a brand by promoting its positive image. There might be other good unadvertised products available in the market but people choose those which have a positive image or are presented in a better way. People prefer to have Coca-Cola or Pepsi over other regional drinks because of the publicity over its taste. Similarly people prefer to have branded garments like Oxford, Bonanza, Gull Ahmed etc because of the good quality or style shown in their advertisements.

Effect on Prices:

There is a very wrong perception that every advertised product’s price is always higher than the unadvertised ones. It might be, but is not necessary every time. Advertising plays a very important role in maintaining competition and mass production which helps in keeping the prices down. Various call, sms packages and “Sim lagao offer” (Switch on your unused sim) presented in ads by companies like Mobilink, telenor, Warid, Zong can be seen on various TV channels. Its like they are asking us to buy their products almost for free. Those companies which focus more on their qualities in its advertisements which distinguishes them from others in the market justify their high prices.

Effect on competition:

Although intense competition makes it hard for new entrants to occupy the market but it is also true that advertising encourages more sellers to enter into the market resulting in increased competition. Take the example of Tarang & Olpers Milk Pack, despite huge market of “Haleeb” and “Nestle”, they have made their own place in the market. In fact, many unadvertised or little advertised products are seen competing highly advertised products in some areas particularly rural areas. Plethora of telecom ads shown on tv is also a classic example of increased competition between them.

Effect on consumer demand:

Depending on the market situation, advertising also plays an important role in making demand for a particular product especially in declining markets. When milk pack prices started getting higher in Pakistan, a demand for reduced price was felt. Engro foods introduced Tarang Milk Pack with lower price and good quality. With massive advertising campaign, demand for it rose every passing day and now it has almost occupied most of the market in rural and urban areas. In growing markets, the phenomenon is a little bit different. Advertisers compete for the share of growth in growing markets.

Effect on consumer choice:

Advertising gives people wider choice to select among the wide range of products available in the market. The freedom to advertise gives companies a chance to introduce new brands and improve the old ones. The wide range of cars, smart-phones, telecom service providing companies, internet service providers and many more advertised has given consumer a wide choice range.

Effect on business cycle:

Advertising provides revenue for commercial mediums which would otherwise need to be funded by the actual consumer of these mediums. It has created a lot of jobs and separate infrastructure. Take the example of newspapers or electronic media TV channels. We get news for free on news TV channels because of the advertisements on it. The price of the newspapers is less because of the money it makes from the advertisements placed in it. We watch entertainment channels and other business channels for free because they make ample amount of revenue from the advertisements.

In an economy where more goods or services are produced than can be consumed (abundance principle), advertisements serves two important purposes; first, it keeps consumer informed about the product alternatives and secondly it encourages competition in a healthy environment which serves self interest as well.

However, it should be kept in mind that no amount of advertising can achieve long-term acceptance for products that do not meet consumer approval.

Social Impact of Advertising:

There are some positive as well as negative aspects of advertising. They are as follows:

Deception in Advertising:

Unfortunately, the advertisements shown nowadays make exaggerated claims in favor of their product / service or brand. Consumer always expects that whatever is shown in ads would be true but when he uses the product, he comes to know that most of the claims were just an exaggeration and nothing else. This adds to the bad name of company and consumer loses interest and confidence in advertisers and advertisements as well. Words such as “the best”, “the only”, “premier” etc should be avoided.

Psychological targeting / Subliminal Advertising:

Some of the advertisements try to add hidden sexual appeal messages which have a bad impact on children especially if they are watching the ads as well. Prominent among such advertisements are the Body Spray, Deodorant ads or even motorbike or car ads. Nowadays the opposite gender thing is very in e.g. in most of the ads, it is shown that if you use this particular product like mobile, bike, garments etc girls will get impressed and would come after you. Such advertisements should be discouraged.

Lavish spending:

Another negative impact of advertising mostly argued is that it encourages us to buy things that we do not need or forces us to spend lavishly. It results in a life of pomp and show. Advertisers use celebrities and other emotional tactics to sell their brand which results in promotion of unnecessary desires.

Offensiveness in Advertising:

There are some ads which are considered offensive by people. Although there is no fix threshold as from where does offense start but still people object according to their thinking. For example, when deodorants for armpits were advertised in 1927 for the first time in a monthly journal, it was severely criticized but nowadays, a very little portion of public oppose it. But some ads cross the threshold by showing semi nude ladies or refer to some sexual content in indirect way. Example of Calvin Klein, Denim Jeans, Axe Body Spray & Deodorants can be quoted here which were severely criticized for various reasons related to nudity. Although there are many negative aspects of advertising but it has some good aspects as well.

Improved Standard of Living:

Advertising is a source of facilitation for the general public which keeps people aware of the latest fashion trends and latest technologies. This thus leads to higher living standard.

Increased choice for consumers:

As advertising keeps people aware of various products of same domain, this gives them a wide choice of choosing among these products. This also encourages competition among companies.

Public Service messages:

There are some advertisements in which the purpose is not to tell about a product or brand but to tell people and make people aware of some important social or health issues. Such messages may be related to creating awareness for Hepatitis, AIDS, Dengue fever, pregnancy issues, education, child labor, etc.


Describe the various Limitations of Advertising.

While on the one hand, advertising is regarded as the life-blood of modern business; on the other hand, some scholars are of the view that money spent on advertising is a waste. Those who hold this opinion are, as a matter of fact, the critics of advertising and they hint at its evils.

According to the critics, advertising has the following disadvantages:

(1) Adds to Costs:

An organisation has to spend large amount on advertising. It increases the cost of the products. To meet this expenditure, price of the product is raised. No manufacturer pays for the advertising expenses out of his pocket. Advertising, therefore, leads to unnecessary rise in prices. In this reference it is said that advertising costs are passed on to the consumers in the form of high prices.

(2) Undermines Social Values:

Advertisement is a sort of day-dreaming for the people. These days it is taking the people away from reality and into the realm of artificiality. Through its medium people get information about new products.

Only very few products are of any use for them. The brilliance of new products really gets on their nerves. They want to buy them but have no resources at their command. Consequently, they start feeling upset with their present status. Taking it as a social evil, it can be said that advertising undermines social values.

(3) Confuses the Buyers:

Many a time distorted version of reality is shown in the advertising. Believing in advertising, consumers buy the product. On its use, they feel cheated.

They come to realise later that the information given in the advertisement was something else whereas the actual product was quite different from it. Thus, people lose confidence in advertising because of wrong presentation. In this reference it is said that advertising confuses rather than helps.

(4) Encourages Sale of Inferior Products:

Every manufacturer projects his product as superior one in the advertisement. Therefore, the buyer is unable to decide as to which product is really good.

Consequently, it is difficult to get good quality product even after paying a handsome price for it. If a seller gets good price for some inferior product, it becomes a habit with him. It affects other sellers also. Therefore, it is said that advertising encourages the sale of inferior products.

(5) Some Advertisement is in Bad Taste:

Many times, foul language and objectionable pictures are used in advertising in order to attract a particular class. They may be insulting to a particular class. It causes decay of social values.

Such kinds of advertising are generally opposed by the people as it hurts their feelings. In this reference it is said that some advertisements are in bad tastes.


Explain the role of an Ad agency.


Explain various tools of IMC.

Integrated Marketing Communication tools refer to integrating various marketing tools such as advertising, online marketing, public relation activities, direct marketing, sales campaigns to promote brands so that similar message reaches a wider audience. Products and services are promoted by effectively integrating various brand communication tools.

To implement integrated marketing communication, it is essential for the organizations to communicate effectively with the clients. You need to know how your products or services would benefit your end-users. The more effectively you promote your brand, the more demand would it have in the market. Identify your target audience. Remember, not everyone would need your product. Understand why would an individual invest in your brand unless and until you have something unique and interesting to offer? The benefits of the brand need to be communicated effectively.

Let us go through various integrated marketing communication tools: Integrated marketing communication effectively integrates all modes of brand communication and uses them simultaneously to promote various products and services among customers effectively and eventually yield higher revenues for the organization.

Advertising

Advertising is one of the most effective ways of brand promotion. Advertising helps organizations reach a wider audience within the shortest possible time frame. Advertisements in newspaper, television, Radio, billboards help end-users to believe in your brand and also motivate them to buy the same and remain loyal towards the brand. Advertisements not only increase the consumption of a particular product/service but also create brand awareness among customers. Marketers need to ensure that the right message reaches the right customers at the right time. Be careful about the content of the advertisement, after all you are paying for every second.

Sales Promotion

Brands (Products and services) can also be promoted through discount coupons, loyalty clubs, membership coupons, incentives, lucrative schemes, attractive packages for loyal customers, specially designed deals and so on. Brands can also be promoted effectively through newspaper inserts, danglers, banners at the right place, glorifiers, wobblers etc.

Direct Marketing

Direct marketing enables organizations to communicate directly with the end-users. Various tools for direct marketing are emails, text messages, catalogues, brochures, promotional letters and so on. Through direct marketing, messages reach end-users directly.

Personal Selling

Personal selling is also one of the most effective tools for integrated marketing communication. Personal selling takes place when marketer or sales representative sells products or services to clients. Personal selling goes a long way in strengthening the relationship between the organization and the end-users.

Personal selling involves the following steps:

  • Prospecting – Prospecting helps you find the right and potential contact.
  • Making first contact – Marketers need to establish first contact with their prospective clients through emails, telephone calls etc.An appointment is essential and make sure you reach on time for the meeting.
  • The sales call – Never ever lie to your customers. Share what all unique your brand has to offer to customers. As a marketer, you yourself should be convinced with your products and services if you expect your customers to invest in your brand.
  • Objection handling – Be ready to answer any of the client’s queries.
  • Closing the sale – Do not leave unless and until you successfully close the deal. There is no harm in giving customers some time to think and decide accordingly. Do not be after their life.

Public Relation Activities

Public relation activities help promote a brand through press releases, news, events, public appearances etc.The role of public relations officer is to present the organization in the best light.


Explain the importance of Client Brief

Not so sure about this one. If you have a proper answer to this, please mail me.

Statement of the problem/opportunity. Emphasis on clarity and a succinct summation of the brand’s current position, its marketing strategy and where it wants to get to.  Should always be written by the client.

The client briefing process can often feel like an information overload with a variety of goals, background information, and audience insights, which makes it necessary for agencies to distill the information into a clear, actionable, and measurable plan. At a time when agency fees are often dictated by performance, it’s necessary to get clarity in such a complex process.

Establishing the business objective should be the first priority. At one end, you should ask the question “where are we now?” and at the other end, “where do we want to be?” This approach should clarify what the client is trying to achieve so the agency can develop a plan that gets the brand from start to finish. Keep in mind that this is just the beginning of your brief investigation. According to Merry Baskin, founder of Baskin Shark, more than half of client briefs change once work has begun, so it’s imperative that you gather as much information as possible from the beginning. To ensure you have everything you need, Pringle and Marshall outlined key questions you’ll want your brief to answer and Baskin highlighted details to interrogate before you embark on your journey. Here is a breakdown of their questions and best practices


Discuss the need and importance of research in advertising.

Advertising can profit a lot by emphasizing on the consumers and their wants. The advertiser can bring out a product of real merit. An honest and convincing selling appeal can be built around such a product. The function of selling and advertising will thus reduce itself to the problem of interpreting the utility of the product in terms of the consumers needs and wants. It will help to understand clearly consumers tastes and psychology. Selling then becomes persuasive and educative

It can be further understood with this example, an Advertiser of refrigerator can point out that his product will maintain adequate coolness, consume little electricity, and will increase the efficiency of the housewife. Great businesses are not built upon fads but upon performance

Consumer research is expected to shoulder the responsibility of the facts relating to consumer tastes and desires. Consumer research is the study of the mechanics of human action. It is helpful to both advertisers and consumers. It provides business with an effective tool to direct its production, selling and advertising with minimum cost and maximum returns the advertising men must be as much interested in increasing the sanity of consumption as in increasing the size of decision bringing about social upliftment along with economic gains. Ads that we see are the end products of this process. The logic of using research in solving advertising problems is well recognized all over the world, and India is no exception.

Advertising improves consumer knowledge. With the help of advertising consumers find and buy necessary products without waste of time. This speeds up selling and efficiency of distribution without increasing the cost of marketing. Without heavy advertising, consumers might have waited for years for the production evolution of safety razor which was made sixty years ago before the first stainless blade appeared in the market. This feat was achieved through feedback form marketing research.

The decision to use research does not mean it should always be costly. The firm may achieve its objectives through analysis of internal sales data or informal meeting with sales personnel. What research requires is a systematic approach and adoption to principle of accuracy, objectivity and thoroughness. The cost of conducting research largely depends on the volume of information required, he formality of research, the level of new data that must be collected and the complexity of analysis. Research is a benefit to prepare ad copy, to decide on selection of the media and measurement of advertising effectiveness .


Explain various ways to decide Advertising Budget

Several methods are used for setting advertising budget. Depending upon internal situations of the company, the suitable method is followed. Every method has its merits, demerits, and applicability. Commonly practiced methods have been briefly discussed in this part:

1. Percentage of Sales Method:

It is a commonly used method to set advertising budget. In this method, the amount for advertising is decided on the basis of sales. Advertising budget is specific percent of sales. The sales may be current, or anticipated. Sometimes, the past sales are also used as the base for deciding on ad budget. For example, the last year sales were Rs. 3 crore and the company spent Rs. 300000 for advertising. It is clear that the company has spent 1% of sales in the last year.

Company has the tendency to maintain certain percent (or percentage) of sales as ad budget. Based upon the past, the current and the expected sales, amount for advertising budget is determined. This method is based on the notion that sales follow advertising efforts and expenditure. It is assumed that there is positive correlation between sales and advertising expenditure. This is not the scientific method to decide on advertising budget.

Merits:

  • It is based on sales volume. Therefore, cost of advertising can be offset against profits earned from the sales. It satisfies financial management.
  • This method encourages marketing manager to think in terms of relationship between promotional costs, selling price, and profits per unit.
  • It maintains competitive parity. All firms in the industry spend approximately the same percentage of sales for advertising.
  • It keeps the company in constant touch with the sales target to be achieved.

Demerits:

  • In absence of specific guidelines, it is not possible to decide the appropriate percent of sales. It lacks a scientific base.
  • Long-term planning is not possible because a long-term sales forecasting seems difficult.
  • It neglects other objectives of advertising. Only sales are given priority. It doesn’t consider the need of advertising.
  • Stage of product life cycle is not considered.
  • It is, to some extent, inflexible.
  • It is assumed that only advertising affect sales. It is erroneous.

2. Objectives and Task Method:

This is the most appropriate ad budget method for any company. It is a scientific method to set advertising budget. The method considers company’s own environment and requirement. Objectives and task method guides the manager to develop his promotional budget by (1) defining specific objectives, (2) determining the task that must be performed to achieve them, and (3) estimating the costs of performing the task. The sum of these costs is the proposed amount for advertising budget.

The method is based on the relationship between the objectives and the task to achieve these objectives. The costs of various advertising activities to be performed to achieve marketing objectives constitute advertising budget.

Under this method, following steps are to be followed to set advertising budget:

  • Determine main objectives of marketing department.
  • Set advertising objectives in terms of sales, profits, brand loyalty, competitive stability, etc.
  • Determine advertising task in terms of various advertising activities required to be performed to achieve the advertising objectives.
  • Estimate cost of each advertising activity for the defined period.
  • Make sum of costs of all the activities. It is the estimated amount for advertising.

Thus, advertising budget is set on the basis of the objectives a company wants to achieve and in what way it wants the objectives to be achieved. This method is logically consistent and practically applicable for all the companies. The method emphasizes on actual needs of the company. It is considered as a scientific method to set ad budget.

3. Competitive Parity Method:

Competition is one of the powerful factors affecting marketing performance. This method considers the competitors’ advertising activities and costs for setting advertising budget. The advertising budget is fixed on the basis of advertising strategy adopted by the competitors.

Thus, competitive factor is given more importance in deciding advertising budget. For example, if the close competitors spend 3% of net sales, the company will spend, more or less, the same per cent for advertising. Here it is assumed that “competitors or leaders are always right.” If not followed carefully, this method may result into misleading.

It is obvious that a company differs significantly from the competitors in terms of product characteristics, objectives, sales, financial conditions, management philosophy, other promotional means and expenses, image and reputation, price, etc.

Therefore, it is not advisable to follow the competitors blindly. Marketing/advertising manager should take competitors’ advertising strategy as the base, but should not follow as it is. The advertising budget must be adjusted to the company’s internal and external situation.

Limitations:

Manager must be aware of following limitations of the competition parity method:

  • In case of a new product, the method fails to guide for deciding on advertising budget.
  • It is difficult to know in which stage of life cycle the product of close competitor is passing through.
  • Company differs in terms of sales, profits, challenges, financial conditions, and so on. To follow competitors directly may be erroneous.
  • Advertising is not the sole factors that affect the sales; interplay of many factors determines sales.
  • In case, when there are many competitors, it is difficult to decide as to whom the company should follow.
  • The method is followed only when there are dominant competitors. In absence of competition, the method cannot be used.
  • The method can make a sense only to followers and challengers. It is not applicable to a market leader.

4. Affordable or Fund Available Method:

This is, in real sense, not a method to set advertising budget. The method is based on the company’s capacity to spend. It is based on the notion that a company should spend on advertising as per its capacity. Company with a sound financial position spends more on advertising and vice versa.

Under this method, budgetary allocation is made only after meeting all the expenses. Advertising budget is treated as the residual decision. If fund is available, the company spends; otherwise the company has to manage without advertising. Thus, a company’s capacity to afford is the main criterion.

Limitations:

Following are the limitations of the method:

  • The method completely ignores the role or need of advertising in the competitive market environment.
  • In long run, it leads to uncertain planning as there is no guarantee that the company will spend for advertising.
  • Except company financial position, other factors like company’s need for advertising, consumer base, competition, and so forth are ignored.
  • This method only guides that a company should not spend beyond its capacity.
  • This is not a method in real sense.
  • There is possibility of bias in deciding advertising amount.

5. Expert Opinion Method:

Many marketing firms follow this method. Both internal and external experts are asked to estimate the amount to be spent for advertisement for a given period. Experts, on the basis of the rich experience on the area, can determine objectively the amount for advertising. Experts supply their estimate individually or jointly.

Along with the estimates, they also underline certain assumptions. Internal experts involve company’s executives, such as general manager, marketing manager, advertising manager, sales manager, distribution manager, etc.

Whereas external experts involve marketing consultants, dealers, suppliers, distributors, trade associations, advertising agencies, and other professionals related to the field. Marketing consultants and advertising agencies provide such services on professional basis.

Advertising budget recommended by external experts is more neutral (bias-free) and, hence, is reliable. Experts considers overall situation and give their opinion on how much a company should spend. Mostly, the experts consider all the relevant factors related to advertising while deciding on advertising budget.

Merits:

Expert opinion method offers following merits:

  • The estimates tend to be more balanced as various executives and experts are involved.
  • The budget is more accurate and realistic because the internal executives are well aware of company’s strengths and weaknesses.
  • It is the only option when a company is new, having no past experience.
  • External experts tend to be more neutral as they are external to organisation

Demerits:

However, the user must be aware of following possible demerits:

  • It is not a scientific method. Personal value, experience, and attitudes play vital role.
  • It is difficult to fix responsibility of the final estimates as many experts contribute to budget estimates.
  • External experts are not fully aware of the company’s marketing situations.
  • When more internal experts are involved, it may deteriorate relation due to possible conflicts or lack of consensus.
  • Possibility of prejudice or bias cannot be ignored.
  • All opinions, right or wrong, are given equal importance

6. Other Methods:

There are some other methods used for setting advertising budget.

They have been listed below:

  1. Arbitrary Allocation Method
  2. Profit Maximization Approach

iii. Incremental Method

  1. Sales Force Opinion Method, etc.

Explain five M’s of advertising

Advertising is an important promotional tool for any marketing campaign. So much so that whenever we think of marketing we think of advertising although it is just one of the marketing tools. Today Advertisers have a range of advertising options to choose from- from interpersonal communication to Internet.

  1. The first ‘M’ stands for Mission – Advertising Objectives.
  2. The second ‘M stands for Money – Advertising Budget.
  3. The third ‘M’ stands for Message – Creating Advertising Message and Copy.
  4. The fourth ‘M’ stands for Media – Advertising Media Selection and Media Scheduling.
  5. The fifth ‘M’ stands for Measurement – Measuring and Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness (MEAE).

[Additional First M can be Market]

Mission

Like the mission statement of any organization, an advertisement also has a clear mission that what do you wants to achieve through advertisement. Advertisers set mission, goals, and objectives to analyze that what we are going to do and what we will get through this act. So the organization has a mission in its record to achieve by the end of its advertising campaign.

Advertisers have to first decide on the target segment o nly they can move forward to identify their characteristics. Advertising always starts with the market. Market indicates areas or group of buyers Advertisers have to note their characteristics and buying motives.

Money

As time is important in the advertisement but how you can ignore your budget. Money is also critical decision while going for advertisement. Different media charge different cost. The Internet is cheap media to advertise but everyone cannot use the internet, and it is very unpredictable.

TV is more costly but effective media in the advertisement. Most of the companies reserve media budget separately. Every type of media has different package for advertisement for example newspaper have so many packages for advertisement and TV channels also have different budget packages according to time

Message

The message is that idea, information, literature, and theme you want to communicate to your target customer. The message will be decided based on your target audience. Message represents the words, pictures and ideas that create meaning in an advertisement. Message needs to get attention and build awareness. It plays an important role in provoking customers interests, which it does by use of accurate ways of conveying the message and being relevant to their target audience.

The important thing to note here is that the message will be changed when you will change the source of advertisement. It means that selection of media will define the message because you cannot run a picture message on Radio.

Media

Definitely selection of media is the most important component in the advertisement. There are so many media available for advertisement but selection is at the same time so much more critical. The decision of media selection depends on the target market because the organization will first analyze how its target market gets information about organization whether they are connected to the internet or through traditional media like the newspaper.

Use of media is also critical because of the money budget and time budget. Different media charge different cost in different time. It is promotional manager’s duty to study that which time is effective with which media.

Measurement

Same like marketing strategy, evaluation and measurement is an essential step to ending advertisement strategy. Without evaluation how you can identify that you achieve your objectives?

Same in the case of the advertisement, you have to measure your advertising strategy that either you get the same return or not. Again measurement depends on media selection. Every media has its own measurement techniques.


Explain the objectives of advertising

Advertising is aimed at achieving various objectives. Objectives may be commercial or social in nature. Broadly, advertising objectives can be categorized into three classes, such as informative objectives, persuasive objectives, and reminder objectives. Ads are designed to introduce certain concepts and must also be convincing. Long-term advertising goals pertain to desired effects. The key to successful advertising is knowing how much to allocate toward specific types of advertising. You also need to properly identify your target audience so you are reaching the right consumers.

1. To Inform Buyers:

This objective includes informing customers regarding product’s availability, price, features, qualities, services, and performance. Besides, it also includes informing them about changes made in the existing product and introduction of new products. Company also highlights its location, achievements, policies, and performance through advertising.

2. To Persuade or Convince Buyers:

Company uses advertisement to persuade or convince the buyers about superior advantages offered by its product. Company communicates competitive advantages the product offers to induce customers buy it. Comparative advertising is used to prove the additional benefits of product at a given price.

3. To Remind Buyers:

Marketer uses advertising to remind the buyers regarding existence of company, products, maintenance of quality, superior services, and chasing customer-orientation. Mostly, the existing firms aim their advertising for this objective.

Here, the purpose is to inform that the company is still in existence and serving customers in a better way. Due to huge information bombarded by a number of companies, customers are more likely to forget name of company and/or products and services it offers.

4. To Face Competition:

Advertising is treated as the most powerful weapon to fight with competitors effectively. Advertising enables the firm to respond the competitors strongly. It helps the firm to distinguish its total offerings from competitors.

In brief, the firm can face competition, can prevent the entry of competitors, or can remove competitors away from the market. In competitive marketing environment, the firm cannot survive without an effective advertisement.

5. To Achieve Sales Targets:

Increase sales volume is one of the major advertising objectives. A company can advertise its products in various media to attract customers situated in different parts of the world. National and international marketing is the result of advertising. Even, non-users can be converted into users and usage rate can be increased. Thus, company can achieve its sales objectives by advertisement.

6. To Build and Improve Brand Image:

Advertising is used for brand recognition and acceptance. A company can distinguish its brand by magnifying major benefits the product offers. Advertisement attracts customers toward the brand; they try it and accept it over time. In the same way, bad image related to brand can be changed by systematic presentation of facts and scientific evidences, and removing misunderstanding.

7. To Help or Educate People:

Advertising is not always used only for company’s benefits. It is meant for helping customers to make the right choice of product. It educates people about availability of new products, its features and qualities, price, services, and other related aspects. Such information is instrumental for purchasing suitable products. Thus, it guides customers to choose the most appropriate product.

8. To Build Company Image and Reputation:

A company opts for advertisement to build prestige and reputation in the market. Most of the companies, though they are satisfied with the volume of sales, go for advertising to acquire fame in the market. Many companies advertise its policies, activities, and achievements to make a permanent place in the mind of people.

9. To Assist Sales Force and Middlemen:

Advertising is an aid to middlemen and salesmen. Advertising also popularizes the name of dealers. Likewise, advertising provides necessary information to the buyers. Middlemen and salesmen are not required to do the same. It eases the task of sellers. In the same way, advertising encourages sales force.

10. Other Objectives:

There are certain minor objectives of advertising, such as:

  1. To promote new products.
  2. To build long-term relations.

iii. To remove misunderstanding.

  1. To expand of market.
  2. To gain confidence of buyers.
  3. To request customers to compromise with unavoidable circumstances.

vii. To seek apology of the buyers for any undesirable events, etc.

Company has to select one or more objectives based on its situations. It should be clarified that the list is not exhaustive. New advertising objectives may emerge as per change in situations. However, the main objective of advertising is to increase sales and earn profits. Company must define it advertising objectives clearly and precisely.


Explain any 2 Response Hierarchy Models of Advertising.

Response Hierarchy Models provide clarity pertaining to the response that is elicited from a customer at different stages of his journey right from lack of awareness to purchasing the product.

There are five Response Hierarchy Models that substantiate the behaviour of consumers across three stages of awareness namely; Cognitive Stage, Affective Stage and Behavioural Stage.

The five response hierarchy models are:

  • AIDA Model
  • Hierarchy of Effects Model
  • Innovation Adoption Model
  • Information Processing Model
  • Operational Model

Five Response Hierarchy Models

AIDA Model

The AIDA Model is one of the moat established models among the Response Hierarchy Models. The expansion of AIDA is Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. Organizations use AIDA Model to elicit the required response from targeted customers through Advertisements. AIDA Model can be effectively used to stimulate different emotions of customers.

  • Attention: The model substantiates that attracting the attention of the customer acts as the first point in the response eliciting process from customers.
  • Interest: Raising the interest levels of consumers once they are attracted towards a product or service is the next logical step in eliciting response from them
  • Desire: Convincing the customers to buy the products or services being advertised is the next step. It is during this phase that a customer feel convinced that the products or services being advertised will be useful for them and shows a desire to buy the product.
  • Action: Taking the final purchase decision and buying the product that is being advertised is the final step in the process of customer response.

As per the AIDA Model, attracting the attention of customers takes place in the Cognitive Stage. Kindling the interest of customers and making them realize their desire to go in for the product which happens in the Affective Stage and the action of buying the products and services happens in the third stage which is termed as Behavioural Stage.

Hierarchy of Effects Model

Hierarchy of Effects Model which was formulated by Gary A Steiner and Robert J Lavidge substantiates consumer behaviour through a six step process. According to the Hierarchy of Effects Model, every customer passes through six phases before the final purchase is made. The six phases that a customer travels through as per Hierarchy of Effects Model are Awareness, knowledge, Liking, Preference, Conviction and Purchase.

  • Awareness is the stage at which customers become aware about the product and start to understand about the brands that sell the product and the different models available.
  • Knowledge is the second stage of the process in which the customers gain more knowledge about the product or brand. In order to ensure that their brand is visible to prospective customers, advertisers must carry our all possible efforts to highlight the positive aspects of their product.
  • Liking is the third phase where customers tend to develop a liking for the product. This liking must be aroused by advertisers by highlighting the appropriate emotional appeals related to the product.
  • Preference is the phase where a customer is clear about the product, model and brand choices he wants to go in for. It is the responsibility of advertisers to make constantly reinforce the positive aspects of their brand in the minds of the customers.
  • Conviction is the phase at which the consumers have made up their mind to go in for a particular brand and product. It is the responsibility of the advertisers to guide customers towards making a choice of brand, product and store etc.
  • Purchase is the final stage as per the Hierarchy of Effects Model at which the customer purchases the product.

The three stages under which the above six phases fall are as follows.

  • Cognitive Stage – This is where the thinking process happens. The first two steps of Awareness and Knowledge falls under this stage.
  • Affective Stage – This is the stage where the customer evaluates the product. Liking and Conviction phases fall under this stage.
  • Conative Stage – Also known as Behavioural Stage, the action of purchasing the product happens during this stage.

Innovation Adoption Model

Innovation Adoption Model takes into consideration the various phases that a customer goes through to accept innovation in products and services. It is a simple model which substantiates that customers accept new innovative products and services by passing through five stages namely Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial and Adoption.

  • Awareness is the phase at which the customers becomes aware about the new product introduced in the market
  • Interest is the phase at which information about the new product spreads in the market and kindles the interest of customers to know more about the product.
  • Evaluation is the phase at which customers evaluate the new product or service to have an in depth understanding about it
  • Trial is the phase at which customers try the product in order to take a final decision about purchasing the product
  • Adoption is the final phase at which the customers accept the product and its features and finally buy it.

Information Processing Model

This model, like the other response hierarchy models substantiates that consumers go through a series of phases before making the final purchase decision. It emphasizes on six phases namely Presentation, Attention, Comprehension, Yielding, Retention and Behaviour.

  • Presentation is the first phase at which a customer becomes aware about a need and looks for a product that can satisfy the need
  • Attention is the second phase at which a product grabs the attention of the customer
  • Comprehension is the phase at which the consumer compares and evaluates different products and brands to select the product that meets his/her requirements
  • Yielding is the phase at which the customer settles down for a specific brand and its product that they have selected at after in depth research
  • Retention is the phase at which the customer remembers key factors and attributes about specific brands and their products that they want to purchase
  • Behaviour is final phase at which the customer finally purchases the product he/she selected

Operational Model

This is a simple model that works on the basis of three activities namely Cognitive Activity, Affective Activity and Conative Activity and involves three stages that are Non-evaluative thinking, Evaluative thinking and Action.

  • Non-Evaluative Thinking falls under the Cognitive Activity. This is the stage where the consumer gets exposed to different brands and various models of product they wish to buy.
  • Evaluative Thinking phase falls under the Affective Activity Stage in which the customer evaluates different products and compares the same with similar ones for making a choice among various alternatives available
  • Action is the phase in which the customer takes the final decision to purchase the product and buys it for consumption. This phase falls under the Conative Activity, also referred to as Behavioural stage.


Write a note on Marketing Brief

A marketing brief is used to lay the framework and foundation of a marketing initiative or campaign. This brief should give creative directors and copywriters what they need to know to carry out the plan. It also provides a “control” function. It enables you to verify marketing results at the end of the campaign and make a determination on whether or not it was successful. It can also ensure that your campaign is launched on time and if not you’ll be able to verify delays.

A good marketing brief can be the difference between success and failure. It can be used for internal use within your company or external use to share with outside resources such as your ad agency, copywriters or graphic designers. While this document will take time to create, it can be used to get everyone involved on the same page. It can eliminate any confusion or obscurity.

Marketing brief needs skillful writing. If you get it right the business achieves success but if you get it wrong, it costs time and money to put it right. When preparing a brief maintain simplicity. Avoid Jargons, bombastic words, movie or television lines, funny gifs so that people will have a chuckle while studying, links to your instagram account coz COME ON! and lingo. Use simple spoken language and include as much detail as possible. Marketing brief is the starting point of communication plan. The brief should be as comprehensive as possible, and it must provide details about the product in comparison to competitors product.

Consumers assess the product as per prevailing price in the market. The brief identifies high selling areas and low selling areas. It mentions the extent of competition in the market and also points out strengths and weaknesses of the product. It must provide details about the communication programmes of the competitors, their USP and advertising theme. It indicates about the media mix currently being used and the costs involved. It identifies target audience along with their profiles.

When constructing your marketing brief, remember that a marketing brief should serve the following purpose:

  • Explain and communicate the purpose of the marketing initiative.
  • Set the numerical and measurements for success in the campaign.
  • Set the tone of the message and identify the targeted segments.
  • Identify and set the goals of the marketing initiative.

Writing Marketing Brief

Marketing brief provides the framework of marketing initiatives. Marketing brief facilitates art director and copywriters carry out the plan. It must mention the purpose, message, parameters and goals of the initiative. At times, marketing brief is simplistic and at other times it is found complicated. To be on the safer side, the preparation of marketing brief must answer the inquiries that creative team is likely to rise .When the writing of marketing brief gets over it, must express realistic goals of the marketing team which includes the following.

Conduct Research

While writing marketing brief it is necessary to conduct research to make advertising more focused and appropriate to target audience. The writer can also take relevant information from secondary sources. The information thus collected can be combined into the brief

Complete Documentation

Documentation refers to collection and classification of information. It is necessary to gather all documentation about the marketing initiative. When someone desires to check information, documentary evidence becomes self-explanatory. A person working on computer can open word processing programme where he will type the brief. He must remember to simultaneously save the document.

Introduce the Proposal

Present the marketing proposal in short terms. This full information is available in the documents saved. It is necessary to indicate what you want to achieve and how its success will be measured. This is the job description which presents what is required by the marketing department.

Identify Primary Audience

Primary audiences are the actual buyers of your products and secondary buyers are your potential buyers. Decide whom you are trying to reach and what their concerns, beliefs and worries are as they are related to the product. Target audience should be based on demographic considerations such as age, gender, income, size of the family, disposable income, hobbies, etc.

Outline the Objective.

Objectives are related to the marketing initiative. Incase you have already decided on advertising strategy to achieve the objectives, outline the strategy. It is desirable to present the objectives in a hierarchy so that the advertising department/marketing department will know which objectives to be considered first on priorite and which objectives can be taken up later.

Make Message Audience Oriented

Message should be written from the audience point of view. Message should be motivational. Ad must give mental and physical benefit to the viewers and readers. Keep the message simple. Message written in vague terms or presented in confused manner will create problem to the readers. Give audience necessary proof to support the message.

Decide Media

As several media option is available it is advisable to decide the media to communicate the message. Include attachments of existing marketing materials that should be used in the initiative. Also determine frequency of insertions and costs involved. A correct selection of media will ensure that the message reaches the target audience. A better approach will be to settle for media mix. If there is any mandatory message, ensure that it is included.

Fix Time Frame.

Always fix time frame to finalise the work and to reach the target audience. If more than one project is in hands, there should be multiple time frames.

Finalise the budget.

Budget should be related to the advertising strategy and ad campaign. Make specific how much money can be spent. The framework of planning is indicated mostly through budgets. Provide space for the names and signatures of departmental heads who are signing the marketing brief.


Define Copy Brief And Pre-requisites For Copy Brief

Copy brief saves everyone time, money and ultimately results far more effective piece of writing, An effective copy brief is a single most critical factor to ensure that a project is successful. Copy brief is vital to any ad writing as it will provide with all information needed to meet consumer and business expectations. When we think of copy, the function of copywriter and the technique of writing advertising appear in proper perspective.

Whether the plan for a particular advertisement starts with a visual idea that is explained by words or with an idea that is dramatised and responsible for every element that appears in final message. Generally advertising messages are created by  copywriter and art director. Copywriters who think in terms of pictures, sound and movements as well as words and who visualise ads in final form as they write copy, help in getting better results. A copy brief uses question and answer format to define and express the creative problems to be solved.

Writing a detailed brief takes time. It’s worth investing this time in the initial stages of writing as it can take just as long for a copywriter to rewrite a post that doesn’t meet requirement. Good copywriters  are in demand and often have to schedule their writing tasks weeks in advance, which doesn’t leave much time for rewrites.

An unclear brief can often result in client having to want several days, to rewrite to be done, which is not ideal for anyone. Having a full brief in place also saves money in the long run. Copywriters who provide durable with the advertiser already know the business and Product/Service, who when asked to write copy in future they find it easy and convenient.

The best copy tends to come from writers with whom advertisers have the best working relationship, developed through good communication. For a copywriter, a job well done often means repeat work and from an advertiser’s perspective knowing a writer who will deliver great results is a valuable resource. Copywriting is now considered as a long term and continuous investment. In order to make an effective copy brief, copy writer must remember to use

  • Business
  • Target Audience
  • Brand Of The Product
  • Timescale
  • Reputation Of The Company
  • Website
  • Environmental Factors
  • Future Needs

Prerequisites for Copy Brief

Knowledge of Competitors Products

When a copywriter knows more about his competitors products, the better he can sell his own. Such product knowledge is useful i knowing the conditions he is facing and the obstacles that he must overcome. Sometimes competitors merit suggests the point of difference that the advertiser should sound in his own advertising.

Knowledge of Appeal

Appeal strikes the theme of advertising. Adequate knowledge about the appeal that has been selected for the campaign and its application is necessary for the logical development of the copy. Copywriter should study the different ads and particularly note how the appeal determines the pitch of the advertisement by setting the pace of the opening sentence in the body copy

Knowledge Of Editorial Style

A skillful copywriter adjusts his approach to the editorial tone and policies of each publication that is going to be the medium for the advertisement. He should try to make the advertisement an integral part of the publication carrying it. Knowledge of the publication helps him in knowing as to what he can or cannot say in his advertisement. Besides, knowledge of the policies of the publication, broadcasting and telecasting systems may save the copywriters time and effort and serve as an aid for a clear presentation of the copy.

Knowledge of Specific Idea

A good copy is not only clear but also specific. It states the main idea without any confusion. The copywriter must grasp the idea behind his advertisement. Confused thinking reflects the confused writing which equally confuses the reader or viewer or listener of the message. Therefore his thoughts should be developed easily gradually, logically and step by step. Irrelevant matter and secondary thoughts not pertaining to the idea should be avoided.

Knowledge of purpose of ad

The ultimate purpose of every advertisement is to sell the product being advertised, but its immediate purpose may be different. Sometimes the entire campaign may be written for getting immediate response from readers. A Company may conduct national campaign to induce readers to email to meet their needs. Other ads may invite readers to the showrooms of dealers. Before writing the copy, the writer should know the immediate purpose of the advertisement so that his copy theme can be developed easily logically and would lead the reader to the desired purpose or response

Knowledge of Legal Requirements

Copywriter must know the legal restrictions and provision and the final copy must be checked to ensure that it does not contain any unlawful statement or pictures. Since all kinds of advertising are subject to legal restrictions, copywriter should be well versed with them and if necessary, legal opinion can be sought


Define IMC and Features of IMC

Integrated marketing communication refers to integrating all the methods of brand promotion to promote a particular product or service among target customers. In integrated marketing communication, all aspects of marketing communication work together for increased sales and maximum cost effectiveness

It is essential for organizations to promote their brands well among the end-users not only to outshine competitors but also survive in the long run. Brand promotion increases awareness of products and services and eventually increases their sales, yielding high profits and revenue for the organization.

Customer the focal point:

IMC should begin with the who is the focal point. The brand communicator customer to determine the most appropriate messages and media for informing, persuading and motivating customers approach is to persuade the customers to act in favour of the brand advertised

Use communication mix:

The use of one communication tool is of limited appeal. In order to make IMC effective it is necessary to use communication mix consisting of advertising, sales promotion, sponsorship, etc. All communication tools are not uniformly effective for assignment. The professional communicator selects tools that are best suited for the job.

Coordination of Messages and Media

Coordination of Messages and Media is absolutely critical. Speaking in single voice moves consumers to action. A spokesman of Samsung stated “We used to look at Advertising, PR and Sales Promotion as separate. Now every piece of communication from package to on from package to internet has to reflect the same messages”

Build relationships:

IMC is known to build relationship between brands and their customers. This relationship makes way for repeat purchasing and customer loyalty. Customer retention is considered superior to finding new customers. Relationship is a durable link between brand and customers.

Encourage behavioural response:

IMC must aim at moving people to action. Successful IMC prepares consumers prior to making purchases. They are made aware of the brand, its benefits and facilitate favourable attitude towards it. IMC enables consumers to mentally prepare to accept the product or service. It facilitates flexibility in their behaviour

Consistency:

The success of IMC depends on consistency. It not a good practice to run a new ad logo while press ads are still going with old logo. The communicator has to ensure the entire ad campaign has uniform marketing materials, press kits, messages and websites. An effective communication helps  easy and prompt recognition of the product/service

Measure impact:

Measuring results is crucial. It is a wise decision to review the campaign and find out what worked and what did not work or what could have done better. Calculate web hits, public relation impressions and consumer feedback. When the campaign is well thought out, it attains success in the long run.

Coherence

Under this, different communications are logically connected. The consumers are convinced that they have made the right choice. The message is put in simple language with ease of understanding. Even in case of multiple messages, they support each other and are not contradictory

Greater reach:

Traditional media is mostly losing ground. IMC must capitalise on new media option. Two decades ago if consumers wanted to watch television the only option was Doordarshan, that also for restricted hours starting in the evening and ending before midnight. Hindi feature films on Sunday and Chitrahaar were two main programmes that attracted advertisers. With the invasion of satellite television and cable TV, now consumers have 24×7 channels options Now consumers decide what to see, hear and read. IMC has to maintain compatibility and coordination among various channels enjoying greater reach

Higher Transparency

Consumers of today are better informed. It is easy for them to compare prices and features by easily searching on the Internet. Consumers are well educated through consumer awareness magazines such as Insight, Consumer Vice, Upbhokta Jagran, Nirantar Soch, etc. MC shares great responsibility to ensure that ad messages do not break ethical and legal restrictions. Nowadays transparency in presenting ad messages keeps the companies free from disputes.


Explain the function and Importance of IMC

Note to Self, insert simplified explanation over here in Afternoon

Function of IMC

To build up goodwill:

Effective and convincing communication helps to build up sound image and goodwill of the advertiser. He can earn good reputation through achievement and performance of his business.

To create awareness among customers

Various means of communication like advertising, sales promotion, publicity, etc. are used to make potential customers aware about the product. It brings to the notice of potential customers the new varieties of goods available in the market.

To provide timely communication

Timely communication has healing effect. It can break through the barriers created by social and cultural differences. Timely communication can guide buyers to make the correct decision while buying goods

To increase sales

A good marketing communication leads to increased sales. It is economical to execute large orders, therefore the manufacturer can benefit from economies of large scale production and marketing. This will enable him to reduce the cost of production and earn higher profits.

To educate the customers

Communication helps customers make the right choice. Further, customers are educated about the main characteristics of the products such as price, benefits, quality, grades, standards, performance, etc

To fight negative attitude of buyers

It is no secret that buyers have negative attitude towards certain goods. With the help of aggressive and effective communication, we can change negative attitude to positive response

To persuade the buyers

The manufacturer has to communicate and persuade the buyers to purchase the goods manufactured by him. Persuasion is of vital importance because buyers are faced with innumerable messages. Persuasive communication will win over the buyers.

To inform intermediaries

Marketing communication acts as a messenger. Dealers and agents need informations relating to pricing, promotion, handling, storing, etc. These intermediaries get guidance through sale materials like sales literature, pamphlets, booklets, price list, etc.

To retain regular customers

One of the dangers of marketing is brand shifting. The objective of the advertiser should not only be ot win over customers but also to retain them. This is possible through winsome communication. Customers should be kept informed about the changes in the product or the new product hitting the market

To expand the market

The long term objective of the advertiser should be to expand the market. This expansion will provide him with the economies of a large scale business. Effective communication can play an important role to increase the demand regularly and expand the market

To motivate the buyers

Communication is an important ingredient to motivate the people. Buyers can be motivated to try out the goods of the exporter. The use of sales promotion techniques such as discounts, free gifts, samples, incentive, purchases, etc. will motivate the buyers to purchase goods on trial basis.

To promote economic growth

With the help of communication techniques, Manufacturers can make goods popular. Such popularity will bring about more orders. Economic activities will improve. Higher sales will promote economic growth of the nation.

Importance of IMC

Over the years the need for communication in an organization has increased by leaps and bound. Communication in the pre liberalisation era was more of a luxury and most of the companies used to think that communication was limited only to the immediate customer rather than the end – user, Ideally a communication process consists of the source of communication, the receiver, coding process, medium of transmission, decoding process, noise and feedback. Today companies have many alternatives to opt from to reach their target audience. The technical evolution mainly the internet has changed the way of communication,. In this age of stiff competition companies are forced to calculate return on investment of amount spent on communication. Companies have understood the implications of stand and the role of communication. Right now, the question is not about spending a huge amount, but how is it spent, how smartly is it spent, and what is the approach, and whether the approach is coordinated the the company’s objectives.

Integrated marketing communication plays an integral role in communicating brand message to a larger audience. Integrated Marketing communication helps in integrating all essential components of marketing to communicate similar message to potential and existing end-users.

Integrated marketing communication goes a long way in creating brand awareness among customers at a minimal cost. Integrated marketing communication is essential not only for business to business marketing but also for direct interaction with customers. Organizations implementing integrated marketing communication not only successfully promote their brands among target audience but also develop trust among them who would always stick to their brands, no matter what. Through integrated marketing communication, similar message goes to customers simultaneously, eventually creating a better impact on them. The end-user does not even think of buying Brand B, if features and benefits of Brand A are communicated well to the end-users. Integrated marketing communication is more effective as it carefully blends various marketing tools such as advertising, public relations, direct marketing and so on.

Integrated marketing communication scores over traditional ways of marketing as it focuses on not only winning new customers but also maintaining long term healthy relationship with them. Integrated marketing communication ensures two way dialogue with customers – a must in all business. Customer feedbacks need to be monitored well if you wish to survive in the long run. Remember, their feedbacks are valuable and need to be evaluated carefully. Gone are the days when marketers used to rely only on advertising and simple promotions to make their brand popular among end- users. In the current scenario of cut throat competition, marketers need to promote their brands by effectively integrating relevant marketing tools for better results and increased productivity. Integrated marketing communication plays an essential role in delivering a unified message to end-users through various channels and thus has better chances of attracting customers. A single message goes to customers across all marketing channels be it TV, Radio, Banners, hoardings and so on. Integrated marketing communication ensures the brand (product or service) is an instant hit among end-users. It also develops a sense of attachment and loyalty among end-users.

Marketers do not also have to think really hard as to which marketing tool is really effective in creating brand awareness. Integrated marketing communication saves time which is often lost in figuring out the best marketing tool. Through integrated marketing communication, marketers can smartly blend and integrate all marketing tools for better response. In a layman’s language integrated marketing communication provides a wide range of options which help marketers connect easily with their target customers. Integrated marketing communication ensures that the customer gets the right message at the right place and right time. Integrated marketing communication uses several innovative ways to promote brands among customers such as newspaper inserts, hoardings and banners at the most strategic locations, pamphlets, brochures, radio or television advertisements, press releases, discount coupons, loyalty clubs, membership clubs,PR Activities, sales promotional activities, direct marketing initiatives, social networking sites, blogs and so on.


What are the unethical forms of advertising. Elaborate any 2 with the help of examples.

Ethics provides a way of conduct to the advertising agency and Ad Makers. Even after Ad Agencies agreeing upon the codes set by AAAI there are still issues that go against the ethics of the society.

That branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the righteous, wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions. Some of the common examples of ethical issues in advertising are given below:

Vulgarity / Obscenity

The most common issue is, use of obscene or vulgar imagery to grab the attention of the consumers. These kinds of messages may be effective in grabbing attention of the consumers but degrades the taste of advertising and the society also gets impacted with such messages at large

Example : AXE ads that use vulgarity to promote its deodorants

Misleading information

Although spreading and providing information is one of the basic features of advertising, there are many instances where advertisements have found to give out either wrong or deceptive information to consumers

Example: Kellogg (India): The Kellogg’s Special K advertisement for the two week challenge does not state the specifics of the diet plan and thus has omitted important facts. Also the disclaimers did not follow the rules of being shown on the screen for the necessary 12 seconds, being legible and being in the same language as the advertisement.

Puffery

Advertisements or sales presentation relying on exaggerations, opinions, and superlatives, with little or no credible evidence to support its vague claims. Puffery may be tolerated to an extent so long as it does not amount to misrepresentation

Example : Fair and lovely ads that claim to give fairer skin in just 7 days, which is a clear case of exaggeration

Stereotypes

Creating a specific image or idea and attaching it to a person or thing is called stereotyping. This is widely used in advertising in terms of gender, ethnic minority an economic class. This generally happens because these images are easily accepted and are tested widely over long period of time.

Example : Insurance companies sell policies for son’s education and daughter’s weddings, and jewellers pitch their products primarily for the brides-to be. In advertisements, women are always the showpiece moms, daughters, wives and sisters, a mere reflection of how society views her.

Controversial Products

The law of India doesn’t allow the marketing and advertising of harmful or controversial products like alcohol, cigarettes and Tobacco. The sale is still allowed so it is obvious that the manufacturers use some tactics to promote these products. Such advertising goes against the ethics of advertising fraternity

More types of Unethical Advertising

Exaggerated Claims

Advertisements which contain exaggerated claims as regards the use and benefits of the product are unethical advertisements.

Example,  the Toothpaste Advertisements claim that they are 102% better than other leading toothpaste. Also, how a stupid flavoured milk company charges like 2/300 because you can take away the bottle home? DUDE AMUL ENERGEE DID IT DECADES AGO

Unverifiable Claims

Advertisements which make unverifiable claims or claims made in an ambiguous language are unethical.

Example, Colgate before entering the Indian Market mocked Charcoals and said how can something which is black, make your teeth White. Decades later they are selling Charcoal Flavoured Toothpaste and claiming it to be healthy. So I guess you get the idea.

Misleading Labels and Brands

Advertisements in which misleading labels and brand names are used re unethical advertisements.

Example, Many Brands add a tag which claim that the product is made in Country like Germany, Japan. However, the products are clearly Chinese. You can even find instances of fake names, which will make you think it is product of a superior or well known brand, like Borolne, Abibas, Panasunic, Olay? Okay. And here are two legendary ones.

Alcohol or Tobacco Advertising

Advertisements which induce people to use tobacco, alcohol, etc. which are painful to human life are unethical. Even advertisements of Paan Masala, Gutka are unethical as these products are of critical danger to human life

Poor/Vulgar Taste

Advertisement in which undue importance is given to women as sex objects are unethical.

Misuse of testimonials

Advertisements in which testimonials of film stars and sportsmen are used simply for sales promotion are misuse of testimonials.

Discounts and free gifts

Advertisements in which discount, free gift or handsome prizes are offered to the purchaser are unethical.

Example, Discount upto 80% * an actual asterik implying they are gonna loot you anyways.

Fake Advertisements

Fake Advertisements are made for cheating consumers. Fake advertisements indicate that the tools of creativity of the copywriter are shamefully underdeveloped and that he has no skills to satisfy the current needs of the consumers

Misleading Statistics

Advertisements in which incomplete and misleading statistical and other information is given simply for attracting more consumers are unethical

Display of violence, sex and nudity

Advertisements which display vulgar scenes, involving violence, sex, nudity, and vulgar language with double meaning are unethical

Total lines

Advertisements of products which do not really work in a magical way as the manufacturer would like consumers to believe.

Example, losing 10 kgs in 5 days, growing hair, some dudes coming up and saying they will fix an entire country, mobile phones which will make you feel rich, cars which will increase your prestige and dignity, turn your skin tone to white with this cream!!!

Awards/Prizes

Advertisements wherein consumers are asked to send entries against which awards/prizes and free gifts are offered

Unhealthy brand comparisons

Advertisers make unhealthy comparisons of brand names for sales promotion. This confuses consumers.

Advertising for Children

Advertisers are using children to sell products. A  child is now seen as the approver, instigator and the buyer. One current commercial for small car shows a child waiting for bus with father, the child feels bad when he sees friends being driver off in the car. Few other commercials show children being sharper and smarter because they consumer a particular product.

Soft Targets

Children are soft targets. Some ads show models performing dangerous stunts. Children try to imitate these acts which could lead to accidents

Damaging ecological balance

In one of the speediest decisions taken by the Supreme Court in September 2002, it imposed a fine of Rs. 5 Crore on corporates including Coke and Pepsi for defacing rocks along the Kullu Manali Rohtang with their ads. Included in this is Rs. 1 Crore fine slapped on the Himachal Pradesh Government for allowing these commercial establishments to vandalize nature.

The court had taken suo motu notice on August 14, 2002 referring to news published in the Sunday Express “ Rape of the Rock” This historical judgement will go a long way in discouraging corporate sector from indulging into damaging ecological balance

Exploitation of Elderly Consumers

Elderly consumers are often targeted by telemarketing involving investment offers, charity programmes, lottery tickets, home service, prizes and awards. It is important to teach these senior citizens not to fall victim to the tempting and unethical advertising.


Explain the importance of USP in advertising

A unique selling proposition (USP, also seen as unique selling point) is a factor that differentiates a product from its competitors, such as the lowest cost, the highest quality or the first-ever product of its kind. A USP could be thought of as “what you have that competitors don’t.”

A successful USP promises a clearly articulated benefit to consumers, offers them something that competitive products can’t or don’t offer, and is compelling enough to attract new customers.

Here are a few famous examples of USPs:

  • Avis’ “We’re only number two. We try harder” campaign.
  • Domino’s “30 minutes or it’s free” promise.
  • FedEx’s “When it absolutely, positively has to be there overnight.”
  • Southwest’s claim to be the lowest-priced airline.
  • Apple, “Not One Kidneys but Two.” The costliest phone only your relatives can gift

A USP is sometimes formally expressed in a positioning statement. The unique selling proposition (USP) or unique selling point is a marketing concept first proposed as a theory to explain a pattern in successful advertising campaigns of the early 1940s. The USP states that such campaigns made unique propositions to customers that convinced them to switch brands.

The term was developed by television advertising pioneer Rosser Reeves of Ted Bates & Company. Theodore Levitt, a professor at Harvard Business School, suggested that, “Differentiation is one of the most important strategic and tactical activities in which companies must constantly engage.” The term has been used to describe one’s “personal brand” in the marketplace. Today, the term is used in other fields or just casually to refer to any aspect of an object that differentiates it from similar objects.

A unique selling proposition (USP) refers to the unique benefit exhibited by a company, service, product or brand that enables it to stand out from competitors. The unique selling proposition must be a feature that highlights product benefits that are meaningful to consumers.

As described by Dr. James Blythe, the USP “contains the one feature of the product that most stands out as different from the competition, and is usually a feature that conveys unique benefits to the consumer.” Communicating the USP is a key element of branding.

In Reality in Advertising, Reeves laments that the USP is widely misunderstood. He outlined three basic rules for an advertisement that encapsulated his ideas about the USP

  • Each advertisement must make a proposition to the consumer—not just words, product puffery, or show-window advertising. Each advertisement must say to each reader: “Buy this product, for this specific benefit.”
  • The proposition must be one the competition cannot or does not offer. It must be unique—either in the brand or a claim the rest of that particular advertising area does not make.
  • The proposition must be strong enough to move the masses, i.e., attract new customers as well as potential customers.

Importance of Unique Selling Proposition

The USP concept has become one of the eight broad approaches to creative executions in advertising. The USP approach is recommended where the product category is characterised by high levels of technological innovation. A clear USP helps consumers to understand differences between brand offerings in a category, and may also help consumers to form a positive attitude towards the brand and may ultimately contribute to improved levels of brand recall.

In order to determine an appropriate USP for any given brand, marketers must undertake extensive research of the category as well as consumers. It is important to be able to locate a space in the market, ensure that the feature is something that is unique, and also something that is valued by potential customers. Sellers also need to try selling it to themselves; this is so they know they are passionate about that business and confident it can succeed. The seller needs a key point to use when trying to sell their product or service, and coming up with it prior to selling will benefit. Having a point of difference to stand out is a major benefit in the markets; customers will be drawn to the business as it offers something no one else has. This is exactly what every business should be looking into whether it is home delivery service from the store or all-organic food at the restaurant.

In markets which contain many similar products, using a USP is one campaign method of differentiating the product from the competition. Products or services without differentiation risk being seen as a commodity and fungible by the consumer, thus lowering price potential. That’s why having a unique selling point is essential to have a successful business that can handle competition and possible future comers in similar markets.

The desktop personal computer market is one example with many manufacturers and the potential for new manufacturers at any time. Apple used the slogan “Beauty outside, Beast inside.” for its Mac Pro campaign to differentiate its product as “beautiful” compared with any other desktop computer. Buyers of this product were willing to pay a premium price, compared with technically similar desktop computers. Apple differentiates itself with a focus on aesthetics and cutting-edge technologies. Wal-Mart’s “Save money, live better”. Wal-Mart is concerned with being the cheapest department store and reminding their customers that it’s not how much you spend on a product that matters. Something so simple that can attract customers like that and show the unique selling proposition of the business is what people look for.(Entrepreneur, No Date).

Here is a Shout/CallOut to all my People who are studying in Starbucks!

Starbucks

Starbucks is another successful business that makes for a great case study on unique selling propositions. They went from a small coffee shop in Washington to one of the most recognized brands in America, and they transformed this country from a nation of Folgers drinkers to a nation of coffee connoisseurs.

How did they do it? You guessed it–they developed a unique selling proposition.

To become familiar with Starbucks’ unique selling proposition, you can ask this question: “What does Starbucks stand for, and what is it that they’re known for?” The answer is simple: They stand for premium coffee beverages, and they’re known for the same.

They don’t stand for premium coffee beverages AND the lowest prices. If they did, they wouldn’t stand out from corner gas stations. Because they take a stand to provide premium coffee, they stand out from the corner gas stations that sell cups of coffee for $0.99 or as the die hard fans in India call it “Tapri vali Chai” [me in this]. If they instead tried to compete head to head with gas stations on price, quality would suffer, and their product wouldn’t be unique. They wouldn’t be able to stand for premium coffee.


Explain various aspects of creative strategy

So this is one of those vague questions which I [us, since I am a student as well] cannot find answer. But I got this on Internet which be referred for this. However I feel that the answer for this should be the Advertising Strategy from 15Ms. Please let me know if you get any inputs.

Creative strategy is the intentional and strategic approach a company takes in developing and implementing steps that will ensure and support the business’ growth.

Essentially, it is the outline or blueprint of how the end goals will ultimately be met. Your creative strategy provides the guiding principles for copywriters and art directors who are assigned to develop the advertisement. Within the context of that assignment, any ad that is then created should conform to that strategy.  A creative strategy contains moving parts. Each of these parts plays an integral role in meeting the goals that are set. The moving parts consist of detailed market research, an imaging plan, and effective strategic delivery.

  • What Questions Should You Ask When Developing Your Creative Strategy?
  • What is the story of your business?
  • What are your primary objectives?
  • Who is your target audience?
  • What are your customers looking for?
  • What calls to action will you utilize?
  • What is the offering, what’s in it for the consumer?
  • What marketing channels will you use?
  • What deliverables will you need?
  • What budget can you put towards your creative strategy?
  • What are the mandatories that need to be on your creative assets? Do you want the telephone number, email address or website address?  Sadly, this question is often missed.
  • What reference materials will you use to create your creative strategy?
  • What is your story?

When considering creative strategy, be sure to remain focused on effective communication. It can be lost in the midst of all the planning, but it is critical. The overall goal of any brand strategy is to communicate to the public effectively. What you choose to communicate is up to you and is where you get to be creative. However, making sure the public gets the message you intend can be the tricky part.

Consider your long-term goals when developing your creative strategy. Pay attention to how much room you allow for growth. You do not want to box yourself into a genre or an image that is stifling. This is where market research will aid in the process.

Market Research

Market research is just as important as anything else. Market testing for a specific product, image or message is critical. Failing to plan for and adapt to the finicky moods of the consumer is a sure-fire way to lose precious dollars and countless hours. By having to go back to the proverbial “drawing board,” you could completely tank your brand’s opportunities by wasting time.

Imaging is something you want to spend some time on when developing your strategy. Consider colors, sizes, what may be seen as offensive, long-term appeal and anything else that may come into play once your brand’s name is attached to that image.


Explain the Various methods of defining advertising budget

Several methods are used for setting advertising budget. Depending upon internal situations of the company, the suitable method is followed. Every method has its merits, demerits, and applicability. Commonly practiced methods have been briefly discussed in this part:

1. Percentage of Sales Method:

It is a commonly used method to set advertising budget. In this method, the amount for advertising is decided on the basis of sales. Advertising budget is specific percent of sales. The sales may be current, or anticipated. Sometimes, the past sales are also used as the base for deciding on ad budget. For example, the last year sales were Rs. 3 crore and the company spent Rs. 300000 for advertising. It is clear that the company has spent 1% of sales in the last year.

Company has the tendency to maintain certain percent (or percentage) of sales as ad budget. Based upon the past, the current and the expected sales, amount for advertising budget is determined. This method is based on the notion that sales follow advertising efforts and expenditure. It is assumed that there is positive correlation between sales and advertising expenditure. This is not the scientific method to decide on advertising budget.

Merits:

  • It is based on sales volume. Therefore, cost of advertising can be offset against profits earned from the sales. It satisfies financial management.
  • This method encourages marketing manager to think in terms of relationship between promotional costs, selling price, and profits per unit.
  • It maintains competitive parity. All firms in the industry spend approximately the same percentage of sales for advertising.
  • It keeps the company in constant touch with the sales target to be achieved.

Demerits:

  • In absence of specific guidelines, it is not possible to decide the appropriate percent of sales. It lacks a scientific base.
  • Long-term planning is not possible because a long-term sales forecasting seems difficult.
  • It neglects other objectives of advertising. Only sales are given priority. It doesn’t consider the need of advertising.
  • Stage of product life cycle is not considered.
  • It is, to some extent, inflexible.
  • It is assumed that only advertising affect sales. It is erroneous.

2. Objectives and Task Method:

This is the most appropriate ad budget method for any company. It is a scientific method to set advertising budget. The method considers company’s own environment and requirement. Objectives and task method guides the manager to develop his promotional budget by (1) defining specific objectives, (2) determining the task that must be performed to achieve them, and (3) estimating the costs of performing the task. The sum of these costs is the proposed amount for advertising budget.

The method is based on the relationship between the objectives and the task to achieve these objectives. The costs of various advertising activities to be performed to achieve marketing objectives constitute advertising budget.

Under this method, following steps are to be followed to set advertising budget:

  • Determine main objectives of marketing department.
  • Set advertising objectives in terms of sales, profits, brand loyalty, competitive stability, etc.
  • Determine advertising task in terms of various advertising activities required to be performed to achieve the advertising objectives.
  • Estimate cost of each advertising activity for the defined period.
  • Make sum of costs of all the activities. It is the estimated amount for advertising.

Thus, advertising budget is set on the basis of the objectives a company wants to achieve and in what way it wants the objectives to be achieved. This method is logically consistent and practically applicable for all the companies. The method emphasizes on actual needs of the company. It is considered as a scientific method to set ad budget.

3. Competitive Parity Method:

Competition is one of the powerful factors affecting marketing performance. This method considers the competitors’ advertising activities and costs for setting advertising budget. The advertising budget is fixed on the basis of advertising strategy adopted by the competitors.

Thus, competitive factor is given more importance in deciding advertising budget. For example, if the close competitors spend 3% of net sales, the company will spend, more or less, the same per cent for advertising. Here it is assumed that “competitors or leaders are always right.” If not followed carefully, this method may result into misleading.

It is obvious that a company differs significantly from the competitors in terms of product characteristics, objectives, sales, financial conditions, management philosophy, other promotional means and expenses, image and reputation, price, etc.

Therefore, it is not advisable to follow the competitors blindly. Marketing/advertising manager should take competitors’ advertising strategy as the base, but should not follow as it is. The advertising budget must be adjusted to the company’s internal and external situation.

Limitations:

Manager must be aware of following limitations of the competition parity method:

  • In case of a new product, the method fails to guide for deciding on advertising budget.
  • It is difficult to know in which stage of life cycle the product of close competitor is passing through.
  • Company differs in terms of sales, profits, challenges, financial conditions, and so on. To follow competitors directly may be erroneous.
  • Advertising is not the sole factors that affect the sales; interplay of many factors determines sales.
  • In case, when there are many competitors, it is difficult to decide as to whom the company should follow.
  • The method is followed only when there are dominant competitors. In absence of competition, the method cannot be used.
  • The method can make a sense only to followers and challengers. It is not applicable to a market leader.

4. Affordable or Fund Available Method:

This is, in real sense, not a method to set advertising budget. The method is based on the company’s capacity to spend. It is based on the notion that a company should spend on advertising as per its capacity. Company with a sound financial position spends more on advertising and vice versa.

Under this method, budgetary allocation is made only after meeting all the expenses. Advertising budget is treated as the residual decision. If fund is available, the company spends; otherwise the company has to manage without advertising. Thus, a company’s capacity to afford is the main criterion.

Limitations:

Following are the limitations of the method:

  • The method completely ignores the role or need of advertising in the competitive market environment.
  • In long run, it leads to uncertain planning as there is no guarantee that the company will spend for advertising.
  • Except company financial position, other factors like company’s need for advertising, consumer base, competition, and so forth are ignored.
  • This method only guides that a company should not spend beyond its capacity.
  • This is not a method in real sense.
  • There is possibility of bias in deciding advertising amount.

5. Expert Opinion Method:

Many marketing firms follow this method. Both internal and external experts are asked to estimate the amount to be spent for advertisement for a given period. Experts, on the basis of the rich experience on the area, can determine objectively the amount for advertising. Experts supply their estimate individually or jointly.

Along with the estimates, they also underline certain assumptions. Internal experts involve company’s executives, such as general manager, marketing manager, advertising manager, sales manager, distribution manager, etc.

Whereas external experts involve marketing consultants, dealers, suppliers, distributors, trade associations, advertising agencies, and other professionals related to the field. Marketing consultants and advertising agencies provide such services on professional basis.

Advertising budget recommended by external experts is more neutral (bias-free) and, hence, is reliable. Experts considers overall situation and give their opinion on how much a company should spend. Mostly, the experts consider all the relevant factors related to advertising while deciding on advertising budget.

Merits:

Expert opinion method offers following merits:

  • The estimates tend to be more balanced as various executives and experts are involved.
  • The budget is more accurate and realistic because the internal executives are well aware of company’s strengths and weaknesses.
  • It is the only option when a company is new, having no past experience.
  • External experts tend to be more neutral as they are external to organisation

Demerits:

However, the user must be aware of following possible demerits:

  • It is not a scientific method. Personal value, experience, and attitudes play vital role.
  • It is difficult to fix responsibility of the final estimates as many experts contribute to budget estimates.
  • External experts are not fully aware of the company’s marketing situations.
  • When more internal experts are involved, it may deteriorate relation due to possible conflicts or lack of consensus.
  • Possibility of prejudice or bias cannot be ignored.
  • All opinions, right or wrong, are given equal importance

6. Other Methods:

There are some other methods used for setting advertising budget.

They have been listed below:

  1. Arbitrary Allocation Method
  2. Profit Maximization Approach

iii. Incremental Method

  1. Sales Force Opinion Method, etc.

What Are The Various Methods Of Post Testing Of The Ad

This Might Make you realize why you have such a long break before the Ad Paper

Post-testing or Ad tracking, as otherwise known, can be customised or syndicated. Tracking studies provide either periodic or continuous in-market research monitoring a brand’s performance, including brand awareness, brand preference, product usage and attitudes. Advertising tracking can be done by telephone interviews or online interviews—with the two approaches producing fundamentally different measures of consumer memories of advertising, recall versus recognition.

Purpose of Post Testing:

The purpose of ad tracking is generally to provide a measure of the combined effect of the media weight or spending level, the effectiveness of the media buy or targeting, and the quality of the advertising executions or creative. Some newer forms of online tracking, separate the issues of the quality of the creative component from the quality of the media buy and instead focus on the relative performance of ads versus the competitive ads that are airing at the same time. All forms of tracking data are used to provide inputs to Marketing Mix Models which marketing science statisticians build to estimate advertising return on investment (ROI).

Some ad tracking studies are conducted by telephone while others are conducted on the Internet. The two approaches produce very different measures of advertising awareness because the interviews tap into consumer memories of advertising using fundamentally different measures, recall versus recognition.

For example, with an Internet study, the respondent can be shown a few memorable, de-branded still images from the TV ad or a de-branded version of a print or Internet ad and then answer three significant questions:

  1. Do you recognise this ad? (Recognition measure)
  2. Please type in the sponsor of this ad. (Unaided awareness measure)

iii. Please choose from the following list, the sponsor of this ad. (Aided awareness measure)

A telephone survey does not allow for visuals. Verbal descriptions are very difficult to provide for a campaign that has several ads featuring the same character(s) in the same situation with only slight changes. Telephone is not considered a flexible enough methodology to be used in all situations.

The data that a post-test might provide are as follows:

  1. Decision Analyst
  2. Top of mind brand awareness
  3. Unaided brand awareness
  4. Aided brand awareness
  5. Brand fit
  6. Brand image ratings
  7. Brand trial
  8. Repeat purchase
  9. Frequency of use
  10. Purchase intent
  11. Price perceptions
  12. Unaided advertising awareness
  13. Aided advertising awareness
  14. Unaided advertising message recall
  15. Aided advertising message recall
  16. Aided commercial recall
  17. Ad wear out
  18. Promotion awareness and usage
  19. Market segment characteristics
  20. Media habits
  21. Lifestyle/Psychographics
  22. Demographics

Different techniques of Post-Testing:

Among the various post testing techniques used most common ones are:

  1. Penetration tests: Recognition/recall
  2. Progress tests or Sales Effects Tests.

Apart from this, perceptions, image and attitudes can also be measured to assess the effectiveness of ads. The attitude measurement may be used in combination with penetration (recall) tests.

Penetration Tests:

Daniel Starch had given the details of this test for the first time in his book Principles of Advertising (Chicago- A W Shaw, 1923). These tests are also known as Recognition/Readership Viewership tests. They are aided recall tests dating back to 1923. Since then they have been conducted in the US by the Daniel Starch Organisation. Here, the respondents are shown the issues of magazines they claim to have read. They are asked to recognise the ads, asked whether they have read them.

The results are put into three categories:

(i) Noted (N): A person who only remembers having seen the ad in the issue under study

(ii) Seen-Associated (A). A person who not only remembers seeing it but also claims to have seen or read some part of it. He may even associate the ad with the product or advertiser

(iii) Read-Most (RM). The person who has read half or more of the written material in the ad.

The above categories of readers are expressed in percentage terms. This method is also adaptable to broadcast ads where commercial advertisements on tape are played. McGown (1979) gave the following formula to calculate Readers per Dollar:

Readers peere Dollar = Percent noted X Magazin’s primary readers / Space cost in Dollar

This method however is not error free. This method is always subject to reporting errors by the respondents. They might deliberately exaggerate or at times unknowingly suppress information. At times they guess answers to please the interviewer and hide the fact that he or she has not seen the advertisements.

There are however some methods as follows which might increase the efficiency of measurement.

  1. The tachistoscopic method: Advertisements are shown to the respondent, either whole or part, at high speed; and then they are asked to furnish information based on those ads.
  2. The screen method: Several screens are put over an ad which are then removed one by one an recognition is obtaited at various levels of visibility.

iii. Two more methods often used by researchers are Pre-publication control which requires a recognition survey of previously unpublished advertisements and confusion contra methods where some unpublished advertisements are mixed up with some published ones and then recall is measured.

Gallup-Robinson Impact Test:

Gallup- Robison is a commercial research firm which has formulated standardised aided recall tests to survey advertisement impact. A respondent is shown a magazine cover and is asked whether s/ he has read the issue. If yes, then s/he is asked to describe anything s/he remembers seeing in that issue. S/he is then given a deck of cards with brand names on them which appeared on the issue and is asked to indicate which ones s/he remembers seeing in the issue.

Recognition Vs Aided Recall:

  1. In the aided recall method, the test issue is kept closed, and the respondent is required to answer, entirely on the basis of his memory, whereas in the recognition method, respondents first qualify as readers of a particular issue.
  2. The aided-recall method has a more exacting requirement; in effect, it eliminates many persons of “less desirable” characteristics from the audience which is not the case with the other one.

iii. Studies in USA have revealed that the recognition method gives an average advertisement score that is six times the average PNR score.

  1. The aided-recall advertisement readers are younger, and have a lower educational, occupational and income status.
  2. A Printed Advertising Rating Methods (PARM) study has concluded that the aided-recall method gives much lower ratings, which are sensitive to such methodological factors as the lapse of time before the interview, the competence of the interviewers and the type of the sample.

Unaided Recall Tests:

This is a kind of recall test where the respondents are not given any clue to recall the ad. This proves to be more demanding than the aided recall, as respondents recalling the brands without help shows a greater degree of penetration of the ad.

Types of Unaided Recall:

Day-After- Recall (DAR):

One day after the advertisement appears the readers or viewers are questioned after that.

Total Prime Time (TPT):

Here the main item of research is viewer’s television viewing time.

Triple-Association Test (TAT):

This test measures how much a viewer or reader has learnt about the brand from the advertisement. The respondent is told about some product feature or benefit and he is to find the brand name for that. For example if a respondent is asked that which toothpaste ad shows that it has salt in it and the respondent says Colgate active salt we understand that the learning objective of the advertisement is successful.

Progress Tests:

These tests assess the total sales effect from the ad and hence is also called sales effect test. In other words, the various stages through which a customer passes and finally purchases are because of the advertisement or not is analysed. Though the increase of sales due to advertisement is slightly difficult to be measured, yet we have the following established methods

The Netapps Method:

Netapps stands for Net-Ad-Produced-Purchases. Daniel Starch and Staff Company developed this method. It takes a sample population of which some have read or viewed the advertisement and others have not. In each group those who did and did not purchase the brand under investigation are found and analysed as to what percentage bought under the influence of the advertisement.

Intend-to-buy Test:

The readers or viewers of the advertisement are asked about their intention to buy. For positive responses further investigations are done to find the strong influences in the advertisement because of which they decide to buy.

Sales Result Tests:

Following are some of sales results tests which measure the additional sales generated by the ads.

Past Sales before and after the ad are recorded and the difference is accounted for as an impact of advertisement.

An audit may be run on the dealers inventory before and after the advertisement.

Enquiry Tests:

Some consumer durables companies issue coupons as a part of the advertisement copy and when they are circulated to the customers, they are supposed to fill it up and send it back to the company. So when the customers are filling in the coupons they are seeing the ad copy as well. So from the number of coupons received estimation can be made as to the number of the readership of the advertisement.

Attitude Tests:

The change in attitude of the customers after the advertisement campaign is measured and marketers observe whether there has been any change in the customers’ attitude towards the brand under investigation. Further they assume that a positive attitude towards their brand may lead to further purchases. Generally the attitude is measured by rating it on a scales like Likert Scale, Thurstone scale, Differential Scale, Guttman Scale etc.

Thus like any other aspect of market research, advertising research also aims towards the investigation of various real facts from the market. It attempts to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of the communication efforts of the organisations. On these evaluations, many important strategic communication decisions depend. Hence it proves to be a very important area as today the organisations know that apart from the sales figures, brand image and goodwill are also very important which depends a lot on the advertising efforts.

Post Testing Techniques

Post testing is done to know- to what extent the advertising objectives are achieved. Following are the types of post testing methods:

  • Recognition Test: Recognition test involves the ability of viewers to correctly identify ad, brand, or message they previously exposed to. The types of recognition test are:
    • Starch Test – The Starch test is applied only to print ads that have already run. The interviewer shows each respondent a magazine or newspaper containing the ads being tested. For each ad the interviewer asks the respondents to reply to ad related questions.
    • Bruzzone Test – The Bruzzone test is conducted through mail surveys. Questionnaires containing frames and audio scripts from television commercials are sent to respondents and respondents are asked whether they recognize the ad and brand.
  • Recall or Impact Test: The recall test is designed to measure the impression of readers or viewers of the advertisement. If a reader has a favorable impression of the advertisement, he will certainly retain something of the advertisement. The measures of interest would be obtained by interviewing the readers or viewers or listeners, days after the advertisement or commercial is appeared in the newspaper, or on T.V. Interviewer asks the readers or viewers to answer some ad related questions, and in response to the question asked, the reader reveals the accuracy and depth of his impression.
  • Inquiry & Coupon response: In the enquiry method the reader is offered something in return for his inquiry letter. This is called inquiry testing. In the coupons response method, the person sending the coupon has to supply certain information to the advertiser.
  • Readership survey Test: In this method a group of selected respondents are asked to identify advertisements they have seen in the publications they read. They are asked to classify the ads as noted, seen, and associated & readmost.
  • Attitude Measurement Test Method: In this test method attempts to find out the effectiveness of an advertisement, in the light of consumers evaluation of the company & its brands of product.  It is presumed hat when attitudes are favorable, the demand for the product is generated & the consumers are likely to buy the product & vice versa.
  • Sales Test Method: In order to find out the effectiveness of the ad campaign, the increase in sales in both the cities will be collected & studies. The increase in sales of a product will indicate the success of the campaign. In case there is decline in the sales or if the sales do not increase, it indicates that the campaign has failed.

Advertising on Social Media.

Digital marketing is the marketing of products or services using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet, but also including mobile phones, display advertising, and any other digital medium.

Digital marketing’s development since the 1990s and 2000s has changed the way brands and businesses use technology for marketing. As digital platforms are increasingly incorporated into marketing plans and everyday life, and as people use digital devices instead of visiting physical shops, digital marketing campaigns are becoming more prevalent and efficient.

Digital Advertising Relates to marketing media that is digitally displayed. Digital advertising are carried out on the internet, on smartphones and handheld media devices and even on automobiles and billboards. This type of advertising is used to build or maintain a brand image and market products or services to consumers. Digital advertising is also known as internet advertising. It has been very useful in generating traffic to websites and in turn helps them to do more business. When ads of products and services are placed on many websites on the internet, many people will notice the ads.

Considering the global reach that it has, digital advertising is certainly an economical and favourable necessity for businesses. The importance of advertising on websites are combined, they provide the best results. The idea of the Idea’s 3G Ad and Swift on espncricinfo.com was given on a day when India was playing a cricket match against England.

Digital Advertising includes promotional advertisements, messages delivered through email, social media websites, online advertising on search engines, banner ads on mobile, websites, and affiliates programmes. Digital advertising is vast. It has many different types of online ads being produced based on target audience website content and call to actions

From Banner Ads to Search Engine Optimization is vast, social networking, email marketing, online classified ads, site takeovers and even SPAM, digital advertising is one of the fastest growing ways to reach an audience. With the web, now available on smartphones, digital advertising has spread to the mobile platform. Companies are trying best find ways to advertise on phones without creating an unpleasant or disruptive experience. The following terms provide a list of commonly used expressions in digital advertising.

  • CPM
    CPM Stands for Cost Per Thousand. CPM relates to the cost per thousand impressions, that is the cost per thousand times your banner or text or audio ad is shown or circulated. All ad are not seen by surfers. Some are overlooked also. If a site has a CPM Rate of Rs. 500 t means for Rs. 500 the ad will be shown, 1,000 times. Either it is shown to 1,000 different people, or to much smaller audience
  • Click Through Rate : Click through rate relates to the percentage of people who click through an ad to visit the page it is linked to. One person could generate many click through by going back and forward through an ad.
  • Cost Per Click (CPC) : This relates to the cost per click of an ad. Advertisers dictate the click through rate rather than the sites they advertise on. Advertisers can be told about improvement to their banners, so that site owner can increase click through rates
  • Click Away Rate : Click away rate relates to the percentage of people who have the site through a given link
  • Run of Site [ROS] : It relates to ad campaign whereby ads are rotated across all the pages of a site. It is economical to advertisers.
  • Cost Per Action (CPA) : It relates to providing rewards for results e.g. a site owner will pay commission on all sales created by a visitor using the site. This is totally in contrast with CPM where payment is based on number of impression and CPC Payment is based on Number of visitors

[Just let me get this straight in your heads. Dont get excited with Ads and YouTube Money. You need minimum 10,000 Subscribers and a lifetime of 1,00,000 views to start earning money on YouTube. And for websites and blogs, you need minimum of 6 Months of History and Presence on the Internet with a Good Audience. Many People ask me how to make this happen, so this is how. Its not an easy thing to earn. Many YouTubers sell their merchandise, and ask for donations which gives instant cash. YouTubers earn 14 Million a Year through Merchandise, and around a Million or 2 by ads.]


Flow of Communication in an Ad Agency

This is the Communication Process which we learnt a few pages ago.

Wait you forgot.

So when this is asked to you on any other day you give that model. But when its asked in Advertising, we include Noise/Interference. This model is called Marketing Communication Model

The Communication is a two-way process wherein the message in the form of ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinions is transmitted between two or more persons with the intent of creating a shared understanding.

Communication strategy can make or break a brand by creating the positive or favourable image necessary in the minds of customers. They act as an important tool in understanding how communications work in real life. Marketing communication models are developed based on various studies that explain how communication works in marketing a product. There are theories within external marketing communications. Advertising is aiming to help customers progress through the cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages before they buy the products.

The communication process model is created to show that communication consist of several different elements in constant interaction with each other. There is said to be seven main elements in this process model, sender, message, receiver, feedback, channel, context or setting and noise or interference. These seven are equally important in the process of communication and without any one of them, the process will be incomplete.

Source

The initiator of the message in the process of communication.  In terms of advertising here the brands or companies are the initiator of the source of the message

Message

The ad that are created for brands to be sent to consumers at different media channels are considered to be the message. These messages could be combination of visuals sound, words, emotions, etc.

Medium

The channels through which the messages reach the target group are called the medium. In terms of advertising various media vehicles where ads are carried like TV, Radio, Internet, Newspapers, etc. are the mediums

Receiver

The audience that receives the messages are the receiver. These could be intended or unintended audience for the messages. The reception of the message largely depends upon the past experiences, attitudes, perception and learning of the audiences.

Feedback

The response that the source receives from audience regarding the communication is called as feedback. In terms of advertising to gain feedback is very difficult as its medium is mass communication and each person is different


Phases of Advertising Evaluation.

I think this is that tricky question where they change the name.

I think these are methods of  Testing of Ads.

I am adding Pretest and others. Let me know if wrong

Pre-testing:

Pre-testing, also known as copy testing is a form of customised research that predicts in-market performance of an ad, before it airs, by analysing audience levels of attention, brand linkage, motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ad’s Flow of Attention and Flow of Emotion. (Young) Pre-testing is also used on ads still in rough form – e.g., animatics or ripomatics. Pre­testing is also used to identify weak spots within an ad to improve performance, to more effectively edit 60’s to 30’s or 30’s to 15’s, to select images from the spot to use in an integrated campaign’s print ad, to pull out the key moments for use in ad tracking, and to identify branding moments.

Post-Testing:

Post-testing or Ad tracking, as otherwise known, can be customised or syndicated. Tracking studies provide either periodic or continuous in-market research monitoring a brand’s performance, including brand awareness, brand preference, product usage and attitudes. Advertising tracking can be done by telephone interviews or online interviews—with the two approaches producing fundamentally different measures of consumer memories of advertising, recall versus recognition.

Concurrent Testing

Besides pre and post test mechanism for evaluating the ad effectiveness, there is another category of tests. As the name suggests, the testing of the ad effectiveness happens simultaneously, that is, concurrently as the ad campaign is been run. The major objective of this kind of test is to be aware of the limitations or shortcomings of the ad before it is too late. Such an attempt saves huge loss in case the ad campaign is not appropriate with some of its dimension. Although avoiding costly mistakes is the prime objective of conducting the pre-test for an advertisement, concurrent test gives the firm a specific advantage over pre-test. This is, while pre-test is conducted on limited market area, concurrent test covers full market area. Because of the limited scope of pre-testing, certain limitations might not surface and the firm may remain ignorant about them even after pre-test stage. This shall become evident from concurrent test, such that the firm can take timely action and modify the ad suitably. Concurrent testing also has a merit over post-testing. Post test are undertaken after a time lag between the launch of the ad and the test itself. Due to this time lag the recall value of the ad is hampered. Concurrent test overcomes this shortcoming and the tests are performed while the ad is been run and is fresh in the minds of the viewers/readers.


ASCI

Like other countries around the world, India too has a self-regulatory organization (SRO) for advertising content – The Advertising Standards Council of India, ASCI founded in 1985. The four main constituents of advertising industry viz advertisers, advertising agencies, media and allied professions came together to form this independent NGO.

The aim of ASCI is to maintain and enhance the public’s confidence in advertising. Their mandate is that all advertising material must be truthful, legal and honest, decent and not objectify women, safe for consumers – especially children and last but not the least, fair to their competitors

ASCI’s team consists of the Board of Governors, the Consumer Complaints Council (CCC) and its Secretariat. ASCI has 12 members in its Board of Governors, four each representing the key sectors such as Advertisers, advertising agencies, media and allied professions such as market research, consulting, business education etc. The CCC currently has about 21 members: 9 are from within the industry and 12 are from the civil society like well-known doctors, lawyers, journalists, academicians, consumer activists, etc. The CCC’s decision on complaint against any ad is final. ASCI also has its own independent Secretariat of 5 members which is headed by the Secretary General.

There is no other non governmental body in India which regulates the advertising content that is released in India. If an ad that is released in India seems objectionable, a person can write to ASCI with their complaint.[#BanVijaySalesAds2018] This complaint will be deliberated on by the CCC after providing due process to advertiser to defend the ad against the complaint and depending on whether the ad is in alignment with the ASCI code and law of the land, the complaint is upheld or not upheld and if upheld then the ad is voluntarily either withdrawn or modified.

In 2007, the Government of India amended the Cable TV Network Rules’ Advertising Code by which ads which violate ASCI code cannot be permitted on TV.

Almost all professional fields have self-regulatory bodies governing their activities. For the advertising fraternity, until 1985 there was none. Due to this there was a lot of false, misleading and offensive advertising. This led to consumers losing faith in advertising and hence resenting it. It was decided that if this continued it would not take time for statutory regulations such as censorship to be imposed on advertising content.

In 1985, ASCI to be imposed on advertisers and advertising agencies. This would make fair, truthful and decent advertising almost impossible which would in turn hinder the industry’s ability to compete and grow.

In 1985, the ASCI adopted a Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising. With the introduction of the code, the aim is to promote honest and decent advertising and fair competition in the industry. It will also ensure the protection of consumer interests and the all concerned with the ad industry – advertisers, media, advertising agencies and others who help in the creation or placement of advertisements.

As the fraternity starts accepting the code, it will result in fewer false claims, fewer unfair advertisements and increased respect for advertisers.

Need for ASCI

When an advertiser is creating an ad, the consumer is his audience. The feedback from a consumer is important to the advertiser so he can be assured if his message has been correctly conveyed. If a consumer feels that a particular advertisement is in bad taste or is false in its claims, they need a body or council to whom they can air their grievances and who will take any appropriate action, if necessary. ASCI as a self-regulatory body governing advertising content is the ideal medium as its purpose is to serve both the advertisers as well as the consumers.


Types of Ad Copy

When it comes to marketing and sales, it is vital to have a firm understanding of ad copy. Without understanding ad copy, your business will lose prospects and sales. You will experience much lower conversion rates, and your profits will suffer. In fact, not knowing how to use ad copy could cause your business to fail.

However, if you learn to use ad copy effectively, you will increase the reach and potential of your business.

You will be more successful, and you will get more customers. In this article, you will learn what ad copy is and how to identify it.

What Is Ad Copy?

Ad copy is a very specific type of content. It is designed to get the reader to respond or take action. In a standard sales setting, salespeople spend several minutes to several hours answering prospective customers’ questions and addressing their concerns. Without this interaction, many of the customer’s objections would go unanswered. If a customer has unanswered objections, they will not buy the product or service.

But by taking the time to walk the customer through the process and providing valuable insights, the salesperson can effectively communicate with the customer. It increases the odds of making a sale. However, when selling online, this type of interaction is rarely possible. It is where ad copy comes in. Ad copy is a sales letter that addresses the possible objections a customer might have.

It also highlights the key features and benefits the customer will receive by making a purchase.

What’s the Purpose of Ad Copy?

The goal of ad copy is to increase conversion rates and profits. There are three ways to make a business more profitable. You can increase the traffic to the sales page, increase the value of the product or service, or you can increase the percentage of web traffic that converts to customers.

Increasing the conversion rate is the most effective way to increase the profitability of a business.

Ad copy achieves this by highlighting the key components of a product or service and communicating them to potential customers in a way they can relate to. When used properly, ad copy is very powerful and effective

Types of Ad Copies

Method or style of presentation is to do with the way in which the message is presented. It speaks of the different types of advertising copies to arrest, inform, impress and impel the reader; certain elements are to be present in a copy such as attention, suggestion, meaning, conviction, sentiment, education and instinct.

These copies are classified in a number of ways. However, the most practical one is to classify into six types as:

1. Institutional Copy:

Institutional Copy neither sells nor the products neither the service but the name of the business house. The aim is to build the sound edifice of reputation for the selling house. It seeks to build goodwill through its philosophy, objectives, and policies towards public so that the prospects remember it.

2. Reason Why Copy:

Reason Why Copy offers reasons as to why the customer is expected to buy a product or service of the advertiser. It appeals straight to the intellect or the judgment of an individual than emotion or impulses. It attempts to prove the product superiority by means of evidences in the forms of performance test, records, testimonials, guarantees and the like.

3. Human Interest Copy:

Human Interest Copy appeals to the emotional and the senses than intellect and the judgment, sympathy, affection, love, fear, humour, curiosity and other emotional appeals are used to the sense of sight, touch, taste, smell and hearing.

It tells about the product in relation to the people instead of conforming to the facts about the products. It takes several forms of which four are very significant namely, ‘fear’, ‘humorous’, ‘story’ and ‘predicament’ copy.

4. Suggestive Copy:

Suggestive Copy tries to suggest or pinpoint or convey the message of the advertiser directly or indirectly to the readers. Much is left to the reader to infer the ad message. Like a poem, suggestive language is freely used where the hidden meaning is to be picked by the readers. Such copy can be ‘direct’ or ‘indirect’ suggestive copy. The first tells directly about the products or services of the company while the latter does indirectly.

5. Expository Copy:

Expository Copy is open copy that exposes unlike suggestive copy. It is so open that the facts are given in very simple and clear way so that there is no need for interpretation. The information given is so clear and concise that hardly it taxes the reader’s brain. It makes possible effortless grasp and act.


Integrated Marketing Communication [IMC]

Integrated Marketing Communications is a simple concept. It ensures that all forms of communications and messages are carefully linked together.

At its most basic level, Integrated Marketing Communications, or IMC, as we’ll call it, means integrating all the promotional tools, so that they work together in harmony.

Integrated Marketing is an approach to creating a unified and seamless experience for consumers to interact with the brand/enterprise; it attempts to meld all aspects of marketing communication such as advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and social media, through their respective mix of tactics, methods, channels, media, and activities, so that all work together as a unified force. It is a process designed to ensure that all messaging and communications strategies are consistent across all channels and are centered on the customer.

It is essential for organizations to promote their brands well among the end-users not only to outshine competitors but also survive in the long run. Brand promotion increases awareness of products and services and eventually increases their sales, yielding high profits and revenue for the organization.

Brand communication is an initiative taken by organizations to make their products and services popular among the end-users. Brand communication goes a long way in promoting products and services among target consumers. The process involves identifying individuals who are best suited to the purchase of products or services (also called target consumers) and promoting the brand among them


Flow of Communication in an Ad agency

So when this is asked to you on any other day you give that model. But when its asked in Advertising, we include Noise/Interference. This model is called Marketing Communication Model

The Communication is a two-way process wherein the message in the form of ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinions is transmitted between two or more persons with the intent of creating a shared understanding.

Communication strategy can make or break a brand by creating the positive or favourable image necessary in the minds of customers. They act as an important tool in understanding how communications work in real life. Marketing communication models are developed based on various studies that explain how communication works in marketing a product. There are theories within external marketing communications. Advertising is aiming to help customers progress through the cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages before they buy the products.

The communication process model is created to show that communication consist of several different elements in constant interaction with each other. There is said to be seven main elements in this process model, sender, message, receiver, feedback, channel, context or setting and noise or interference. These seven are equally important in the process of communication and without any one of them, the process will be incomplete.

Source

The initiator of the message in the process of communication.  In terms of advertising here the brands or companies are the iniatro of the source of the message

Message

The ad that are created for brands to be sent to consumers at different media channels re considered to be the message. These messages could be combination of visuals sound, words, emotions, etc.

Medium

The channels through which the messages reach the target group are called the medium. In terms of advertising various media vehicles where ads are carried like TV, Radio, Internet, Newspapers, etc. are the mediums

Receiver

The audience that receives the messages are the receiver. These could be intended or intended audience for the messages. The reception of the message largely depends upon the past experiences, attitudes, perception and learning of the audiences.

Feedback

The response that the source receives from audience regarding the communication is called as feedback. In terms of advertising to gain feedback is very difficult as its medium is mass communication and each person is different


Phases of Advertising Evaluation.

Boy Oh Boy Have you seen the time? It is time for Answering the Same Questions again

Pre-testing:

Pre-testing, also known as copy testing is a form of customised research that predicts in-market performance of an ad, before it airs, by analysing audience levels of attention, brand linkage, motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ad’s Flow of Attention and Flow of Emotion. (Young) Pre-testing is also used on ads still in rough form – e.g., animatics or ripomatics. Pre­testing is also used to identify weak spots within an ad to improve performance, to more effectively edit 60’s to 30’s or 30’s to 15’s, to select images from the spot to use in an integrated campaign’s print ad, to pull out the key moments for use in ad tracking, and to identify branding moments.

Post-Testing:

Post-testing or Ad tracking, as otherwise known, can be customised or syndicated. Tracking studies provide either periodic or continuous in-market research monitoring a brand’s performance, including brand awareness, brand preference, product usage and attitudes. Advertising tracking can be done by telephone interviews or online interviews—with the two approaches producing fundamentally different measures of consumer memories of advertising, recall versus recognition.

Concurrent Testing

Besides pre and post test mechanism for evaluating the ad effectiveness, there is another category of tests. As the name suggests, the testing of the ad effectiveness happens simultaneously, that is, concurrently as the ad campaign is been run. The major objective of this kind of test is to be aware of the limitations or shortcomings of the ad before it is too late. Such an attempt saves huge loss in case the ad campaign is not appropriate with some of its dimension. Although avoiding costly mistakes is the prime objective of conducting the pre-test for an advertisement, concurrent test gives the firm a specific advantage over pre-test. This is, while pre-test is conducted on limited market area, concurrent test covers full market area. Because of the limited scope of pre-testing, certain limitations might not surface and the firm may remain ignorant about them even after pre-test stage. This shall become evident from concurrent test, such that the firm can take timely action and modify the ad suitably. Concurrent testing also has a merit over post-testing. Post test are undertaken after a time lag between the launch of the ad and the test itself. Due to this time lag the recall value of the ad is hampered. Concurrent test overcomes this shortcoming and the tests are performed while the ad is been run and is fresh in the minds of the viewers/readers.


Advertising Ethics

Ethics means a set of moral principles which govern a person’s behavior or how the activity is conducted. And advertising means a mode of communication between a seller and a buyer.

Thus ethics in advertising means a set of well defined principles which govern the ways of communication taking place between the seller and the buyer. Ethics is the most important feature of the advertising industry. Though there are many benefits of advertising but then there are some points which don’t match the ethical norms of advertising.

An ethical ad is the one which doesn’t lie, doesn’t make fake or false claims and is in the limit of decency. Nowadays, ads are more exaggerated and a lot of puffing is used. It seems like the advertisers lack knowledge of ethical norms and principles. They just don’t understand and are unable to decide what is correct and what is wrong.

The main area of interest for advertisers is to increase their sales, gain more and more customers, and increase the demand for the product by presenting a well decorated, puffed and colorful ad. They claim that their product is the best, having unique qualities than the competitors, more cost effective, and more beneficial. But most of these ads are found to be false, misleading customers and unethical. The best example of these types of ads is the one which shows evening snacks for the kids, they use coloring and gluing to make the product look glossy and attractive to the consumers who are watching the ads on television and convince them to buy the product without giving a second thought.

Ethics in Advertising is directly related to the purpose of advertising and the nature of advertising. Sometimes exaggerating the ad becomes necessary to prove the benefit of the product. For e.g. a sanitary napkin ad which shows that when the napkin was dropped in a river by some girls, the napkin soaked whole water of the river. Thus, the purpose of advertising was only to inform women about the product quality. Obviously, every woman knows that this cannot practically happen but the ad was accepted. This doesn’t show that the ad was unethical.

Btw I wanna say that I respect every single women. You guys have to suffer regularly, every month, and there’s no stop. So I just wanna say I respect you all. And I want every boy to act like a man and respect a woman, so be it anyone. Don’t be full of shit always

Ethics also depends on what we believe. If the advertisers make the ads on the belief that the customers will understand, persuade them to think, and then act on their ads, then this will lead to positive results and the ad may not be called unethical. But at the same time, if advertisers believe that they can fool their customers by showing any impractical things like just clicking fingers will make your home or office fully furnished or just buying a lottery ticket will make you a millionaire, then this is not going to work out for them and will be called as unethical.

Generally, big companies never lie as they have to prove their points to various ad regulating bodies. Truth is always said but not completely. Sometimes it’s better not to reveal the whole truth in the ad but at times truth has to be shown for betterment.

Pharmaceutical Advertising – they help creating awareness, but one catchy point here is that the advertisers show what the medicine can cure but never talk about the side effects of that same thing or the risks involved in intake of it.

Children – children are the major sellers of the ads and the product. They have the power to convince the buyers. But when advertisers are using children in their ad, they should remember not to show them alone doing there work on their own like brushing teeth, playing with toys, or infants holding their own milk bottles as everyone knows that no one will leave their kids unattended while doing all these activities. So showing parents also involved in all activities or things being advertised will be more logical.

Alcohol – till today, there hasn’t come any liquor ad which shows anyone drinking the original liquor. They use mineral water and sodas in their advertisements with their brand name. These types of ads are called surrogate ads. These type of ads are totally unethical when liquor ads are totally banned. Even if there are no advertisements for alcohol, people will continue drinking.

Cigarettes and Tobacco – these products should be never advertised as consumption of these things is directly and badly responsible for cancer and other severe health issues. These as are already banned in countries like India, Norway, Thailand, Finland and Singapore.

Ads for social causes – these types of ads are ethical and are accepted by the people. But ads like condoms and contraceptive pills should be limited, as these are sometimes unethical, and are more likely to lose morality and decency at places where there is no educational knowledge about all these products.

Looking at all these above mentioned points, advertisers should start taking responsibility of self regulating their ads by:

  • design self regulatory codes in their companies including ethical norms, truth, decency, and legal points
  • keep tracking the activities and remove ads which don’t fulfill the codes.
  • Inform the consumers about the self regulatory codes of the company
  • Pay attention on the complaints coming from consumers about the product ads.
  • Maintain transparency throughout the company and system.

When all the above points are implemented, they will result in:

  • making the company answerable for all its activities
  • will reduce the chances of getting pointed out by the critics or any regulatory body.
  • will help gain confidence of the customers, make them trust the company and their products.

Elements of Copywriting

Simplicity

Simplicity in ads attracted readers and vieers. A simple writing style is appreciated by one and all. It is advisable to avoid industry speccific lamgiage. Hindia words are freely used to cater to larger audience. A good copy communicates the advertising message in a simple, clear and complete manner. The words used are from day-to-day spoken language. The objective is to enable the reader and viewer to get the message easily. Simplicity facilitates easy understanding.

Credibility

In order to produce a good ad, the creative team is required to conduct research. The ad personnels must document the sources of information and give credits to whom credit is due. For the sake of agency’s reputation, never plagiarize. When the agency copies ad, sooner or later people come to know about the source. This damages the credibility of the agency. Consumers must find the agency trustworthiness which will deliver on its promises. Credibility will take time to build and it requires consistent efforts.

Empathy

Copywriters must know their audience and also understand them. It is necessary to present the message from the point of view of the audience. If the copywriter tries to impose his thinking, chances are such ad will be rejected by the public.  Ads must be prepared from point of view of the people.This will convince them that the ads have been made to meet their needs

Defined Purpose

Copywriters must know the destination towards which they are progressing otherwise their work will remain in disorder and confusion. Before they start their work, it is important to define the purpose and write with that purpose in mind. The purpose will differ from assignment to assignment e.g. when the copywriter is asked to write about airlines his audience will be different and will have to write with a different purpose whereas the purpose totally changes when he is asked to write about fashionable garments.

Error-Free

Some ad agencies follow the practice of checking the work done by a certain copywriter by others in the department. Although the concerned copywriter may feel bad but it is a good exercise. A writer may not be able to pinpoint his own mistake whereas others can locate the error in no time. Always employ an extra set of eyes to make sure no errors take place. If a copywriter cannot write error free cop he my not be continued on the job. As a rule, it is desirable to get the copy edited by someone else. Someone who has experience with editing is much more likely to pinpoint the mistakes.

Customer Centric Copy

Most of the business writes centric copy  instead of customer centric copy. The copy claims the business is at the top and how great their product is failing to focus on their customers. Company focused copy used we much more than it does “you” e.g. “We are professional house giving maintenance service”. A better approach would be “Are you tired of maintain your premises? Do you have better things to do with you time?” It explains what the maintenance company offers in the context of the customer and how the service helps the busy executives free up more time for them. Copywriter must write about eh business regarding how it helps the customers by focusing on their needs.

Brevity

Writer short sentences and paragraphs. Very few ads are descriptive. Ads with minimum words are easily read and remembered. Short presentation keeps viewers and readers engaged. Copywriter should be brief and specific. Every word should carry its own weight in the copy. It all depends on factors like the types of the product, space, and time available, objective of the ad and the appeal of the product e.g. selling computers to engineer the copy has to be short. Brevity should not be at the cost of quality of message.

Maintain Dialogue

The basis of good copywriting is to write conversationally. The act of good writing is a conversation between the writer and the reader. Copy ends up being a conversation between the company and the prospective customers. The company has a message to get across so its talking with customers through media. Copywriters should use words and phrases that we use in everyday dialogue and write in a similar manner to the way we speak. Customers want to have a dialogue with the company. They are not interested in talking to a faceless organisation. They want to talk to a person. Your copy should make them feel that they are in touch a person.

Use Appeal

The appeal strikes the keynote of the ad. Adequate knowledge about the appeal that has been selected for the campaign and its application is necessary for the logical development of the copy. Copywriter should study various ads and note how the appeal determines the pitch of the advertisement by setting the pace of the opening sentence in the body copy. Appeal is used in two different ways, factual approach and emotional approach. Factual approach seeks facts that are real, existent and demonstrable. Emotional approach is highly artistic. It is imaginative. Copywriter should look into the readers life or visualize how his life or that of someone in whom he is interested will be enriched by using the product.

Stress Idea

Copy should stress the main idea without any confusion. Copywriters must grasp the idea behind his idea. Confused thinking reflects confused writing which equally confuses the reader or listener. The thoughts should be developed easily, gradually, logically, and step by step. Irrelevant matter and secondary thoughts not pertaining to the idea should be avoided.


Post testing of Advertising

Post-testing or Ad tracking, as otherwise known, can be customised or syndicated. Tracking studies provide either periodic or continuous in-market research monitoring a brand’s performance, including brand awareness, brand preference, product usage and attitudes. Advertising tracking can be done by telephone interviews or online interviews—with the two approaches producing fundamentally different measures of consumer memories of advertising, recall versus recognition.

Purpose of Post Testing:

The purpose of ad tracking is generally to provide a measure of the combined effect of the media weight or spending level, the effectiveness of the media buy or targeting, and the quality of the advertising executions or creative. Some newer forms of online tracking, separate the issues of the quality of the creative component from the quality of the media buy and instead focus on the relative performance of ads versus the competitive ads that are airing at the same time. All forms of tracking data are used to provide inputs to Marketing Mix Models which marketing science statisticians build to estimate advertising return on investment (ROI).

Some ad tracking studies are conducted by telephone while others are conducted on the Internet. The two approaches produce very different measures of advertising awareness because the interviews tap into consumer memories of advertising using fundamentally different measures, recall versus recognition.

For example, with an Internet study, the respondent can be shown a few memorable, de-branded still images from the TV ad or a de-branded version of a print or Internet ad and then answer three significant questions:

  1. Do you recognise this ad? (Recognition measure)
  1. Please type in the sponsor of this ad. (Unaided awareness measure)

iii. Please choose from the following list, the sponsor of this ad. (Aided awareness measure)


Criticism of Advertising

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience to purchase products, ideals or services. While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs. Unsolicited commercial email and other forms of spam have become so prevalent that they are a major nuisance to internet users, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers.

Advertising increasingly invades public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. Advertising frequently uses psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful.

Despite many benefits drawn from advertising, it suffers from a severe criticism advanced by different segments of society. It is not an unmixed blessing. It has been criticised on the following grounds.

Increased Price of The Product:

Advertising increases the cost of the product as the expenses on it form the part of the total cost of the product. The increased prices are borne by the consumers. But it cannot be denied that advertising leads to large scale production which considerably reduces the total and per unit cost of production. The consumer may pay less rather than higher.

Multiplication of Needs:

Advertising creates artificial demand for the product and induces people to buy those products which are not needed by them. On account of its repetition, it allures and creates a desire in the minds of the people to possess an article not required by them.

Deceptive:

Sometimes advertising is used as an instrument of cheating. In order to impress upon the people false statements are given with regard to different virtues of a product. Fraudulent means and deceptive practice are resorted to by various traders in order to sell their products. All these things adversely affect the public confidence in the advertising.

It Leads to Monopoly:

Advertising sometimes leads to monopoly in a particular brand of a product. By investing large sums in advertising of his brand, a big producer eliminates small producers of the same product from the market and creates brand monopoly. This leads to exploitation of consumers.

But in reality this argument does not hold good. The monopoly powers are temporarily acquired by the manufacturers as they face strong competition by the rival producers of the same product. In the words of Marry Hepner “advertising stimulates competition. It often enables the small businessmen to compete with large concerns as well as to start new business”.

Harmful For the Society:

Sometimes advertisements are unethical and objectionable. Most often, these carry indecent language and virtually nude photographs in order to attract the customers. This adversely affects the social values.

Wastage of Precious National Resources:

A serious drawback levied against the advertisement is that it destroys the utility of certain products before their normal life. The latest and improved model of a product leads to the elimination of old ones. For instance, in the U.S.A., people like to possess the latest models of cars and discarding the old ones which are still in useable conditions. This leads to wastage of national resources.


Above the Line (ATL) advertising

Above the Line advertising (often referred as Above the Line promotion/ Above the Line marketing/ ATL marketing/ ATL advertising) consist of advertising activities that are largely non-targeted and have a wide reach. ATL communication is done to build the brand and inform the customers about the product. Conversions are given less importance in above the line advertising.

Above the line marketing includes mass marketing strategies which are largely untargeted and are focused on building the brand.

ATL strategies focus at directing the communication towards the mass market. All promotional messages are untargeted, meaning they do not focus on a specific target group. The idea behind this is to inform customers about the availability of the product. Marketers seek to encourage customers to visit stores and actively seek the product. These strategies help companies reach a larger audience and create brand visibility.

Implementing ATL activities:

  • Television: Advertising campaigns directed at the regional or national level
  • Print media: Promotional messages in newspapers, online articles, and advertisements
  • Radio: Pan-country or pan-city radio broadcasts

Below the Line (BTL) advertising

Below-the-line advertising (often referred as Below the Line promotion/ Below the Line marketing / BTL marketing / BTL advertising) consists of very specific, memorable and direct advertising activities focused on targeted groups of consumers.  Often known as direct marketing strategies, below the line strategies focus more on conversions than on building the brand.

Below the line marketing include direct marketing strategies directed to specific target groups and focused on conversions rather than building the brand.

BTL activities are more focused and they are directed towards specific groups of customers. They are highly targeted, with advertisements being created keeping in mind the demographic and psychographic characteristics of particular customer segments. The communication is highly personalized and the objective is to gain conversions.

The major advantage of BTL advertising is that the results of the campaign can be easily tracked. ROI is also higher here. Additionally, campaigns can be tailored for different subsets of consumers within a single segment.

Implementing BTL activities:

  • Outdoor advertisements: Billboards, flyers, banners, sandwich boards, and so on
  • Direct marketing: SMS, emails, social media posts, pamphlets
  • Sponsorship: Events, competition
  • Public Relations: Press conferences, viral marketing
  • In-store promotion: Visual merchandising, retailer pop-ups, sampling, sales promotions

Through the Line (TTL) advertising

Through the Line advertising (often referred as Through the Line promotion/ Through the Line marketing / TTL marketing / TTL advertising) involves the use of both ATL & BTL marketing strategies. The recent consumer trend in the market requires integration of both ATL & BTL strategies for better results.

Through the marketing involves marketers to create marketing campaigns which include both ATL & BTL  strategies. It refers to 360-degree advertising where campaigns are developed with the vision of brand building as well as conversions.

TTL advertising involves an integrated approach where both ATL and BTL strategies are combined. The objective here is to get a holistic view of the market and communicate with customers in every way possible. Considering that both ATL and BTL activities are used here, all TTL strategies lead to better brand visibility and brand recall.

The major challenge of TTL activities is the cost associated with implementing various promotional campaigns. It is usually only established or financially secure companies that can implement TTL activities successfully.

Implementing TTL activities:

  • 360-degree marketing: Using both ATL and BTL activities – for example, a television advertisement supplemented with pamphlets of the product attached to newspapers.
  • Digital marketing: Online banners and buttons, social media posts, blog articles.

Services offered by Advertising Agency

Collection of Clients/Advertisers

Clients normally prefer an agency which provides wide variety of services efficiently. For this, the agency must maintain expert staff and provide prompt services to the clients. Personal contacts with potential advertisers, contact with company executives and satisfaction services to existing clients are some techniques useful for collecting more clients. Ew business acts as a life blood of an advertising agency.

Advertising Planning

And advertiser normally transfers the responsibility of advertising planning to the ad agency. The agency has to develop advertising plan and execute the same through it organisation. For this, the agency needs a thorough knowledge of the clients products, its advertising history, market conditions, the distributions methods used by the client, the products of competitors and so on. The agency may be required to conduct extensive marketing while preparing such advertising plan.

Media Selection

While selecting the media, the cost and the availability of right audience should be given special attention. Media selection is actually media planning function, which involves selection of suitable media, selection of media vehicle, preparation of media schedule and the date and time of publishing or announcing the advertisement

Creative Functions.

Creation of advertisement is the most important function which requires expert staff. It involves various activities such as copywriting, illustration, layout drawing photographs and preparing the advertising message to be given to consumers. This creative function is given to a group of creative people including copywriters, artists designers, producers and graphic art specialists.

Research

Research is one more supporting function undertaken by advertising agencies. Here, the agency collects, analyzes and draws conclusions as regards market situations, products, competition buyers, preferences and current marketing trends. This information is useful to the agency while conduction other functions. [advertisement creation, media selection, etc.] more purposefully

Sales Promotion

Advertising agencies also conduct marketing functions such as selecting target consumers, determining prices and discounts, designing products and packages, developing sales promotion strategies and so on. These functions are used are useful to advertisers in promoting sales.

Coordination

The ad agency brings proper coordination between the clients sales force and the distribution network with the advertisement programme to be introduced for sales promotion. Such coordination between the advertiser, the agency, the media and the distributors plays an important role in promoting sales.


Pre-Campaign Research

As the name indicates, pre campaign research is undertaken before Ad Campaign is started. The main aim of pre-campaign research is to detect weaknesses or flaws in the campaign that may result in negative response by consumers. Because of this reason it is required that campaign should be so prepared as to increase the likelihood of preparing he most effective advertising message. Pre campaign is conducted on several matters such as media, scheduling motives, messages, markets and so on. Pre campaign research is conducted to test two types of effects:

  1. Communication Effects
  2. Sales Effects

In communication effects, the attempt is to find out whether advertising objectives such as awareness, recall, beliefs, attitudes, and intentions of buy are achieved. In case of sales effects, it seeks to determine whether a proposed message has resulted in increased sales. There are a number of techniques used for pre campaign research in both communication effects and sales effects both in print and broadcast media. Most advertising is ineffective as around two thirds of ads do not work. Given the relatively high probability of creating an ineffective ad and high costs associated in making and presenting ads in media, pre campaign research is responsible risk management. An improved ad with enhanced effect will require less air time, generate extra revenue and pay for the pre campaign many times over. No matter what the campaign, four basic questions must be answered.

What do we know about the product or service?

What shall we say?
How shall we say it?

The first question relates to the problem faced by copywriters and art and design staff before the advertisement is prepared. In this prewriting  stage, research will reveal important ideas based on which rough sketches can be made. It is also possible to find out consumer attitude through research. Ideas thus generated can be evaluated to settle for the best.

The second question covers preliminary writing and layout. The basic advertising theme can be compared against pleasantness, understandability, exclusiveness, importance, etc. This exercise will tell researcher what ought to be said in order to get continued consumer support.

The third question is answered as the layout or storyboards are getting ready. Researcher has opportunity to various themes to determine how effective one theme is against another. The theme must be presented from the consumer point of view. It is bad practice to impose the thinking of the advertiser on the consumers.


Post Campaign

Post campaign research is done to know what extent the advertising objectives are achieved. Post campaign research answers a wide range of questions. This research is specific and economical. it finds out how ads have performed. It examines whether the conditions of introduction and purchase are genuine. The purpose of post campaign research is to determine the effectiveness of media and quality and ad inserted in the media.

Post campaign research takes place after the audience has been exposed to the communication message. it determines how far marketing communication objectives have been attained and how this information will guide future planning. Post campaign research enables the advertiser to change his ad campaign in future to make it more effective and result oriented. Many of the areas of advertising that are pretested can also be post tested.

This research provides periodic and continuous monitoring of brand performance including brand awareness,, brand preference, product usage, consumer attitudes, etc. Post testing tracks changes overtime using various techniques to quantify the specific changes brought about by the campaign. It is also useful for making the next campaign more effective and result oriented.


Copy Brief

Copy brief saves everyone time, money and ultimately results in a far more effective piece of writing, An effective copy brief is a single most critical factor to ensure that a project is successful. Copy brief is vital to any ad writing as it will provide with all information needed to meet consumer and business expectations. When we think of copy, the function of copywriter and the technique of writing advertising appear in proper perspective.

Whether the plan for a particular advertisement starts with a visual idea that is explained by words or with an idea that is dramatised and responsible for every element that appears in the final message. Generally, advertising messages are created by copywriter and art director. Copywriters who think in terms of pictures, sound and movements as well as words and who visualise ads in final form as they write copy, help in getting better results. A copy brief uses question and answer format to define and express the creative problems to be solved.

Writing a detailed brief takes time. It’s worth investing this time in the initial stages of writing as it can take just as long for a copywriter to rewrite a post that doesn’t meet the requirement. Good copywriters are in demand and often have to schedule their writing tasks weeks in advance, which doesn’t leave much time for rewrites.

An unclear brief can often result in the client having to want several days, to rewrite to be done, which is not ideal for anyone. Having a full brief in place also saves money in the long run. Copywriters who provide durable with the advertiser already know the business and Product/Service, who when asked to write copy in future they find it easy and convenient.

The best copy tends to come from writers with whom advertisers have the best working relationship, developed through good communication. For a copywriter, a job well done often means repeat work and from an advertiser’s perspective knowing a writer who will deliver great results is a valuable resource. Copywriting is now considered as a long-term and continuous investment. In order to make an effective copy brief, the copywriter must remember to use

  • Business
  • Target Audience
  • Brand Of The Product
  • Timescale
  • Reputation Of The Company
  • Website
  • Environmental Factors
  • Future Needs

Media Brief

Media brief represents checklist for the media planners to prepare media plan for a client. Media planning is an integral part of an overall campaign planning. Media planning includes series of decisions involved in delivering the promotional message to the potential buyers.

Media planning is a process. It is becoming a greater challenge because the number of ways to send brand messages is increasing.Before media planning, it is necessary to review the message critically. Media planning is a lengthy and time-consuming activity. Its basic purpose is to select the right media in order to reach the right audience to obtain the desired response as media planning deals with all decisions regarding the time and space of advertising.

Media include various agencies or forums which the advertiser uses for communicating his message to consumers. Media of advertising have their own features, merits and demerits an advertiser has to evaluate all the available media and finally settle for a mix with highest benefits. What should media brief contain to help the media planner? With the multiplication of media and media markets becoming complex, special efforts must be made to prepare media brief.


Client Agency Relationship

The client-agency relationship starts when the client appoints agency for specific work. This relationship continues as long as agency provides services to the client. Client Agency relations should be always cordial. For maintaining cordial relationship, both parties have to make special efforts. Give and take approach is useful for maintain cordial relations over a long period. The following suggestions are worth noting for cordial client-agent relationship

  • The Client-Agency Relationship starts when the client appoints agency for specific work. This relationship continues as long as agency provides services
  • There should be mutual understanding for each other
  • Misunderstanding / Confusion between the two parties should be removed quickly through suitable initiatives and direct negotiations
  • The Agency should work sincerely and honestly for bringing success to the advertising campaign of the client
  • The Client should honour the terms and conditions for providing services as agreed before.
  • There should be effective communication between the two parties and for this regular meetings of representatives of client and agency should be arranged.

Product Research

Product research is one major area of total marketing research. It is concerned with different aspects of product which the company is marketing. Product design, development and testing of a new company is marketing. Product design, development and testing of a new product and modification in the existing product are included within the scope of product research.

It facilitates the process of making product attractive useful and agreeable to consumers. The purpose of product research is to develop a product line which meets the needs of consumers in general and of certain groups in particular. The basic feature of firm’s product policy is to identify those product opportunities which should generate, over a given period, the greatest return on investment in relation to the risk involved.

Marketing research is necessary at the product planning stage. This is because marketing will be easy and quick when the product manufactured is as per the needs, requirements and expectations of consumers. Marketing efforts will not be rewarded sumptuously if the product to be old is not as per the needs and expectations of consumers. This suggests that marketing research should start at the product promotion stage.

In product research, different components of a product are studied. Such components include features, design, merits, benefits, size and shape, texture and suitability to consumers. In addition, development and testing of new products, improvement in the existing products and study of trends in consumer preferences are also treated as components of product research. These components are closely connected with the product

Product research has two broad aspects. These are

  • Research relating to technical aspect of a product,
  • and Research relating to marketing aspect of a product.

Concept Research

Concept testing (to be distinguished from pre-test markets and test markets which may be used at a later stage of product development research) is the process of using surveys (and sometimes qualitative methods) to evaluate consumer acceptance of a new product idea prior to the introduction of a product to the market. It is important not to confuse concept testing with advertising testing, brand testing and packaging testing; as is sometimes done. Concept testing focuses on the basic product idea, without the embellishments and puffery inherent in advertising.

It is important that the instruments (questionnaires) to test the product have a high quality themselves. Otherwise, results from data gathered surveys may be biased by measurement error. That makes the design of the testing procedure more complex. Empirical tests provide insight into the quality of the questionnaire. This can be done by:

  • Conducting cognitive interviewing. By asking a faction of potential-respondents about their interpretation of the questions and use of the questionnaire, a researcher can verify the viability of the cognitive interviewing.
  • Carrying out a small pretest of the questionnaire, using a small subset of target respondents. Results can inform a researcher of errors such as missing questions, or logical and procedural errors.
  • Estimating the measurement quality of the questions. This can be done for instance using test-retest, quasi-simplex, or multitrait-multimethod models.
  • Predicting the measurement quality of the question. This can be done using the software survey quality predictor (sqp).

Concept testing in the new product development (NPD) process is the concept generation stage. The concept generation stage of concept testing can take on many forms. Sometimes concepts are generated incidentally, as the result of technological advances. At other times concept generation is deliberate: examples include brain-storming sessions, problem detection surveys and qualitative research. While qualitative research can provide insights into the range of reactions consumers may have, it cannot provide an indication of the likely success of the new concept; this is better left to quantitative concept-test surveys.

In the early stages of concept testing, a large field of alternative concepts might exist, requiring concept-screening surveys. Concept-screening surveys provide a quick means to narrow the field of options; however they provide little depth of insight and cannot be compared to a normative database due to interactions between concepts. For greater insight and to reach decisions on whether or not pursue further product development, monadic concept-testing surveys must be conducted.

Frequently concept testing surveys are described as either monadic, sequential monadic or comparative. The terms mainly refer to how the concepts are displayed:

1.) Monadic
The concept is evaluated in isolation.

2.) Sequential monadic
Multiple concepts are evaluated in sequence (often randomized order).

3.) Comparative
Concepts are shown next to each other.

4.) Proto-monadic.
Concepts are first shown in sequence, and then next to each other.

“Monadic testing is the recommended method for most concept testing. Interaction effects and biases are avoided. Results from one test can be compared to results from previous monadic tests. A normative database can be constructed.” However, each has its specific uses and it depends on the research objectives. The decision as to which method to use is best left to experience research professionals to decide, as there are numerous implications in terms of how the results are interpreted.


Creative Brief

The creative brief is the foundation of any advertising or marketing campaign. It’s the treasure map that creatives follow that tells them where to start digging for those golden ideas—or at least it should, if it’s any good.

A good creative brief can be hard to come by. A combination of lack of preparation, increasingly tighter deadlines, bad habits, laziness, poor account management, bad creative direction, and ineffective training all contribute to this document becoming something of a necessary evil.

A document produced by a requesting party to be used by professionals operating within an inventive field to produce various useful deliverables. For example, a business might generate a creative brief to instruct an advertising agency to produce a visual design, a promotional video, advertising copy or a web site for promotion via the Internet.

A creative brief is the very foundation of any advertising / marketing campaign. Making a simple (but relatable) analogy, the briefing is the metaphorical treasure map that creatives follow. The brief shows the creative professionals not only where to start digging to find the golden ideas but also how to open the treasure chest.

By definition, a creative brief (or creative briefing) is a document produced by the requesting party (the customer) with the goal of establishing the defining aspects of a creative piece of work, such as a print ad or website banner. The term is often heard in the advertising market where it represents the first step in the journey of producing all sorts of material such as promotional videos, websites, etc.

Here are the most common sections of a creative brief:

  • Background
  • Target audience
  • Objectives
  • Tone of voice
  • Single-Minded Proposition (Also called USP, Key Message, Direction)
  • Key benefits
  • Reasons to believe
  • Audience takeaway
  • Deliverables (Outdoor, Print, TV, etc.)
  • Budget
  • Schedule

Client Brief

It is tough to find its answer. Not so sure about this one.

Statement of the problem/opportunity. Emphasis on clarity and a succinct summation of the brand’s current position, its marketing strategy and where it wants to get to.  Should always be written by the client.

The client briefing process can often feel like an information overload with a variety of goals, background information, and audience insights, which makes it necessary for agencies to distill the information into a clear, actionable, and measurable plan. At a time when agency fees are often dictated by performance, it’s necessary to get clarity in such a complex process.

Establishing the business objective should be the first priority. At one end, you should ask the question “where are we now?” and at the other end, “where do we want to be?” This approach should clarify what the client is trying to achieve so the agency can develop a plan that gets the brand from start to finish. Keep in mind that this is just the beginning of your brief investigation. According to Merry Baskin, founder of Baskin Shark, more than half of client briefs change once work has begun, so it’s imperative that you gather as much information as possible from the beginning. To ensure you have everything you need, Pringle and Marshall outlined key questions you’ll want your brief to answer and Baskin highlighted details to interrogate before you embark on your journey. Here is a breakdown of their questions and best practices


Consumer Insight

A customer insight, or consumer insight, is an interpretation of trends in human behaviors which aims to increase effectiveness of a product or service for the consumer, as well as increase sales for mutual benefit.

Specifically, Consumer Insights is a field that focuses on analyzing market research and acting as a bridge between Research and Marketing departments within a company.Commonly referred to as CI, it is the intersection between the interests of the consumer and the features of a brand. Its main purpose is to understand why the consumer cares for the brand as well as their underlying mindsets, moods, motivation, desires, aspirations, and motivates that trigger their attitude and actions.

Another definition of consumer insight is the collection, deployment and interpretation of information that allows a business to acquire, develop and retain their customers.

oday’s businesses must gather consumer insights in order to strategize and implement effective consumer marketing strategies. This applies not only to how to present products and services to the buying public, but even to the development of the products and services themselves.

Traditionally, a company might develop a product and then spend millions of dollars on mass marketing to push it out to consumers. In a way consumers were almost being treated as children – here’s what you need to make your house look great, to smell better, to attract someone. This arrangement worked rather well for some time, too. But try achieving the same results today when corporations are called to task in the social media universe for any perceived slight or condescending attitude.

Consumer insights provide understanding that leads to marketing on a more direct and personal level. Not only does a beverage company need to know which parts of the country call it soda and which say “pop,” they may even find it helpful to understand whether cultural differences play a role in beverage selection. Do people from a certain ethnic background prefer one type of drink over another?

Consumer insights can help try to find a problem that the company can solve. How long did it take auto manufacturers to finally realize that some people had problems opening the tailgates on their SUVs, and that the ability to simply wave your foot under a sensor to open it might actually help sell vehicles?

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